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8VAC20-81-10 Definitions

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Act" means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, P.L. 108-446, December 3, 2004, § 1400 et seq. (34 CFR 300.4)

"Age of eligibility" means all eligible children with disabilities who have not graduated with a standard or advanced studies high school diploma who, because of such disabilities, are in need of special education and related services, and whose second birthday falls on or before September 30, and who have not reached their 22nd birthday on or before September 30 (two to 21, inclusive) in accordance with the Code of Virginia. A child with a disability whose 22nd birthday is after September 30 remains eligible for the remainder of the school year. (§ 22.1-213 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.101(a) and 34 CFR 300.102(a)(3)(ii))

"Age of majority" means the age when the procedural safeguards and other rights afforded to the parent(s) parent of a student with a disability transfer to the student. In Virginia, the age of majority is 18. (§ 1-204 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.520)

"Agree or Agreement agreement" – see the definition for "consent."

"Alternate assessment" means the state assessment program, and any school divisionwide assessment to the extent that the school division has one, for measuring student performance against alternate achievement standards for students with significant intellectual disabilities who are unable to participate in statewide Standards of Learning testing, even with accommodations. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(2)(ii) and 34 CFR 300.704(b)(4)(x))

"Alternative assessment" means the state assessment program for measuring student performance on grade level standards for students with disabilities who are unable to participate in statewide Standards of Learning testing, even with accommodations.

"Assistive technology device" means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of that device. (34 CFR 300.5)

"Assistive technology service" means any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. The term includes: (34 CFR 300.6)

1. The evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the child in the child's customary environment;

2. Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by children with disabilities;

3. Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing assistive technology devices;

4. Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs;

5. Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability or, if appropriate, that child's family; and

6. Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to employ or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of that child.

"At no cost" means that all specially designed instruction is provided without charge, but does not preclude incidental fees that are normally charged to students without disabilities or their parent(s) parent as part of the regular education program. (34 CFR 300.39(b)(1))

"Audiology" means services provided by a qualified audiologist licensed by the Board of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology and includes: (Regulations Governing the Practice of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, 18VAC30-20; 34 CFR 300.34(c)(1))

1. Identification of children with hearing loss;

2. Determination of the range, nature, and degree of hearing loss, including referral for medical or other professional attention for the habilitation of hearing;

3. Provision of habilitative activities, such as language habilitation, auditory training, speech reading (lip-reading), hearing evaluation, and speech conservation;

4. Creation and administration of programs for prevention of hearing loss;

5. Counseling and guidance of children, parents, and teachers regarding hearing loss; and

6. Determination of children's needs for group and individual amplification, selecting and fitting an appropriate aid, and evaluating the effectiveness of amplification.

"Autism" means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. Autism does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance. A child who manifests the characteristics of autism after age three could be identified as having autism if the criteria in this definition are satisfied. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(1))

"Behavioral intervention plan" means a plan that utilizes positive behavioral interventions and supports to address behaviors that interfere with the learning of students with disabilities or with the learning of others or behaviors that require disciplinary action.

"Business day" means Monday through Friday, 12 months of the year, exclusive of federal and state holidays (unless holidays are specifically included in the designation of business days, as in 8VAC20-81-150 B 4 a (2)). (34 CFR 300.11)

"Calendar days" means consecutive days, inclusive of Saturdays and Sundays. Whenever any period of time fixed by this chapter shall expire on a Saturday, Sunday, or federal or state holiday, the period of time for taking such action under this chapter shall be extended to the next day, not a Saturday, Sunday, or federal or state holiday. (34 CFR 300.11)

"Career and technical education" means organized educational activities that offer a sequence of courses that: (20 USC § 2301 et seq.)

1. Provides individuals with the rigorous and challenging academic and technical knowledge and skills the individuals need to prepare for further education and for careers (other than careers requiring a master's or doctoral degree) in current or emerging employment sectors;

2. May include the provision of skills or courses necessary to enroll in a sequence of courses that meet the requirements of this subdivision; or

3. Provides, at the postsecondary level, for a one-year certificate, an associate degree, or industry-recognized credential and includes competency-based applied learning that contributes to the academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning and problem-solving skills, work attitudes, general employability skills, technical skills, and occupational-specific skills.

"Caseload" means the number of students served by special education personnel.

"Change in identification" means a change in the categorical determination of the child's disability by the group that determines eligibility.

"Change in placement" or "change of placement" means when the local educational agency places the child in a setting that is distinguishable from the educational environment to which the child was previously assigned and includes: (34 CFR 300.102(a)(3)(iii), 34 CFR 300.532(b)(2)(ii) and 34 CFR 300.536)

1. The child's initial placement from general education to special education and related services;

2. The expulsion or long-term removal of a student with a disability;

3. The placement change that results from a change in the identification of a disability;

4. The change from a public school to a private day, residential, or state-operated program; from a private day, residential, or state-operated program to a public school; or to a placement in a separate facility for educational purposes;

5. Termination of all special education and related services; or

6. Graduation with a standard or advanced studies high school diploma.

A "change in placement" also means any change in the educational setting for a child with a disability that does not replicate the elements of the educational program of the child's previous setting.

"Change in placement" or "change of placement," for the purposes of discipline, means: (34 CFR 300.536)

1. A removal of a student from the student's current educational placement is for more than 10 consecutive school days; or

2. The student is subjected to a series of removals that constitute a pattern because they cumulate to more than 10 school days in a school year, and because of factors such as:

a. The length of each removal;

b. The child's behavior is substantially similar to the child's behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals;

c. The total amount of time the student is removed; or

d. The proximity of the removals to one another.

"Chapter" means these regulations.

"Charter schools" means any school meeting the requirements for charter as set forth in the Code of Virginia. (§§ 22.1-212.5 through 22.1-212.16 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.7)

"Child" means any person who shall not have reached his 22nd birthday by September 30 of the current year.

"Child with a disability" means a child evaluated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter as having an intellectual disability, a hearing impairment (including deafness), a speech or language impairment, a visual impairment (including blindness), a serious emotional disability (referred to in this part as "emotional disability"), an orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, an other health impairment, a specific learning disability, deaf-blindness, or multiple disabilities who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. This also includes developmental delay if the local educational agency recognizes this category as a disability in accordance with 8VAC20-81-80 M 3. If it is determined through an appropriate evaluation that a child has one of the disabilities identified but only needs a related service and not special education, the child is not a child with a disability under this part. If the related service required by the child is considered special education rather than a related service under Virginia standards, the child would be determined to be a child with a disability. (§ 22.1-213 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.8(a)(1) and 34 CFR 300.8(a)(2)(i) and (ii))

"Collaboration" means interaction among professionals as they work toward a common goal. Teachers do not necessarily have to engage in co-teaching in order to collaborate.

"Complaint" means a request that the Virginia Department of Education investigate an alleged violation by a local educational agency of a right of a parent(s) parent of a child who is eligible or suspected to be eligible for special education and related services based on federal and state law and regulations governing special education or a right of such child. A complaint is a statement of some disagreement with procedures or process regarding any matter relative to the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child, or the provision of a free appropriate public education. (34 CFR 300.151)

"Comprehensive Services Act" (CSA) means the Comprehensive Services Act for At-Risk Youth and Families that establishes the collaborative administration and funding system for services for certain at-risk youths and their families. (Chapter 52 (§ 2.2-5200 et seq.) of Title 2.2 of the Code of Virginia)

"Consent" means: (34 CFR 300.9)

1. The parent(s) parents or eligible student has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought in the parent's(s') parent's or eligible student's native language, or other mode of communication;

2. The parent(s) parent or eligible student understands and agrees, in writing, to the carrying out of the activity for which consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and lists the records (if any) that will be released and to whom; and

3. The parent(s) parent or eligible student understands that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent(s) parent or eligible student and may be revoked any time.

a. If a parent revokes consent, that revocation is not retroactive (i.e., it does not negate an action that has occurred after the consent was given and before the consent was revoked. Revocation ceases to be relevant after the activity for which consent was obtained was completed.)

b. If a parent revokes consent in writing for their child's receipt of special education services after the child is initially provided special education and related services, the local educational agency is not required to amend the child's education records to remove any references to the child's receipt of special education and related services because of the revocation of consent.

The meaning of the term "consent" is not the same as the meaning of the term "agree" or "agreement." "Agree" or "agreement" refers to an understanding between the parent and the local educational agency about a particular matter and as required in this chapter. There is no requirement that an agreement be in writing, unless stated in this chapter. The local educational agency and parent(s) parent should document their agreement.

"Controlled substance" means a drug or other substance identified under schedules Schedule I, II, or III, IV, or V in § 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act, 21 USC § 812(c). (34 CFR 300.530(i)(1))

"Core academic subjects" means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics, and government, economics, arts, history, and geography. (34 CFR 300.10)

"Correctional facility" means any state facility of the Virginia Department of Corrections or the Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice, any regional or local detention home, or any regional or local jail. (§§ 16.1-228 and 53.1-1 of the Code of Virginia)

"Coteaching" means a service delivery option with two or more professionals sharing responsibility for a group of students for some or all of the school day in order to combine their expertise to meet student needs.

"Counseling services" means services provided by qualified visiting teachers, social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors, or other qualified personnel. (34 CFR 300.34(c)(2); Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (8VAC20-22))

"Dangerous weapon" means a weapon, device, instrument, material, or substance, animate or inanimate, that is used for or is readily capable of, causing death or bodily injury, except that such term does not include a pocket knife with a blade of less than three inches in length. (18 USC § 930(g)(2); § 18.2-308.1 of the Code of Virginia)

"Day" means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (34 CFR 300.11)

"Deaf-blindness" means simultaneous hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(2))

"Deafness" means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects the child's educational performance. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(3))

"Destruction of information" means physical destruction or removal of personal identifiers from information so that the information is no longer personally identifiable. (34 CFR 300.611(a))

"Developmental delay" means a disability affecting a child ages two by September 30 through six, inclusive: (34 CFR 300.8(b); 34 CFR 300.306(b))

1. (i) Who is experiencing developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development, or (ii) who has an established physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay;

2. The delay(s) delay is not primarily a result of cultural factors, environmental or economic disadvantage, or limited English proficiency; and

3. The presence of one or more documented characteristics of the delay has an adverse affect on educational performance and makes it necessary for the student to have specially designed instruction to access and make progress in the general educational activities for this age group.

