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Amendments Related to Industrial Wastes to Address 2015 ...
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9VAC25-20-10

Part I
General

9VAC25-20-10. Definitions.

Unless otherwise defined in this chapter or unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the terms used in this regulation shall have the meanings ascribed to them by the State Water Control Law, § 62.1-44.3; the board's Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation, 9VAC25-31-10; the board's Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation, 9VAC25-32-10; the board's Virginia Water Protection Permit Program Regulation, 9VAC25-210-10; the board's Surface Water Management Area Regulation, 9VAC25-220-10; and the board's Ground Water Groundwater Withdrawal Regulations, 9VAC25-610-10, including any general permits issued thereunder.

"Applicant" means for the purposes of this chapter any person filing an application for issuance, reissuance, or modification, except as exempted by 9VAC25-20-50, of a permit, certificate or special exception or filing a registration statement or application for coverage under a general permit issued in response to Chapters 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.), 24 (§ 62.1-242 et seq.), and 25 (§ 62.1-254 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Application" means for the purposes of this chapter the forms approved by the State Water Control Board for applying for issuance or reissuance of a permit, certificate or special exception or for filing a registration statement or application for coverage under a general permit issued in response to Chapters 3.1, 24, and 25 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. In the case of modifications to an existing permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception requested by the permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception holder and not exempted by 9VAC25-20-50, the application shall consist of the formal written request and any accompanying documentation submitted by the permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception holder to initiate the modification.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment for required pathogen control and is treated or managed to reduce vector attraction to a satisfactory level and contains acceptable levels of pollutants, such that it is acceptable for use for land application, marketing or distribution in accordance with 9VAC25-31 or 9VAC25-32.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids or industrial residuals, and expressed in units of English tons.

"Existing permit" means for the purposes of this chapter a permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception issued by the board and currently held by an applicant.

"Established fees" means a fee established by the department per dry ton of biosolids or industrial residuals managed by land appliers.

"Industrial residual" means solid or semisolid industrial waste including solids, residues, and precipitates separated or created by the unit processes of a device or system used to treat industrial wastes.

"Land application" means, in regard to sewage, biosolids, and industrial residuals, the distribution of either treated wastewater of acceptable quality, referred to as effluent, or stabilized sewage sludge of acceptable quality, referred to as biosolids, upon, or insertion into, or industrial residuals by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of utilization, or assimilation fertilizing crops or vegetation or conditioning the soil. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge or industrial residuals in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with 9VAC25-31 or 9VAC25-32 are not to be considered to be treatment works.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids or industrial residuals pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in 9VAC25-31 or 9VAC25-32.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Major modification" means for the purposes of this chapter modification or amendment of an existing permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception before its expiration which is not a minor modification as defined in this regulation.

"Major reservoir" means for the purposes of this chapter any new or expanded reservoir with greater than or equal to 17 acres of total surface water impacts (stream and wetlands), or a water withdrawal of greater than or equal to 3,000,000 gallons in any one day.

"Minor modification" means for the purposes of this chapter minor modification or amendment of an existing permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception before its expiration as specified in 9VAC25-31-400, 9VAC25-32-240, 9VAC25-210-210 9VAC25-210-180, 9VAC25-220-230, or in 9VAC25-610-330. Minor modification for the purposes of this chapter also means other modifications and amendments not requiring extensive review and evaluation including, but not limited to, changes in EPA promulgated test protocols, increasing monitoring frequency requirements, changes in sampling locations, and changes to compliance dates within the overall compliance schedules. A minor permit modification or amendment does not substantially alter permit conditions, substantially increase or decrease the amount of surface water impacts, increase the size of the operation, or reduce the capacity of the facility to protect human health or the environment.

"Minor reservoir" means for the purposes of this chapter any new or expanded reservoir with less than 17 acres of total surface water impacts (stream and wetlands), or a water withdrawal of less than 3,000,000 gallons in any one day.

"New permit" means for the purposes of this chapter a permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception issued by the board to an applicant that does not currently hold and has never held a permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception of that type, for that activity, at that location.

"Reimbursement application" means forms approved by the department to be used to apply for reimbursement of local monitoring costs for land application of biosolids or industrial residuals in accordance with the provisions of this regulation. The application shall consist of a formal written request and any accompanying documentation submitted by a local government in accordance with a local ordinance.

"Revoked permit" means for the purposes of this chapter an existing permit, permit authorization, certificate or special exception which is terminated by the board before its expiration.

"Single jurisdiction" means for the purposes of this chapter a single county or city. The term county includes incorporated towns which are part of the county.

9VAC25-20-20

9VAC25-20-20. Purpose.

Section 62.1-44.15:6 of the Code of Virginia requires the promulgation of regulations establishing a fee assessment and collection system to recover a portion of the State Water Control Board's, Department of Game and Inland Fisheries', and the Department of Conservation and Recreation's direct and indirect costs associated with the processing of an application to issue, reissue, or modify any permit, permit authorization or certificate which the board has the authority to issue from the applicant for such permit, permit authorization or certificate. Section 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia requires the promulgation of regulations establishing a fee to be charged to all permit holders and persons applying for permits and permit modifications associated with land application of biosolids. Section 62.1-44.16 of the Code of Virginia requires the promulgation of regulations requiring the payment of a fee by persons land applying solid or semisolid industrial wastes. Section 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia also requires the promulgation of regulations requiring the payment of a fee by persons land applying biosolids. These regulations establish the required fee assessment and collection system.

9VAC25-20-40

9VAC25-20-40. Applicability.

A. This chapter applies to:

1. All applicants for issuance of a new permit, permit authorization or certificate, or reissuance of an existing permit, permit authorization or certificate, except as specifically exempt under 9VAC25-20-50 A. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-110 or 9VAC25-20-130.

2. All permit, permit authorization or certificate holders who request that an existing permit, permit authorization or certificate be modified, except as specifically exempt under 9VAC25-20-50 A 3 or 9VAC25-20-50 A 6. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-120.

3. All land appliers land applying biosolids or industrial residuals on permitted sites in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-146.

B. An applicant for a permit, permit authorization or certificate involving a permit that is to be revoked and reissued shall be considered an applicant for a new permit. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-110.

C. Permit maintenance fees apply to each Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit holder and each Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permit holder, except those specifically exempt under 9VAC25-20-50 B of this chapter. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-142.

D. Virginia Water Protection (VWP) Individual/Minimum Instream Flow permit fees apply to any permit for the construction of an intake on a stream or river, or to any permit for the construction of a new intake on an existing reservoir. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-110 or 9VAC25-20-120, as applicable.

E. VWP Individual/Reservoir permit fees apply to any permit for the construction of a new reservoir, or the expansion of an existing reservoir in which one of the purposes of the reservoir is for water supply. The fee due shall be as specified under 9VAC25-20-110 or 9VAC25-20-120, as applicable. VWP Individual/Reservoir permit fees do not apply to the construction of any impoundment, pond or lake in which water supply is not part of the project's purpose.

9VAC25-20-60

Part II
Payment, Deposits, and Use of Fees

9VAC25-20-60. Due dates.

A. Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) and Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permits.

1. Application fees for all new permit applications are due on the day an application is submitted and shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Applications will not be processed without payment of the required fee.

2. For reissuance of permits that expire on or before December 27, 2004, the application fee for new permit applications as set forth in this regulation is due on the day the application is submitted.

3. An application fee is due on the day an application is submitted for either a major modification or a permit reissuance that occurs (and becomes effective) before the stated permit expiration date. There is no application fee for a regularly scheduled renewal of an individual permit for an existing facility, unless the permit for the facility expires on or before December 27, 2004. There is no application fee for a major modification or amendment that is made at the board's initiative.

