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12VAC5-481-10

Part I
General Provisions

12VAC5-481-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"A1" means the maximum activity of special form radioactive material permitted in a Type A package. This value is listed in Table 1 of 12VAC5-481-3770 F.

"A2" means the maximum activity of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, LSA, and SCO material, permitted in a Type A package. This value is listed in Table 1 of 12VAC5-481-3770 F.

"Absorbed dose" means the energy imparted by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irradiated material. The units of absorbed dose are the gray (Gy) and the rad.

"Absorbed dose rate" means absorbed dose per unit time, for machines with timers, or dose monitor unit per unit time for linear accelerators.

"Accelerator" means any machine capable of accelerating electrons, protons, deuterons, or other charged particles in a vacuum and of discharging the resultant particulate or other radiation into a medium at energies usually in excess of one MeV. For purposes of this definition, "particle accelerator" is an equivalent term.

"Accelerator-produced material" means any material made radioactive by a particle accelerator.

"Access control" means a system for allowing only approved individuals to have unescorted access to the security zone and for ensuring that all other individuals are subject to escorted access.

"Accessible surface" means the external surface of the enclosure or housing of the radiation producing machine as provided by the manufacturer. It also means surface of equipment or of an equipment part that can be easily or accidentally touched by persons without the use of a tool.

"Act" means §§ 32.1-227 through 32.1-238 of the Code of Virginia.

"Active maintenance" means any significant activity needed during the period of institutional control to maintain a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives in 12VAC5-481-2490 and 12VAC5-481-2500 are met. Such active maintenance includes ongoing activities such as the pumping and treatment of water from a disposal unit or one-time measures such as replacement of a disposal unit cover. Active maintenance does not include custodial activities such as repair of fencing, repair or replacement of monitoring equipment, revegetation, minor additions to soil cover, minor repair of disposal unit covers, and general disposal site upkeep such as mowing grass.

"Activity" means the rate of disintegration or transformation or decay of radioactive material. The units of activity are the becquerel (Bq) and the curie (Ci).

"Acute" means a single radiation dose or chemical exposure event or multiple radiation dose or chemical exposure events occurring within a short time (24 hours or less).

"Address of use" means the building or buildings that are identified on the license and where radioactive material may be produced, prepared, received, used, or stored.

"Adult" means an individual 18 or more years of age.

"Agency" means the Radiological Health Program of the Virginia Department of Health.

"Aggregated" means accessible by the breach of a single physical barrier that would allow access to radioactive material in any form, including any devices that contain the radioactive material, when the total activity equals or exceeds a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material as listed in 12VAC5-481-451.

"Agreement state" means any state with which the NRC or the Atomic Energy Commission has entered into an effective agreement under subsection 274b of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 USC § 2021(b)).

"Airborne radioactive material" means any radioactive material dispersed in the air in the form of dusts, fumes, particulates, mists, vapors, or gases.

"Airborne radioactivity area" means a room, enclosure, or area in which airborne radioactive materials composed wholly or partly of licensed material exist in concentrations:

1. In excess of the derived air concentrations (DACs) specified in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20; or

2. To such a degree that an individual present in the area without respiratory protective equipment could exceed, during the hours an individual is present in a week, an intake of 0.6% of the annual limit on intake (ALI) or 12 DAC hours.

"Air kerma" or "K" means kerma in air (see definition of "kerma").

"Air kerma rate" or "AKR" means the air kerma per unit time.

"Air-purifying respirator" means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.

"Alert" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a release of radioactive material but that the release is not expected to require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons off site.

"Aluminum equivalent" means the thickness of type 1100 aluminum alloy affording the same attenuation, under specified conditions, as the material in question. The nominal chemical composition of type 100 aluminum is 99.00% minimum aluminum, 0.12% copper.

"Analytical x-ray equipment" means equipment used for x-ray diffraction or fluorescence analysis.

"Analytical x-ray system" means a group of components utilizing x-rays or gamma-rays to determine the elemental composition or to examine the microstructure of materials.

"Annual limit on intake" or "ALI" means the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year. ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem) or a committed dose equivalent of 0.5 Sv (50 rem) to any individual organ or tissue. ALI values for intake by ingestion and by inhalation of selected radionuclides are given in Tables 1 and 2 in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20.

"Annual refresher safety training" means a review conducted or provided by the licensee or registrant for its employees on radiation safety aspects of industrial radiography. The review shall include, as a minimum, any results of internal inspections, new procedures or equipment, new or revised regulations, and accidents or errors that have been observed. The review shall also provide opportunities for employees to ask safety questions.

"Annually" means at intervals not to exceed one year.

"ANSI" means the American National Standards Institute.

"Approved individual" means an individual whom the licensee has determined to be trustworthy and reliable for unescorted access in accordance with 12VAC5-481-451 and has completed the training required in 12VAC5-481-451.

"Area of use" means a portion of a physical structure that has been set aside for the purpose of producing, preparing, receiving, using, or storing radioactive material.

"Articulated joint" means a joint between two separate sections of a tabletop that provides the capacity for one of the sections to pivot on the line segment along which the sections join.

"As low as is reasonably achievable" or "ALARA" means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits in these regulations as is practical, consistent with the purpose for which the licensed or registered activity is undertaken, taking into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to benefits to the public health and safety, and other societal and socioeconomic considerations, and in relation to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed or registered sources of radiation in the public interest.

"Assembler" means any person engaged in the business of assembling, replacing, or installing one or more components into an x-ray system or subsystem. The term includes the owner of an x-ray system or his employee or agent who assembles components into an x-ray system that is subsequently used to provide professional or commercial services.

"Assigned protection factor" or "APF" means the expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirators to properly fitted and trained users. Operationally, the inhaled concentration can be estimated by dividing the ambient airborne concentration by the APF.

"Associated equipment" means equipment that is used in conjunction with a radiographic exposure device to make radiographic exposures that drive, guide, or come in contact with the source.

"Atmosphere-supplying respirator" means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

"Attenuation block" means a block or stack, having dimensions 20 centimeters by 20 centimeters by 3.8 centimeters, of type 1100 aluminum alloy or other materials having equivalent attenuation. The nominal chemical composition of type 100 aluminum is 99.00% minimum aluminum, 0.12% copper.

"Authorized medical physicist" means an individual who:

1. Meets the requirements in 12VAC5-481-1760 and 12VAC5-481-1790; or

2. Is identified as an authorized medical physicist or teletherapy physicist on:

a. A specific medical use license issued by the NRC or another agreement state;

b. A medical use permit issued by an NRC master material licensee;

c. A permit issued by an NRC or another agreement state broad scope medical use licensee; or

d. A permit issued by an NRC master material license broad scope medical use permittee.

"Authorized nuclear pharmacist" means a pharmacist who:

1. Meets the requirements in 12VAC5-481-1770 and 12VAC5-481-1790;

2. Is identified as an authorized nuclear pharmacist on:

a. A specific license issued by the NRC or another agreement state that authorizes medical use or the practice of nuclear pharmacy;

b. A permit issued by an NRC master material licensee that authorizes medical use or the practice of nuclear pharmacy;

c. A permit issued by an NRC or another agreement state broad scope medical use licensee that authorizes medical use or the practice of nuclear pharmacy; or

d. A permit issued by an NRC master material license broad scope medical use permittee that authorizes medical use or the practice of nuclear pharmacy;

3. Is identified as an authorized nuclear pharmacist by a commercial nuclear pharmacy that has been authorized to identify authorized nuclear pharmacists; or

4. Is designated as an authorized nuclear pharmacist in accordance with 12VAC5-481-440 I 2.

"Authorized user" means a practitioner of the healing arts who:

1. Meets the requirements in 12VAC5-481-1790 and any of the following:

a. 12VAC5-481-1910;

b. 12VAC5-481-1940;

c. 12VAC5-481-1980;

d. 12VAC5-481-1990;

e. 12VAC5-481-2000;

f. 12VAC5-481-2018;

g. 12VAC5-481-2030;

h. 12VAC5-481-2040 A; or

2. Is identified as an authorized user on:

a. A specific license issued by the NRC or another agreement state that authorizes medical use;

b. A permit issued by an NRC master material licensee that authorizes medical use;

c. A permit issued by an NRC or another agreement state broad scope medical use licensee that authorizes medical use; or

d. A permit issued by an NRC master material license broad scope medical use permittee that authorizes medical use.

"Automatic exposure control" or "AEC" means a device that automatically controls one or more technique factors in order to obtain, at a preselected location, a required quantity of radiation (includes devices such as phototimers and ion chambers).

"Background investigation" means the investigation conducted by a licensee or applicant to support the determination of trustworthiness and reliability.

