For the purpose of this chapter, the The
following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have
the following meanings respectively indicated unless another
meaning is clearly intended or required by the context . clearly
"Approved" means a procedure of operation or
which is in accordance with the standards established by
the Virginia Department of Health [ , ] or which is
acceptable to the Health Commissioner based on his a determination
as to the conformance with appropriate standards and good public health
and includes, but is not
limited to tourist camps, travel trailer camps, recreation camps, family
campgrounds, camping resorts, camping communities, or any other area,
place, parcel [ , ] or tract of land, by whatever name called, on
which three or more campsites are occupied or intended for occupancy, or
facilities are established or maintained, wholly or in part, for the
accommodation of camping units for periods of overnight or longer, whether the
use of the campsites and/or or facilities is granted
gratuitously, by a rental fee, by lease, by conditional sale [ , ] or
by covenants, restrictions and easements. This definition is not intended to include
[ migrant labor camps and ] summer camps , [ and
migrant labor camps ] as defined in §§ 35.1-16 32.1-203
and 32.1-203 35.1-16 of the Code of Virginia, construction camps,
permanent mobile manufactured home parks, or storage areas
for unoccupied camping units, or property upon which the individual owner may
choose to camp and not be prohibited or encumbered by covenants, restrictions
and conditions from providing his sanitary facilities within his established
"Camping unit" means
and includes tents, tent
trailers, travel trailers, camping trailers, pick-up campers, motor homes, yurts,
cabins, or any other device or vehicular-type structure as may be developed
marketed and used by the camping trade for use as temporary living quarters or shelter
during periods of recreation, vacation, leisure time, or travel.
and includes any plot of
ground within a campground used or intended for the exclusive occupation by a
camping unit [ or units ] under the control of a camper.
"Emergency" means a condition that in the
exercise of the sound discretion of the Health Commissioner is found
deleterious to the public health, safety, and welfare and requires
"Health Commissioner" means the chief executive
officer of the State Board of Health or
his authorized agent. "Independent camping unit" means a unit which
contains a water- flushed toilet, lavatory and shower as an integral part of
the structure, and which requires an on-site sewer connection due to the
absence of a waste holding tank on the unit. "Non-self-contained camping unit" means a unit
which is dependent upon a service building for toilet and lavatory facilities. "Outdoor bathing facilities" means lakes, ponds,
rivers, tidal waters, impoundments, beaches, streams or other places, whether
natural or man-made, in which an area is held out for swimming or bathing
"Operator" means any person employed or contracted by a campground owner who is responsible for the management and general administrative operation of the campground.
"Overflow area" means a plot of ground in or adjacent to the campground set apart for accommodating those campers for whom no designated sites are available in the general geographical area, and which is subject to certain restrictions as to size, length of stay, temporary facilities, etc.
"Overnight" means the occupation of a camping unit as a temporary habitation between the hours of 7 p.m. and 7 a.m., or major portion thereof.
"Permit" means a written permit issued by the Health
Commissioner authorizing a designated person to operate a specific [
place campground ].
[ "Permit holder" means the owner or operator to whom the campground permit is issued. ]
and include any individual or
group of individuals, named party, partnership, firm, private or public
association or corporation, state, county, city, town, or anyone who by
covenant, restriction, or agreement has care, control, custody,
ownership, or management of property or parts thereof, or any combination
of the above or other legal entity.
means camps which campsites that are characterized by the absence
of [ what is generally understood as modern conveniences such as] water-
flushed [ flush ] toilets, showers, [ sinks
lavatories ], [ and ] electrical
connections [ , or any combination thereof ]. A campground
shall be classified as a primitive camp when half or more of the required
number of toilet seats are nonflush type.
[ "Sanitary facilities" means toilets, privies, urinals, lavatories, and showers. ]
"Self-contained camping unit" means a unit [
that ] contains a water-flushed [ flush ]
toilet, [ and may contain a ] lavatory, shower, and
kitchen sink, all of which are connected , as an integral part of
the structure , to water storage and sewage holding tanks located within
"Service building" means a structure housing
toilets, showers, or lavatories.
the water-carried and non-water-carried
human excrement from service buildings, sanitary stations, camping units or
other places together with such, kitchen, laundry or,
shower, bath, or lavatory wastes separately or together with such
underground surface, storm, or other water and liquid industrial waste as
may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial
establishments, or other places. [ Other Such other ]
places include service buildings, dump stations, campsites, and camping
"Swimming pool" means any swimming, wading, or spray pool, including all appurtenant equipment, structures, and facilities provided for the use of the campers.
12VAC5-450-15. Compliance with the Virginia Administrative Process Act.
The provisions of the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia) shall govern the promulgation and administration of this chapter, including the procedures for rendering and appealing any case decision based upon this chapter.
12VAC5-450-30. Approval of plans required.
A. In order to
insure ensure the provision of
adequate, properly designed sanitation facilities at campgrounds, any person
planning construction, major alteration renovation, or extensive
addition to any campground shall, prior to the initiation of any such
construction, submit to the Health Commissioner, through the local
health department in the county locality in which the proposed
project is located, complete plans or statements which that show
the following, as applicable:
1. The proposed method and location of the sewage disposal system.
2. The proposed sources and location of the water supply.
3. The number, location, and dimensions of all campsites.
4. The number, description, and location of [ all ]
proposed sanitary facilities [
such as toilets, privies, and
] dump stations, sewer lines, etc.
Name The name and address of [ applicant
the person applying to be the permit holder, and a designation of whether
that person is the owner or the intended operator of the campground ].
Location The location, boundaries, and
dimensions of the proposed project.