4. Permit maintenance fees shall be paid to the board by October 1 of each year. Additional permit maintenance fees for facilities that are authorized to land apply, distribute, or market biosolids; are in a toxics management program; or have more than five process wastewater discharge outfalls at a single facility (not including "internal" outfalls) shall also be paid to the board by October 1 of each year. No permit will be reissued or administratively continued without payment of the required fee.

a. Existing individual permit holders with an effective permit as of July 1, 2004 (including permits that have been administratively continued) shall pay the permit maintenance fee or fees to the board by October 1, 2004, unless one of the following conditions apply:

(1) The permit is terminated prior to October 1, 2004; or

(2) The permit holder applied or reapplied for a municipal minor VPDES permit with a design flow of 10,000 gallons per day or less between July 1, 2003, and July 1, 2004, and paid the applicable permit application fee.

b. Effective April 1, 2005, any permit holder whose permit is effective as of April 1 of a given year (including permits that have been administratively continued) shall pay the permit maintenance fee or fees to the board by October 1 of that same year.

B. Surface Water Withdrawal (SWW) and Groundwater Withdrawal (GWW) permits.

1. All permit application fees are due on the day an application is submitted and shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Applications will not be processed without payment of the required fee. No permit will be administratively continued without payment of the required fee.

2. For reissuance of GWW permits that expire on or before March 27, 2005, the application fee for new permit applications as set forth in this regulation is due on the day the application is submitted.

3. Application fees for major modifications or amendments are due on the day an application is submitted. Applications will not be processed without payment of the required fee. There is no fee for a major modification or amendment that is made at the board's initiative.

C. Virginia Water Protection (VWP) permits.

1. VWP permit application fees shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Review of applications may be initiated before the fee is received; however, draft permits or authorizations shall not be issued prior to payment of the required fee. No permit or permit authorization shall be administratively continued without payment of the required fee.

2. VWP application fees for major modifications shall be paid in accordance with 9VAC25-20-70 A. Review of applications may be initiated before the fee is received; however, major modifications shall not be issued prior to payment of the required fee. There is no application fee for a major modification that is made at the board's initiative.

D. Biosolids land Land application fees for biosolids and industrial residuals. The department may bill the land applier for amounts due following the submission of the monthly land application report. Payments are due 30 days after receipt of a bill from the department. No permit or modification of an existing permit will be approved in the jurisdiction where payment of the established fee by the land applier has not been received by the due date; until such time that the fees are paid in full. Existing permits may be revoked or approved sources may be reclassified as unapproved unless the required fee is paid by the due date. No permit will be reissued or administratively continued or modified without full payment of any past due fee.

9VAC25-20-90

9VAC25-20-90. Deposit and use of fees.

A. Sludge Management Fund. All biosolids land application fees collected from permit holders who land apply biosolids or industrial residuals in the Commonwealth of Virginia, and fees collected from permit holders and persons applying for permits and permit modifications pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia shall be deposited into the Sludge Management Fund established by, and used and accounted for as specified in §§ 62.1-44.16 and 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia. Payments to the Department of Conservation and Recreation for their costs related to implementation of the biosolids land application program and to localities with duly adopted ordinances providing for the testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids or industrial residuals will be made from this fund. Fees collected shall be exempt from statewide indirect costs charged and collected by the Department of Accounts and shall not supplant or reduce the general fund appropriation to the department.

B. State Water Control Board Permit Program Fund. All fees collected in response to this chapter and not deposited into the Sludge Management Fund shall be deposited into the State Water Control Board Permit Program Fund established by, and used and accounted for as specified in § 62.1-44.15:7 of the Code of Virginia. Payment to the Departments of Conservation and Recreation and Game and Inland Fisheries for permit applications they are required under state law to review will be made from this fund. Fees collected shall be exempt from statewide indirect costs charged and collected by the Department of Accounts.

9VAC25-20-100

Part III
Determination of Fee Amount

9VAC25-20-100. General.

Each application for a new permit, permit authorization or certificate, each application for reissuance of a permit, permit authorization or certificate, each application for major modification of a permit, permit authorization or certificate, each revocation and reissuance of a permit, permit authorization or certificate, and each application of a dry ton of biosolids or industrial residuals is a separate action and shall be assessed a separate fee, as applicable. The fees for each type of permit, permit authorization or certificate that the board has the authority to issue, reissue or modify will be as specified in this part.

9VAC25-20-146

Part IV
Biosolids and Industrial Residuals Fees and Reimbursable Costs

9VAC25-20-146. Established fees.

A. Land appliers shall remit the established fees to the department as specified in this regulation. The land appliers shall collect the required fees from the owners of the sewage treatment works and facilities that generate Class B biosolids and exceptional quality biosolids cake that are land applied. The land appliers shall collect the required fees from the owners of the industrial waste treatment facilities and other facilities that generate the industrial residuals that are land applied in localities that have adopted ordinances in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 D of the Code of Virginia. Such works and facilities shall be approved sources of biosolids or industrial residuals in accordance with 9VAC25-31 or 9VAC25-32. Land application shall only include biosolids or industrial residuals from approved sources as listed in the land application permit. The established fee shall be imposed on each dry ton of Class B biosolids and exceptional quality biosolids cake that is land applied in the Commonwealth of Virginia in accordance with 9VAC25-31 or 9VAC25-32. The established fee shall be imposed on each dry ton of industrial residuals that is land applied in localities that have adopted ordinances in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 D of the Code of Virginia.

B. The amount of the established fee and disbursement are as follows:

1. The fee shall be $7.50 per dry ton of Class B biosolids land applied in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

2. The fee shall be $3.75 per dry ton of exceptional quality biosolids land applied as a cake in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

3. The fee shall be $5.00 per dry ton of industrial residuals land applied in localities that have adopted ordinances in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 D of the Code of Virginia.

4. Disbursement of the established fees collected by the department for the land application of biosolids or industrial residuals shall be made to reimburse or partially reimburse those counties, cities and towns with duly adopted local ordinances that submit documentation of reimbursable expenses acceptable to the department as provided for in this regulation.

4. 5. Disbursement of the established fees collected by the department for the land application of biosolids shall be made to reimburse the Department of Conservation and Recreation's costs for implementation of the biosolids application program.

9VAC25-20-147

9VAC25-20-147. Records and reports.

A. Records. Permittees shall maintain complete records of the land application activities and amounts of Class B biosolids and, exceptional quality biosolids cake, and industrial residuals that they land apply in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Such records shall be maintained by the permittee for five years after the date of the activity in a form that is available for inspection by the department. Records of land application activities shall include at minimum:

1. Name of permittee, DEQ permit number, and dates of activity.

2. Identification of land application site, including the DEQ control number.

3. The source of Class B biosolids, whether the biosolids are Class B or exceptional quality biosolids cake, or industrial residuals and the field area receiving those biosolids or industrial residuals.

4. The amount of Class B biosolids, exceptional quality biosolids cake, or industrial residuals applied in dry tons, by class, and the method and calculations used to determine the reported value.

5. Name of responsible representative of permittee and a statement signed and dated by that representative indicating that the information submitted has been verified by that representative as correctly reported in accordance with this regulation.

B. Reports and notification. The permittee shall submit a monthly report by the 15th day of each month for land application activity that occurred in the previous calendar month, unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4. The report shall include (i) the recorded information listed in subsection A of this section and (ii) a calculation of the total fee. The submitted report shall include a summary list of the total amount of Class B biosolids and, exceptional quality biosolids cake applied, and industrial residuals land-applied and the calculated fee based on the land-applied Class B biosolids and, exceptional quality biosolids cake, and industrial residuals for each county in which land application occurred. If no land application occurs under a permit during the calendar month, a report shall be submitted stating that no land application occurred.

9VAC25-20-148

9VAC25-20-148. Reimbursable local monitoring costs.

A. Reasonable expenses for the following types of activities may be submitted for reimbursement:

1. Charges for reviewing the permit to identify potential health and environmental protection issues upon notification by the permittee that operations will be initiated on permitted sites.