"Background radiation" means radiation from cosmic sources, naturally occurring radioactive materials, that have not been technologically enhanced, including radon, except as a decay product of source or special nuclear material, and including global fallout as it exists in the environment from the testing of nuclear explosive devices, or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation and are not under the control of the licensee or registrant. "Background radiation" does not include sources of radiation from radioactive materials regulated by the agency.

"Barrier" (See "Protective barrier").

"Beam axis" means a line from the source through the centers of the x-ray fields.

"Beam-limiting device" means a device that provides a means to restrict the dimensions of the x-ray field or useful beam.

"Beam monitoring system" means a system designed and installed in the radiation head to detect and measure the radiation present in the useful beam.

"Beam scattering foil" means a thin piece of material (usually metallic) placed in the beam to scatter a beam of electrons in order to provide a more uniform electron distribution in the useful beam.

"Becquerel" or "Bq" means the SI unit of activity. One becquerel is equal to one disintegration or transformation per second (dps or tps).

"Beneficial attribute" means, as used in Part XVI (12VAC5-481-3460 et seq.) of this chapter, the radioactivity of the product necessary to the use of the product.

"Beneficial to the product" (See "Beneficial attribute").

"Bent beam linear accelerator" means a linear accelerator geometry in which the accelerated electron beam must change direction by passing through a bending magnet.

"Bioassay" means the determination of kinds, quantities or concentrations, and, in some cases, the locations of radioactive material in the human body, whether by direct measurement, in-vivo counting, or by analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed from the human body. For purposes of these regulations, "radiobioassay" is an equivalent term.

"Board" means the State Board of Health.

"Brachytherapy" means a method of radiation therapy in which sealed sources are utilized to deliver a radiation dose at a distance of up to a few centimeters, by surface, intracavitary, or interstitial application.

"Buffer zone" means a portion of the disposal site that is controlled by the licensee and that lies under the disposal units and between the disposal units and the boundary of the site.

"Byproduct material" means:

1. Any radioactive material (except special nuclear material) yielded in, or made radioactive by, exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or using special nuclear material;

2. The tailings or wastes produced by the extraction or concentration of uranium or thorium from ore processed primarily for its source material content, including discrete surface wastes resulting from uranium solution extraction processes. Underground ore bodies depleted by these solution extraction operations do not constitute "byproduct material" within this definition;

3. a. Any discrete source of radium-226 that is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; or

b. Any material that:

(1) Has been made radioactive by use of a particle accelerator; and

(2) Is produced, extracted, or converted after extraction, before, on, or after August 8, 2005, for use for a commercial, medical, or research activity; and

4. Any discrete source of naturally occurring radioactive material, other than source material, that:

a. The NRC, in consultation with the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security, and the head of any other appropriate federal agency, determines would pose a threat similar to the threat posed by a discrete source of radium-226 to the public health and safety or the common defense and security; and

b. Before, on, or after August 8, 2005, is extracted or converted after extraction for use in a commercial, medical, or research activity.

"C-arm fluoroscope" means an x-ray system in which the image receptor and x-ray tube housing assembly are connected by a common mechanical support system in order to maintain a desired spatial relationship. This system is designed to allow a change in the projection of the beam through the patient without a change in the position of the patient.

"Cabinet radiography" means industrial radiography conducted in an enclosure or cabinet so shielded that every location on the exterior meets the dose limits for individual members of the public as specified in 12VAC5-481-720.

"Cabinet x-ray system" means an x-ray system with the x-ray tube installed in an enclosure independent of existing architectural structures except the floor on which it may be placed. The cabinet x-ray system is intended to contain at least that portion of a material being irradiated, provide radiation attenuation, and exclude personnel from its interior during generation of radiation. Included are all x-ray systems designed primarily for the inspection of carry-on baggage at airline, railroad, and bus terminals, and in similar facilities. An x-ray tube used within a shielded part of a building, or x-ray equipment that may temporarily or occasionally incorporate portable shielding, is not considered a cabinet x-ray system.

"Calendar quarter" means not less than 12 consecutive weeks nor more than 14 consecutive weeks. The first calendar quarter of each year shall begin in January and subsequent calendar quarters shall be so arranged such that no day is included in more than one calendar quarter and no day in any one year is omitted from inclusion within a calendar quarter. The method observed by the licensee or registrant for determining calendar quarters shall only be changed at the beginning of a year.

"Calibration" means the determination of (i) the response or reading of an instrument relative to a series of known radiation values over the range of the instrument or (ii) the strength of a source of radiation relative to a standard.

"Camera" (See "Radiographic exposure device").

"Carrier" means a person engaged in the transportation of passengers or property by land or water as a common, contract, or private carrier, or by civil aircraft.

"Cassette holder" means a device, other than a spot-film device, that supports or fixes the position of an x-ray film (imaging) cassette during an x-ray exposure.

"Category 1 quantities of radioactive material" or "Category 1" means a quantity of radioactive material meeting or exceeding the Category 1 threshold in Table 1 of 12VAC5-481-451. This is determined by calculating the ratio of the total activity of each radionuclide to the Category 1 threshold for that radionuclide and adding the ratios together. If the sum is equal to or exceeds 1, the quantity would be considered a Category 1 quantity. Category 1 quantities of radioactive material do not include the radioactive material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet.

"Category 2 quantities of radioactive material" or "Category 2" means a quantity of radioactive material meeting or exceeding the Category 2 threshold but less than the Category 1 threshold in Table 1 of 12VAC5-481-451. This is determined by calculating the ratio of the total activity of each radionuclide to the Category 2 threshold for that radionuclide and adding the ratios together. If the sum is equal to or exceeds 1, the quantity would be considered a Category 2 quantity. Category 2 quantities of radioactive material do not include the radioactive material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet.

"Certifiable cabinet x-ray system" means an existing uncertified x-ray system that has been modified to meet the certification requirements specified in 21 CFR 1020.40.

"Certificate holder" means a person who has been issued a certificate of compliance or other package approval by the NRC.

"Certificate of compliance" or "CoC" means the certificate issued by the NRC that approves the design of a package for the transportation of radioactive material.

"Certified cabinet x-ray system" means an x-ray system that has been certified in accordance with 21 CFR 1010.2 as being manufactured and assembled pursuant to the provisions of 21 CFR 1020.40.

"Certified components" means components of x-ray systems that are subject to regulations promulgated under P.L. 90-602, the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 of the Food and Drug Administration.

"Certifying entity" means an independent certifying organization meeting the agency's requirements for documenting applicant's training in topics set forth in 12VAC5-481-1320 or equivalent state or NRC regulations.

"CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations.

"Chelating agent" means amine polycarboxylic acids, hydroxycarboxylic acids, gluconic acid, and polycarboxylic acids.

"Chemical description" means a description of the principal chemical characteristics of a low-level radioactive waste.

"Class" means a classification scheme for inhaled material according to its rate of clearance from the pulmonary region of the lung. Materials are classified as D, W, or Y, which applies to a range of clearance half-times: for Class D, Days, of less than 10 days; for Class W, Weeks, from 10 to 100 days; and for Class Y, Years, of greater than 100 days. For purposes of these regulations, "lung class" and "inhalation class" are equivalent terms.

"Closed transport vehicle" means a transport vehicle equipped with a securely attached exterior enclosure that during normal transportation restricts the access of unauthorized persons to the cargo space containing the radioactive material. The enclosure may be either temporary or permanent but shall limit access from top, sides, and ends. In the case of packaged materials, it may be of the "see-through" type.

"cm" means centimeters.

"Coefficient of variation or "C" means the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value of a population of observations. It is estimated using the following equation:

http://leg5.state.va.us/images/664255964679LEGAB_files/image001.gif

where:

s = Standard deviation of the observed values;

X̅ = Mean value of observations in sample;

xi = ith observation in sample;

n = Number of observations in sample.

"Collective dose" means the sum of the individual doses received in a given period of time by a specified population from exposure to a specified source of radiation.

"Collimator" means a device used to limit the size, shape, and direction of the primary radiation beam. For industrial radiography it means a radiation shield that is placed on the end of the guide tube or directly onto a radiographic exposure device to restrict the size of the radiation beam when the sealed source is cranked into position to make a radiographic exposure.

"Commencement of construction" means taking any action defined as "construction" or any other activity at the site of a facility subject to the regulations in this chapter that has a reasonable nexus to radiological health and safety.

"Committed dose equivalent" or "HT,50" means the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake.

"Committed effective dose equivalent" or "HE,50" means the sum of the products of the weighting factors (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to each of these organs or tissues (HE,50 = Σ (wT HT,50)).

"Computed tomography" means the production of a tomogram by the acquisition and computer processing of x-ray transmission data.

"Computed tomography dose index" means the integral from -7T to +7T of the dose profile along a line perpendicular to the tomographic plane divided by the product of the nominal tomographic section thickness and the number of tomograms produced in a single scan, that is:

http://leg5.state.va.us/images/664618692977LEGAB_files/image001.gif

where:

z = Position along a line perpendicular to the tomographic plane;

D(z) = Dose at position z;

T = Nominal tomographic section thickness;

n = Number of tomograms produced in a single scan.