"Direct services" means services provided to a child with a disability directly by the Virginia Department of Education, by contract, or through other arrangements. (34 CFR 300.175)

"Due process hearing" means an administrative procedure conducted by an impartial special education hearing officer to resolve disagreements regarding the identification, evaluation, educational placement and services, and the provision of a free appropriate public education that arise between a parent(s) parent and a local educational agency. A due process hearing involves the appointment of an impartial special education hearing officer who conducts the hearing, reviews evidence, and determines what is educationally appropriate for the child with a disability. (34 CFR 300.507)

"Early identification and assessment of disabilities in children" means the implementation of a formal plan for identifying a disability as early as possible in a child's life. (34 CFR 300.34(c)(3))

"Education record" means those records that are directly related to a student and maintained by an educational agency or institution or by a party acting for the agency or institution. The term also has the same meaning as "scholastic record." In addition to written records, this also includes electronic exchanges between school personnel and parent(s) parent regarding matters associated with the child's educational program (e.g., scheduling of meetings or notices). This term also includes the type of records covered under the definition of "education record" in the regulations implementing the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act. (20 USC § 1232g(a)(3); § 22.1-289 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.611(b))

"Educational placement" means the overall instructional setting in which the student receives his education including the special education and related services provided. Each local educational agency shall ensure that the parents of a child with a disability are members of the group that makes decisions on the educational placement of their child. (34 CFR 300.327)

"Educational service agencies and other public institutions or agencies" include: (34 CFR 300.12)

1. Regional public multiservice agencies authorized by state law to develop, manage, and provide services or programs to local educational agencies;

2. Recognized as an administrative agency for purposes of the provision of special education and related services provided within public elementary schools and secondary schools of the state;

3. Any other public institution or agency having administrative control and direction over a public elementary school or secondary school; and

4. Entities that meet the definition of intermediate educational unit in § 1402(23) of the Act as in effect prior to June 4, 1997.

"Eligible student" means a child with a disability who reaches the age of majority and to whom the procedural safeguards and other rights afforded to the parent(s) parent are transferred.

"Emotional disability" means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: (34 CFR 300.8(c)(4))

1. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors;

2. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;

3. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;

4. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or

5. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

Emotional disability includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disability as defined in this section.

"Equipment" means machinery, utilities, and built-in equipment, and any necessary enclosures or structures to house machinery, utilities, or equipment and all other items necessary for the functioning of a particular facility as a facility for the provision of educational services, including items such as instructional equipment and necessary furniture, printed, published and audio-visual instructional materials, telecommunications, sensory, and other technological aids and devices and books, periodicals, documents, and other related materials. (34 CFR 300.14)

"Evaluation" means procedures used in accordance with this chapter to determine whether a child has a disability and the nature and extent of the special education and related services that the child needs. (34 CFR 300.15)

"Excess costs" means those costs that are in excess of the average annual per-student expenditure in a local educational agency during the preceding school year for an elementary school or secondary school student, as may be appropriate, and that shall be computed after deducting: (34 CFR 300.16)

1. Amounts received:

a. Under Part B of the Act;

b. Under Part A of Title I of the ESEA; and

c. Under Parts A and B of Title III of the ESEA; and

2. Any state or local funds expended for programs that would qualify for assistance under any of the parts described in subdivision 1 a of this definition, but excluding any amounts for capital outlay or debt service.

"Extended school year services" for the purposes of this chapter means special education and related services that: (34 CFR 300.106(b))

1. Are provided to a child with a disability:

a. Beyond the normal school year of the local educational agency;

b. In accordance with the child's individualized education program;

c. At no cost to the parent(s) parent of the child; and

2. Meet the standards established by the Virginia Department of Education.

"Federal core academic subjects" means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign language (languages other than English), civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography. (20 USC § 7801(11))

"Federal financial assistance" means any grant, loan, contract or any other arrangement by which the U.S. Department of Education provides or otherwise makes available assistance in the form of funds, services of federal personnel, or real and personal property. (34 CFR 104.3(h))

"Free appropriate public education" or "FAPE" means special education and related services that: (34 CFR 300.17)

1. Are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge;

2. Meet the standards of the Virginia Board of Education;

3. Include an appropriate preschool, elementary school, middle school or secondary school education in Virginia; and

4. Are provided in conformity with an individualized education program that meets the requirements of this chapter.

"Functional behavioral assessment" means a process to determine the underlying cause or functions of a child's behavior that impede the learning of the child with a disability or the learning of the child's peers. A functional behavioral assessment may include a review of existing data or new testing data or evaluation as determined by the IEP team.

"General curriculum" means the same curriculum used with children without disabilities adopted by a local educational agency, schools within the local educational agency or, where applicable, the Virginia Department of Education for all children from preschool through secondary school. The term relates to content of the curriculum and not to the setting in which it is taught.

"Hearing impairment" means an impairment in hearing in one or both ears, with or without amplification, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(5))

"Highly qualified special education teacher" means a teacher has met the requirements as specified in 34 CFR 300.18 for special education teachers in general, for special education teachers teaching core academic subjects, for special education teachers teaching to alternate achievement standards, or for special education teachers teaching multiple subjects as it applies to their teaching assignment. (34 CFR 300.18)

"Home-based instruction" means services that are delivered in the home setting (or other agreed upon setting) in accordance with the child's individualized education program.

"Homebound instruction" means academic instruction provided to students who are confined at home or in a health care facility for periods that would prevent normal school attendance based upon certification of need by a licensed physician or licensed clinical psychologist. For a child with a disability, the IEP team shall determine the delivery of services, including the number of hours of services. (Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia, 8VAC20-131-180)

"Home instruction" means instruction of a child or children by a parent(s) parent, guardian or other person having control or charge of such child or children as an alternative to attendance in a public or private school in accordance with the provisions of the Code of Virginia. This instruction may also be termed home schooling. (§ 22.1-254.1 of the Code of Virginia)

"Homeless children" has the meaning given the term "homeless children and youth" in § 725 (42 USC § 11434a) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, as amended, 42 USC § 11431 et seq. and listed below: (34 CFR 300.19)

The term "homeless children and youth" means individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence within the meaning of § 103(a)(1) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and includes the following:

1. Children and youth who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to a lack of alternative adequate accommodations; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement;

2. Children and youth who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings within the meaning of § 103(a)(2)(C);

3. Children and youth who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and

4. Migratory children (as such term is defined in § 1309 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965) who qualify as homeless because the children are living in circumstances described in subdivisions 1 through 3 of this definition.

The term "unaccompanied youth" includes a youth not in the physical custody of a parent or guardian.

"Home tutoring" means instruction by a tutor or teacher with qualifications prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education, as an alternative to attendance in a public or private school and approved by the division superintendent in accordance with the provisions of the Code of Virginia. This tutoring is not home instruction as defined in the Code of Virginia. (§ 22.1-254 of the Code of Virginia)

"Illegal drug" means a controlled substance, but does not include a controlled substance that is legally possessed or used under the supervision of a licensed health-care professional or that is legally possessed or used under any other authority under the Controlled Substances Act, 21 USC § 812(c), or under any other provision of federal law. (34 CFR 300.530(i)(2))

"Impartial special education hearing officer" means a person, selected from a list maintained by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court of Virginia to conduct a due process hearing.

"Implementation plan" means the plan developed by the local educational agency designed to operationalize the decision of the hearing officer in cases that are fully adjudicated.

"Independent educational evaluation" means an evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner or examiners who are not employed by the local educational agency responsible for the education of the child in question. (34 CFR 300.502(a)(3)(i))

"Individualized education program" or "IEP" means a written statement for a child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a team meeting in accordance with this chapter. The IEP specifies the individual educational needs of the child and what special education and related services are necessary to meet the child's educational needs. (34 CFR 300.22)

"Individualized education program team" means a group of individuals described in 8VAC20-81-110 that is responsible for developing, reviewing, or revising an IEP for a child with a disability. (34 CFR 300.23)

"Individualized family service plan (IFSP) under Part C of the Act" means a written plan for providing early intervention services to an infant or toddler with a disability eligible under Part C and to the child's family. (34 CFR 303.24; 20 USC § 636)

"Infant and toddler with a disability" means a child, ages birth to two, inclusive, whose birthday falls on or before September 30, or who is eligible to receive services in the Part C early intervention system up to age three, and who: (§ 2.2-5300 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.25)

1. Has delayed functioning;

2. Manifests atypical development or behavior;

3. Has behavioral disorders that interfere with acquisition of developmental skills; or

4. Has a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in delay, even though no current delay exists.

"Informed parental consent": see "Consent."

"Initial placement" means the first placement for the child to receive special education and related services in either a local educational agency, other educational service agency, or other public agency or institution for the purpose of providing special education or related services.

"Intellectual disability" means the definition formerly known as "mental retardation" and means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child's educational performance. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(6))

"Interpreting services" as used with respect to children who are deaf or hard of hearing, means services provided by personnel who meet the qualifications set forth under 8VAC20-81-40 and includes oral transliteration services, cued speech/language transliteration services, sign language transliteration and interpreting services, and transcription services, such as communication access real-time translation (CART), C-Print, and TypeWell and interpreting services for children who are deaf-blind. A child who is not deaf or hard of hearing, but who has language deficits, may receive interpreting services as directed by the child's Individualized Education Program. (Regulations Governing Interpreter Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing 22VAC20-30; 34 CFR 300.34(c)(4)(i))

"Least restrictive environment" (LRE) means that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and that special classes, separate schooling or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (34 CFR 300.114 through 34 CFR 300.120)

"Level I services" means the provision of special education to children with disabilities for less than 50% of their instructional school day (excluding intermission for meals). The time that a child receives special education services is calculated on the basis of special education services described in the individualized education program, rather than the location of services.

"Level II services" means the provision of special education to children with disabilities for 50% or more of the instructional school day (excluding intermission for meals). The time that a child receives special education services is calculated on the basis of special education services described in the individualized education program, rather than the location of services.