2. Charges and expenses, including local travel for site monitoring, inspections, collection and delivery of biosolids, industrial residuals, or soil samples to a nearby laboratory and examination of records.

3. Charges for recordkeeping.

4. Charges for complaint and incident response.

5. Charges for biosolids, industrial residuals, and soil sample testing costs.

6. Charges for the training of local monitors.

B. Charges for site monitoring not associated with determining compliance with state or federal law or regulation are ineligible for reimbursement.

9VAC25-20-149

9VAC25-20-149. Reimbursement of local monitoring costs.

A. Reimbursement of local monitoring costs deemed reasonable by the department will be made for costs up to $2.50 per dry ton of biosolids or industrial residuals land applied in a county during the period of time specified in the submitted invoice. Costs of up to $4.00 per dry ton of biosolids or industrial residuals land applied in a county during the period of time that the costs were incurred may be reimbursed with prior approval from the department.

B. Application. A local government must submit a reimbursement application to request reimbursement from the department. All information shall be clearly typed or printed and all required or supporting documents must be attached. The county administrator or designated local biosolids monitor shall sign and date the application where indicated. The original signed application with one copy of each of the supporting documents shall be submitted to the department. Applications may not be submitted by facsimile or through electronic means. A reimbursement invoice form as described in this regulation must be completed before a reimbursement application can be submitted. The invoice form must include all expenses for which reimbursement is requested during the designated time period.

C. Application forms and submittal. The application for reimbursement must be submitted within 30 days of the last day of the month in which the reimbursable activity occurred. All applications received after this time frame will be ineligible for reimbursement. The following is a description of the application forms and an explanation of their use. The application forms and detailed instructions can be obtained from the department.

1. Form 1 - Reimbursement Application. An invoice form shall be submitted with each application for reimbursement. The invoice form shall list all reimbursable charges. To be reimbursed for eligible expenses, an applicant must provide documentation to demonstrate that the expenses were incurred. Invoices are acceptable proof of incurred expenses. Invoices signed by the local biosolids monitor or agent who performed or managed the monitoring activities shall be legible. All invoices are to include the following:

a. DEQ permit number and site identification;

b. DEQ control number for application fields;

c. Biosolids contractor's Land applier's name;

d. Date and type of activity monitored;

e. Name of biosolids local monitor;

f. Number of hours to be reimbursed and charge per hour;

g. List of expenses for which reimbursement is sought; and

h. Type of sampling activity performed and associated laboratory expense vouchers.

2. The application requires the county administrator to certify that the responsible official has read and understands the requirements for reimbursement and that the application submitted is not fraudulent. The local monitor must attest to the accuracy and completeness of the information provided.

3. Form 2 - Multiple Owners Payment Assignment Form. When there are multiple local governments as claimants, a separate, signed and notarized invoice form for each claimant must be filled out and submitted with the application.

D. Processing applications.

1. If contacted by the department regarding an incomplete reimbursement application, an applicant will have 14 days from the date of the call or letter to submit the information requested and correct any deficiencies. Extensions of the 14-day deadline will not be granted. An application that does not contain all of the required information after the 14-day time frame may be rejected.

2. Only invoices pertaining to the monitoring activity claimed in the current application will be accepted. Costs omitted from previous claims are ineligible for reimbursement in subsequent claims. Invoices submitted in previous claims are not eligible documentation for reimbursement of costs in subsequent claims. To reduce the risk of disqualification of costs, costs for different monitoring activities should be invoiced separately. If possible, invoices should be structured so that costs are grouped according to task or activity.

E. Reconsideration process.

1. Claimants may submit a written response indicating why they believe costs denied on the reimbursement decision should be paid.

2. If the claimant disagrees with the decision in the reimbursement payment package, a notice of intent (NOI) to object and a reconsideration claim form must be submitted to the department within the filing deadlines specified in the reconsideration procedure package:

a. If filing deadlines are not met, the decision in the reimbursement payment package is final. This written objection shall be in the format specified in the reconsideration procedure package and explain the reasons for disagreement with the decisions in the reimbursement payment letter and supply any additional supporting documentation.

b. Upon receipt of this information and at the claimant's request, the department may schedule a reconsideration meeting to reevaluate the denied costs.

3. Claimants will be given an opportunity to contest the reimbursement decisions in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia). Within the filing deadline, the claimant must submit a written summary of the issues that will be contested using the reconsideration claim form.

4. The reconsideration procedures provide the department the opportunity to correct certain errors as follows:

a. Failure of the reviewer to verify an invoice form that was received prior to completing the verification package for the reimbursement.

b. Errors the reviewer makes in verifying an invoice form.

c. Failure of the claimant to submit all invoices.

5. Errors ineligible for reconsideration. Notwithstanding the above, some types of errors cannot be corrected using the reconsideration process. It is the responsibility of the claimant or consultant, or both, to ensure that all application forms (invoice forms, and sampling and testing verification) are complete and accurate. The following types of errors may result in a denial of costs:

a. Items omitted from the invoice;

b. Unverified sampling and testing results;

c. Additions or revisions to the invoice forms submitted after the reviewer forwards the verification package to the department;

d. Using one invoice in multiple claims. Invoices submitted in an application cannot be used as documentation for reimbursement of costs in subsequent claims;

e. Failure to claim performed work on the invoice form;

f. Failure to claim sampling and testing costs as authorized; or

g. Failure to obtain prior approval from the department for costs that exceed $2.50 per dry ton of biosolids or industrial residuals land applied.

9VAC25-31-10

Part I
Definitions and General Program Requirements

9VAC25-31-10. Definitions.

"Act" means Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), as amended, 33 USC § 1251 et seq.

"Administrator" means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or an authorized representative.

"Animal feeding operation" or "AFO" means a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met: (i) animals (other than aquatic animals) have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and (ii) crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.

"Applicable standards and limitations" means all state, interstate, and federal standards and limitations to which a discharge, a sewage sludge use or disposal practice, or a related activity is subject under the CWA (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and the law, including effluent limitations, water quality standards, standards of performance, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions, best management practices, pretreatment standards, and standards for sewage sludge use or disposal under §§ 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 403 and 405 of CWA.

"Approval authority" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Approved POTW Pretreatment Program" or "Program" or "POTW Pretreatment Program" means a program administered by a POTW that meets the criteria established in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter and which has been approved by the director or by the administrator in accordance with 9VAC25-31-830.

"Approved program" or "approved state" means a state or interstate program which has been approved or authorized by EPA under 40 CFR Part 123.

"Aquaculture project" means a defined managed water area which uses discharges of pollutants into that designated area for the maintenance or production of harvestable freshwater, estuarine, or marine plants or animals.

"Average monthly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar month, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar month divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that month.

"Average weekly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar week, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar week divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that week.

"Best management practices" or "BMPs" means schedules of activities, prohibitions of practices, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to implement the prohibitions listed in 9VAC25-31-770 and to prevent or reduce the pollution of surface waters. BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating procedures, and practices to control plant site run-off, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-31-540, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this chapter. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight.

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.

"Bypass" means the intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment facility.

"Class I sludge management facility" means any POTW identified under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter as being required to have an approved pretreatment program and any other treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the regional administrator, in conjunction with the director, because of the potential for its sludge use or disposal practices to adversely affect public health and the environment.

"Concentrated animal feeding operation" or "CAFO" means an AFO that is defined as a Large CAFO or as a Medium CAFO, or that is designated as a Medium CAFO or a Small CAFO. Any AFO may be designated as a CAFO by the director in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC25-31-130 B.

1. "Large CAFO." An AFO is defined as a Large CAFO if it stables or confines as many or more than the numbers of animals specified in any of the following categories:

a. 700 mature dairy cows, whether milked or dry;

b. 1,000 veal calves;

c. 1,000 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;

d. 2,500 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;

e. 10,000 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;

f. 500 horses;

g. 10,000 sheep or lambs;

h. 55,000 turkeys;

i. 30,000 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;

j. 125,000 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

k. 82,000 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

l. 30,000 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system; or

m. 5,000 ducks if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system.