This definition assumes that the dose profile is centered around z = 0 and that, for a multiple tomogram system, the scan increment between adjacent scans is nT.

"Computer-readable medium" means that the regulatory agency's computer can transfer the information from the medium into its memory.

"Consignee" means the designated receiver of the shipment of low-level radioactive waste.

"Consignment" means each shipment of a package or groups of packages or load of radioactive material offered by a shipper for transport.

"Consortium" means an association of medical use licensees and a PET radionuclide production facility in the same geographical area that jointly own or share in the operation and maintenance cost of the PET radionuclide production facility that produces PET radionuclides for use in producing radioactive drugs within the consortium for noncommercial distributions among its associated members for medical use. The PET radionuclide production facility within the consortium must be located at an educational institution or a federal facility or a medical facility.

"Constraint" means each shipment of a package or groups of packages or load of radioactive material offered by a shipper for transport.

"Constraint" or "dose constraint" means a value above which specified licensee actions are required.

"Construction" means the installation of foundations, or in-place assembly, erection, fabrication, or testing for any structure, system, or component of a facility or activity subject to this chapter. The term "construction" does not include:

1. Changes for temporary use of the land for public recreational purposes;

2. Site exploration, including necessary borings to determine foundation conditions or other preconstruction monitoring to establish background information related to the suitability of the site, the environmental impacts of construction or operation, or the protection of environmental values;

3. Preparation of the site for construction of the facility, including clearing of the site, grading, installation of drainage, erosion and other environmental mitigation measures, and construction of temporary roads and borrow areas;

4. Erection of fences and other access control measures that are not related to the safe use of, or security of, radiological materials subject to this chapter;

5. Excavation;

6. Erection of support buildings (e.g., construction equipment storage sheds, warehouse and shop facilities, utilities, concrete mixing plants, docking and unloading facilities, and office buildings) for use in connection with the construction of the facility;

7. Building of service facilities (e.g., paved roads, parking lots, railroad spurs, exterior utility and lighting systems, potable water systems, sanitary sewerage treatment facilities, and transmission lines);

8. Procurement or fabrication of components or portions of the proposed facility occurring at other than the final, in-place location at the facility; or

9. Taking any other action that has no reasonable nexus to radiological health and safety.

"Contact therapy system" means a therapeutic radiation machine with a short target to skin distance (TSD), usually less than five centimeters.

"Contamination" means, as applicable to Part XIII (12VAC5-481-2950 et seq.) of this chapter, the presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm2 (1 x 10-5 µCi/cm2) for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm2 (1 x 10-6 µCi/cm2) for all other alpha emitters.

1. Fixed contamination means contamination that cannot be removed from a surface during normal conditions of transport.

2. Nonfixed contamination means contamination that can be removed from a surface during normal conditions of transport.

"Contrast scale" means the change in the linear attenuation coefficient per CTN relative to water, that is:

http://leg5.state.va.us/images/664618692977LEGAB_files/image002.gif

where:

μx = Linear attenuation coefficient of the material of interest;
μw = Linear attenuation coefficient of water;
http://leg5.state.va.us/images/647598334281LEGAB_files/image003.gif = of the material of interest;
http://leg5.state.va.us/images/647598334281LEGAB_files/image004.gif = of water.

"Control cable" or "drive" means the cable that is connected to the source assembly and used to drive the source to and from the exposure location.

"Control drive mechanism" means a device that enables the source assembly to be moved into and out of the exposure device.

"Control panel" means that part of the x-ray control upon which are mounted the switches, knobs, pushbuttons, and other hardware necessary for manually setting the technique factors.

"Control tube" means a protective sheath for guiding the control cable. The control tube connects the control drive mechanism to the radiographic exposure device.

"Controlled area" means an area, outside of a restricted area but inside the site boundary, access to which can be limited by the licensee for any reason.

"Conventional simulator" means any x-ray system designed to reproduce the geometric conditions of the radiation therapy equipment.

"Conveyance" means:

1. For transport by public highway or rail any transport vehicle or large freight container;

2. For transport by water any vessel, or any hold, compartment, or defined deck area of a vessel including any transport vehicle on board the vessel; and

3. For transport by any aircraft.

"Cooling curve" means the graphical relationship between heat units stored and cooling time.

"Cradle" means either:

1. A removable device that supports and may restrain a patient above an x-ray table; or

2. A device:

a. Whose patient support structure is interposed between the patient and the image receptor during normal use;

b. Which is equipped with means for patient restraint; and

c. Which is capable of rotation about its long (longitudinal) axis.

"Critical group" means the group of individuals reasonably expected to receive the greatest exposure to residual radioactivity for any applicable set of circumstances.

"Criticality safety index" or "CSI" means the dimensionless number (rounded up to the next tenth) assigned to and placed on the label of a fissile material package, to designate the degree of control of accumulation of packages, overpacks or freight containers containing fissile material during transportation. Determination of the criticality safety index is described in Part XIII (12VAC5-481-2950 et seq.) 12VAC5-481-3040, 12VAC5-481-3051, and 10 CFR 71.59. The criticality safety index for an overpack, freight container, consignment, or conveyance containing fissile material packages is the arithmetic sum of the critically safety indices of all the fissile material packages contained within the overpack, freight container, consignment, or conveyance.

"CS" (See "Contrast scale").

"CT" (See "Computed tomography").

"CT conditions of operation" means all selectable parameters governing the operation of a CT x-ray system including, but not limited to, nominal tomographic section thickness, filtration, and the technique factors as defined in these regulations.

"CTDI" (See "Computed tomography dose index").

"CT gantry" means the tube housing assemblies, beam-limiting devices, detectors, and the supporting structures and frames which hold these components.

"CTN" (See "CT number").

"CT number" means the number used to represent the x-ray attenuation associated with each elemental area of the CT image.

http://leg5.state.va.us/images/647599454951LEGAB_files/image001.gif

where:

k = A constant, a normal value of 1,000 when the Hounsfield scale of CTN is used;

μx = Linear attenuation coefficient of the material of interest;

μw = Linear attenuation coefficient of water.

"Cumulative air kerma" means the total air kerma accrued from the beginning of an examination or procedure and includes all contribution from fluoroscopic and radiographic irradiation.

"Curie" is a unit of quantity of activity. One curie (Ci) is that quantity of radioactive material that decays at the rate of 3.7E+10 disintegrations or transformations per second (dps or tps).

"Custodial agency" means an agency of the government designated to act on behalf of the government owner of the disposal site.

"Declared pregnant woman" means a woman who has voluntarily informed the licensee, in writing, of her pregnancy and the estimated date of conception. The declaration remains in effect until the declared pregnant woman withdraws the declaration in writing or is no longer pregnant.

"Decommission" means to remove a facility or site safely from service and reduce residual radioactivity to a level that permits release of the property for unrestricted use and termination of the license or release of the property under restricted conditions and termination of the license.

"Decontamination facility" means a facility operating under a commission or agreement state license whose principal purpose is decontamination of equipment or materials to accomplish recycle, reuse, or other waste management objectives, and, for purposes of this chapter, is not considered to be a consignee for LLW shipments.

"Dedicated check source" means a radioactive source that is used to assure the constant operation of a radiation detection or measurement device over several months or years. This source may also be used for other purposes.

"Deep dose equivalent" or "Hd," which applies to external whole body exposure, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of one centimeter (1000 mg/cm²).

"Demand respirator" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

"Department of Energy" means the Department of Energy established by P.L. 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, 42 USC § 7101 et seq., to the extent that the Department exercises functions formerly vested in the Atomic Energy Commission, its Chairman, members, officers and components and transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration and to the Administrator thereof pursuant to §§ 104(b), (c) and (d) of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-438, October 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233 at 1237, 42 USC § 5814, effective January 19, 1975) and retransferred to the U.S. Secretary of Energy pursuant to § 301(a) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91, August 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565 at 577-578, 42 USC § 7151, effective October 1, 1977).

"Depleted uranium" means the source material uranium in which the isotope uranium-235 is less than 0.711 weight percentage of the total uranium present. Depleted uranium does not include special nuclear material.

"Derived air concentration" or "DAC" means the concentration of a given radionuclide in air which, if breathed by the reference man for a working year of 2,000 hours under conditions of light work, results in an intake of one ALI. For purposes of these regulations, the condition of light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2 cubic meters of air per hour for 2,000 hours in a year. DAC values are given in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20.

"Derived air concentration-hour" or "DAC hour" means the product of the concentration of radioactive material in air, expressed as a fraction or multiple of the derived air concentration for each radionuclide, and the time of exposure to that radionuclide, in hours. A licensee or registrant may take 2,000 DAC hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv (5 rem).