"Limited English proficient" when used with respect to an individual means an individual: (20 USC § 7801(25); 34 CFR 300.27)

1. Who is aged 2 two through 21;

2. Who is enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary school or secondary school; or

3. Who:

a. Was not born in the United States or whose native language is a language other than English;

b. Is a Native American or Alaska Native, or a native resident of the outlying areas, and comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on the individual's level of English language proficiency; or

c. Is migratory, whose native language is a language other than English, and who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; and

4. Whose difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language may be sufficient to deny the individual:

a. The ability to meet Virginia's proficient level of achievement on Virginia's assessments;

b. The ability to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English; or

c. The opportunity to participate fully in society.

"Local educational agency" means a local school division governed by a local school board, a state-operated program that is funded and administered by the Commonwealth of Virginia or the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind at Staunton. Neither state-operated programs nor the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind at Staunton are considered a school division as that term is used in these regulations. (§ 22.1-346 C of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.28)

"Long-term placement" if used in reference to state-operated programs as outlined in 8VAC20-81-30 H means those hospital placements that are not expected to change in status or condition because of the child's medical needs.

"Manifestation determination review" means a process to review all relevant information and the relationship between the child's disability and the behavior subject to the disciplinary action.

"Medical services" means services provided by a licensed physician or nurse practitioner to determine a child's medically related disability that results in the child's need for special education and related services. (§ 22.1-270 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.34(c)(5))

"Mental retardation" - see "Intellectual disability."

"Multiple disabilities" means simultaneous impairments (such as intellectual disability with blindness, intellectual disability with orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(7))

"National Instructional Materials Access Center" or "NIMAC" means the national center established to do the following: (34 CFR 300.172)

1. Receive and maintain a catalog of print instructional materials prepared in the NIMAS, as established by the U.S. Secretary of Education, made available to such center by the textbook publishing industry, state educational agencies, and local educational agencies;

2. Provide access to print instructional materials, including textbooks, in accessible media, free of charge, to blind or other persons with print disabilities in elementary schools and secondary schools, in accordance with such terms and procedures as the NIMAC may prescribe; and

3. Develop, adopt and publish procedures to protect against copyright infringement, with respect to print instructional materials provided in accordance with the Act.

"National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard" or "NIMAS" means the standard established by the United States Secretary of Education to be used in the preparation of electronic files suitable and used solely for efficient conversion of print instructional materials into specialized formats. (34 CFR 300.172)

"Native language" if used with reference to an individual of limited English proficiency, means the language normally used by that individual, or, in the case of a child, the language normally used by the parent(s) parent of the child, except in all direct contact with a child (including evaluation of the child), the language normally used by the child in the home or learning environment. For an individual with deafness or blindness, or for an individual with no written language, the mode of communication is that normally used by the individual (such as sign language, Braille, or oral communication). (34 CFR 300.29)

"Nonacademic services and extracurricular services" may include counseling services, athletics, transportation, health services, recreational activities, special interest groups or clubs sponsored by the local educational agency, referrals to agencies that provide assistance to individuals with disabilities, and employment of students, including both employment by the local educational agency and assistance in making outside employment available. (34 CFR 300.107(b))

"Notice" means written statements in English or in the primary language of the home of the parent(s) parent, or, if the language or other mode of communication of the parent(s) parent is not a written language, oral communication in the primary language of the home of the parent(s) parent. If an individual is deaf or blind, or has no written language, the mode of communication would be that normally used by the individual (such as sign language, Braille, or oral communication). (34 CFR 300.503(c))

"Occupational therapy" means services provided by a qualified occupational therapist or services provided under the direction or supervision of a qualified occupational therapist and includes: (Regulations Governing the Licensure of Occupational Therapists (18VAC85-80-10 et seq.); 34 CFR 300.34(c)(6))

1. Improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through illness, injury, or deprivation;

2. Improving ability to perform tasks for independent functioning if functions are impaired or lost; and

3. Preventing, through early intervention, initial or further impairment or loss of function.

"Orientation and mobility services" means services provided to blind or visually impaired children by qualified personnel to enable those children to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within their environments in school, home, and community; and includes travel training instruction, and teaching children the following, as appropriate: (34 CFR 300.34(c)(7))

1. Spatial and environmental concepts and use of information received by the senses (e.g., sound, temperature, and vibrations) to establish, maintain, or regain orientation and line of travel (e.g., using sound at a traffic light to cross the street);

2. To use the long cane or service animal to supplement visual travel skills or as a tool for safely negotiating the environment for students with no available travel vision;

3. To understand and use remaining vision and distance low vision aids; and

4. Other concepts, techniques, and tools.

"Orthopedic impairment" means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures). (34 CFR 300.8(c)(8))

"Other health impairment" means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia and Tourette syndrome that adversely affects a child's educational performance. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(9))

"Paraprofessional," also known as paraeducator, means an appropriately trained employee who assists and is supervised by qualified professional staff in meeting the requirements of this chapter. (34 CFR 300.156(b)(2)(iii))

"Parent" means: (§ 20-124.6 and § 22.1-213.1 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 99.4 and 34 CFR 300.30)

1. Persons who meet the definition of "parent":

a. A biological or adoptive parent of a child;

b. A foster parent, even if the biological or adoptive parent's rights have not been terminated, but subject to subdivision 8 of this definition;

c. A guardian generally authorized to act as the child's parent, or authorized to make educational decisions for the child (but not a guardian ad litem, or the state if the child is a ward of the state);

d. An individual acting in the place of a biological or adoptive parent (including a grandparent, stepparent, or other relative) with whom the child lives, or an individual who is legally responsible for the child's welfare;

e. If no party qualified under subdivisions 1 a through 1 d of this definition can be identified, or those parties are unwilling to act as parent, a surrogate parent who has been appointed in accordance with requirements detailed under 8VAC20-81-220; or

f. A minor who is emancipated under § 16.1-333 of the Code of Virginia.

2. If a judicial decree or order identifies a specific person(s) person under subdivisions 1 a through 1 e of this subsection to act as the "parent" of a child or to make educational decisions on behalf of a child, then such person(s) person shall be determined to be the "parent" for purposes of this definition.

3. "Parent" does not include local or state agencies or their agents, including local departments of social services, even if the child is in the custody of such an agency.

4. The biological or adoptive parent, when attempting to act as the parent under this chapter and when more than one party is qualified under this section to act as a parent, shall be presumed to be the parent for purposes of this section unless the biological or adoptive parent's or parents' authority to make educational decisions on the child's behalf has been extinguished pursuant to §§ 16.1-277.01, 16.1-277.02, or 16.1-283 of the Code of Virginia or a comparable law in another state.

5. Noncustodial parents whose parental rights have not been terminated are entitled to all parent rights and responsibilities available under this chapter, including access to their child's records.

6. Custodial stepparents have the right to access the child's record. Noncustodial stepparents do not have the right to access the child's record.

7. A validly married minor who has not pursued emancipation under § 16.1-333 of the Code of Virginia may assert implied emancipation based on the minor's marriage record and, thus, assumes responsibilities of "parent" under this chapter.

8. The local educational agency shall provide written notice to the biological or adoptive parents at their last known address that a foster parent is acting as the parent under this section, and the local educational agency is entitled to rely upon the actions of the foster parent under this section until such time that the biological or adoptive parent attempts to act as the parent.

"Parent counseling and training" means assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their child, providing parents with information about child development, and helping parents to acquire the necessary skills that will allow them to support the implementation of their child's IEP or IFSP. (34 CFR 300.34(c)(8))

"Participating agency" means a state or local agency (including a Comprehensive Services Act team), other than the local educational agency responsible for a student's education, that is financially and legally responsible for providing transition services to the student. The term also means any agency or institution that collects, maintains, or uses personally identifiable information, or from which information is obtained under Part B of the Act. (34 CFR 300.611(c), 34 CFR 300.324(c) and 34 CFR 300.321(b)(3))

"Personally identifiable" means information that contains the following: (34 CFR 300.32)

1. The name of the child, the child's parent, or other family member;

2. The address of the child;

3. A personal identifier, such as the child's social security number or student number; or

4. A list of personal characteristics or other information that would make it possible to identify the child with reasonable certainty.

"Physical education" means the development of: (34 CFR 300.39(b)(2))

1. Physical and motor fitness;

2. Fundamental motor skills and patterns; and

3. Skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports). The term includes special physical education, adapted physical education, movement education, and motor development.

"Physical therapy" means services provided by a qualified physical therapist or under the direction or supervision of a qualified physical therapist upon medical referral and direction. (Regulations Governing the Practice of Physical Therapy, 18VAC112-20; 34 CFR 300.34(c)(9))

"Private school children with disabilities" means children with disabilities enrolled by their parent(s) parent in private, including religious, schools or facilities that meet the definition of elementary school or secondary school as defined in this section other than children with disabilities who are placed in a private school by a local school division or a Comprehensive Services Act team in accordance with 8VAC20-81-150. (34 CFR 300.130)

"Program" means the special education and related services, including accommodations, modifications, supplementary aids and services, as determined by a child's individualized education program.

"Psychological services" means those services provided by a qualified psychologist or under the direction or supervision of a qualified psychologist, including: (34 CFR 300.34(c)(10))

1. Administering psychological and educational tests, and other assessment procedures;

2. Interpreting assessment results;

3. Obtaining, integrating, and interpreting information about child behavior and conditions relating to learning;

4. Consulting with other staff members in planning school programs to meet the special needs of children as indicated by psychological tests, interviews, direct observation, and behavioral evaluations;

5. Planning and managing a program of psychological services, including psychological counseling for children and parents; and

6. Assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.

"Public expense" means that the local educational agency either pays for the full cost of the service or evaluation or ensures that the service or evaluation is otherwise provided at no cost to the parent(s) parent. (34 CFR 300.502(a)(3)(ii))

"Public notice" means the process by which certain information is made available to the general public. Public notice procedures may include, but not be limited to, newspaper advertisements, radio announcements, television features and announcements, handbills, brochures, electronic means, and other methods that are likely to succeed in providing information to the public.

"Qualified person who has a disability" means a "qualified handicapped person" as defined in the federal regulations implementing the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. (29 USC § 701 et seq.)