2. "Medium CAFO." The term Medium CAFO includes any AFO with the type and number of animals that fall within any of the ranges below that has been defined or designated as a CAFO. An AFO is defined as a Medium CAFO if:

a. The type and number of animals that it stables or confines falls within any of the following ranges:

(1) 200 to 699 mature dairy cattle, whether milked or dry;

(2) 300 to 999 veal calves;

(3) 300 to 999 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;

(4) 750 to 2,499 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;

(5) 3,000 to 9,999 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;

(6) 150 to 499 horses;

(7) 3,000 to 9,999 sheep or lambs;

(8) 16,500 to 29,999 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;

(9) 37,500 to 124,999 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(10) 25,000 to 81,999 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(11) 10,000 to 29,999 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(12) 1,500 to 4,999 ducks, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system; and

b. Either one of the following conditions are met:

(1) Pollutants are discharged into surface waters of the state through a manmade man-made ditch, flushing system, or other similar manmade man-made device; or

(2) Pollutants are discharged directly into surface waters of the state that originate outside of and pass over, across, or through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined in the operation.

3. "Small CAFO." An AFO that is designated as a CAFO and is not a Medium CAFO.

"Concentrated aquatic animal production facility" means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria of this definition, or which the board designates under 9VAC25-31-140. A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a concentrated aquatic animal production facility if it contains, grows, or holds aquatic animals in either of the following categories:

1. Cold water fish species or other cold water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year but does not include:

a. Facilities which produce less than 9,090 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 20,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year; and

b. Facilities which feed less than 2,272 kilograms (approximately 5,000 pounds) of food during the calendar month of maximum feeding; or

2. Warm water fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year, but does not include:

a. Closed ponds which discharge only during periods of excess run-off; or

b. Facilities which produce less than 45,454 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 100,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year.

Cold water aquatic animals include, but are not limited to, the Salmonidae family of fish (e.g., trout and salmon).

Warm water aquatic animals include, but are not limited to, the Ictaluridae, Centrarchidae and Cyprinidae families of fish (e.g., respectively, catfish, sunfish and minnows).

"Contiguous zone" means the entire zone established by the United States under Article 24 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (37 FR 11906).

"Continuous discharge" means a discharge which occurs without interruption throughout the operating hours of the facility, except for infrequent shutdowns for maintenance, process changes, or other similar activities.

"Control authority" refers to the POTW if the POTW's pretreatment program submission has been approved in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC25-31-830 or the approval authority if the submission has not been approved.

"Co-permittee" means a permittee to a VPDES permit that is only responsible for permit conditions relating to the discharge for which it is the operator.

"CWA" means the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972) Public Law 92-500, as amended by Public Law 95-217, Public Law 95-576, Public Law 96-483, Public Law 97-117, and Public Law 100-4.

"CWA and regulations" means the Clean Water Act (CWA) and applicable regulations promulgated thereunder. For the purposes of this chapter, it includes state program requirements.

"Daily discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant measured during a calendar day or any 24-hour period that reasonably represents the calendar day for purposes of sampling. For pollutants with limitations expressed in units of mass, the daily discharge is calculated as the total mass of the pollutant discharged over the day. For pollutants with limitations expressed in other units of measurement, the daily discharge is calculated as the average measurement of the pollutant over the day.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Designated project area" means the portions of surface within which the permittee or permit applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to ensure that specific individual organisms comprising an aquaculture crop will enjoy increased growth attributable to the discharge of pollutants and be harvested within a defined geographic area.

"Direct discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or an authorized representative.

"Discharge," when used without qualification, means the discharge of a pollutant.

"Discharge," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means "indirect discharge" as defined in this section.

"Discharge of a pollutant" means:

1. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to surface waters from any point source; or

2. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to the waters of the contiguous zone or the ocean from any point source other than a vessel or other floating craft which is being used as a means of transportation.

This definition includes additions of pollutants into surface waters from: surface run-off which is collected or channeled by man; discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances owned by a state, municipality, or other person which do not lead to a treatment works; and discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances, leading into privately owned treatment works. This term does not include an addition of pollutants by any indirect discharger.

"Discharge Monitoring Report" or "DMR" means the form supplied by the department or an equivalent form developed by the permittee and approved by the board, for the reporting of self-monitoring results by permittees.

"Draft permit" means a document indicating the board's tentative decision to issue or deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate, or reissue a permit. A notice of intent to terminate a permit, and a notice of intent to deny a permit are types of draft permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination is not a draft permit. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.

"Effluent limitation" means any restriction imposed by the board on quantities, discharge rates, and concentrations of pollutants which are discharged from point sources into surface waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the ocean.

"Effluent limitations guidelines" means a regulation published by the administrator under § 304(b) of the CWA to adopt or revise effluent limitations.

"Environmental Protection Agency" or "EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Existing source" means any source which is not a new source or a new discharger.

"Facilities or equipment" means buildings, structures, process or production equipment or machinery which form a permanent part of a new source and which will be used in its operation, if these facilities or equipment are of such value as to represent a substantial commitment to construct. It excludes facilities or equipment used in connection with feasibility, engineering, and design studies regarding the new source or water pollution treatment for the new source.

"Facility or activity" means any VPDES point source or treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other facility or activity (including land or appurtenances thereto) that is subject to regulation under the VPDES program.

"General permit" means a VPDES permit authorizing a category of discharges under the CWA and the law within a geographical area.

"Hazardous substance" means any substance designated under the Code of Virginia and 40 CFR Part 116 pursuant to § 311 of the CWA.

"Incorporated place" means a city, town, township, or village that is incorporated under the Code of Virginia.

"Indian country" means (i) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and including rights-of-way running through the reservation; (ii) all dependent Indian communities with the borders of the United States whether within the originally or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or without the limits of a state; and (iii) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same.

"Indirect discharge" means the introduction of pollutants into a POTW from any nondomestic source regulated under § 307(b), (c) or (d) of the CWA and the law.

"Indirect discharger" means a nondomestic discharger introducing pollutants to a POTW.

"Individual control strategy" means a final VPDES permit with supporting documentation showing that effluent limits are consistent with an approved wasteload allocation or other documentation that shows that applicable water quality standards will be met not later than three years after the individual control strategy is established.

"Industrial residual" means solid or semisolid industrial waste including solids, residues, and precipitates separated or created by the unit processes of a device or system used to treat industrial wastes.

"Industrial user" or "user" means a source of indirect discharge.

"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade, or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Interference" means an indirect discharge which, alone or in conjunction with an indirect discharge or discharges from other sources, both: (i) inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment processes or operations, or its sludge processes, use or disposal; and (ii) therefore is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation) or of the prevention of biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal in compliance with the following statutory provisions and regulations or permits issued thereunder (or more stringent state or local regulations): Section 405 of the Clean Water Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (including Title II, more commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), and including state regulations contained in any state sludge management plan prepared pursuant to Subtitle D of the SWDA) the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 701 et seq.), the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC § 2601 et seq.), and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (33 USC § 1401 et seq.).

"Interstate agency" means an agency of two or more states established by or under an agreement or compact approved by Congress, or any other agency of two or more states having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the control of pollution as determined and approved by the administrator under the CWA and regulations.

"Land application" means, in regard to sewage, biosolids, and industrial residuals, the distribution of treated wastewater of acceptable quality, referred to as effluent, or stabilized sewage sludge of acceptable quality, referred to as biosolids, or industrial residuals by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing crops or vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this chapter are not considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge or industrial residuals in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this chapter, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to an AFO, land under the control of an AFO owner or operator, that is owned, rented, or leased to which manure, litter, or process wastewater from the production area may be applied.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback area, where biosolids may be applied.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 or 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Log sorting facilities" and "log storage facilities" mean facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with bark or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored on land where water is applied intentionally on the logs (wet decking).