7. Such other pertinent information as the Health Commissioner may deem necessary.
B. When, upon review of the plans, the Health Commissioner is
satisfied that the proposed plans, if executed, will meet the requirements of
regulation chapter and other pertinent laws and regulations
designed to protect the public health, written approval shall be issued [ by
the Health Commissioner ].
C. When upon review of the plans, the Health Commissioner
determines that the proposed plans
preclude prevent a safe,
sanitary operation, the plans shall be disapproved and the applicant shall be
notified in writing of any deficiency in the plans that constitute the
basis for disapproval. [ The applicant shall be notified of the
opportunity for administrative process as provided by the Administrative
Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia). ]
D. No person shall begin construction,
renovation, or addition to a campground until written approval has been
granted by the Health Commissioner.
E. If construction is not begun within one year from the date
of the approval of the plans, such approval shall be
considered null and
F. All construction,
or [ alteration additions ] shall be done in accordance
with and limited to work covered by the plans and recorded changes which
that have been approved by the Health Commissioner.
G. Any person whose plans have been disapproved may request
and shall be granted
a hearing on the matter under the procedure provided by
12VAC5-450-60 an appeal as described by the Administrative Process Act
(§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).
H. Owners or operators of temporary campgrounds shall
submit complete plans as described in subsection A of this section as a part of
the permit application. No written approval of [
the plans ] is required separate from the campground permit.
A. No person
or persons, directly or indirectly,
shall conduct, control, manage, operate, or maintain a campground,
[ or offer campsites for occupancy ] within the Commonwealth,
without first making application for and receiving a valid permit from the
Health Commissioner for the operation of said camp the campground.
Any campground for which a permit was not issued during
the previous year An authorized representative of a campground shall
file an application for a permit with the local health department in writing
on a form and in a manner prescribed by the Health Commissioner at least 30
days before such camp is to be opened.
C. If, after receipt of an application to operate a
campground, the Health Commissioner finds
that the campground is does
not in compliance comply with the provisions of this regulation
chapter, he the Health Commissioner shall notify the
applicant in writing (i) citing the noncomplying items that constitute his
reason the reasons for denying the a permit and
(ii) providing the applicant with the opportunity for administrative process as
provided by the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of
A permit may be revoked by the Health Commissioner, or
his authorized agent, if he finds that the camp for which the permit was issued
is operated, maintained, or occupied in violation of this chapter, or any law,
ordinance or regulation applicable to such establishments, or in violation of
the conditions stated in the permit. If the Health Commissioner finds
that the campground complies with this chapter, a permit shall be issued.
Permits may be issued to the campground's owner or operator.
E. The permit shall be conspicuously posted in the office of
camp campground or on the premises if no office is available.
The permit shall not be transferable Permits
shall either be (i) annual and shall expire on December 31 of each year,
unless stated otherwise in special permits such as temporary permits
that may be granted by the Health Commissioner to allow a reasonable time to
conform to the requirements of this chapter, or to correct existing
violations 12 months from the date of issuance or (ii) temporary and
granted for a specific period of time to allow temporary camping of 14 days
duration or less. Temporary permits may be valid for periods of 60 days or
less, but the total days of operation may not exceed 14 days during [ a
any ] 60-day period. Permits shall not be transferable.
of camping places.
A. The Health Commissioner
is hereby authorized and
directed to make [ , in accordance with § 35.1-22 of the Code of
Virginia, ] shall conduct such inspections as are necessary
to determine satisfactory compliance with this chapter, including the
1. Before permit issuance, the Health Commissioner shall conduct one or more preoperational inspections of annually permitted campgrounds that (i) have not been permitted in the previous year; (ii) have undergone modifications in their water delivery, sewage conveyance, or sewage disposal systems; (iii) have modified their sanitary facilities; or (iv) have changed the number of offered campsites since the issuance of their last annual permit.
2. Annually permitted campgrounds shall be inspected at least once per permit period.
3. Temporary campgrounds shall be inspected at least once during each operational period.
4. Campground inspection schedules may be adjusted if the Virginia Department of Health develops a written risk-based plan for adjusting the frequency of inspections, and this plan is uniformly applied throughout the Commonwealth.
It Upon presentation of appropriate credentials
and consent of the owner, permit holder, or authorized agent of the owner or
permit holder, the Health Commissioner shall be the duty of the operator
or occupant(s) of a campground to give the Health Commissioner given
free access to such premises at reasonable times for the purpose of inspection,
in accordance with § 35.1-5 of the Code of Virginia. C. A register shall be kept indicating name and address of
the camper, the date of the campsite occupancy, and the number of the campsite
occupied. Such register shall be made available to the Health Commissioner,
upon request, during his inspection of the campground.
C. Whenever an inspection is conducted, a completed inspection report shall be provided to the permit holder of the campground. The inspection report shall contain descriptions of observed alleged violations and citations to the alleged regulatory violations. The report shall establish reasonable timelines for compliance with this chapter and provide an opportunity for due process in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).