"Detector" (See "Radiation detector").

"Deuterium" means, for the purposes of Part XIII (12VAC5-481-2950 et seq.) of this chapter, deuterium and any deuterium compounds, including heavy water, in which the ratio of deuterium atoms to hydrogen atoms exceeds 1:5000.

"Diagnostic clinical procedures manual" means a collection of written procedures that describes each method (and other instructions and precautions) by which the licensee performs diagnostic clinical procedures, where each diagnostic clinical procedure has been approved by the authorized user and includes the radiopharmaceutical, dosage, and route of administration.

"Diagnostic source assembly" means the tube housing assembly with a beam-limiting device attached.

"Diagnostic x-ray system" means an x-ray system designed for irradiation of any part of the human or animal body for the purpose of diagnosis or visualization.

"Direct scattered radiation" means that scattered radiation that has been deviated in direction only by materials irradiated by the useful beam (See "Scattered radiation").

"Discrete source" means a radionuclide that has been processed so that its concentration within a material has been purposely increased for use for commercial, medical, or research activities.

"Disposable respirator" means a respirator for which maintenance is not intended and that is designed to be discarded after excessive breathing resistance, sorbent exhaustion, physical damage, or end-of-service-life renders it unsuitable for use. Examples of this type of respirator are a disposable half-mask respirator and a disposable escape-only self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

"Disposal" means the isolation of wastes from the biosphere inhabited by man and his food chains by emplacement in a land disposal facility.

"Disposal container" means a container principally used to confine low-level radioactive waste during disposal operations at a land disposal facility (also see "high integrity container"). Note that for some shipments, the disposal container may be the transport package.

"Disposal site" means that portion of a land disposal facility that is used for disposal of waste. It consists of disposal units and a buffer zone.

"Disposal unit" means a discrete portion of the disposal site into which waste is placed for disposal. For near-surface disposal, the unit is usually a trench.

"Distinguishable from background" means that the detectable concentration of a radionuclide is statistically different from the background concentration of that radionuclide in the vicinity of the site or, in the case of structures, in similar materials using adequate measurement technology, survey, and statistical techniques.

"Diversion" means the unauthorized movement of radioactive material subject to 12VAC5-481-451 to a location different from the material's authorized destination inside or outside of the site at which the material is used or stored.

"Dose" is a generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent, committed dose equivalent, committed effective dose equivalent, total organ dose equivalent, or total effective dose equivalent. For purposes of these regulations, "radiation dose" is an equivalent term.

"Dose commitment" means the total radiation dose to a part of the body that will result from retention in the body of radioactive material. For purposes of estimating the dose commitment, it is assumed that from the time of intake the period of exposure to retained material will not exceed 50 years.

"Dose equivalent" or "HT" means the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. The units of dose equivalent are the sievert (Sv) and rem.

"Dose limits" means the permissible upper bounds of radiation doses established in accordance with these regulations. For purposes of these regulations, "limits" is an equivalent term.

"Dose monitor unit" or "DMU" means a unit response from the beam monitoring system from which the absorbed dose can be calculated.

"Dose profile" means the dose as a function of position along a line.

"Dosimetry processor" means an individual or an organization that processes and evaluates individual monitoring devices in order to determine the radiation dose delivered to the monitoring devices.

"Doubly encapsulated sealed source" means a sealed source in which the radioactive material is sealed within an inner capsule and that capsule is sealed within an outer capsule.

"Drive cable" (See "Control cable").

"Effective dose equivalent" or "HE" means the sum of the products of the dose equivalent (HT) to each organ or tissue and the weighting factor (wT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated (HE = Σ wTHT).

"Electronic brachytherapy" means a method of radiation therapy where an electrically generated source of ionizing radiation is placed in or near the tumor or target tissue to deliver therapeutic radiation dosage.

"Electronic brachytherapy device" means the system used to produce and deliver therapeutic radiation including the x-ray tube, the control mechanism, the cooling system, and the power source.

"Electronic brachytherapy source" means the x-ray tube component used in an electronic brachytherapy device.

"Elemental area" means the smallest area within a tomogram for which the x-ray attenuation properties of a body are depicted. (See also "Picture element").

"Embryo/fetus" means the developing human organism from conception until the time of birth.

"Energy compensation source" or "ECS" means a small sealed source, with an activity not exceeding 3.7 MBq (100 μCi), used within a logging tool, or other tool components, to provide a reference standard to maintain the tool's calibration when in use.

"Engineered barrier" means a manmade structure or device that is intended to improve the land disposal facility's ability to meet the performance objectives in these regulations.

"Enriched uranium" (See "Uranium - natural, depleted, enriched").

"Entrance or access point" means any opening through which an individual or extremity of an individual could gain access to radiation areas or to licensed or registered radioactive materials. This includes entry or exit portals of sufficient size to permit human entry, irrespective of their intended use.

"EPA identification number" means the number received by a transporter following application to the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as required by 40 CFR Part 263.

"Equipment" (See "x-ray equipment").

"Escorted access" means accompaniment while in a security zone by an approved individual who maintains continuous direct visual surveillance at all times over an individual who is not approved for unescorted access.

"Exclusive use" means the sole use by a single consignor of a conveyance for which all initial, intermediate, and final loading and unloading are carried out in accordance with the direction of the consignor or consignee. The consignor and the carrier must ensure that any loading or unloading is performed by personnel having radiological training and resources appropriate for safe handling of the consignment. The consignor must issue specific instructions, in writing, for maintenance of exclusive use shipment controls, and include them with the shipping paper information provided to the carrier by the consignor.

"Explosive material" means any chemical compound, mixture, or device that produces a substantial instantaneous release of gas and heat spontaneously or by contact with sparks or flame.

"Exposure" means being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material.

"Exposure head" means a device that locates the gamma radiography sealed source in the selected working position.

"Exposure rate" means the exposure per unit of time, such as roentgen per minute and milliroentgen per hour.

"External beam radiation therapy" means therapeutic irradiation in which the source of radiation is at a distance from the body.

"External dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from any source of radiation outside the body.

"Extremity" means hand, elbow, arm below the elbow, foot, knee, and leg below the knee.

"Facility" means the location, building, vehicle, or complex under one administrative control, at which one or more radiation machines are installed, located or used.

"Fail-safe characteristics" means a design feature that causes beam port shutters to close, or otherwise prevents emergence of the primary beam, upon the failure of a safety or warning device.

"Field emission equipment" means equipment that uses an x-ray tube in which electron emission from the cathode is due solely to the action of an electric field.

"Field-flattening filter" means a filter used to homogenize the absorbed dose rate over the radiation field.

"Field station" means a facility where radioactive sources may be stored or used and from which equipment is dispatched to temporary jobsites.

"Filter" means material placed in the useful beam to preferentially absorb selected radiations. It also means material placed in the useful beam to change beam quality in therapeutic radiation machines subject to Part XV (12VAC5-481-3380 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Filtering facepiece" or "dusk mask" means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium, not equipped with elastomeric sealing surfaces and adjustable straps.

"Fingerprint orders" means the requirements of 12VAC5-481-451 B or orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the legally binding requirements issued by agreement states that require fingerprints and criminal history records checks for individuals with unescorted access to Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material or safeguards information-modified handling.

"Fissile material" means the radionuclides uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239, and plutonium-241, or any combination of these radionuclides. "Fissile material" means the fissile nuclides themselves, not material containing fissile nuclides. Unirradiated natural uranium and depleted uranium and natural uranium or depleted uranium, that has been irradiated in thermal reactors only, are not included in this definition. Certain exclusions from fissile material controls are provided in 10 CFR 71.15.

1. Fissile Class I: A package that may be transported in unlimited numbers and in any arrangement, and that requires no nuclear criticality safety controls during transportation. A transport index is not assigned for purposes of nuclear criticality safety but may be required because of external radiation levels.

2. Fissile Class II: A package that may be transported together with other packages in any arrangement but, for criticality control, in numbers that do not exceed an aggregate transport index of 50. These shipments require no other nuclear criticality safety control during transportation. Individual packages may have a transport index not less than 0.1 and not more than 10.

"Fissile material package" means a fissile material packaging together with its fissile material contents.

"Fit factor" means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

"Fit test" means the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual.

"Fluoroscopic imaging assembly" means a subsystem in which x-ray photons produce a set of fluoroscopic images or radiographic images recorded from the fluoroscopic image receptor. It includes the image receptors, electrical interlocks, if any, and structural material providing linkage between the image receptor and diagnostic source assembly.

"Fluoroscopic irradiation time" means the cumulative duration during an examination or procedure of operator-applied continuous pressure to the device, enabling x-ray tube activation in any fluoroscopic mode of operation.