"Recreation" includes: (34 CFR 30.34(c)(11))

1. Assessment of leisure function;

2. Therapeutic recreation services;

3. Recreation program in schools and community agencies; and

4. Leisure education.

"Reevaluation" means completion of a new evaluation in accordance with this chapter. (34 CFR 300.303)

"Rehabilitation counseling services" means services provided by qualified personnel in individual or group sessions that focus specifically on career development, employment preparation, achieving independence, and integration in the workplace and community of a student with a disability. The term also includes vocational rehabilitation services provided to students with disabilities by vocational rehabilitation programs funded under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 USC § 701 et seq.), as amended. (34 CFR 300.34(c)(12))

"Related services" means transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education and includes speech-language pathology and audiology services; interpreting services; psychological services; physical and occupational therapy; recreation, including therapeutic recreation; early identification and assessment of disabilities in children; counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling; orientation and mobility services; and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes. Related services also includes school health services and school nurse services; social work services in schools; and parent counseling and training. Related services do not include a medical device that is surgically implanted including cochlear implants, the optimization of device functioning (e.g., mapping), maintenance of the device, or the replacement of that device. The list of related services is not exhaustive and may include other developmental, corrective, or supportive services (such as artistic and cultural programs, and art, music and dance therapy), if they are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. (§ 22.1-213 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.34(a) and (b))

Nothing in this section:

1. Limits the right of a child with a surgically implanted device (e.g., cochlear implant) to receive related services that are determined by the IEP team to be necessary for the child to receive FAPE;

2. Limits the responsibility of a public agency to appropriately monitor and maintain medical devices that are needed to maintain the health and safety of the child, including breathing, nutrition, or operation of other bodily functions, while the child is transported to and from school or is at school; or

3. Prevents the routine checking of an external component of a surgically implanted device to make sure it is functioning properly.

"School day" means any day, including a partial day, that children are in attendance at school for instructional purposes. The term has the same meaning for all children in school, including children with and without disabilities. (34 CFR 300.11)

"School health services and school nurse services" means health services that are designed to enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE as described in the child's IEP. School nurse services are services provided by a qualified school nurse. School health services are services that may be provided by either a qualified school nurse or other qualified person. (Chapter 30 (§ 54.1-3000 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.34(c)(13))

"Scientifically based research" means research that involves the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs and includes research that: (20 USC § 9501(18); 34 CFR 300.35)

1. Employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment;

2. Involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn;

3. Relies on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and valid data across evaluators and observers, across multiple measurements and observations, and across studies by the same or different investigators;

4. Is evaluated using experimental or quasi-experimental designs in which individuals, entities, programs, or activities are assigned to different conditions and with appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of the condition of interest, with a preference for random-assignment experiments, or other designs to the extent that those designs contain within-condition or across-condition controls;

5. Ensures that experimental studies are presented in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, offer the opportunity to build systematically on their findings; and

6. Has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review.

"Screening" means those processes that are used routinely with all children to identify previously unrecognized needs and that may result in a referral for special education and related services or other referral or intervention.

"Section 504" means that section of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, which is designed to eliminate discrimination on the basis of disability in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. (29 USC § 701 et seq.)

"Serious bodily injury" means bodily injury that involves substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ or mental faculty. (18 USC § 1365(h)(3); 34 CFR 300.530(i)(3))

"Services plan" means a written statement that describes the special education and related services the local educational agency will provide to a parentally placed child with a disability enrolled in a private school who has been designated to receive services, including the location of the services and any transportation necessary, and is developed and implemented in accordance with 8VAC20-81-150. (34 CFR 300.37)

"Social work services in schools" means those services provided by a school social worker or qualified visiting teacher, including: (Licensure Regulations for School Personnel, 8VAC20-22-660); 34 CFR 300.34(c)(14))

1. Preparing a social or developmental history on a child with a disability;

2. Group and individual counseling with the child and family;

3. Working in partnership with parents and others on those problems in a child's living situation (home, school, and community) that affect the child's adjustment in school;

4. Mobilizing school and community resources to enable the child to learn as effectively as possible in the child's educational program; and

5. Assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies for the child.

A local educational agency, in its discretion, may expand the role of a school social worker or visiting teacher beyond those services identified in this definition, as long as the expansion is consistent with other state laws and regulations, including licensure.

"Special education" means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent(s) parent, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in a classroom, in the home, in hospitals, in institutions, and in other settings and instruction in physical education. The term includes each of the following if it meets the requirements of the definition of special education: (§ 22.1-213 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.39)

1. Speech-language pathology services or any other related service, if the service is considered special education rather than a related service under state standards;

2. Vocational education; and

3. Travel training.

"Special education hearing officer" has the same meaning as the term "impartial hearing officer" as that term is used in the Act and its federal implementing regulations.

"Specially designed instruction" means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this chapter, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction: (34 CFR 300.39(b)(3))

1. To address the unique needs of the child that result from the child's disability; and

2. To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that the child can meet the educational standards that apply to all children within the jurisdiction of the local educational agency.

"Specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disabilities; of emotional disabilities; of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. (§ 22.1-213 of the Code of Virginia; 34 CFR 300.8(c)(10))

Dyslexia is distinguished from other learning disabilities due to its weakness occurring at the phonological level. Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

"Speech or language impairment" means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, expressive or receptive language impairment, or voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(11))

"Speech-language pathology services" means the following: (34 CFR 300.34(c)(15))

1. Identification of children with speech or language impairments;

2. Diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language impairments;

3. Referral for medical or other professional attention necessary for the habilitation of speech or language impairments;

4. Provision of speech and language services for the habilitation or prevention of communicative impairments; and

5. Counseling and guidance of parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and language impairments.

"State assessment program" means the state assessment program in Virginia under the Act that is the component of the state assessment system used for accountability.

"State educational agency" means the Virginia Department of Education. (34 CFR 300.41)

"State-operated programs" means programs that provide educational services to children and youth who reside in facilities according to the admissions policies and procedures of those facilities that are the responsibility of state boards, agencies, or institutions. (§§ 22.1-7, 22.1-340 and 22.1-345 of the Code of Virginia)

"Supplementary aids and services" means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in general education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with this chapter. (34 CFR 300.42)

"Surrogate parent" means a person appointed in accordance with procedures set forth in this chapter to ensure that children are afforded the protection of procedural safeguards and the provision of a free appropriate public education. (34 CFR 300.519)

"Timely manner" if used with reference to the requirement for National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard means that the local educational agency shall take all reasonable steps to provide instructional materials in accessible formats to children with disabilities who need those instructional materials at the same time as other children receive instructional materials. (34 CFR 300.172(b)(4))

"Transition from Part C (Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities) services" means the steps identified in the Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP) to be taken to support the transition of the child to: (34 CFR 300.124)

1. Early childhood special education to the extent that those services are appropriate; or

2. Other services that may be available, if appropriate.

"Transition services" if used with reference to secondary transition means a coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability that is designed within a results-oriented process that: (34 CFR 300.43)

1. Is focused on improving the academic and functional achievement of the child with a disability to facilitate the child's movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational education, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation.

2. Is based on the individual child's needs, taking into account the child's strengths, preferences, and interests and includes instruction, related services, community experiences, the development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives and, if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation.

Transition services for students with disabilities may be special education, if provided as specially designed instruction, or related services, if they are required to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education.

"Transportation" includes: (34 CFR 300.34(c)(16))

1. Travel to and from school and between schools;

2. Travel in and around school buildings; and

3. Specialized equipment (such as special or adapted buses, lifts, and ramps), if required to provide special transportation for a child with a disability.

"Traumatic brain injury" means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force or by other medical conditions, including stroke, anoxia, infectious disease, aneurysm, brain tumors, and neurological insults resulting from medical or surgical treatments, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Traumatic brain injury applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. Traumatic brain injury does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(12))

"Travel training" means providing instruction, as appropriate, to children with significant cognitive disabilities, and any other children with disabilities who require this instruction, to enable them to: (34 CFR 300.39(b)(4))

1. Develop an awareness of the environment in which they live; and

2. Learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment (e.g., in school, in the home, at work, and in the community).

"Universal design" has the meaning given the term in § 3 of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as amended, 29 USC § 3002. The term "universal design" means a concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products and services that are usable by people with the widest possible range of functional capabilities, which include products and services that are directly usable (without requiring assistive technologies) and products and services that are made usable with assistive technologies. (34 CFR 300.44)

"Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind at Staunton" means the Virginia school under the operational control of the Virginia Board of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall approve the education programs of this school. (§ 22.1-346 of the Code of Virginia)

"Visual impairment including blindness" means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. (34 CFR 300.8(c)(13))

"Vocational education," for the purposes of special education, means organized educational programs that are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment or for additional preparation for a career not requiring a baccalaureate or advanced degree, and includes career and technical education. (34 CFR 300.39(b)(5))

"Ward of the state" means a child who, as determined by the state where the child resides is: (34 CFR 300.45)

1. A foster child;

2. A ward of the state; or

3. In the custody of a public child welfare agency.

"Ward of the state" does not include a foster child who has a foster parent who meets the definition of a "parent."

"Weapon" means dangerous weapon under 18 USC § 930(g)(2). (34 CFR 530(i)(4))

8VAC20-81-110 Individualized education program

A. Responsibility. The local educational agency shall ensure that an IEP is developed and implemented for each child with a disability served by that local educational agency, including a child placed in a private special education school by: (34 CFR 300.112)

1. A local school division; or

2. A noneducational placement by a Comprehensive Services Act team that includes the school division. The local school division's responsibility is limited to special education and related services.

B. Accountability.

1. At the beginning of each school year, each local educational agency shall have an IEP in effect for each child with a disability within its jurisdiction, with the exception of children placed in a private school by parents when a free appropriate public education is not at issue. (34 CFR 300.323(a))

2. Each local educational agency shall ensure that an IEP: (34 CFR 300.323(c))

a. Is in effect before special education and related services are provided to an eligible child;

b. Is developed within 30 calendar days of the date of the initial determination that the child needs special education and related services;

c. Is developed within 30 calendar days of the date the eligibility group determines that the child remains eligible for special education and related services following reevaluation, if the IEP team determines that changes are needed to the child's IEP, or if the parent requests it; and

d. Is implemented as soon as possible following parental consent to the IEP.