"Major facility" means any VPDES facility or activity classified as such by the regional administrator in conjunction with the board.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors normally associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Manmade" "Man-made" means constructed by man and used for the purpose of transporting wastes.

"Manure" means manure, bedding, compost and raw materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal.

"Maximum daily discharge limitation" means the highest allowable daily discharge.

"Municipal separate storm sewer" means a conveyance or system of conveyances, including roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, catch basins, curbs, gutters, ditches, manmade man-made channels, or storm drains, (i) owned or operated by a state, city, town, borough, county, parish, district, association, or other public body (created by or pursuant to state law) having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, storm water, or other wastes, including special districts under state law, such as a sewer district, flood control district or drainage district, or similar entity, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA, that discharges to surface waters of the state; (ii) designed or used for collecting or conveying storm water; (iii) that is not a combined sewer; and (iv) that is not part of a publicly owned treatment works (POTW).

"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body created by or under state law and having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA.

"National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System" or "NPDES" means the national program for issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing permits, and imposing and enforcing pretreatment requirements under §§ 307, 402, 318, and 405 of the CWA. The term includes an approved program.

"National pretreatment standard," "pretreatment standard," or "standard," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any regulation containing pollutant discharge limits promulgated by the EPA in accordance with § 307(b) and (c) of the CWA, which applies to industrial users. This term includes prohibitive discharge limits established pursuant to 9VAC25-31-770.

"New discharger" means any building, structure, facility, or installation:

1. From which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants;

2. That did not commence the discharge of pollutants at a particular site prior to August 13, 1979;

3. Which is not a new source; and

4. Which has never received a finally effective VPDES permit for discharges at that site.

This definition includes an indirect discharger which commences discharging into surface waters after August 13, 1979. It also includes any existing mobile point source (other than an offshore or coastal oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or a coastal oil and gas developmental drilling rig) such as a seafood processing rig, seafood processing vessel, or aggregate plant, that begins discharging at a site for which it does not have a permit;, and any offshore or coastal mobile oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile oil and gas developmental drilling rig that commences the discharge of pollutants after August 13, 1979.

"New source," except when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced:

1. After promulgation of standards of performance under § 306 of the CWA which are applicable to such source; or

2. After proposal of standards of performance in accordance with § 306 of the CWA which are applicable to such source, but only if the standards are promulgated in accordance with § 306 of the CWA within 120 days of their proposal.

"New source," when used in Part VII of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced after the publication of proposed pretreatment standards under § 307(c) of the CWA which will be applicable to such source if such standards are thereafter promulgated in accordance with that section, provided that:

1. a. The building, structure, facility, or installation is constructed at a site at which no other source is located;

b. The building, structure, facility, or installation totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or

c. The production of wastewater generating processes of the building, structure, facility, or installation are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these are substantially independent, factors such as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant, and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source should be considered.

2. Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a modification rather than a new source if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria of subdivision 1 b or c of this definition but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production equipment.

3. Construction of a new source as defined under this subdivision has commenced if the owner or operator has:

a. Begun, or caused to begin, as part of a continuous on-site construction program:

(1) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or

(2) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation, or removal of existing buildings, structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or

b. Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment which are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable time. Options to purchase or contracts which can be terminated or modified without substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility, engineering, and design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under this subdivision.

"Overburden" means any material of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies a mineral deposit, excluding topsoil or similar naturally occurring surface materials that are not disturbed by mining operations.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including, but not limited to, sanitation district commissions and authorities, and any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this or any other state or country, or any officer or agency of the United States, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group that owns, operates, charters, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or is responsible for any actual or potential discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters, or any facility or operation that has the capability to alter the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters in contravention of § 62.1-44.5 of the Code of Virginia.

"Owner" or "operator" means the owner or operator of any facility or activity subject to regulation under the VPDES program.

"Pass through" means a discharge which exits the POTW into state waters in quantities or concentrations which, alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation).

"Permit" means an authorization, certificate, license, or equivalent control document issued by the board to implement the requirements of this chapter. Permit includes a VPDES general permit. Permit does not include any permit which has not yet been the subject of final agency action, such as a draft permit or a proposed permit.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance including, but not limited to, any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, landfill leachate collection system, vessel, or other floating craft from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agriculture or agricultural storm water run-off.

"Pollutant" means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials (except those regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 USC § 2011 et seq.)), heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water. It does not mean:

1. Sewage from vessels; or

2. Water, gas, or other material which that is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil and gas production and disposed of in a well if the well used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes is approved by the board, and if the board determines that the injection or disposal will not result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.

"POTW treatment plant" means that portion of the POTW which is designed to provide treatment (including recycling and reclamation) of municipal sewage and industrial waste.

"Pretreatment" means the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to or in lieu of discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a POTW. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical or biological processes, process changes or by other means, except as prohibited in Part VII of this chapter. Appropriate pretreatment technology includes control equipment, such as equalization tanks or facilities, for protection against surges or slug loadings that might interfere with or otherwise be incompatible with the POTW. However, where wastewater from a regulated process is mixed in an equalization facility with unregulated wastewater or with wastewater from another regulated process, the effluent from the equalization facility must meet an adjusted pretreatment limit calculated in accordance with Part VII of this chapter.

"Pretreatment requirements" means any requirements arising under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter including the duty to allow or carry out inspections, entry or monitoring activities; any rules, regulations, or orders issued by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works; or any reporting requirements imposed by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works or by the regulations of the board. Pretreatment requirements do not include the requirements of a national pretreatment standard.

"Primary industry category" means any industry category listed in the NRDC settlement agreement (Natural Resources Defense Council et al. v. Train, 8 E.R.C. 2120 (D.D.C. 1976), modified 12 E.R.C. 1833 (D.D.C. 1979)); also listed in 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix A.

"Privately owned treatment works" or "PVOTW" means any device or system which is (i) used to treat wastes from any facility whose operator is not the operator of the treatment works and (ii) not a POTW.

"Process wastewater" means any water which, during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product. Process wastewater from an AFO means water directly or indirectly used in the operation of the AFO for any of the following: spillage or overflow from animal or poultry watering systems; washing, cleaning, or flushing pens, barns, manure pits, or other AFO facilities; direct contact swimming, washing, or spray cooling of the animals; or dust control. Process wastewater from an AFO also includes any water that comes into contact with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding.

"Production area" means that part of an AFO that includes the animal confinement area, the manure storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area includes but is not limited to open lots, housed lots, feedlots, confinement houses, stall barns, free stall barns, milkrooms, milking centers, cowyards, barnyards, medication pens, walkers, animal walkways, and stables. The manure storage area includes but is not limited to lagoons, runoff ponds, storage sheds, stockpiles, under house or pit storages, liquid impoundments, static piles, and composting piles. The raw materials storage areas includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding materials. The waste containment area includes but is not limited to settling basins, and areas within berms and diversions that separate uncontaminated storm water. Also included in the definition of production area is any egg washing or egg processing facility, and any area used in the storage, handling, treatment, or disposal of mortalities.

"Proposed permit" means a VPDES permit prepared after the close of the public comment period (and, when applicable, any public hearing and administrative appeals) which is sent to EPA for review before final issuance. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.

"Publicly owned treatment works" or "POTW" means a treatment works as defined by § 212 of the CWA, which is owned by a state or municipality (as defined by § 502(4) of the CWA). This definition includes any devices and systems used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid nature. It also includes sewers, pipes, and other conveyances only if they convey wastewater to a POTW treatment plant. The term also means the municipality as defined in § 502(4) of the CWA, which has jurisdiction over the indirect discharges to and the discharges from such a treatment works.