12VAC5-450-60. Enforcement, notices,
conferences. A. Whenever the Health Commissioner finds violations of
this chapter, an inspection report shall be filled out and left with the person
in charge of the campground. Such inspection report shall be legible, contain
written notation of the violation and remedial action to be taken to effect
compliance with this chapter. B. If, after a reasonable time has elapsed for the
correction of noted items, the violation is found to continue to exist, a
formal notice shall be issued which; (i) includes a written statement of the
reasons for its issuance; (ii) sets forth a time for the performance of the
corrections; (iii) is served upon the operator or his agent; Provided: that
such notice shall be deemed to have been properly served upon such operator or
agent when a copy has been sent by certified mail to his last known address; or
when he has been served with such notice by any other method authorized or
required by the laws of this Commonwealth; (iv) contains an outline of remedial
action which, if taken will effect compliance with the provisions of this
chapter; (v) informs the person to whom the notice is directed of his right to
a hearing and of his responsibility to request the hearing and to whom the
request should be made. C. Periods of time allowed to elapse between notation of
the violation on the inspection report and issuance of a formal notice, and
time allowed in formal notice for performance of correction shall depend upon
the nature and seriousness of the violation, but shall generally not exceed 30
days. D. Whenever the Health Commissioner finds that an emergency
exists which requires immediate action to protect the public health, he may,
without notice or hearing, issue an order reciting the existence of such an
emergency and requiring that such action be taken as he may deem necessary to
meet the emergency including the suspension of the permit. Notwithstanding
any other provisions of this chapter, such order shall be effective
immediately. Any person to whom such an order is directed shall comply
therewith immediately, by upon petition to the Health Commissioner, shall be
afforded a hearing as soon as possible.
A. The Health Commissioner may, after providing a notice of intent to revoke the permit, and after providing an opportunity for an informal conference in accordance with § 2.2-4019 of the Code of Virginia, revoke a permit for flagrant or continuing violation of this chapter. Any person to whom a notice of revocation is directed shall immediately comply with the notice. Upon revocation, the former permit holder shall be given an opportunity for appeal of the revocation in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).
B. The Health Commissioner may summarily suspend a permit
to operate a campground if continued operation constitutes a substantial and
imminent threat to public health. Upon receipt of such notice that a permit is
suspended, the permit holder shall cease campground operations immediately
and begin corrective action ]. Whenever a permit
is suspended, the holder of the permit shall be notified in writing by
certified mail or by hand delivery. Upon service of notice that the permit is
immediately suspended, the former permit holder shall be given an opportunity
for an informal conference in accordance with § 2.2-4019 of the Code of
Virginia. The request for an informal conference shall be in writing and shall
be filed with the local health department by the former holder of the permit.
If written request for an informal conference is not filed within 10 working
days after the service of notice, the suspension is sustained. Each holder of a
suspended permit shall be afforded an opportunity for an informal conference
within three working days of receipt of a request for the informal conference.
The Health Commissioner may end the suspension at any time if the reasons for
the suspension no longer exist. [ Working days means days on which
the local health department is open for business and does not include holidays
and closures. ] E. C. Any person affected by any notice which
has been a determination issued in connection with the enforcement of
any provision of this chapter may request and shall be granted a hearing
challenge such determination in accordance with the provisions of Title
9, Chapter 1.1:1 of the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.
of the Code of Virginia). F. If a request for a hearing is not made within 10 days
after the receipt of a formal notice of violation of this chapter, or
correction of the violation has not taken place within the prescribed time, the
permit may be revoked and the continued operation of the campground shall be
considered unlawful. G. Nothing D. All campgrounds shall be constructed,
operated, and maintained in compliance with the requirements as set forth in
this chapter. The Health Commissioner may enforce this chapter through any
means lawfully available pursuant to § 35.1-7 of the Code of Virginia, and
nothing in this chapter shall be construed as preventing the Health
Commissioner from making efforts to obtain voluntary compliance through
warning, conference, or any other appropriate enforcement means.
A. Each campground shall
be located on ground which has
have good surface drainage and which is be free of natural
and man-made hazards such as mine pits, shafts, and quarries. Camps
Campgrounds shall not be located on ground which that is
in or adjacent to swamps, marshes, landfills or abandoned landfills, or
breeding places for insects or rodents of public health importance,
unless adequate, approved safeguards or preventive measures are taken.
B. The density of campsites in a campground shall not exceed an average of 20 campsites per acre inclusive of service roads, toilet buildings, recreational areas, etc.
C. Each campsite (including parking space) shall provide a minimum of 1600 square feet of space and shall not be less than 25 feet at its narrowest point.
D. Each campsite shall be identified by number and section. Camping units within a campground shall be required to locate within the designated campsites.
12VAC5-450-80. Water supplies.
The water supply, storage reservoirs and distribution
system shall be approved by the Health Commissioner. An adequate supply
of safe, sanitary, potable water shall be provided. [ The
An approved ] water supply shall either be an approved private well
or a permitted waterworks. Waterworks must be maintained and operated in
compliance with 12VAC5-590. Private wells shall be constructed, maintained, and
operated in compliance with [ the standards of ] 12VAC5-630.
Additionally, campgrounds utilizing private wells for potable water shall
sample and test for total coliform and nitrate annually and prior to permit
application; water shall be satisfactory for the total coliform standards
identified in 12VAC5-630-370 and shall not have more than 10 mg/L nitrate.
Samples shall be analyzed by a laboratory [ certified
accredited ] by the Department of General Services, Division of
Consolidated Laboratory Services.
An adequate supply of safe, sanitary, potable water
capable of supplying a total capacity of at least 50 gallons per campsite per
day if privies are used, and at least 100 gallons per campsite per day if
water-flushed toilets are used, Water shall be provided at one or
more easily accessible locations within the camping area campground.
Adequate water storage facilities shall be provided to meet the demands for
The water system shall be capable of meeting the demand for water during
periods of peak use by the campers campground.