3. Each local educational agency shall ensure that: (34 CFR 300.323(d))

a. The child's IEP is accessible to each regular education teacher, special education teacher, related service provider, and other service provider who is responsible for its implementation; and

b. Teachers and providers are informed of:

(1) Their specific responsibilities related to implementing the child's IEP; and

(2) The specific accommodations, modifications, and supports that shall be provided for the child in accordance with the IEP.

4. Each local educational agency is responsible for initiating and conducting meetings to develop, review, and revise the IEP of a child with a disability.

5. Each local educational agency shall ensure that the IEP team reviews the child's IEP periodically, but not less than annually, to determine whether the annual goals are being achieved and to revise its provisions, as appropriate, to address: (34 CFR 300.324(b))

a. Any lack of expected progress toward the annual goals and in the general curriculum, if appropriate;

b. The results of any reevaluation conducted under this chapter;

c. Information about the child provided to or by the parent(s) parent;

d. The child's anticipated needs; or

e. Other matters.

6. Each local educational agency shall provide special education and related services to a child with a disability in accordance with the child's IEP. (34 CFR 300.323(c)(2))

7. Nothing in this section limits a parent's right to ask for revisions of the child's IEP if the parent feels that the efforts required by this chapter are not being met.

8. To the extent possible, the local educational agency shall encourage the consolidation of reevaluation and IEP team meetings for the child. (34 CFR 300.324(a)(5))

9. In making changes to a child's IEP after the annual IEP team meeting for the school year, the parent(s) parent and the local educational agency may agree not to convene an IEP team meeting for the purposes of making those changes, and instead may develop a written document to amend or modify the child's current IEP. (34 CFR 300.324(a)(4) and (6))

a. If changes are made to the child's IEP, the local educational agency shall ensure that the child's IEP team is informed of those changes.

b. Upon request, a parent shall be provided with a revised copy of the IEP with the amendments incorporated.

c. This meeting is not a substitute for the required annual IEP meeting.

C. IEP team.

1. General. The local educational agency shall ensure that the IEP team for each child with a disability includes: (34 CFR 300.321(a), (c) and (d))

a. The parent(s) parent of the child;

b. Not less than one regular education teacher of the child (if the child is or may be participating in the regular educational environment);

c. Not less than one special education teacher of the child or, if appropriate, not less than one special education provider of the child. For a child whose only disability is speech-language impairment, the special education provider shall be the speech-language pathologist;

d. A representative of the local educational agency who is:

(1) Qualified to provide or supervise the provision of specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of children with disabilities;

(2) Knowledgeable about the general education curriculum; and

(3) Knowledgeable about the availability of resources of the local education agency. A local educational agency may designate another member of the IEP team to serve simultaneously as the agency representative if the individual meets the above criteria;

e. An individual who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results. This individual may be a member of the team serving in another capacity, other than the parent of the child;

f. At the discretion of the parent(s) parent or local educational agency, other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, including related services personnel, as appropriate. The determination of knowledge or special expertise of any individual shall be made by the party (parent(s) (parent or local educational agency) who invited the individual to be a member of the team; and

g. Whenever appropriate, the child.

2. The local educational agency determines the school personnel to fill the roles of the required IEP team members in subdivisions 1 b through 1 e of this subsection.

3. Secondary transition service participants. (34 CFR 300.321(b))

a. The local educational agency shall invite a student with a disability of any age to attend the student's IEP meeting if a purpose of the meeting will be the consideration of:

(1) The student's postsecondary goals;

(2) The needed transition services for the student; or

(3) Both.

b. If the student does not attend the IEP meeting, the local educational agency shall take other steps to ensure that the student's preferences and interests are considered.

c. To the extent appropriate and with the consent of the parent(s) parent or a child who has reached the age of majority, the local educational agency shall invite a representative of any participating agency that is likely to be responsible for providing or paying for transition services. If an agency invited to send a representative to a meeting does not do so, the local educational agency shall take other steps to obtain the participation of the other agency in the planning of any transition services.

4. Part C transition participants. In the case of a child who was previously served under Part C of the Act, the local educational agency shall, at the parent's(s') parent's request, invite the Part C service coordinator or other representatives of the Part C system to the initial IEP meeting to assist with the smooth transition of services. (34 CFR 300.321(f))

D. IEP team attendance. (34 CFR 300.321(e))

1. A required member of the IEP team described in subdivisions C 1 b through C 1 e of this section is not required to attend an IEP team meeting, in whole or in part, if the parent and the local educational agency agree, in writing, that the attendance of this member is not necessary because the member's area of the curriculum or related services is not being modified or discussed in the meeting.

2. A required member of the IEP team may be excused from attending the IEP team meeting, in whole or in part, when the meeting involves a modification to or discussion of the member's area of curriculum or related services, if:

a. The parent and the local educational agency consent in writing to the excusal; and

b. The member submits, in writing, to the parent and the IEP team input into the development of the IEP prior to the meeting.

E. Parent participation.

1. Each local educational agency shall take steps to ensure that one or both of the parents of the child with a disability are present at each IEP meeting or are afforded the opportunity to participate including: (34 CFR 300.322(a))

a. Notifying the parent(s) parent of the meeting early enough to ensure that they will have an opportunity to attend; and

b. Scheduling the meeting at a mutually agreed on time and place.

2. Notice. (34 CFR 300.322(b))

a. General notice. The notice given to the parent(s) parent:

(1) May be in writing, or given by telephone or in person with proper documentation;

(2) Shall indicate the purpose, date, time, and location of the meeting, and who will be in attendance; and

(3) Shall inform the parent(s) parent of the provisions relating to the participation of other individuals on the IEP team who have knowledge or special expertise about the child under subdivision C 1 f of this section.

b. Additional notice requirements are provided if transition services are under consideration.

(1) For Part C transition, the notice shall inform the parents of the provisions relating to the participation of the Part C service coordinator or other representative(s) representative of the Part C system under subdivision C 4 of this section.

(2) For secondary transition, the notice shall also:

(a) Indicate that a purpose of the meeting will be the consideration of the postsecondary goals and transition services for the child;

(b) Indicate that the local educational agency will invite the student; and

(c) Identify any other agency that will be invited to send a representative.

3. If neither parent can attend, the local educational agency shall use other methods to ensure parent participation, including individual or conference telephone calls and audio conferences. If the local educational agency uses an alternative means of meeting participation that results in additional costs, the local educational agency is responsible for those costs. (34 CFR 300.322(c))

4. A meeting may be conducted without a parent(s) parent in attendance if the local educational agency is unable to convince the parent(s) parent that they should attend. In this case, the local educational agency shall have a record of the attempts to arrange a mutually agreed on time and place, such as: (34 CFR 300.322(d))

a. Detailed records of telephone calls made or attempted and the results of those calls;

b. Copies of correspondence (written, electronic, or facsimile) sent to the parent(s) parent and any responses received; or

c. Detailed records of visits made to the parent's(s') parent's home or place of employment and the results of those visits.

5. The local educational agency shall take whatever action is necessary to ensure that the parent(s) understand parent understands the proceedings at the IEP meeting, including arranging for an interpreter for parents with deafness or whose native language is other than English. (34 CFR 300.322(e))

6. At the IEP meeting, the IEP team shall provide the parent(s) parent of a child with a disability with a written description of the factors in subdivisions F 1 and F 2 of this section that will be considered during the IEP meeting. The description shall be written in language understandable by the general public and provided in the native language of the parent(s) parent or other mode of communication used by the parent(s), unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.

7. The local educational agency shall give the parent(s) parent a copy of the child's IEP at no cost to the parent(s) parent at the IEP meeting, or within a reasonable period of time after the IEP meeting, not to exceed 10 calendar days. (34 CFR 300.322(f))

8. If the local educational agency elects to use a draft version of an IEP in any IEP team meeting, such draft shall be developed and a copy shall be provided to the parent at least two business days in advance of the IEP meeting.

F. Development, review, and revision of the IEP. (34 CFR 300.324(a))

1. In developing each child's IEP, the IEP team shall consider:

a. The strengths of the child;

b. The concerns of the parent(s) parent for enhancing the education of their child;

c. The results of the initial or most recent evaluation of the child; and

d. The academic, developmental, and functional needs of the child.

2. The IEP team also shall: (34 CFR 300.324(a))

a. In the case of a child whose behavior impedes the child's learning or that of others, consider the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address the behavior;

b. In the case of a child with limited English proficiency, consider the language needs of the child as those needs relate to the child's IEP;

c. In the case of a child who is blind or visually impaired, provide for instruction in Braille and the use of Braille unless the IEP team determines after an evaluation of the child's reading and writing skills, needs, and appropriate reading and writing media, including an evaluation of the child's future needs for instruction in Braille or the use of Braille, that instruction in Braille or the use of Braille is not appropriate for the child;

d. Consider the communication needs of the child;

e. Consider the child's needs for benchmarks or short-term objectives;

f. In the case of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing, consider the child's language and communication needs, opportunities for direct communications with peers and professional personnel in the child's language and communication mode, academic level, and full range of needs, including opportunities for direct instruction in the child's language and communication mode; and

g. Consider whether the child requires assistive technology devices and services.

3. If, in considering the special factors, the IEP team determines that a child needs a particular device or service, including an intervention, accommodation, or other program modification in order for the child to receive a free appropriate public education, the IEP team shall include a statement to that effect in the child's IEP. (34 CFR 300.324(b)(2))

4. The regular education teacher of a child with a disability, as a member of the IEP team, shall participate, to the extent appropriate, in the development, review, and revision of the child's IEP, including assisting in the determination of: (34 CFR 300.324(a)(3))

a. Appropriate positive behavioral interventions and supports and other strategies for the child; and

b. Supplementary aids and services, accommodations, program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided for the child.

5. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require: (34 CFR 300.320(d))

a. The IEP team to include information under one component of a child's IEP that is already contained under another component of the child's IEP; or

b. That additional information be included in the child's IEP beyond what is explicitly required in this chapter.