"Fluoroscopy" means a technique for generating x-ray images and presenting them simultaneously and continuously as visible images. This term has the same meaning as the term "radioscopy" in the standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

"Focal spot" or "actual" means the area projected on the anode of the x-ray tube bombarded by the electrons accelerated from the cathode and from which the useful beam originates.

"Former Atomic Energy Commission or NRC licensed facilities" means nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, uranium enrichment plants, or critical mass experimental facilities where Atomic Energy Commission or NRC licenses have been terminated.

"Gantry" means that part of a radiation therapy system supporting and allowing movements of the radiation head about a center of rotation.

"Generally applicable environmental radiation standards" means standards issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, (42 USC § 2011 et seq.) that impose limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.

"General environment" means, as used in Part XVI (12VAC5-481-3460 et seq.) of this chapter, the total terrestrial, atmospheric, and aquatic environments outside the site boundary within which any activity, operation, or process authorized by a general or specific license issued under Part XVI, is performed.

"General purpose radiographic x-ray system" means any radiographic x-ray system that, by design, is not limited to radiographic examination of specific anatomical regions.

"Generator" means a licensee who (i) is a waste generator as defined in this chapter, or (ii) is the licensee to whom waste can be attributed within the context of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (42 USC § 2021) (e.g., waste generated as a result of decontamination or recycle activities).

"Gonad shield" means a protective barrier for the testes or ovaries.

"Gray" or "Gy" means the SI unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed dose of one joule per kilogram (100 rad).

"Guide tube (protection sheath)" means a flexible or rigid tube, or "J" tube, for guiding the source assembly and the attached control cable from the exposure device to the exposure head. The guide tube may also include the connections necessary for attachment to the exposure device and to the exposure head.

"Half-value layer" or "HVL" means the thickness of a specified material that attenuates the beam of radiation to an extent that the AKR is reduced by one-half of its original value. In this definition, the contribution of all scattered radiation, other than any which might be present initially in the beam concerned, is deemed to be excluded.

"Hand-held radiographic unit" means x-ray equipment that is designed to be hand-held during operation.

"Hands-on experience" means experience in all of those areas considered to be directly involved in the radiography process, and includes taking radiographs, calibration of survey instruments, operational and performance testing of survey instruments and devices, film development, posting of radiation areas, transportation of radiography equipment, posting of records and radiation area surveillance, etc., as applicable. Excessive time spent in only one or two of these areas, such as film development or radiation area surveillance, should not be counted toward the 2,000 hours of hands-on experience required for a radiation safety officer in 12VAC5-481-1310 B 2 or the hands-on experience for a radiographer as required by 12VAC5-481-1320 A.

"Hazardous waste" means those wastes designated as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 261.

"Healing arts" means the art or science or group of arts or sciences dealing with the prevention and cure or alleviation of ailments, diseases or infirmities, and has the same meaning as "medicine" when the latter term is used in its comprehensive sense.

"Healing arts screening" means the testing of human beings using x-ray machines for the detection or evaluation of health indications when such tests are not specifically and individually ordered by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts legally authorized to prescribe such x-ray tests for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment.

"Heat unit" means a unit of energy equal to the product of the peak kilovoltage, milliamperes, and seconds, such as (kVp) times (mA) times (seconds).

"Helmet" means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.

"High integrity container" or "HIC" means a container commonly designed to meet the structural stability requirements of 12VAC5-481-2572 and to meet U.S. Department of Transportation requirements for a Type A package.

"High radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of one mSv (0.1 rem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from any source of radiation or 30 centimeters from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

"Hood" means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

"Human use" means the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

"Hydrogeologic unit" means any soil or rock unit or zone which by virtue of its porosity or permeability, or lack thereof, has a distinct influence on the storage or movement of groundwater.

"Image intensifier" means a device, installed in its housing, that instantaneously converts an x-ray pattern into a corresponding light image of higher intensity.

"Image receptor" means any device, such as a fluorescent screen, radiographic film, x-ray image intensifier tube, solid-state detector, or gaseous detector that transforms incident x-ray photons either into a visible image or into another form that can be made into a visible image by further transformations. In those cases where means are provided to preselect a portion of the image receptor, the term "image receptor" shall mean the preselected portion of the device.

"Image receptor support device" means, for mammographic systems, that part of the system designed to support the image receptor during mammographic examination and to provide a primary protective barrier.

"Inadvertent intruder" means a person who might occupy the disposal site after closure and engage in normal activities, such as agriculture, dwelling construction, or other pursuits in which an individual might be unknowingly exposed to radiation from the waste.

"Indian tribe" means an Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community that the U.S. Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994 (25 USC § 479a).

"Independent certifying organization" means an independent organization that meets the agency's criteria for documenting applicant's training in topics set forth in 12VAC5-481-1320 or equivalent agreement state or NRC regulations.

"Individual" means any human being.

"Individual monitoring" means the assessment of:

1. Dose equivalent (i) by the use of individual monitoring devices or (ii) by the use of survey data; or

2. Committed effective dose equivalent (i) by bioassay or (ii) by determination of the time-weighted air concentrations to which an individual has been exposed, that is, DAC hours. (See the definition of DAC).

"Individual monitoring devices" means devices designed to be worn by a single individual for the assessment of dose equivalent. For purposes of these regulations, "personnel dosimeter" and "dosimeter" are equivalent terms. Examples of individual monitoring devices are film badges, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), pocket ionization chambers, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and personal air sampling devices.

"Industrial radiography" means an examination of the structure of materials by the nondestructive method of utilizing ionizing radiation to make radiographic images.

"Inhalation class" (See "Class").

"Injection tool" means a device used for controlled subsurface injection of radioactive tracer material.

"Inspection" means an official examination or observation including, but not limited to, tests, surveys, and monitoring to determine compliance with rules, regulations, orders, requirements, and conditions of the agency.

"Institutional controls" means: (i) permanent markers placed at a disposal site, (ii) public records and archives, (iii) government ownership and regulations regarding land or resource use, and (iv) other methods of preserving knowledge about the location, design, and contents of a disposal system.

"Instrument traceability" (for ionizing radiation measurements) means the ability to show that an instrument has been calibrated at specified time intervals using a national standard or a transfer standard. If a transfer standard is used, the calibration must be at a laboratory accredited by a program that requires continuing participation in measurement quality assurance with the National Institute of Standards and Technology or other equivalent national or international program.

"Intensity modulated radiation therapy" or "IMRT" means radiation therapy that uses nonuniform radiation beam intensities that have been determined by various computer-based optimization techniques.

"Interlock" means a device arranged or connected such that the occurrence of an event or condition is required before a second event or condition can occur or continue to occur.

"Internal dose" means that portion of the dose equivalent received from radioactive material taken into the body.

"Interruption of irradiation" means the stopping of irradiation with the possibility of continuing irradiation without resetting of operating conditions at the control panel.

"Intruder barrier" means a sufficient depth of cover over the waste that inhibits contact with waste and helps to ensure that radiation exposures to an inadvertent intruder will meet the performance objectives set forth in these regulations, or engineered structures that provide equivalent protection to the inadvertent intruder.

"Irradiation" means the exposure of matter to ionizing radiation.

"Irradiator" means a facility that uses radioactive sealed sources for the irradiation of objects or materials and in which radiation dose rates exceeding five grays (500 rads) per hour exist at one meter from the sealed radioactive sources in air or water, as applicable for the irradiator type, but does not include irradiators in which both the sealed source and the area subject to irradiation are contained within a device and are not accessible to personnel.

"Irradiator operator" means an individual who has successfully completed the training and testing described in 12VAC5-481-2830 and is authorized by the terms of the license to operate the irradiator without a supervisor present.

"Irradiator operator supervisor" means an individual who meets the requirements for an irradiator operator and who physically oversees operation of the irradiator by an individual who is currently receiving training and testing described in 12VAC5-481-2830.

"Isocenter" means the center of the smallest sphere through which the beam axis passes when the equipment moves through a full range of rotations about its common center.

"kBq" means kilobecquerel.

"Kerma" or "K" means the quantity defined by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. The kerma is the quotient of dEtr by dm, where dEtr is the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all charged particles liberated by uncharged particles in a mass dm of materials; thus K=dEtr/dm, in units of J/kg, where the special name for the units of kerma is gray (Gy). When the materials is air, the quantity is referred to as "air kerma."

"Kilovolt" or "kV" means the energy equal to that acquired by a particle with one electron charge in passing through a potential difference of 1,000 volts in a vacuum. Current convention is to use kV for photons and keV for electrons.

"Kilovolts peak" (See "Peak tube potential").

"kV" means kilovolts.

"kVp" (See "Peak tube potential").

"kWs" means kilowatt second.

"Land disposal facility" means the land, buildings, structures and equipment that are intended to be used for the disposal of wastes into the subsurface of the land. For purposes of this chapter, a "geologic repository" as defined in 10 CFR Part 60 or 10 CFR Part 63 is not considered a land disposal facility.