C. Water [
delivery ] systems
[ utilizing private wells as a water source that are not
a part of a waterworks regulated under 12VAC5-590 ] must meet the
following construction and operational standards:
1. All water storage reservoirs shall be covered, watertight, and constructed of impervious material.
2. Overflows and vents of such reservoirs shall be effectively screened.
3. Manholes shall be constructed with
overlapping covers so as to prevent the entrance of contaminating
4. Reservoir overflow pipes shall discharge through an acceptable air gap.
5. All cross connections between approved and unapproved water supply systems are prohibited.
6. All water supplies shall be protected against the hazards of backflow or back siphonage.
D. All cross connections, between approved and nonapproved
water supply systems are prohibited, and the supply shall be protected against
the hazards of backflow or back siphonage. E. Drinking fountains and water coolers, if provided, shall
be of an approved type. D. Common water coolers, drinking
cups, glasses, or vessels are prohibited. F. Unsafe E. Unapproved wells or springs in the camp
area campground shall be eliminated or made inaccessible for
human consumption. [ All accessible water outlets with sources not approved
for human consumption under the terms identified in subsection A of this
section shall be identified with signage stating, in effect, "Caution:
nonpotable water. DO NOT DRINK." ] G. F. All ice provided shall be from an approved
source . All ice and shall be handled and stored in such a
manner as to prevent contamination. Ice-making machines shall be of
approved construction automatic dispensing, and water shall be from a
source approved under subsection A of this section. Open-bin type ice machines are
prohibited. H. G. Portable water tanks or watering stations
shall not be [ approved allowed ] , except in
emergencies, and then unless such tanks, stations, and
dispensing shall be are reviewed and approved by the Health
Commissioner. I. H. The area surrounding a pump or hydrant
used for a water supply shall be maintained in a properly drained and sanitary
condition , to prevent the accumulation of standing water or the creation
of muddy conditions. J. I. The connection for potable water piped to
individual campsites shall be so installed so that it will not be
damaged by the parking of camping vehicles. K. J. If installed above the ground, the riser
shall terminate at least four inches above the ground surface. If installed in
a pit, the riser shall terminate at least 12 inches above the floor of the pit,
and the pit shall be drained to prevent it from containing standing water. The
drain for the pit shall not be connected to a sanitary sewerage system. L. K. If a water connection and a sewer connection
are provided at individual campsites a campsite, the two
connections shall be separated by a minimum horizontal distance of five 10
feet. Campgrounds that have been issued a permit before [ November
28, 2018, ] shall be exempt and required to maintain a minimum
horizontal distance of five feet between water and sewer connections. If an
exempt campground conducts construction or renovation activity impacting water
and sewer connections, current regulations shall apply to all campsites where
work is conducted. Normal maintenance work will not constitute construction or
renovation. M. L. Adequate provisions shall be made to
prevent the freezing of service lines, valves, and riser pipes.
12VAC5-450-90. Sewage disposal.
A. Every campground shall be provided with an approved method
collection collecting ], conveying, and
disposing of all sewage and liquid wastes. B. Privies shall be an acceptable method of sewage disposal
when the location, design, construction, and quantity have been approved by the
Health Commissioner provided their use is not prohibited or restricted by local
requirements. C. B. All methods or systems of collecting and
disposing of sewage and liquid wastes, whether temporary or permanent,
shall be subject to the approval of the Health Commissioner. D. C. It shall be unlawful to discharge sewage,
sink waste water, shower waste water, or other putrescible wastes in such a
manner as to enter the ground surface or, subsurface, or a body
of water, except following a treatment device or process approved prior
to construction by the Health Commissioner. E. A sanitary or D. Campgrounds shall provide a
dump station for the disposal of sewage and other liquid wastes from
self-contained camping units shall be provided which that
complies with the following requirements:
1. Campgrounds having
less [ 200 or ] fewer
[ than 200 ] campsites shall provide a minimum of one sanitary
dump station, unless all campsites that allow self-contained camping
units provide direct sewer connections.
2. Campgrounds having more than 200 campsites shall provide an
sanitary dump station for each additional 200
campsites or major fraction thereof, provided that campsites equipped with
sewer connections shall not be included in the total.
3. Where two or more
sanitary dump stations are
required, they shall be so located as to facilitate the
simultaneous discharge of sewage wastes from different units.
sanitary [ dump ] station shall
be so located and designed as to be easily accessible and
facilitate ingress and egress for camping vehicles. F. E. The sanitary dump station
shall consist of the following:
1. A four-inch sewer pipe trapped below the frost line connected to an approved sewage disposal system or suitable holding tank.
2. The sewer pipe, at the inlet, shall be surrounded by a reinforced, concrete apron sloped to drain to the sewer pipe.
3. The minimum dimensions of the concrete apron shall be 36 inches wide, 60 inches long, and four inches thick. The sewer pipe shall be located such that the major portion of the apron will project under the camping unit when it is discharging.
4. The inlet of the sewer pipe shall be provided with a suitable fly-tight cover.
sanitary [ dump ] station shall
be provided with a water outlet to permit wash down of the immediate area after
each use and so arranged as to prevent a cross-connection or back siphonage.
6. Each water outlet used for such purposes shall display a sign stating, in effect, "Notice: Unsafe Water Outlet-This water is for wash-down purposes only."
F. [ If a campground dump station is connected to a sewage holding tank that does not receive sewage or liquid wastes from any other source, the pumping and hauling of sewage from that holding tank shall be exempt from the pump and haul permit requirements and procedures of 12VAC5-610-410, 12VAC5-610-420, and 12VAC5-610-440. However, the owner of the campground must obtain a construction permit as described in 12VAC5-430 prior to construction of the holding tank.
G. ] A slop sink or suitable drain shall be
provided within 500 feet of all campsites for the disposal of liquid cooking
and wash water wastes, unless a dump station is accessible for this purpose.
Adequate provision shall be made by the permit holder [
campground ] to assure that the slop sink or other suitable
drain is kept in a sanitary condition and is used for the purpose for which it
G. H. ] Individual sewer connections
for camping vehicles, if provided, shall be installed in accordance with the
1. The individual sewer (equivalent to the building sewer for a
, shall be at least four inches in diameter, shall be
trapped below the frost line, and shall be laid at depths sufficient to provide
adequate protection against physical injury.