6. The IEP team shall consider all factors identified under a free appropriate public education in 8VAC20-81-100, as appropriate, and work toward consensus. If the IEP team cannot reach consensus, the local educational agency shall provide the parent(s) parent with prior written notice of the local educational agency's proposals or refusals, or both, regarding the child's educational placement or provision of a free appropriate public education in accordance with 8VAC20-81-170 C.

G. Content of the individualized education program. The IEP for each child with a disability shall include:

1. A statement of the child's present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, including how the child's disability affects the child's involvement and progress in the general curriculum or, for preschool children, as appropriate, how the disability affects the child's participation in appropriate activities. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(1))

a. The statement shall be written in objective measurable terms, to the extent possible. Test scores, if appropriate, shall be self-explanatory or an explanation shall be included.

b. The present level of performance shall directly relate to the other components of the IEP.

2. A statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and functional goals designed to: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(2))

a. Meet the child's needs that result from the child's disability to enable the child to be involved in and progress in the general curriculum, or for preschool children, as appropriate, to participate in appropriate activities; and

b. Meet each of the child's other educational needs that result from the child's disability.

3. If determined appropriate by the IEP team, as outlined in subdivision F 2 of this section, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives. For children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, the IEP shall include a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(2))

The IEP team shall document its consideration of the inclusion in the child's IEP of benchmarks or short-term objectives.

4. A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent practicable, to be provided for the child, or on behalf of the child, and a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel that will be provided to enable the child: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(4))

a. To advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals;

b. To be involved and progress in the general curriculum and to participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities; and

c. To be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and children without disabilities in the activities described in this section.

5. An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with children without disabilities in the regular class and in the activities described in this section. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(5))

6. The following information concerning state and divisionwide assessments shall be included: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(6))

a. A statement of any individual appropriate accommodations or modifications that are necessary to measure the child's academic achievement and functional performance, in accordance with the guidelines approved by the Board of Education, in the administration of state assessments of student achievement that are needed in order for the child to participate in the assessment;

b. If the IEP team determines that the child must take an alternate assessment instead of a particular state assessment of student achievement (or part of an assessment), a statement of:

(1) Why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment;

(2) Why the particular assessment selected is appropriate for the child, including that the child meets the criteria for the alternate assessment; and

(3) How the child's nonparticipation in the assessment will impact the child's promotion; graduation with a modified standard, standard, or advanced studies diploma; or other matters.

c. A statement that the child shall participate in either a state assessment for all children that is part of the state assessment program or the state's alternate assessment;

d. A statement of any individual appropriate accommodations or modifications approved for use in the administration of divisionwide assessments of student achievement that are needed in order for the child to participate in the assessment;

e. If the IEP team determines that the child must take an alternate assessment instead of a particular divisionwide assessment of student achievement (or part of an assessment), a statement of:

(1) Why the child cannot participate in the regular assessment;

(2) Why the particular alternate assessment selected is appropriate for the child; and

(3) How the child's nonparticipation in the assessment will impact the child's courses; promotion; graduation with a modified standard, standard, or advanced studies diploma; or other matters.

7. The projected dates (month, day, and year) for the beginning of the services and modifications and the anticipated frequency, location, and duration of those services and modifications. (34 CFR 300.320(a)(7))

8. A statement of: (34 CFR 300.320(a)(3))

a. How the child's progress toward the annual goals will be measured; and

b. When periodic reports on the progress the child is making toward meeting the annual goals will be provided; for example, through the use of quarterly or other periodic reports, concurrent with the issuance of report cards, and at least as often as parents are informed of the progress of their children without disabilities.

9. Initial transition services (34 CFR 300.101(b) and 34 CFR 300.323(b))

a. In the case of a preschool-aged child with a disability, age two (on or before September 30) through age five (on or before September 30), whose parent(s) parent elect to receive services under Part B of the Act, the local educational agency shall develop an IEP.

b. The IEP team shall consider an IFSP that contains the IFSP content described under Part C of the Act (§ 1431 et seq.) including:

(1) A statement regarding natural environments; and

(2) A component that promotes school readiness and incorporates pre-literacy, language, and numeracy skills.

c. These components of the child's IFSP may be incorporated into the child's IEP.

10. Secondary transition services. (34 CFR 300.43 and 34 CFR 300.320(b))

a. Prior to the child entering secondary school but not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child turns 14, or younger if determined appropriate by the IEP team, and updated annually thereafter, the IEP shall include age-appropriate:

(1) Measurable postsecondary goals based upon age-appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and where appropriate, independent living skills; and

(2) Transition services, including courses of study, needed to assist the child in reaching those goals. Transition services shall be based on the individual child's needs, taking into account the child's strengths, preferences, and interests.

b. Beginning not later than the first IEP to be in effect when the child turns 16, or younger if determined appropriate by the IEP team, and updated annually, in addition to the requirements of subdivision 10 a of this subsection, the IEP shall also include a statement, if appropriate, of interagency responsibilities or any linkages.

c. For a child pursuing a modified standard diploma, the IEP team shall consider the child's need for occupational readiness upon school completion, including consideration of courses to prepare the child as a career and technical education program completer.

11. Beginning at least one year before a student reaches the age of majority, the student's IEP shall include a statement that the student and parent(s) parent have been informed of the rights under this chapter, if any, that will transfer to the student on reaching the age of majority. (34 CFR 300.320(c))

H. Agency responsibilities for secondary transition services. (34 CFR 300.324(c))

1. If a participating agency, other than the local educational agency, fails to provide the transition services described in the IEP of a student with a disability, the local educational agency shall reconvene the IEP team to identify alternative strategies to meet the transition objectives for the student set out in the IEP.

2. Nothing in this part relieves any participating agency, including a state vocational rehabilitation agency, of the responsibility to provide or pay for any transition service that the agency would otherwise provide to students with disabilities who meet the eligibility criteria of that agency.

I. Additional requirements for eligible students with disabilities in state, regional, or local adult or juvenile correctional facilities. (34 CFR 300.324(d) and 34 CFR 300.102(a)(2); Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia (8VAC20-131))

1. A representative of the state from a state, regional, or local adult or juvenile correctional facility may participate as a member of the IEP team.

2. All requirements regarding IEP development, review, and revision in this section apply to students with disabilities in state, regional, or local adult or juvenile correctional facilities, including assessment requirements to graduate with a modified standard, standard, or advanced studies diploma. The requirements related to least restrictive environment in 8VAC20-81-130 do not apply.

3. The following additional exceptions to subdivision 2 of this subsection apply only to students with disabilities who are convicted as an adult under state law and incarcerated in adult prisons:

a. The IEP team may modify the student's IEP or placement if the state has demonstrated to the IEP team a bona fide security or compelling penological interest that cannot be otherwise accommodated.

b. IEP requirements regarding participation in state assessments, including alternate assessments, do not apply.

c. IEP requirements regarding transition planning and transition services do not apply to students whose eligibility for special education and related services will end because of their age before they will be eligible for release from the correctional facility based on consideration of their sentence and their eligibility for early release.

8VAC20-81-170 Procedural safeguards

A. Opportunity to examine records; parent participation. (34 CFR 300.322(e), 34 CFR 300.500 and 34 CFR 300.501; 8VAC20-150)

1. Procedural safeguards. Each local educational agency shall establish, maintain, and implement procedural safeguards as follows:

a. The parent(s) parent of a child with a disability shall be afforded an opportunity to:

(1) Inspect and review all education records with respect to (i) the identification, evaluation, and educational placement of the child; and (ii) the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child.

(2) Participate in meetings with respect to the identification, evaluation, and educational placement of the child and the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child.

b. Parent participation in meetings.

(1) Each local educational agency shall provide notice to ensure that the parent(s) parent of a child with a disability has the opportunity to participate in meetings described in subdivision 1 a (2) of this subsection, including notifying the parent(s) parent of the meeting early enough to ensure that the parent has an opportunity to participate. The notice shall:

(a) Indicate the purpose, date, time, and location of the meeting and who will be in attendance;

(b) Inform the parent(s) parent that at their the parent's discretion or at the discretion of the local educational agency, other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, including related services personnel, as appropriate, may participate in meetings with respect to the identification, evaluation, and educational placement of the child and the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child;

(c) Inform the parent that the determination of the knowledge or special expertise shall be made by the party who invited the individual; and

(d) Inform the parent(s) parent, in the case of a child who was previously served under Part C that an invitation to the initial IEP team meeting shall, at the request of the parent, be sent to the Part C service coordinator or other representatives of Part C to assist with the smooth transition of services.

(2) A meeting does not include informal or unscheduled conversations involving local educational agency personnel and conversations on issues such as teaching methodology, lesson plans, or coordination of service provision if those issues are not addressed in the child's IEP. A meeting also does not include preparatory activities that local educational agency personnel engage in to develop a proposal or a response to a parent proposal that will be discussed at a later meeting.

c. Parent involvement in placement decisions.

(1) Each local educational agency shall ensure that a parent(s) parent of each child with a disability is a member of the IEP team that makes decisions on the educational placement of their child or any Comprehensive Services Act team that makes decisions on the educational placement of their child.

(2) In implementing the requirements of subdivision 1 c (1) of this subsection, the local educational agency shall provide notice in accordance with the requirements of 8VAC20-81-110 E.

(3) If neither parent can participate in a meeting in which a decision is to be made relating to the educational placement of their child, the local educational agency shall use other methods to ensure their participation, including individual or conference telephone calls, or video conferencing.

(4) A placement decision may be made by the IEP or Comprehensive Services Act team without the involvement of the parent(s) parent if the local educational agency is unable to obtain the parents' participation in the decision. In this case, the local educational agency shall have a record of its attempt to ensure the parents' involvement.

(5) The local educational agency shall take whatever action is necessary to ensure that the parent(s) understand parent understands and are is able to participate in, any group discussions relating to the educational placement of their the parent's child, including arranging for an interpreter for a parent(s) parent with deafness, or whose native language is other than English.

(6) The exception to the IEP team determination regarding placement is with disciplinary actions involving interim alternative education settings for 45-day removals under 8VAC20-81-160 D 6 a. (34 CFR 300.530(f)(2) and (g))

B. Independent educational evaluation.

1. General. (34 CFR 300.502(a))

a. The parent(s) parent of a child with a disability shall have the right to obtain an independent educational evaluation of the child.

b. The local educational agency shall provide to the parent(s) parent of a child with a disability, upon request for an independent educational evaluation, information about where an independent educational evaluation may be obtained and the applicable criteria for independent educational evaluations.