"Last image hold radiograph" or "LIH" means an image obtained either by retaining one or more fluoroscopic images, which may be temporarily integrated, at the end of a fluoroscopic exposure or by initiating a separate and distinct radiographic exposure automatically and immediately in conjunction with termination of the fluoroscopic exposure.

"Lay-barge radiography" means industrial radiography performed on any water vessel used for laying pipe.

"Lead equivalent" means the thickness of the material in question affording the same attenuation, under specified conditions, as lead.

"Leakage radiation" means radiation emanating from the diagnostic source assembly or the radiation therapy system except for:

1. The useful beam; and

2. Radiation produced when the exposure switch or timer is not activated.

"Leakage technique factors" means the technique factors associated with the diagnostic source assembly that are used in measuring leakage radiation. They are defined as follows:

1. For diagnostic source assemblies intended for capacitor energy storage equipment, the maximum-rated peak tube potential and the maximum-rated number of exposures in an hour for operation at the maximum-rated peak tube potential with the quantity of charge per exposure being 10 millicoulombs, (10 mAs), or the minimum obtainable from the unit, whichever is larger;

2. For diagnostic source assemblies intended for field emission equipment rated for pulsed operation, the maximum-rated peak tube potential and the maximum-rated number of x-ray pulses in an hour for operation at the maximum-rated peak tube potential; or

3. For all other diagnostic source assemblies, the maximum-rated peak tube potential and the maximum-rated continuous tube current for the maximum-rated peak tube potential.

"Lens dose equivalent" or "LDE" applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.3 cm (300 mg/cm2).

"License" means a license issued by the agency in accordance with the regulations adopted by the board.

"Licensed material" means radioactive material received, possessed, used, transferred or disposed of under a general or specific license issued by the agency.

"Licensee" means any person who is licensed by the agency in accordance with these regulations and the Act.

"Light field" means the area illuminated by light, simulating the radiation field.

"Limits" (See "Dose limits").

"Line-voltage regulation" means the difference between the no-load and the load line potentials expressed as a percent of the load line potential as follows:

Percent line-voltage regulation = 100 (Vn-Vl)/Vl

where:

Vn = No-load line potential; and

Vl = Load line potential.

"Lixiscope" means a portable light-intensified imaging device using a sealed source.

"Local components" means part of an analytical x-ray system and include areas that are struck by x-rays such as radiation source housings, port and shutter assemblies, collimators, sample holders, cameras, goniometers, detectors, and shielding, but do not include power supplies, transformers, amplifiers, readout devices, and control panels.

"Local law-enforcement agency" or "LLEA" means a public or private organization that has been approved by a federal, state, or local government to carry firearms and make arrests, and is authorized and has the capability to provide an armed response in the jurisdiction where the licensed Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material is used, stored, or transported.

"Logging assistant" means any individual who, under the personal supervision of a logging supervisor, handles sealed sources or tracers that are not in logging tools or shipping containers or who performs surveys required by Part XIV (12VAC5-481-3140 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Logging supervisor" means the individual who uses licensed material or provides personal supervision in the use of licensed material at a temporary jobsite and who is responsible to the licensee for assuring compliance with the requirements of this chapter and the conditions of the license.

"Logging tool" means a device used subsurface to perform well-logging.

"Loose-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

"Lost or missing licensed material" means licensed (or registered) source of radiation whose location is unknown. This definition includes, but is not limited to, radioactive material that has been shipped but has not reached its planned destination and whose location cannot be readily traced in the transportation system.

"Lot tolerance percent defective" means, expressed in percent defective, the poorest quality in an individual inspection lot that should be accepted.

"Low specific activity material" or "LSA material" means radioactive material with limited specific activity that is nonfissile or is excepted under 12VAC5-481-2970 C, and that satisfies the descriptions and limits set forth below. Shielding materials surrounding the LSA material may not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity of the package contents. LSA material must be in one of three groups:

1. LSA-I

a. Uranium and thorium ores, concentrates of uranium and thorium ores, and other ores containing naturally occurring radioactive radionuclide radionuclides that are not intended to be processed for the use of these radionuclides;

b. Solid unirradiated natural Natural uranium or, depleted uranium or, natural thorium or their solid or liquid compounds or mixtures, provided they are unirradiated and in solid or liquid form;

c. Radioactive material other than fissile material, for which the A2 value is unlimited; or

d. Other radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times the value for exempt material activity concentration determined in accordance with 12VAC5-481-3720.

2. LSA-II

a. Water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 terabecquerel per liter (20.0 Ci/L); or

b. Other radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout, and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 1.0 E-04 A2/g for solids and gases, and 1.0 E-05 A2/g for liquids.

3. LSA-III

Solids (e.g., consolidated wastes, activated materials), excluding powders, that satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR 71.77) in which:

a. The radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a collection of solid objects, or is essentially uniformly distributed in a solid compact binding agent (e.g., concrete, bitumen, or ceramic);

b. The radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is intrinsically contained in a relatively insoluble material, so that, even under loss of packaging, the loss of radioactive material per package by leaching, when placed in water for seven days, would not exceed 0.1 A2; and

c. The estimated average specific activity of the solid, excluding any shielding material, does not exceed 2.0 E-03 A2/g.

"Low toxicity alpha emitters" means natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural thorium; uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-232, thorium-228 or thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical or chemical concentrates or tailings; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days.

"Lung class" (See "Class").

"mA" means milliampere.

"mAs" means milliampere second.

"Major processor" means a user processing, handling, or manufacturing radioactive material exceeding Type A quantities as unsealed sources or material, or exceeding four times Type B quantities as sealed sources, but does not include nuclear medicine programs, universities, industrial radiographers, or small industrial programs. Type A and B quantities are defined in this section.

"Management" means the chief executive officer or that individual's designee.

"MBq" means megabecquerels.

"Medical event" means an event that meets the criteria in 12VAC5-481-2080.

"Medical institution" means an organization in which several medical disciplines are practiced.

"Medical use" means the intentional internal or external administration of radioactive material or the radiation from radioactive material to patients or human research subjects under the supervision of an authorized user.

"Megavolt" or "MV" means the energy equal to that acquired by a particle with one electron charge in passing through a potential difference of one million volts in a vacuum. (Note: current convention is to use MV for photons and MeV for electrons.)

"Member of the public" means an individual except when that individual is receiving an occupational dose.

"Mineral logging" means any logging performed for the purpose of mineral exploration other than oil or gas.

"Minor" means an individual less than 18 years of age.

"Misadministration" means either:

1. An x-ray teletherapy radiation dose:

a. Involving the wrong patient;

b. Involving the wrong mode of treatment;

c. Involving the wrong treatment site;

d. Where the calculated total administered dose differs from the total prescribed dose by more than 10% when the treatment consists of three or fewer fractions;

e. Where the calculated weekly administered dose differs from the weekly prescribed dose by 30%; or

f. Where the calculated total administered dose differs from the total prescribed dose by more than 20%; or

2. An x-ray brachytherapy radiation dose:

a. Involving the wrong patient;

b. Involving the wrong treatment site; or

c. Where the calculated administered dose differs from the prescribed dose by more than 20%.

"mm" means millimeters.

"Mobile device" means a piece of equipment containing licensed radioactive materials that is either mounted on wheels or casters, or otherwise equipped for moving without a need for disassembly or dismounting, or designed to be hand carried. Mobile devices do not include stationary equipment installed in a fixed location.

"Mobile electronic brachytherapy service" means transportation of an electronic brachytherapy device to provide electronic brachytherapy at an address that is not the address of record.

"Mobile nuclear medicine service" means the transportation and medical use of radioactive material.

"Mobile x-ray equipment" (See "x-ray equipment").

"Mode of operation" means, for fluoroscopy systems, a distinct method of fluoroscopy or radiography provided by the manufacturer and selected with a set of several technique factors or other control settings uniquely associated with the mode. The set of distinct technique factors and control settings for the mode may be selected by the operation of a single control. Examples of distinct modes of operation include normal fluoroscopy (analog or digital), high-level control fluoroscopy, cineradiography (analog and digital), digital subtraction angiography, electronic radiography using the fluoroscopic image receptor, and photospot recording. In a specific mode of operation, certain system variables affecting kerma, AKR, or image quality, such as image magnification, x-ray field size, pulse rate, pulse duration, number of pulses, source-image receptor distance (SID), or optical aperture, may be adjustable or may vary; their variation per se does not comprise a mode of operation different from the one that has been selected.

"Monitor unit" or "MU" (See "Dose monitor unit").