2. The sewer inlet shall (i) consist of a
four-inch riser extending, at a minimum, four inches above the surface
of the surrounding ground to accommodate a hose connection from the camping
, or so (ii) be designed as to divert
surface drainage away from the riser. The riser shall be imbedded firmly in the
ground and be protected against heaving and shifting.
3. The sewer riser shall be equipped with a standard ferrule and close nipple provided with a tight cap or expanding sewer plug. The screw cap or sewer plug shall be fastened by a durable chain to prevent removal while the sewer riser is in use. When the sewer riser is not in use, it shall be capped or plugged.
4. The sewer hose between the camping vehicle drain and the
sewer riser shall be watertight
, and shall be of flexible,
noncollapsible, corrosion and weather-resistant material of suitable diameter
to fit the camping vehicle drain. Its lower end shall be secured into the open
sewer riser with a gasket of rubber or other suitable material. All joints
shall be effected so as to prevent the leakage of sewage , or
odor or prevent the entrance of rodents [ or insects ].
Service buildings Sanitary facilities.
A. Each campground shall
be provided with one or
more service buildings which contain provide an adequate number of toilet
and sanitary facilities. The minimum ratio of sanitary facilities to the
number of campsites shall be provided according to is established in
the following schedule :. [ The provision of showers and
lavatories is optional on the part of the campground owner, but when they are
provided the schedule will apply. ] Facilities shall either be
gender-balanced in number or single-occupant access with no gender designation.
1 - 15
16 - 30
31 - 45
46 - 60
61 - 75
76 - 90
91 - 105
106 - 120
121 - 135
136 - 150
B. For campgrounds having more than 150 campsites located
in the opinion of the Health Commissioner, contiguously contiguous
to the service building or buildings sanitary facilities required
by the schedule in subsection A of this section, there shall be provided
one two toilet seat seats and one lavatory for
each sex two lavatories for each additional 30 campsites, and one
two additional shower showers for each additional 40
campsites and one additional men's urinal for each 100 campsites. When
Regardless of the number of campsites, when [ a section or
sections portions ] of a campground are found to be incontiguous
noncontiguous, the Health Commissioner may shall apply the
schedule in subsection A above in determining the adequacy of the fixtures
of this section for such [ section portion ] of
the campground. Whenever the number of campsites fall in between the
numbers listed above, the larger number of required fixtures shall apply when a
major fraction of the difference in the two numbers is attained. C. Primitive camps shall be exempted from the provisions
for lavatories and showers. If, however, any showers are provided at a
campground designated as a primitive camp, the schedule in subsections A and B
C. Campsites [ with individual sewer
connections ] used solely for self-contained camping units or
cabins with [ indoor plumbing and ] approved sewage
disposal shall not count towards the number of campsites used to determine the
minimum number of [
fixtures facilities ] required
in subsections A and B of this section. If all campsites in a campground are
used solely for self-contained camping units or cabins, then the campground
shall provide [ at least ] the required number of
facilities for a campground of 15 campsites or fewer.
D. When a campground is operated in connection with a resort or other business operation, the campground facilities provided shall be in excess of those required by the schedules in subsections A and B of this section by the number of facilities required by the Virginia Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63) or other applicable regulation.
E. Sanitary facilities required by subsections A and B of
this section may be in service buildings or may be [
sanitary facilities ] located outside of service buildings.
Privies of a type approved by 12VAC5-610-980 may be substituted for flush
toilets [ and shall be when ] provided
according to the schedule in subsection A of this section. Where present,
privies shall be maintained in good repair, pumped as needed, and kept clean
and sanitary at all times. When portable privies are used to meet the
requirements of the schedule in subsection A of this section, they shall not
serve nonprimitive campsites or more than 30 campsites in a campground. D. F. Urinals may be substituted for up to one half
of the required male toilets. Where existing urinal troughs are
used, two feet of urinal trough shall constitute one urinal. E. Exemptions. Any person desiring to furnish temporary
facilities for accommodating a travel trailer rally, or other group of camping
units assembled for the purpose of traveling together, shall make application
for such activity to the Health Commissioner through the local health
department having jurisdiction, 15 days in advance of the intended date of use.
The requirements for a service building may be waived by the Health
Commissioner on the determination that public health will not be endangered;
but the location of the site, the facilities which must be provided, and the
method of conducting such rally shall be acceptable to the Health Commissioner
before a special permit shall be issued specifying the location of the site,
the period of operation not to exceed seven days, and any conditions of
issuance. F. A slop sink or suitable drain shall be provided within
500 feet of all campsites for the disposal of liquid wastes unless a sanitary
station is accessible for this purpose. Adequate provision shall be made by the
operator of a campground to assure that the slop sink or other suitable drain,
if necessary, is kept in a sanitary condition and is used for the purpose for
which it was intended such as the disposal of dish water and wash water. G. Lavatories shall be provided adjacent to the toilet
fixtures. H. When a campground is operated in connection with a
resort or other business establishment, the total number of sanitary facilities
shall be in excess of those required by the aforementioned schedules and shall
be based on the total number of persons using such facilities. I. Service buildings shall be located no farther than 500
feet from any campsite served by such building, nor closer than 30 feet to any
campsite. When two or more service buildings exist, the ratio of fixtures as
specified in subsections A and B shall be in approximate relation to the number
of campsites located within a 500 foot radius of each building. J. G. All service buildings [ sanitary
facilities service buildings ] and the commodes toilets,
urinals, lavatories, shower showers, and other appurtenances
located therein shall be maintained in a state of good repair and shall be kept
in a clean and sanitary condition at all times. Toilet and shower rooms
shall not be used for miscellaneous storage during operation of the campground. K. All doors to the exterior from service buildings shall
be self-closing. L. Toilet rooms, shower rooms and other areas receiving
heavy camper use shall not be used for miscellaneous storage during operation of
the camp. M. H. Toilet tissue shall be provided at each
privy or and toilet seat, and a covered receptacle for
sanitary product disposal shall be provided at each privy and female
[ and gender-neutral ] toilet. Where provided, lavatories
shall be in the immediate vicinity of toilet fixtures, and soap and a method of
hand drying shall be provided. N. I. Shower compartments, whether individual
type with partitions or group type without partitions, shall have not less than
1,024 square inches in floor area and , if rectangular, square or triangular
in plan, shall be not less than at least 30 inches in
shortest dimension. O. In a campground where there is a combination of
campsites, part of which are provided with a water connection and a sewer
outlet, the minimum number of fixtures as required in subsections A and B above
may be adjusted by the Health Commissioner based on individual conditions
provided any request for an adjustment complies with 12VAC5-450-190.