2. Parental right to evaluation at public expense. (34 CFR 300.502(b) and (e))

a. The parent(s) parent has the right to an independent educational evaluation at public expense if the parent(s) parent disagrees with an evaluation component obtained by the local educational agency.

b. If the parent(s) parent requests an independent educational evaluation at public expense, the local educational agency shall, without unnecessary delay, either:

(1) Initiate a due process hearing to show that its evaluation is appropriate; or

(2) Ensure that an independent educational evaluation is provided at public expense, unless the local educational agency demonstrates in a due process hearing that the evaluation obtained by the parent(s) parent does not meet the local educational agency's criteria.

c. If the local educational agency initiates a due process hearing and the final decision is that the local educational agency's evaluation is appropriate, the parent(s) parent still has the right to an independent educational evaluation, but not at public expense.

d. If the parent(s) parent requests an independent educational evaluation, the local educational agency may ask the reasons for the parent's objection to the public evaluation. However, the explanation by the parent(s) parent may not be required and the local educational agency may not unreasonably delay either providing the independent educational evaluation at public expense or initiating a due process hearing to defend the public evaluation.

e. A parent is entitled to only one independent educational evaluation at public expense each time the public educational agency conducts an evaluation component with which the parent disagrees.

f. If an independent educational evaluation is at public expense, the criteria under which the evaluation is obtained, including the location of the evaluation and the qualifications of the examiner, shall be the same as the criteria that the local educational agency uses when it initiates an evaluation, to the extent those criteria are consistent with the parent's right to an independent educational evaluation. Except for the criteria, a local educational agency may not impose conditions or timelines related to obtaining an independent educational evaluation at public expense.

3. Parent-initiated evaluations. If the parent obtains an independent educational evaluation at public expense or shares with the local educational agency an evaluation obtained at private expense, the results of the evaluation: (34 CFR 300.502(c))

a. Shall be considered by the local educational agency, if it meets local educational agency criteria, in any decision regarding the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child; and

b. May be presented by any party as evidence at a hearing under 8VAC20-81-210.

4. Requests for evaluations by special education hearing officers. If a special education hearing officer requests an independent educational evaluation for an evaluation component, as part of a hearing on a due process complaint, the cost of the evaluation shall be at public expense. (34 CFR 300.502(d))

C. Prior written notice by the local educational agency; content of notice.

1. Prior written notice shall be given to the parent(s) parent of a child with a disability within a reasonable time before the local educational agency: (34 CFR 300.503(a))

a. Proposes to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement (including graduation with a standard or advanced studies diploma) of the child, or the provision of a free appropriate public education for the child; or

b. Refuses to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child, or the provision of a free appropriate public education for the child.

2. The notice shall include: (34 CFR 300.503(b))

a. A description of the action proposed or refused by the local educational agency;

b. An explanation of why the local educational agency proposes or refuses to take the action;

c. A description of any other options the IEP team considered and the reasons for the rejection of those options;

d. A description of each evaluation procedure, assessment, record, or report the local educational agency used as a basis for the proposed or refused action;

e. A description of any other factors that are relevant to the local educational agency's proposal or refusal;

f. A statement that the parent(s) parent of a child with a disability have protection under the procedural safeguards of this chapter and, if the notice is not an initial referral for evaluation, the means by which a copy of a description of the procedural safeguards can be obtained; and

g. Sources for the parent(s) parent to contact in order to obtain assistance in understanding the provisions of this section.

3. a. The notice shall be: (i) written in language understandable to the general public; and (ii) provided in the native language of the parent(s) parent or other mode of communication used by the parent(s) parent, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so. (34 CFR 300.503(c))

b. If the native language or other mode of communication of the parent(s) parent is not a written language, the local educational agency shall take steps to ensure that:

(1) The notice is translated orally or by other means to the parent(s) parent in their the parent's native language or other mode of communication;

(2) The parent(s) understand parent understands the content of the notice; and

(3) There is written evidence that the requirements of subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subdivision have been met.

D. Procedural safeguards notice. (34 CFR 300.504)

1. A copy of the procedural safeguards available to the parent(s) parent of a child with a disability shall be given to the parent(s) parent by the local educational agency only one time a school year, except that a copy shall be given to the parent(s) parent upon:

a. Initial referral for or parent request for evaluation;

b. If the parent requests an additional copy;

c. Receipt of the first state complaint during a school year;

d. Receipt of the first request for a due process hearing during a school year; and

e. On the date on which the decision is made to make a disciplinary removal that constitutes a change in placement because of a violation of a code of student conduct.

2. The local educational agency may place a current copy of the procedural safeguards notice on its Internet website if a website exists, but the local educational agency does not meet its obligation under subdivision 1 of this subsection by directing the parent to the website. The local educational agency shall offer the parent(s) parent a printed copy of the procedural safeguards notice in accordance with subdivision 1 of this subsection.

3. The procedural safeguards notice shall include a full explanation of all of the procedural safeguards available relating to:

a. Independent educational evaluation;

b. Prior written notice;

c. Parental consent;

d. Access to educational records;

e. Opportunity to present and resolve complaints through the due process procedures;

f. The availability of mediation;

g. The child's placement during pendency of due process proceedings;

h. Procedures for students who are subject to placement in an interim alternative educational setting;

i. Requirements for unilateral placement by parents of children in private schools at public expense;

j. Due process hearings, including requirements for disclosure of evaluation results and recommendations;

k. Civil actions, including the time period in which to file those actions;

l. Attorneys' fees; and

m. The opportunity to present and resolve complaints through the state complaint procedures, including:

(1) The time period in which to file a complaint;

(2) The opportunity for the local educational agency to resolve the complaint; and

(3) The difference between the due process and the state complaint procedures, including the applicable jurisdiction, potential issues, and timelines for each process.

4. The notice required under this subsection shall meet the prior notice requirements regarding understandable language in subdivision C 3 of this section.

E. Parental consent.

1. Required parental consent. Informed parental consent is required before:

a. Conducting an initial evaluation or reevaluation, including a functional behavioral assessment if such assessment is not a review of existing data conducted at an IEP meeting; (34 CFR 300.300(a)(1)(i))

b. An initial eligibility determination or any change in categorical identification;

c. Initial provision of special education and related services to a child with a disability; (34 CFR 300.300(b)(1))

d. Any revision to the child's IEP services;

e. Any partial or complete termination of special education and related services, except for graduation with a standard or advance studies diploma;

f. The provision of a free appropriate public education to children with disabilities who transfer between public agencies in Virginia or transfer to Virginia from another state in accordance with 8VAC20-81-120;

g. Accessing a child's public benefits or insurance or private insurance proceeds in accordance with subsection F of this section; and (34 CFR 300.154)

h. Inviting to an IEP meeting a representative of any participating agency that is likely to be responsible for providing or paying for secondary transition services. (34 CFR 300.321(b)(3))

2. Parental consent not required. Parental consent is not required before:

a. Review of existing data as part of an evaluation or a reevaluation, including a functional behavioral assessment; (34 CFR 300.300(d)(1))

b. Administration of a test or other evaluation that is administered to all children unless, before administration of that test or evaluation, consent is required of the parent(s) parents of all children; (34 CFR 300.300(d)(1))

c. The screening of a student by a teacher or specialist to determine appropriate instructional strategies for curriculum implementation; (34 CFR 300.302)

d. Administration of a test or other evaluation that is used to measure progress on the child's IEP goals and is included in the child's IEP;

e. A teacher's or related service provider's observations or ongoing classroom evaluations;

f. Conducting an initial evaluation of a child who is a ward of the state and who is not residing with his parent(s) parent if: (34 CFR 300.300(a)(2))

(1) Despite reasonable efforts, the local educational agency cannot discover the whereabouts of the parent(s) parent;

(2) The parent's rights have been terminated; or

(3) The rights of the parent(s) parent to make educational decisions have been subrogated by a judge and an individual appointed by the judge to represent the child has consented to the initial evaluation.

3. Revoking consent.

a. If at any time subsequent to the initial provision of special education and related services the parent revokes consent in writing for the continued provision of special education and related services: (34 CFR 300.300(b)(4))

(1) The local educational agency may not continue to provide special education and related services to the child, but must provide prior written notice in accordance with 8VAC20-81-170 C before ceasing the provision of special education and related services;

(2) The local educational agency may not use mediation or due process hearing procedures to obtain parental consent, or a ruling that the services may be provided to the child;

(3) The local educational agency's failure to provide the special education and related services to the child will not be considered a violation of the requirement to provide FAPE; and

(4) The local educational agency is not required to convene an IEP meeting or to develop an IEP for the child for the further provision of special education and related services.

b. If a parent revokes consent, that revocation is not retroactive in accordance with the definition of "consent" at 8VAC20-81-10.