"Monitoring" means the measurement of radiation, radioactive material concentrations, surface area activities or quantities of radioactive material and the use of the results of these measurements to evaluate potential exposures and doses. For purposes of these regulations, "radiation monitoring" and "radiation protection monitoring" are equivalent terms. For Part XI (12VAC5-481-2330 et seq.) of this chapter, it means observing and making measurements to provide data to evaluate the performance and characteristics of the disposal site.

"Movement control center" means an operation center that is remote from the transport activity and that maintains the position information on the movement of radioactive material, receives reports of attempted attacks or thefts, provides a means for reporting these and other problems to appropriate agencies and can request and coordinate appropriate aid.

"Moving beam radiation therapy" means radiation therapy with any planned displacement of radiation field or patient relative to each other, or with any planned change of absorbed dose distribution. It includes arc, skip, conformal, intensity modulation and rotational therapy.

"Multiple tomogram system" means a computed tomography x-ray system that obtains x-ray transmission data simultaneously during a single scan to produce more than one tomogram.

"NARM" means any naturally occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material. It does not include byproduct, source, or special nuclear material.

"National Sealed Source and Device Registry" or "SSDR" means the national registry that contains the registration certificates, maintained by the NRC, that summarize the radiation safety information for sealed sources and devices, and describes the licensing and use conditions approved for the product.

"Nationally tracked source" means a sealed source containing a quantity equal to or greater than Category 1 or Category 2 levels of any radioactive material listed in 12VAC5-481-3780. In this context a sealed source is defined as radioactive material that is sealed in a capsule or closely bonded, in a solid form and that is not exempt from regulatory control. It does not mean material encapsulated solely for disposal, or nuclear material contained in any fuel assembly, subassembly, fuel rod, or fuel pellet. Category 1 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 1 threshold. Category 2 nationally tracked sources are those containing radioactive material at a quantity equal to or greater than the Category 2 threshold but less than the Category 1 threshold.

"Natural radioactivity" means radioactivity of naturally occurring nuclides.

"Natural thorium" means thorium with the naturally occurring distribution of thorium isotopes, which is essentially 100 weight percent thorium-232.

"Natural uranium" (See "Uranium - natural, depleted, enriched").

"Near-surface disposal facility" means a land disposal facility in which waste is disposed of within approximately the upper 30 meters of the earth's surface.

"Negative pressure respirator" or "tight fitting" means a respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

"No-later-than arrival time" means the date and time that the shipping licensee and receiving licensee have established as the time at which an investigation will be initiated if the shipment has not arrived at the receiving facility. The no-later-than arrival times may not be more than six hours after the estimated arrival time for shipments of Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

"Noise" means the standard deviation of the fluctuations in CTN expressed as a percentage of the attenuation coefficient of water. Its estimate (Sn) is calculated using the following expression:

http://leg5.state.va.us/images/664618692977LEGAB_files/image005.gif

where:

http://leg5.state.va.us/images/665129392481LEGAB_files/image001.gif = Linear attenuation coefficient of the material of interest.

μw = Linear attenuation coefficient of water.

s = Standard deviation of the CTN of picture elements in a specified area of the CT image.

"Nominal tomographic section thickness" means the full width at half-maximum of the sensitivity profile taken at the center of the cross-sectional volume over which x-ray transmission data are collected.

"Non-image-intensified fluoroscopy" means fluoroscopy using only a fluorescent screen.

"Nonstochastic effect" means a health effect, the severity of which varies with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. Radiation-induced cataract formation is an example of a nonstochastic effect. For purposes of these regulations, "deterministic effect" is an equivalent term.

"NORM" means any naturally occurring radioactive material. It does not include accelerator produced, byproduct, source, or special nuclear material.

"Normal form radioactive material" means radioactive material that has not been demonstrated to qualify as special form radioactive material.

"Normal operating procedures" mean step-by-step instructions necessary to accomplish the analysis. These procedures shall include sample insertion and manipulation, equipment alignment, routine maintenance by the registrant (or licensee), and data recording procedures, which are related to radiation safety.

"Nominal treatment distance" means:

1. For electron irradiation, the distance from the scattering foil, virtual source, or exit window of the electron beam to the entrance surface of the irradiated object along the central axis of the useful beam.

2. For x-ray irradiation, the virtual source or target to isocenter distance along the central axis of the useful beam. For nonisocentric equipment, this distance shall be that specified by the manufacturer.

"NRC Forms 540, 540A, 541, 541A, 542, and 542A" means official NRC forms referenced in this chapter. Licensees need not use originals of these NRC Forms as long as any substitute forms are equivalent to the original documentation in respect to content, clarity, size, and location of information. Upon agreement between the shipper and consignee, NRC Forms 541 (and 541A) and NRC Forms 542 (and 542A) may be completed, transmitted, and stored in electronic media. The electronic media must have the capability for producing legible, accurate, and complete records in the format of the uniform manifest.

"Nuclear Regulatory Commission" or "NRC" means the NRC or its duly authorized representatives.

"Nuclear waste" means a quantity of source, byproduct or special nuclear material (the definition of nuclear waste in this chapter is used in the same way as in 49 CFR 173.403) required to be in NRC-approved specification packaging while transported to, through or across a state boundary to a disposal site, or to a collection point for transport to a disposal site.

"Occupational dose" means the dose received by an individual in the course of employment in which the individual's assigned duties for the licensee or registrant involve exposure to sources of radiation, whether or not the sources of radiation are in the possession of the licensee, registrant, or other person. Occupational dose does not include doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with 12VAC5-481-1870, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, or as a member of the public.

"Offshore platform radiography" means industrial radiography conducted from a platform over a body of water.

"Offshore waters" means that area of land and water, beyond the Commonwealth of Virginia's jurisdiction, on or above the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf.

"Open-beam configuration" means an analytical x-ray system in which an individual could accidentally place some part of his body in the primary beam path during normal operation.

"Output" means the exposure rate, dose rate, or a quantity related in a known manner to these rates from a teletherapy unit for a specified set of exposure conditions.

"Package" means the packaging together with its radioactive contents as presented for transport.

1. Fissile material package or Type AF package, Type BF package, Type B(U)F package, or Type B(M)F package means a fissile material packaging together with its fissile material contents.

2. Type A package means a Type A packaging together with its radioactive contents. A Type A package is defined and must comply with the DOT regulations in 49 CFR Part 173.

3. Type B package means a Type B packaging together with its radioactive contents. On approval, a Type B package design is designated by NRC as B(U) unless the package has a maximum normal operating pressure of more than 700 kPa (100 lbs/in2) gauge or a pressure relief device that would allow the release of radioactive material to the environment under the tests specified in 10 CFR 71.73 (hypothetical accident conditions), in which case it will receive a designation B(M). B(U) refers to the need for unilateral approval of international shipments; B(M) refers to the need for multilateral approval of international shipments. There is no distinction made in how packages with these designations may be used in domestic transportation. To determine their distinction for international transportation, see DOT regulations in 49 CFR Part 173. A Type B package approved before September 6, 1983, was designated only as Type B. Limitations on its use are specified in 10 CFR 71.19.

"Packaging" means the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements of these regulations. It may consist of one or more receptacles, absorbent materials, spacing structures, thermal insulation, radiation shielding, and devices for cooling or absorbing mechanical shocks. The vehicle, tie-down system, and auxiliary equipment may be designated as part of the packaging.

"Panoramic dry-source-storage irradiator" means an irradiator in which the irradiations occur in air in areas potentially accessible to personnel and in which the sources are stored in shields made of solid materials. The term includes beam-type dry-source-storage irradiators in which only a narrow beam of radiation is produced for performing irradiations.

"Panoramic irradiator" means an irradiator in which the irradiations are done in air in areas potentially accessible to personnel. The term includes beam-type irradiators.

"Panoramic wet-source-storage irradiator" means an irradiator in which the irradiations occur in air in areas potentially accessible to personnel and in which the sources are stored under water in a storage pool.

"Particle accelerator" (See "Accelerator").

"Patient" means an individual or animal subjected to healing arts examination, diagnosis, or treatment.

"PBL" (See "Positive beam limitation").

"Peak tube potential" means the maximum value of the potential difference across the x-ray tube during an exposure.

"Periodic quality assurance check" means a procedure that is performed to ensure that a previous calibration continues to be valid.

"Permanent radiographic installation" means an enclosed shielded room, cell, or vault, not located at a temporary jobsite, in which radiography is performed.

"Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, department of the Commonwealth other than the Department of Health, political subdivision of the Commonwealth, any other state or political subdivision or department thereof, and any legal successor, representative, agent, or department of the foregoing, but not including federal government agencies.

"Personal supervision" means guidance and instruction by the supervisor who is physically present at the jobsite and watching the performance of the operation in such proximity that contact can be maintained and immediate assistance given as required. In radiography it means guidance and instruction provided to a radiographer trainee by a radiographer instructor who is present at the site, in visual contact with the trainee while the trainee is using sources of radiation, and in such proximity that immediate assistance can be given if required.