"Recommencing discharger" means a source which recommences discharge after terminating operations.

"Regional administrator" means the Regional Administrator of Region III of the Environmental Protection Agency or the authorized representative of the regional administrator.

"Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities" means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap.

"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures included in a permit, including an enforceable sequence of interim requirements (for example, actions, operations, or milestone events) leading to compliance with the law, the CWA and regulations.

"Secondary industry category" means any industry category which is not a primary industry category.

"Secretary" means the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers.

"Septage" means the liquid and solid material pumped from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar domestic sewage treatment system, or a holding tank when the system is cleaned or maintained.

"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied.

"Severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production.

"Sewage from vessels" means human body wastes and the wastes from toilets and other receptacles intended to receive or retain body wastes that are discharged from vessels and regulated under § 312 of CWA.

"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue removed during the treatment of municipal wastewater or domestic sewage. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, solids removed during primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment, scum, domestic septage, portable toilet pumpings, type III marine sanitation device pumpings, and sewage sludge products. Sewage sludge does not include grit or screenings, or ash generated during the incineration of sewage sludge.

"Sewage sludge use" or "disposal practice" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use of biosolids, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Significant industrial user" or "SIU" means:

1. Except as provided in subdivisions 2 and 3 of this definition:

a. All industrial users subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30; and

b. Any other industrial user that: discharges an average of 25,000 gallons per day or more of process wastewater to the POTW (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater); contributes a process wastestream which makes up 5.0% or more of the average dry weather hydraulic or organic capacity of the POTW treatment plant; or is designated as such by the control authority, on the basis that the industrial user has a reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement.

2. The control authority may determine that an industrial user subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N is a nonsignificant categorical industrial user rather than a significant industrial user on a finding that the industrial user never discharges more than 100 gallons per day (gpd) of total categorical wastewater (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater, unless specifically included in the pretreatment standard) and the following conditions are met:

a. The industrial user, prior to control authority's finding, has consistently complied with all applicable categorical pretreatment standards and requirements;

b. The industrial user annually submits the certification statement required in 9VAC25-31-840 together with any additional information necessary to support the certification statement; and

c. The industrial user never discharges any untreated concentrated wastewater.

3. Upon a finding that an industrial user meeting the criteria in subdivision 1 b of this definition has no reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement, the control authority may at any time, on its own initiative or in response to a petition received from an industrial user or POTW, and in accordance with Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, determine that such industrial user is not a significant industrial user.

"Significant materials" means, but is not limited to: raw materials; fuels; materials such as solvents, detergents, and plastic pellets; finished materials such as metallic products; raw materials used in food processing or production; hazardous substances designated under § 101(14) of CERCLA (42 USC § 9601(14)); any chemical the facility is required to report pursuant to § 313 of Title III of SARA (42 USC § 11023); fertilizers; pesticides; and waste products such as ashes, slag and sludge that have the potential to be released with storm water discharges.

"Silvicultural point source" means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are operated in connection with silvicultural activities and from which pollutants are discharged into surface waters. The term does not include nonpoint source silvicultural activities such as nursery operations, site preparation, reforestation and subsequent cultural treatment, thinning, prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting operations, surface drainage, or road construction and maintenance from which there is natural run-off. However, some of these activities (such as stream crossing for roads) may involve point source discharges of dredged or fill material which may require a CWA § 404 permit.

"Site" means the land or water area where any facility or activity is physically located or conducted, including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.

"Sludge-only facility" means any treatment works treating domestic sewage whose methods of biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal are subject to regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA, and is required to obtain a VPDES permit.

"Source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants.

"Standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal" means the regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA which govern minimum requirements for sludge quality, management practices, and monitoring and reporting applicable to sewage sludge or the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge by any person.

"State" means the Commonwealth of Virginia.

"State/EPA agreement" means an agreement between the regional administrator and the state which coordinates EPA and state activities, responsibilities and programs including those under the CWA and the law.

"State Water Control Law" or "Law" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Storm water" means storm water run-off, snow melt run-off, and surface run-off and drainage.

"Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity" means the discharge from any conveyance which is used for collecting and conveying storm water and which is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw materials storage areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities excluded from the VPDES program. For the categories of industries identified in this definition, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards; immediate access roads and rail lines used or traveled by carriers of raw materials, manufactured products, waste material, or byproducts used or created by the facility; material handling sites; refuse sites; sites used for the application or disposal of process wastewaters; sites used for the storage and maintenance of material handling equipment; sites used for residual treatment, storage, or disposal; shipping and receiving areas; manufacturing buildings; storage areas (including tank farms) for raw materials, and intermediate and final products; and areas where industrial activity has taken place in the past and significant materials remain and are exposed to storm water. For the purposes of this definition, material handling activities include the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product, byproduct, or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the plant's industrial activities, such as office buildings and accompanying parking lots as long as the drainage from the excluded areas is not mixed with storm water drained from the above described areas. Industrial facilities (including industrial facilities that are federally, state, or municipally owned or operated that meet the description of the facilities listed in subdivisions 1 through 10 of this definition) include those facilities designated under the provisions of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c. The following categories of facilities are considered to be engaging in industrial activity for purposes of this subsection:

1. Facilities subject to storm water effluent limitations guidelines, new source performance standards, or toxic pollutant effluent standards under 40 CFR Subchapter N (except facilities with toxic pollutant effluent standards that are exempted under category 10);

2. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 24 (except 2434), 26 (except 265 and 267), 28 (except 283), 29, 311, 32 (except 323), 33, 3441, 373;

3. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 10 through 14 (mineral industry) including active or inactive mining operations (except for areas of coal mining operations no longer meeting the definition of a reclamation area under 40 CFR 434.11(l) because the performance bond issued to the facility by the appropriate SMCRA authority has been released, or except for areas of non-coal mining operations which have been released from applicable state or federal reclamation requirements after December 17, 1990) and oil and gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment operations, or transmission facilities that discharge storm water contaminated by contact with or that has come into contact with, any overburden, raw material, intermediate products, finished products, byproducts, or waste products located on the site of such operations; (inactive mining operations are mining sites that are not being actively mined, but which have an identifiable owner/operator; inactive mining sites do not include sites where mining claims are being maintained prior to disturbances associated with the extraction, beneficiation, or processing of mined materials, nor sites where minimal activities are undertaken for the sole purpose of maintaining a mining claim);

4. Hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, including those that are operating under interim status or a permit under Subtitle C of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);

5. Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have received any industrial wastes (waste that is received from any of the facilities described under this subsection) including those that are subject to regulation under Subtitle D of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);

6. Facilities involved in the recycling of materials, including metal scrapyards, battery reclaimers, salvage yards, and automobile junkyards, including but limited to those classified as Standard Industrial Classification 5015 and 5093;

7. Steam electric power generating facilities, including coal handling sites;

8. Transportation facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 40, 41, 42 (except 4221-25), 43, 44, 45, and 5171 which have vehicle maintenance shops, equipment cleaning operations, or airport deicing operations. Only those portions of the facility that are either involved in vehicle maintenance (including vehicle rehabilitation, mechanical repairs, painting, fueling, and lubrication), equipment cleaning operations, airport deicing operations, or which are otherwise identified under subdivisions 1 through 7 or 9 and 10 of this definition are associated with industrial activity;

9. Treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment device or system, used in the storage treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated to the disposal of sewage sludge that are located within the confines of the facility, with a design flow of 1.0 mgd or more, or required to have an approved pretreatment program. Not included are farm lands, domestic gardens or lands used for sludge management where sludge is beneficially reused and which are not physically located in the confines of the facility, or areas that are in compliance with § 405 of the CWA; and

10. Facilities under Standard Industrial Classifications 20, 21, 22, 23, 2434, 25, 265, 267, 27, 283, 30, 31 (except 311), 323, 34 (except 3441), 35, 36, 37 (except 373), 38, 39, and 4221-25.