4. Refusing consent.

a. If the parent(s) parent refuses consent for initial evaluation or a reevaluation, the local educational agency may, but is not required to, use mediation or due process hearing procedures to pursue the evaluation. The local educational agency does not violate its obligations under this chapter if it declines to pursue the evaluation. (34 CFR 300.300(a)(3) and (c)(1))

b. If the parent(s) parent refuses to consent to the initial provision of special education and related services: (34 CFR 300.300(b)(3))

(1) The local educational agency may not use mediation or due process hearing procedures to obtain parental consent, or a ruling that the services may be provided to the child;

(2) The local educational agency's failure to provide the special education and related services to the child for which consent is requested is not considered a violation of the requirement to provide FAPE; and

(3) The local educational agency is not required to convene an IEP meeting or to develop an IEP for the child for the special education and related services for which the local educational agency requests consent. However, the local educational agency may convene an IEP meeting and develop an IEP to inform the parent about the services that may be provided with parental consent.

c. If the parent(s) parent of a parentally placed private school child refuses consent for an initial evaluation or a reevaluation, the local educational agency: (34 CFR 300.300(d)(4))

(1) May not use mediation or due process hearing procedures to obtain parental consent, or a ruling that the evaluation of the child may be completed; and

(2) Is not required to consider the child as eligible for equitable provision of services in accordance with 8VAC20-81-150.

d. A local educational agency may not use a parent's refusal to consent to one service or activity to deny the parent(s) parent or child any other service, benefit, or activity of the local educational agency, except as provided by this chapter. (34 CFR 300.300(d)(3))

5. Withholding consent.

a. If the parent(s) parent fails to respond to a request to consent for an initial evaluation, the local educational agency may, but is not required to, use mediation or due process hearing procedures to pursue the evaluation. The local educational agency does not violate its obligations under this chapter if it declines to pursue the evaluation. (34 CFR 300.300(a)(3) and (c)(1))

b. Informed parental consent need not be obtained for reevaluation if the local educational agency can demonstrate that it has taken reasonable measures to obtain that consent, and the child's parent(s) parent has failed to respond. (34 CFR 300.300(c)(2))

c. If the parent(s) parent fails to respond to a request to provide consent for the initial provision of special education and related services, the local educational agency follows the provisions of subdivision 4 b of this subsection. (34 CFR 300.300(b)(3) and (4))

6. Consent for initial evaluation may not be construed as consent for initial provision of special education and related services. (34 CFR 300.300(a)(1)(ii))

7. The local educational agency shall make reasonable efforts to obtain informed parental consent for an initial evaluation and the initial provision of special education and related services. (34 CFR 300.300(a)(1)(iii) and (b)(2))

8. To meet the reasonable measures requirement of this section, the local educational agency shall have a record of its attempts to secure the consent, such as: (34 CFR 300.322(d) and 34 CFR 300.300(a), (b), (c) and (d)(5))

a. Detailed records of telephone calls made or attempted and the results of those calls;

b. Copies of correspondence (written, electronic, or facsimile) sent to the parent(s) parent and any responses received; and

c. Detailed records of visits made to the parent's home or place of employment and the results of those visits.

F. Parental rights regarding use of public or private insurance. Each local educational agency using Medicaid or other public benefits or insurance programs to pay for services required under this chapter, as permitted under the public insurance program, and each local educational agency using private insurance to pay for services required under this chapter, shall provide notice to the parent(s) and obtain informed parental consent in accordance with 8VAC20-81-300. (34 CFR 300.154)

G. Confidentiality of information.

1. Access rights. (34 CFR 300.613)

a. The local educational agency shall permit the parent(s) parent to inspect and review any education records relating to their the parent's children that are collected, maintained, or used by the local educational agency under this chapter. The local educational agency shall comply with a request without unnecessary delay and before any meeting regarding an IEP or any hearing in accordance with 8VAC20-81-160 and 8VAC20-81-210, or resolution session in accordance with 8VAC20-81-210, and in no case more than 45 calendar days after the request has been made.

b. The right to inspect and review education records under this section includes:

(1) The right to a response from the local educational agency to reasonable requests for explanations and interpretations of the records;

(2) The right to request that the local educational agency provide copies of the records containing the information if failure to provide those copies would effectively prevent the parent from exercising the right to inspect and review the records; and

(3) The right to have a representative of the parent inspect and review the records.

c. A local educational agency may presume that a parent has authority to inspect and review records relating to the parent's children unless the local educational agency has been provided a copy of a judicial order or decree, or other legally binding documentation, that the parent does not have the authority under applicable Virginia law governing such matters as guardianship, separation, and divorce.

2. Record of access. Each local educational agency shall keep a record of parties, except parents and authorized employees of the local educational agency, obtaining access to education records collected, maintained, or used under Part B of the Act, including the name of the party, the date of access, and the purpose for which the party is authorized to use the records. (34 CFR 300.614)

3. Record on more than one child. If any education record includes information on more than one child, the parent(s) parents of those children have the right to inspect and review only the information relating to their child or to be informed of the specific information requested. (34 CFR 300.615)

4. List of types and locations of information. Each local educational agency shall provide a parent(s) parent on request a list of the types and locations of education records collected, maintained, or used by the local educational agency. (34 CFR 300.616)

5. Fees. (34 CFR 300.617)

a. Each local educational agency may charge a fee for copies of records that are made for a parent(s) parent under this chapter if the fee does not effectively prevent the parent(s) parent from exercising their right to inspect and review those records.

b. A local educational agency may not charge a fee to search for or to retrieve information under this section.

c. A local educational agency may not charge a fee for copying a child's IEP that is required to be provided to the parent(s) parent in accordance with 8VAC20-81-110 E 7.

6. Amendment of records at parent's request. (34 CFR 300.618)

a. A parent(s) parent who believes that information in the education records collected, maintained, or used under this chapter is inaccurate or misleading or violates the privacy or other rights of the child may request the local educational agency that maintains the information to amend the information.

b. The local educational agency shall decide whether to amend the information in accordance with the request within a reasonable period of time of receipt of the request.

c. If the local educational agency decides to refuse to amend the information in accordance with the request, it shall inform the parent(s) parent of the refusal and advise the parent(s) parent of the right to a hearing under subdivision 7 of this subsection.

7. Opportunity for a hearing. The local educational agency shall provide on request an opportunity for a hearing to challenge information in education records to ensure that it is not inaccurate, misleading, or otherwise in violation of the privacy or other rights of the child. (34 CFR 300.619)

8. Results of hearing. (34 CFR 300.620)

a. If, as a result of the hearing, the local educational agency decides that the information is inaccurate, misleading, or otherwise in violation of the privacy or other rights of the child, it shall amend the information accordingly and so inform the parent in writing.

b. If, as a result of the hearing, the local educational agency decides that the information is not inaccurate, misleading, or otherwise in violation of the privacy or other rights of the child, it shall inform the parent of the right to place in the child's education records a statement commenting on the information or setting forth any reasons for disagreeing with the decision of the agency.

c. Any explanation placed in the records of the child under this section shall:

(1) Be maintained by the local educational agency as part of the records of the child as long as the record or contested portion is maintained by the local educational agency; and

(2) If the records of the child or the contested portion is disclosed by the local educational agency to any party, the explanation shall also be disclosed to the party.

9. Hearing procedures. A hearing held under subdivision 7 of this subsection shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures under 34 CFR 99.22 of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (20 USC § 1232g; 34 CFR 300.621)

a. The local educational agency may:

(1) Develop local procedures for such a hearing process; or

(2) Obtain a hearing officer from the Supreme Court of Virginia's special education hearing officer list in accordance with the provisions of 8VAC20-81-210 H.

10. Consent. (34 CFR 300.32; 34 CFR 300.622)

a. Parental consent shall be obtained before personally identifiable information is disclosed to anyone other than officials of the local educational agency unless the information is contained in the education records, and the disclosure is authorized under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act. (20 USC § 1232g).

b. Parental consent is not required before personally identifiable information is disclosed to officials of the local educational agencies collecting, maintaining, or using personally identifiable information under this chapter, except:

(1) Parental consent, or the consent of a child who has reached the age of majority, shall be obtained before personally identifiable information is released to officials of any agency or institution providing or paying for transition services.

(2) If a child is enrolled, or is going to enroll in a private school that is not located in the local educational agency where the parent(s) parent resides, parental consent shall be obtained before any personally identifiable information about the child is released between officials in the local educational agency where the private school is located, and officials in the local educational agency where the parent(s) parent resides.

11. Safeguards. (34 CFR 300.623)

a. Each local educational agency shall protect the confidentiality of personally identifiable information at collection, storage, disclosure, and destruction stages.

b. Each local educational agency shall ensure that electronic communications via emails or facsimiles regarding any matter associated with the child, including matters related to IEP meetings, disciplinary actions, or service delivery, be part of the child's educational record.

c. One official at each local educational agency shall assume responsibility for ensuring the confidentiality of any personally identifiable information.

d. All persons collecting, maintaining, or using personally identifiable information shall receive training or instruction on Virginia's policies and procedures for ensuring confidentiality of the information.

e. Each local educational agency shall maintain for public inspection a current listing of the names and positions of those employees within the agency who may have access to personally identifiable information.

12. Destruction of information. (34 CFR 300.624)

a. The local educational agency shall inform parents when personally identifiable information collected, maintained, or used under this chapter is no longer needed to provide educational services to the child.

b. This information shall be destroyed at the request of the parents. However, a permanent record of a student's name, address, phone number, grades, attendance record, classes attended, grade level completed, and year completed shall be maintained without time limitation.

c. The local educational agency shall comply with the Records Retention and Disposition Schedule of the Library of Virginia.

H. Electronic mail. If the local educational agency makes the option available, parent(s) the parent of a child with a disability may elect to receive prior written notice, the procedural safeguards notice, and the notice of a request for due process, by electronic mail. (34 CFR 300.505)

I. Electronic signature. If an electronically filed document contains an electronic signature, the electronic signature has the legal effect and enforceability of an original signature. An electronic signature is an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with a record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record. (Chapter 42.1 (§ 59.1-479 et seq.) of Title 59.1 of the Code of Virginia)

J. Audio and video recording.

1. The local educational agency shall permit the use of audio recording devices at meetings convened to determine a child's eligibility under 8VAC20-81-80; to develop, review, or revise the child's IEP under 8VAC20-81-110 F; and to review discipline matters under 8VAC20-81-160 D. The parent(s) parent shall inform the local educational agency before the meeting in writing, unless the parents cannot write in English, that they will be audio recording the meeting. If the parent(s) parent does not inform the local educational agency, the parent(s) parent shall provide the local educational agency with a copy of the audio recording. The parent(s) parent shall provide their own audio equipment and materials for audio recording. If the local educational agency audio records meetings or receives a copy of an audio recording from the parent(s) parent, the audio recording becomes a part of the child's educational record.

2. The local educational agency may have policies that prohibit, limit, or otherwise regulate the use of:

a. Video recording devices at meetings convened pursuant to this chapter; or

b. Audio or video recording devices at meetings other than those meetings identified in subdivision 1 of this subsection.

3. These policies shall:

a. Stipulate that the recordings become part of the child's educational record;

b. Ensure that the policy is uniformly applied; and

c. If the policy prohibits the use of the devices, the policy shall provide for exceptions if they are necessary to ensure that the parent(s) parent understands the IEP, the special education process, or to implement other parental rights guaranteed under this chapter.