J. Sanitary facilities shall be located no farther than 500
feet from any campsite served by such building nor closer than 30 feet from any
However Additionally ],
privies shall be no closer than 50 feet from any campsite. When two or more
service buildings or areas with other sanitary facilities exist, the ratio of
[ fixtures facilities ] as specified in
subsections A and B of this section shall be in approximate relation to the
number of campsites located within a 500-foot radius of each building.
12VAC5-450-110. Structural requirements for service buildings.
A. All portions of the structure shall be properly protected from damage by ordinary use and by decay and corrosion. Exterior portions shall be of such material and be so constructed and protected as to prevent entrance or penetration of moisture and weather.
B. Effective ventilation of all service buildings shall be provided to prevent condensation, moisture, and odors.
C. Interior of service buildings shall be finished in a light color and provided with adequate natural or artificial illumination, or both.
D. The floors of toilet and shower rooms shall be sloped to a properly trapped floor drain connected to the sewerage system.
E. Partitions between flush toilets in the same room shall be raised a minimum of eight inches from the floor to permit easy cleaning.
F. The interior finish of such buildings shall be of moisture
resistant and easily cleanable material
which that will withstand
frequent washing and cleaning. Special attention shall be given wall finishes
immediately around lavatories, urinals, commodes and toilets and
in showers to insure ensure a surface in these heavily used areas
which that will withstand commercial use.
G. The floors shall be constructed of material impervious to
water and be of easily cleanable material. Duck boards or
walk ways walkways
made of wood or other absorptive material shall not be permitted.
H. All windows and openings to the outside from areas containing
commodes toilets and urinals shall be provided with fly-proof
screening material of at least 16 mesh per inch.
Water closets Toilets ] and
bathing facilities shall not be located in the same compartment.
J. Permanent service buildings shall be provided with an
artificial light at the entrance to the building to facilitate its use at night
Provided, that primitive. Primitive camps with privies may be
exempted are exempt from this requirement.
K. Service buildings shall have appropriate signs
its use such as "Men's Toilet," "Women's Toilet,"
L. Showers shall be equipped with [
a drain or ]
drains which will that prevent the shower water from running
across floors that are used for other purposes.
M. All fixtures shall be of durable material
which will be
that is capable of withstanding the heavy usage which that
public facilities receive.
N. All doors to the exterior from service buildings shall be self-closing.
12VAC5-450-115. Cabins and other rental units.
A. All cabins, yurts, and other camping units offered for
rent use ] to campers, [ whether
for free or for a fee, ] including self-contained camping units and
other mobile units, and the equipment, fixtures, and furnishings contained
therein shall be kept clean, in good repair, free of vermin, and maintained so
as to protect the health, safety, and well-being of persons using those
B. When provided, dishes, glassware, silverware, and other cooking implements must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. If such items are not washed [ by campground staff ] between occupants, the permit holder must post a sign alerting cabin occupants that kitchen items are not washed under management supervision.
C. When provided, box springs, mattresses, and other furnishings shall be clean and in good repair. Conventional mattress covers or pads shall be used for the protection of mattresses and shall be kept clean and in good repair. When provided, all sheets, pillowcases, towels, washcloths, and bathmats shall be kept clean and in good repair, freshly laundered between occupants, and changed at least once every seven days if used by the same occupant. When a blanket is placed on the bed, the upper sheet shall be of sufficient length to fold and overlap the top section of the blanket. All blankets, quilts, bedspreads, and comforters shall be maintained in a sanitary and good condition, and all clean bedding and linen shall be stored in a clean and dry place.
D. When provided, smoke detectors and fire extinguishers shall be functional and serviced as appropriate.
E. Bed arrangements [
of lodging units ]
shall provide suitable clear space between each bed, cot, or bunk to allow
for ingress to and egress from the [ lodging unit
cabin, yurt, or other camping unit ]. There shall be sufficient
space between the floor and the underside of the beds to facilitate easy
cleaning. In lieu of such space, the bed shall have a continuous base or shall
be on rollers.
F. Measures shall be taken to prevent the infestation of
cabins and other [
rental camping ] units
by rodents, bedbugs, and vector insects.
12VAC5-450-130. Insect, rodent, and weed control.
Camping places Campgrounds ]
shall be kept free from cans, jars, buckets, old tires, and other
articles which that may hold water and provide temporary breeding
places for mosquitoes. Mosquito control measures and supplemental larvicidal
measures shall be undertaken by the [ owner permit holder ]
when the need is indicated.