"Submission" means: (i) a request by a POTW for approval of a pretreatment program to the regional administrator or the director; (ii) a request by POTW to the regional administrator or the director for authority to revise the discharge limits in categorical pretreatment standards to reflect POTW pollutant removals; or (iii) a request to the EPA by the director for approval of the Virginia pretreatment program.

"Surface waters" means:

1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate wetlands;

3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:

a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or

c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters under this definition;

5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;

6. The territorial sea; and

7. Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.

Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons designed to meet the requirements of the CWA and the law, are not surface waters. Surface waters do not include prior converted cropland. Notwithstanding the determination of an area's status as prior converted cropland by any other agency, for the purposes of the Clean Water Act, the final authority regarding the Clean Water Act jurisdiction remains with the EPA.

"Total dissolved solids" means the total dissolved (filterable) solids as determined by use of the method specified in 40 CFR Part 136.

"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307(a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of sludge use or disposal practices, any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405(d) of the CWA.

"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).

"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste or necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances; extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations thereof; and any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems.

"Treatment works treating domestic sewage" means a POTW or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment devices or systems, regardless of ownership (including federal facilities), used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated for the disposal of sewage sludge. This definition does not include septic tanks or similar devices. For purposes of this definition, domestic sewage includes waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that are discharged to or otherwise enter a treatment works.

"TWTDS" means treatment works treating domestic sewage.

"Uncontrolled sanitary landfill" means a landfill or open dump, whether in operation or closed, that does not meet the requirements for run-on or run-off controls established pursuant to subtitle D of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 USC § 6901 et seq.).

"Upset," except when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology based permit effluent limitations because of factors beyond the reasonable control of the permittee. An upset does not include noncompliance to the extent caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.

"Variance" means any mechanism or provision under § 301 or § 316 of the CWA or under 40 CFR Part 125, or in the applicable effluent limitations guidelines which allows modification to or waiver of the generally applicable effluent limitation requirements or time deadlines of the CWA. This includes provisions which allow the establishment of alternative limitations based on fundamentally different factors or on §§ 301(c), 301(g), 301(h), 301(i), or 316(a) of the CWA.

"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit" or "VPDES permit" means a document issued by the board pursuant to this chapter authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters and the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge. Under the approved state program, a VPDES permit is equivalent to an NPDES permit.

"VPDES application" or "application" means the standard form or forms, including any additions, revisions or modifications to the forms, approved by the administrator and the board for applying for a VPDES permit.

"Wastewater," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means liquid and water carried industrial wastes and domestic sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities and institutions, whether treated or untreated, which are contributed to the POTW.

"Wastewater works operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of wastewater works.

"Water Management Division Director" means the director of the Region III Water Management Division of the Environmental Protection Agency or this person's delegated representative.

"Wetlands" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.

"Whole effluent toxicity" means the aggregate toxic effect of an effluent measured directly by a toxicity test.

9VAC25-31-475

9VAC25-31-475. Local enforcement of biosolids regulations. (Repealed.)

A. In the event of a dispute concerning the existence of a violation between a permittee and a locality that has adopted a local ordinance for testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the director.

B. Upon determination by the director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1 or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia, or of any regulation promulgated under those sections, and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety or welfare, the department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1, or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia.

D. Local governments receiving complaints concerning land application of biosolids shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.

9VAC25-31-915

9VAC25-31-915. Local enforcement.

A. In the event of a dispute concerning the existence of a violation between a permittee and a locality that has adopted a local ordinance for testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids or industrial residuals, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the director.

B. Upon determination by the director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1, or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia; of any regulation promulgated under those sections; or of any permit or certificate issued for land application of industrial residuals, and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety, or welfare, the department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids or industrial residuals performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1, or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia or of any permit or certificate issued for land application of industrial residuals discovered by local governments.

D. Local governments receiving complaints concerning land application of biosolids or industrial residuals shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.

9VAC25-32-10

Part I
General

9VAC25-32-10. Definitions.

A. The following words and terms, when used in this chapter and in VPA permits issued under this chapter shall have the meanings defined in the State Water Control Law, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise and as follows:

"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.

"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.

"Agronomic rate" means, in regard to biosolids, the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.

"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge or biosolids into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

"Annual pollutant loading rate" or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Annual whole sludge application rate" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Apply biosolids" or "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of biosolids.

"Best Management Practices (BMP)" means a schedule of activities, prohibition of practices, maintenance procedures and other management practices to prevent or reduce the pollution of state waters. BMP's BMPs include treatment requirements, operating and maintenance procedures, schedule of activities, prohibition of activities, and other management practices to control plant site runoff, spillage, leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-32-356, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this regulation. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight.

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.

"Bulk biosolids" means biosolids that are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

"Bypass" means intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment works.

"Concentrated confined animal feeding operation" means an animal feeding operation at which:

1. At least the following number and types of animals are confined:

a. 300 slaughter and feeder cattle;

b. 200 mature dairy cattle (whether milked or dry cows);

c. 750 swine each weighing over 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds);

d. 150 horses;

e. 3,000 sheep or lambs;

f. 16,500 turkeys;

g. 30,000 laying hens or broilers; or

h. 300 animal units; and

2. Treatment works are required to store wastewater, or otherwise prevent a point source discharge of wastewater pollutants to state waters from the animal feeding operation except in the case of a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm.

"Confined animal feeding operation" means a lot or facility together with any associated treatment works where the following conditions are met:

1. Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period; and

2. Crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained over any portion of the operation of the lot or facility.

"Critical areas" and "critical waters" mean areas and waters in proximity to shellfish waters, a public water supply, or recreation or other waters where health or water quality concerns are identified by the Department of Health.

"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.

"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the sewage sludge.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality, or an authorized representative.

"Discharge" means, when used without qualification, a discharge of a pollutant.

"Discharge of a pollutant" means any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to state waters or waters of the contiguous zone or ocean other than discharge from a vessel or other floating craft when being used as a means of transportation.

"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

"Draft VPA permit" means a document indicating the board's tentative decision to issue, deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate or reissue a VPA permit. A notice of intent to terminate a VPA permit and a notice of intent to deny a VPA permit are types of draft VPA permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance or termination is not a draft VPA permit.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids or industrial residuals and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge or, biosolids, or industrial residuals after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.

"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Facilities" means, in regard to biosolids, processes, equipment, storage devices and dedicated sites, located or operated separately from a treatment works, utilized for sewage sludge management including, but not limited to, handling, treatment, transport, and storage of biosolids.

"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

"Fiber crops" means crops produced primarily for the manufacture of textiles, such as flax and cotton.

"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.

"Food crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.

"General VPA permit" means a VPA permit issued by the board authorizing a category of pollutant management activities.

"Generator" means the owner of a sewage treatment works that produces sewage sludge and biosolids.

"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

"Industrial residuals" means solid or semisolid industrial waste including solids, residues, and precipitates separated or created by the unit processes of a device or system used to treat industrial wastes.

"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade, or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Land application" means, in regard to sewage, biosolids, and industrial residuals, the distribution of either treated wastewater, referred to as "effluent," or stabilized sewage sludge, referred to as "biosolids," or industrial residuals by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing the crops and or vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this regulation are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge or industrial residuals in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this regulation, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback areas, where biosolids may be applied.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids or industrial residuals pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this regulation.

"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).

"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

"Limitation" means any restriction imposed on quantities, rates or concentration of pollutants which are managed by pollutant management activities.

"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 or 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors commonly associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Monitoring report" means forms supplied by the department for use in reporting of self-monitoring results of the permittee.

"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.

"Municipality" means a city, county, town, district association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge or biosolids management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity; or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Nonpoint source" means a source of pollution, such as a farm or forest land runoff, urban storm water runoff or mine runoff that is not collected or discharged as a point source.