B. Fly and rodent breeding shall be controlled by
the insanitary practices which provide breeding places. The
area surrounding the garbage cans shall not be permitted to become littered
with garbage nor saturated with waste liquid from garbage. [ Infestations
of rodents or flies, ticks, mosquitos, or other insects of public health concern
shall be evidence that sufficient vector control measures have not been
implemented and shall be considered a violation of these regulations. ]
C. The growth of weeds, grass, poison ivy, or other
noxious plants shall be controlled as a safety measure and as a means toward
the elimination of ticks and chiggers. Pesticidal measures shall be applied, if
necessary, provided the pesticide and its use is in accordance with the rules
promulgated by the
Pesticide Control Board Board of Agriculture and
D. The campsite and the premises shall be maintained in a clean and orderly manner.
12VAC5-450-140. Swimming pools
and outdoor bathing facilities.
The construction, modification, maintenance, operation,
and use of any swimming pool at a campground, if provided, shall be subject to
State Board of Health regulations adopted under §§ 35.1-17 of the Code
of Virginia Regulations Governing Tourist Establishment Swimming Pools
and Other Public Pools (12VAC5-460) and [ the ] Swimming
Pool Regulations Governing the Posting of Water Quality Test Results
A. The electrical installation and electrical hook-up provided
travel trailers, and other similar units to self-contained
camping units and other mobile units ] shall be in accordance with the
provisions of local electrical ordinances, or if no such ordinance exists, in
accordance with the provisions of the [ National Electrical Code Virginia
Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63) ] , applicable at the time
Adequate precautions shall be exercised by the operator
The permit holder shall exercise precautions to prevent the outbreak of
fires. If open fires are permitted, there shall be a definite area shall
be provided within the bounds of each campsite for the building of fires by
the camper, with a cleared area surrounding the firesite fire site
to aid in fire control.
Adequate precautions shall be taken by the operator The
permit holder shall take precautions in the storage and handling of
gasoline, gas cylinders, or other explosive materials, in accordance
with local, state, and national safety standards.
operator permit holder shall make adequate
provisions for the use and control of mini-bikes all-terrain vehicles,
trail bikes, and other similar vehicles within the confines of the
camping area to prevent accidents to small children and campers.
E. Broken bottles, glass, and other sharp objects shall not be allowed to create a hazard to children or others.
F. A register shall be kept for recording the names of all campers, the date of campsite occupancy by each camper, and the number and location of occupied campsites.
G. Campground permit holders shall develop and maintain an emergency response plan. This plan shall include identification of a point of contact during emergency incidents and a written plan for communicating emergency response information to campers. The plan shall also include provisions for camper safety, identification, and evacuation in the event of natural disasters, fires, or other emergencies. Contact telephone numbers for local police, fire response, and emergency medical services shall be posted in a central location in all campgrounds.
12VAC5-450-170. Control of animals and pets.
Every pet permitted in a campground Pets
shall be maintained under control at all times and shall not be
permitted to create a public health problem. Dogs shall be kept on leash at
all times. Dung Animal waste shall be removed immediately and be disposed
of in a waste receptacle or buried in a location which that
will not interfere with the use of the site for camping purposes
[ campsite campground ].
B. Any kennels, pens, or other facilities provided for such pets, including horses, shall be maintained in a sanitary condition at all times.
12VAC5-450-180. Overflow areas.
A. It shall be unlawful for any person operating a campground
to exceed the design capacity of the campground as stated on the [
permit by the use of certain unequipped areas as an overflow area for campers ,
camping clubs or rallies unless and until the overflow area and its
proposed use have been approved by the Health Commissioner in writing as to the
specific location of the overflow area, number and location of sanitary
facilities, size and number of campsites, and such other factors as may
be deemed necessary to prevent overcrowding and the accompanying insanitary
B. The length of stay of any camping unit permitted to use an area specifically designated and approved as an overflow area shall be limited to a 12 hour period. Overflow areas are to be used for incidental traffic only and are not for planned temporary camping.
12VAC5-450-183. Primitive campgrounds.
A. Campgrounds or sections of campgrounds may be
permitted designated ] as primitive in the
absence of [ flush ] toilets, showers and
lavatories, and electrical connections [ , or any combination
thereof ]. Campsites shall be designated primitive at the time of
B. Primitive campgrounds or sections of campgrounds with only primitive campsites shall be exempt from the following requirements of this chapter:
1. Campsite identification requirements of 12VAC5-450-70 D. Although individual primitive campsites do not need to be marked, the overall campground size shall be large enough to accommodate campsites arranged according to the size and density requirements of 12VAC5-450-70 B and C.
2. Potable water requirements of 12VAC5-450-80, provided
that the primitive campground or section thereof has 10 campsites or fewer
, ] and the following signage is clearly posted at
the entrance to the primitive campground or section thereof: "No potable
water provided at this campground." When potable water is provided, all
requirements of 12VAC5-450-80 shall apply.
3. Where water is not provided, slop sink requirements of
F G ].
4. Lavatory and shower requirements of 12VAC5-450-100 A. If the primitive campground provides showers or lavatories then the schedule in 12VAC5-450-100 A shall apply.
5. Garbage and refuse disposal requirements of
12VAC5-450-120, provided the primitive campground or section thereof has 10
campsites or fewer, and [
the campground shall display a sign
stating, in effect the following signage is clearly posted at the
entrance to the primitive campground or section thereof ]:
"Pack It In, Pack It Out, no garbage collection provided, please remove
your own garbage from this campground."
6. Weed, grass, and noxious plant control measures as specified in 12VAC5-450-130 C. If pesticide measures are taken, then all pesticide use must be done in accordance with rules promulgated by the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
12VAC5-450-187. Temporary campgrounds.