"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids, any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories, or athletic and other recreational facilities.

"Operate" means the act of any person who may have an impact on either the finished water quality at a waterworks or the final effluent at a sewage treatment works, such as to (i) place into or take out of service a unit process or unit processes, (ii) make or cause adjustments in the operation of a unit process or unit processes at a treatment works, or (iii) manage sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control waterworks or wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of waterworks or wastewater works.

"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.

"Overflow" means the unintentional discharge of wastes from any portion of a treatment works.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including sanitary districts, sanitation district commissions and authorities; federal agencies; any individual; any group of individuals acting individually or as a group; or any public or private institution, corporation, company, partnership, firm, or association that owns or proposes to own a sewerage system or treatment works as defined in § 62.1-44.3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.

"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

"Permittee" means an owner or operator who has a currently effective VPA permit issued by the board or the department.

"Person who prepares biosolids" means either the person who that generates biosolids during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person who that derives the material from sewage sludge.

"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25°C or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25°C.

"Place sewage sludge" or "sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

"Point source" means any discernible, defined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agricultural land.

"Pollutant" means, in regard to wastewater, any substance, radioactive material, or heat which causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, pollution. It does not mean (i) sewage from vessels; or (ii) water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil or gas production and disposed of in a well, if the well is used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes if approved by Department of Mines Minerals and Energy unless the board determines that such injection or disposal will result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.

"Pollutant" means, in regard to sewage sludge or biosolids, an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the board, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids), the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare), or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

"Pollutant management activity" means a treatment works with a potential or actual discharge to state waters, but which does not have a point source discharge to surface waters.

"Pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of any state waters or soil as will, or is likely to, create a nuisance or render such waters or soil: (i) harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare or to the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life; (ii) unsuitable despite reasonable treatment for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or (iii) unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses. Such alteration is also deemed to be pollution, if there occurs: (a) an alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological property of state waters or soil, or a discharge or a deposit of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters or soil by any owner which by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution, but which, in combination with such alteration of, or discharge, or deposit, to state waters or soil by other owners, is sufficient to cause pollution; (b) the discharge of untreated sewage by any owner into state waters or soil; or (c) the contravention of standards of air or water quality duly established by the board.

"Primary sludge" means sewage sludge removed from primary settling tanks that is readily thickened by gravity thickeners.

"Privately owned treatment works (PVOTW)" means any sewage treatment works not publicly owned.

"Process" means a system, or an arrangement of equipment or other devices that remove from waste materials pollutants including, but not limited to, a treatment works or portions thereof.

"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, and golf courses.

"Publicly owned treatment works (POTW)" means any sewage treatment works that is owned by a state or municipality. Sewers, pipes, or other conveyances are included in this definition only if they convey wastewater to a POTW providing treatment.

"Public hearing" means a fact-finding proceeding held to afford interested persons an opportunity to submit factual data, views, and arguments to the board.

"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.

"Reimbursement application" means forms approved by the department to be used to apply for reimbursement of local monitoring costs for land application of biosolids in accordance with a local ordinance.

"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC 1251 et seq.), the law, and board regulations, standards and policies.

"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied.

"Sewage" means the water-carried and nonwater-carried human excrement, kitchen, laundry, shower, bath, or lavatory wastes, separately or together with such underground, surface, storm, and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments, or other places.

"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.

"Sewage sludge use or disposal" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.

"Sludge" means solids, residues, and precipitates separated from or created by the unit processes of a treatment works.

"Sludge management" means the treatment, handling, transportation, storage, use, distribution, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Specific oxygen uptake rate" or "SOUR" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

"State waters" means all water on the surface or under the ground wholly or partially within or bordering the state or within its jurisdiction.

"State Water Control Law (law)" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Store sewage sludge" or "storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

"Substantial compliance" means designs and practices that do not exactly conform to the standards set forth in this chapter as contained in documents submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-32-340 9VAC25-32-60, but whose construction or implementation will not substantially affect health considerations or performance.

"Supernatant" means a liquid obtained from separation of suspended matter during sludge treatment or storage.

"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.

"Surface water" means:

1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate "wetlands";

3. All other waters such as inter/intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, "wetlands," sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:

a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or

c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters of the United States under this definition;

5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;

6. The territorial sea; and

7. "Wetlands" adjacent to waters, other than waters that are themselves wetlands, identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.

"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried to 103°C to 105°C.

"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307 (a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of "sludge use or disposal practices," any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405 (d) of the CWA.

"Toxicity" means the inherent potential or capacity of a material to cause adverse effects in a living organism, including acute or chronic effects to aquatic life, detrimental effects on human health, or other adverse environmental effects.

"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).

"Treat sewage sludge" or "treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

"Treatment works" means either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature. Treatment works may include but are not limited to pumping, power, and other equipment and their appurtenances; septic tanks; and any works, including land, that are or will be (i) an integral part of the treatment process or (ii) used for ultimate disposal of residues or effluents resulting from such treatment. "Treatment works" does not include biosolids use on privately owned agricultural land.

"Twenty-five-year, 24-hour storm event" means the maximum 24-hour precipitation event with a probable recurrence interval of once in 25 years as established by the National Weather Service or appropriate regional or state rainfall probability information.

"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

"Upset" means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology-based permit limitations because of factors beyond the permittee's reasonable control. An upset does not include noncompliance caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.

"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management.

"Variance" means a conditional approval based on a waiver of specific regulations to a specific owner relative to a specific situation under documented conditions for a specified period of time.

"Vector attraction" means the characteristic of biosolids or sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters.

"Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to this chapter, authorizing pollutant management activities under prescribed conditions.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit" means a document issued by the board pursuant to 9VAC25-31-10 et seq., authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters.

"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.

"VPA application" means the standard form or forms approved by the board for applying for a VPA permit.

"Water quality standards" means the narrative statements for general requirements and numeric limits for specific requirements that describe the water quality necessary to meet and maintain reasonable and beneficial uses. Such standards are established by the board under § 62.1-44.15 (3a) of the Code of Virginia.

B. Generally used technical terms not defined in subsection A of this section or the department's latest definitions of technical terms as used to implement § 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia shall be defined in accordance with "Glossary-Water and Wastewater Control Engineering" published by the American Public Health Association (APHA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF).

9VAC25-32-285

9VAC25-32-285. Local enforcement.

A. In the event of a dispute concerning the existence of a violation between a permittee and a locality that has adopted a local ordinance for testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids or industrial residuals, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the director.

B. Upon determination by the director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1, or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia; of any regulation promulgated under those sections; or of any permit or certificate issued for land application of industrial residuals, and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety, or welfare, the department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids or industrial residuals performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.16, 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1, or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia or any permit or certificate issued for land application of industrial residuals discovered by local governments.

D. Local governments receiving complaints concerning land application of biosolids or industrial residuals shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.

9VAC25-32-320

9VAC25-32-320. Local enforcement of the regulation. (Repealed.)

A. In the event of a dispute concerning the existence of a violation between a permittee and a locality that has adopted a local ordinance for testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids, the activity alleged to be in violation shall be halted pending a determination by the director.

B. Upon determination by the director that there has been a violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1 or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia, or of any regulation promulgated under those sections, and that such violation poses an imminent threat to public health, safety or welfare, the department shall commence appropriate action to abate the violation and immediately notify the chief administrative officer of any locality potentially affected by the violation.

C. Local governments shall promptly notify the department of all results from the testing and monitoring of the land application of biosolids performed by persons employed by local governments and any violation of § 62.1-44.19:3, 62.1-44.19:3.1 or 62.1-44.19:3.3 of the Code of Virginia.

D. Local governments receiving complaints concerning land application of biosolids shall notify the department and the permit holder within 24 hours of receiving the complaint.