Temporary campgrounds, as permitted under 12VAC5-450-40 F, shall be exempt from the following requirements of this chapter:
1. Density, size, and designation requirements of
A B ] through D. However,
temporary campgrounds shall establish a maximum number of campsites and
campers. [ Campground Temporary campground ]
permit holders shall ensure that the size, location, and orientation of
campsites do not prohibit the safe and timely evacuation of campsites in the
event of an emergency, and that vehicular traffic routes and parking are
located where they do not pose a safety risk to campers.
2. Permanent water supply requirements of 12VAC5-450-80.
a. If potable water is provided in the form of a waterworks or private well, then it must comply with 12VAC5-450-80 A, B, and D through I. If no piped water source is provided, then bottled water that complies with 21 CFR Part 129 shall be available, and the unavailability of piped water must be advertised to campers prior to the time of the temporary camping event.
b. Water may be [
transported ] in from a source that meets the requirements of
12VAC5-450-80 A. Water shall be transported in tanks of food-grade construction
and maintain a one-parts-per-million chlorine residual. Any tanks, hoses, or
appurtenances that are used to distribute water shall be of food-grade
construction, be disinfected between uses, and be protected from contamination
[ and backflow ].
3. The dump station and slop sink requirements of
12VAC5-450-90 D, E, and [
F G ].
a. Greywater disposal barrels or approved equivalents shall be provided and serviced during the event unless all of the following conditions apply: (i) piped water is not available, (ii) portable showers and handwashing sinks are provided, and (iii) cooking and campfires are prohibited. Only water from cooking, washing, or bathing shall be disposed of in greywater barrels.
b. If self-contained camping units are present at the
campground, a sewage handler shall be available to pump holding tanks as
appropriate during the event. Sewage handlers must possess a valid sewage
handling permit as required by 12VAC5-610 and any licensure required by the
Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators and Onsite Sewage Professionals
in accordance with that board's regulations (18VAC160-30 and 18VAC160-40) and
Chapters 1 (§ 54.1-100 et seq.), 2 (§ 54.1-200 et seq.), 3 (§
54.1-300 et seq.), and 23 (§ 54.1-2300 et seq.) of ] Title 54.1
of the Code of Virginia.
4. Permanent [ sanitary ] facility
requirements in 12VAC5-450-100 A, B, and I. However, portable toilet facilities
shall be provided at the ratio of at least one toilet for every 75 campers, and
at least one toilet shall comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (42
USC § 12101 et seq.). No campsite shall be farther than 500 feet from any
portable toilet. Portable sinks and showers are not required [
events of four days or less ], although hand sanitizer must be
provided in all portable toilets where portable sinks are not provided. All
portable units shall be serviced at least daily during the event unless the
applicant can demonstrate that they are provided in numbers significant enough
to warrant a reduced-maintenance service schedule. If the temporary campground
has permanent bathroom facilities, facilities may count towards the required
number of portable [ privies toilets ].
Campers who will be camping in self-contained camping units shall not be
counted toward the total number of campers in calculating the required number
of portable [ privies toilets ].
A. One or more of the
provisions in the above regulation
regulations in this chapter may be waived in whole or in part when, in
the opinion of the Health Commissioner, there are factors or circumstances
which render compliance with such provision(s) unnecessary; provided, that such
provision(s) shall be specifically exempt in writing by the Health
Commissioner. the hardship imposed by the regulations, which may be
economic, outweighs the benefits that may be received by the public and that
granting such a variance does not subject the public to unreasonable health
risks or environmental pollution. Variances shall be issued in writing by the
It shall be the duty of the campground operator to file
a written request for such waiver in which the reasons for noncompliance of a
certain provision(s) are stated fully. If data, test or other adequate
information is necessary to the rendering of a decision by the Health
Commissioner, it shall be the responsibility of the applicant to provide such
evidence. Any permit holder who seeks a variance shall apply in writing
to the local health department. The application shall include:
1. A citation to the regulation from which a variance is requested;
2. The nature and duration of the variance requested;
3. Evidence that establishes that the public health and
, ] and the environment would not be
adversely affected if the variance were granted;
5. Suggested conditions that might be imposed on the granting of a variance that would limit the detrimental impact on the public health and welfare;
6. Other information believed pertinent by the applicant; and
7. Such other information as the district or local health department or Health Commissioner may require.
The Health Commissioner shall issue a
case decision regarding the variance request within 90 days of receipt. The
campground operator or other named party may appeal any adverse decision
regarding a variance request pursuant to the Administrative Process Act (§
2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia). If the Health
Commissioner proposes to grant a variance request, the permit holder shall be
notified in writing of this decision within 90 days of receipt of the variance
request. If the Health Commissioner proposes to deny the variance request, the
Health Commissioner shall notify the permit holder of the proposed denial
within 90 days of receipt of the variance request and provide an opportunity
for an informal fact-finding conference as provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Code
of Virginia. ]
Any person who violates any provision of this chapter
upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $100;
and each day's failure of compliance with any provision shall constitute a separate
violation may be subject to penalties provided by § 35.1-7 of the Code
Constitutionality. (Repealed.) If any provision of any section of this chapter is declared
unconstitutional, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is
held invalid, the validity and constitutionality of the remainder of such
regulations shall not be affected thereby.
Exemptions. (Repealed.) Whenever it is found that existing facilities provided at a
campground prior to the effective date of this chapter such as the size of
campsites and design of structures are in noncompliance, and that the required
changes would work an undue hardship on the operator and not materially affect
the public health or safety, such major items shall be exempted from this
chapter. Other nonconforming items at existing campgrounds such as dump station
requirements and number of sanitary facilities may continue in use for a
reasonable period of time not to exceed two years from the effective date,
provided that a diligent effort is made by the owner to effect compliance. All
new campgrounds, sections added to existing campgrounds and additions and
extensions within existing campgrounds shall be subject to the provisions of
[ FORMS (12VAC5-450)