"Personnel monitoring equipment" (See "Individual monitoring devices").

"Phantom" means a volume of material behaving in a manner similar to tissue with respect to the attenuation and scattering of radiation. This requires that both the atomic number (Z) and the density of the material be similar to that of tissue.

"Physical description" means the items called for on NRC Form 541 to describe a low-level radioactive waste.

"Pool irradiator" means any irradiator at which the sources are stored or used in a pool of water including panoramic wet-source-storage irradiators and underwater irradiators.

"Pharmacist" means an individual licensed by this state to compound and dispense drugs, prescriptions, and poisons.

"Physician" means an individual licensed by this state to prescribe drugs in the practice of medicine.

"Picture element" means an elemental area of a tomogram.

"PID" (See "Position indicating device").

"Pigtail" (See "Source assembly").

"Pill" (See "Sealed source").

"Planned special exposure" means an infrequent exposure to radiation, separate from and in addition to the annual occupational dose limits.

"Portable x-ray equipment" (See "x-ray equipment").

"Position indicating device" means a device on dental x-ray equipment used to indicate the beam position and to establish a definite source-surface (skin) distance. It may or may not incorporate or serve as a beam-limiting device.

"Positive beam limitation" means the automatic or semi-automatic adjustment of an x-ray beam to the size of the selected image receptor, whereby exposures cannot be made without such adjustment.

"Positron emission tomography radionuclide production facility" or "PET" means a facility operating a cyclotron or other particle accelerator for the purpose of producing radionuclides that decay by positron emission.

"Positive pressure respirator" means a respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

"Powered air-purifying respirator" or "PAPR" means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

"Practical examination" means a demonstration through application of the safety rules and principles in industrial radiography including use of all procedures and equipment to be used by radiographic personnel.

"Practical range of electrons" corresponds to classical electron range where the only remaining contribution to dose is from bremsstrahlung x-rays. A further explanation may be found in "Clinical Electron Beam Dosimetry: Report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 25" (Medical Physics 18(1): 73-109, Jan/Feb. 1991) and ICRU Report 35, "Radiation Dosimetry: Electron Beams with Energies Between 1 and 50 MeV", International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, September 15, 1984.

"Preceptor" means an individual who provides, directs, or verifies training and experience required for an individual to become an authorized user, an authorized medical physicist, an authorized nuclear pharmacist, or a radiation safety officer.

"Prescribed dosage" means the quantity of radiopharmaceutical activity as documented:

1. In a written directive; or

2. Either in the diagnostic clinical procedures manual or in any appropriate record in accordance with the directions of the authorized user for diagnostic procedures.

"Prescribed dose" means:

1. For gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, the total dose as documented in the written directive;

2. For teletherapy, the total dose and dose per fraction as documented in the written directive. The prescribed dose is an estimation from measured data from a specified therapeutic machine using assumptions that are clinically acceptable for that treatment technique and historically consistent with the clinical calculations previously used for patients treated with the same clinical technique; or

3. For brachytherapy, either the total source strength and exposure time, or the total dose, as documented in the written directive.

"Pressure demand respirator" means a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

"Primary beam" means radiation that passes through an aperture of the source housing by a direct path from the x-ray tube or a radioactive source located in the radiation source housing.

"Primary dose monitoring system" means a system that will monitor the useful beam during irradiation and that will terminate irradiation when a preselected number of dose monitor units have been delivered.

"Primary protective barrier" means the material, excluding filters, placed in the useful beam to reduce the radiation exposure (beyond the patient and cassette holder) for protection barriers.

"Principal activities," as used in this chapter, means activities authorized by the license that are essential to achieving the purposes for which the license was issued or amended. Storage during which no licensed material is accessed for use or disposal and activities incidental to decontamination or decommissioning are not principal activities.

"Private inspector" means an individual who meets the requirements set forth in 12VAC5-481-340 and who has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the agency that such individual possesses the knowledge, training and experience to measure ionizing radiation, to evaluate safety techniques, and to advise regarding radiation protection needs.

"Product" means, as used in Part XVI (12VAC5-481-3460 et seq.) of this chapter, something produced, made, manufactured, refined, or benefited.

"Product conveyor system" means a system for moving the product to be irradiated to, from, and within the area where irradiation takes place.

"Projection sheath" (See "Guide tube").

"Projector" (See "Radiographic exposure device").

"Protective apron" means an apron made of radiation-attenuating or absorbing materials used to reduce exposure to radiation.

"Protective glove" means a glove made of radiation absorbing materials used to reduce radiation exposure.

"Public dose" means the dose received by a member of the public from exposure to sources of radiation released by the licensee or registrant, or to any other source of radiation under the control of the licensee or registrant. "Public dose" does not include occupational dose, or doses received from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released in accordance with 12VAC5-481-1870, or from voluntary participation in medical research programs.

"Pulsed mode" means operation of the x-ray system such that the x-ray tube is pulsed by the x-ray control to produce one or more exposure intervals of duration less than one-half second.

"Pyrophoric material" means any liquid that ignites spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 130°F (54.4°C) or any solid material, other than one classed as an explosive, which under normal conditions is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or that can be ignited readily and, when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation, handling, or disposal hazard. Included are spontaneously combustible and water-reactive materials.

"Qualified inspector" means an individual who is granted professional privileges based on education and experience to provide clinical services in diagnostic and therapeutic medical physics.

"Qualified medical physicist" means an individual qualified in accordance with 12VAC5-481-3390 D.

"Qualitative fit test" or "QLFT" means a pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.

"Quality factor" or "Q" means the modifying factor, that is referenced in 12VAC5-481-240, that is used to derive dose equivalent from absorbed dose.

"Quantitative fit test" or "QNFT" means an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

"Quarter" means a period of time equal to one-fourth of the year observed by the licensee, approximately 13 consecutive weeks, providing that the beginning of the first quarter in a year coincides with the starting date of the year and that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive quarters.

"Rad" means the special unit of absorbed dose. One rad is equal to an absorbed dose of 100 erg per gram or 0.01 joule per kilogram (0.01 gray).

"Radiation" means alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other particles capable of producing ions. For purposes of these regulations, ionizing radiation is an equivalent term. Radiation, as used in these regulations, does not include nonionizing radiation, such as radiowaves or microwaves, visible, infrared, or ultraviolet light.

"Radiation area" means any area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels could result in an individual receiving a dose equivalent in excess of 0.05 mSv (0.005 rem) in one hour at 30 centimeters from the source of radiation or from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

"Radiation dose" (See "Dose").

"Radiation field" (See "Useful beam").

"Radiation head" means the structure from which the useful beam emerges.

"Radiation machine" means any device capable of producing radiation except those devices with radioactive material as the only source of radiation.

"Radiation room" means a shielded room in which irradiations take place. Underwater irradiators do not have radiation rooms.

"Radiation safety officer" or "RSO" means an individual who has the knowledge and responsibility to apply appropriate radiation protection regulations and has been assigned such responsibility by the licensee or registrant.

"Radiation safety officer for industrial radiography" means an individual with the responsibility for the overall radiation safety program on behalf of the licensee or registrant and who meets the requirements of 12VAC5-481-1310.

"Radiation safety officer for medical" means an individual who meets the requirements of 12VAC5-481-1750 and 12VAC5-481-1790 or is identified as an RSO on: a medical use license issued by the agency, NRC or another agreement state, or a medical use permit issued by an NRC masters material licensee.

"Radiation therapy physicist" means an individual qualified in accordance with 12VAC5-481-340.

"Radiation therapy simulation system" means a radiographic or fluoroscopic x-ray system intended for localizing the volume to be exposed during radiation therapy and confirming the position and size of the therapeutic irradiation field.

"Radiation therapy system" means a device that delivers radiation to a specific area of the body where cancer cells or tumors are located.

"Radioactive material" means any solid, liquid, or gas which emits radiation spontaneously.

"Radioactive marker" means radioactive material placed subsurface or on a structure intended for subsurface use for the purpose of depth determination or direction orientation.

"Radioactivity" means the transformation of unstable atomic nuclei by the emission of radiation.

"Radiobioassay" (See "Bioassay").

"Radiograph" means an image receptor on which the image is created directly or indirectly by an x-ray pattern and results in a permanent record.

"Radiographer" means any individual who performs or who, in attendance at the site where the sources of radiation are being used, personally supervises industrial radiographic operations and who is responsible to the licensee or registrant for assuring compliance with the requirements of the agency's regulations and the conditions of the license or registration.

"Radiographer certification" means written approval received from a certifying entity stating that an individual has satisfactorily met the radiation safety, testing, and experience criteria in 12VAC5-481-1320.

"Radiographer instructor" means any radiographer who has been authorized by the agency to provide on-the-job training to radiographer trainees in accordance with Part V (12VAC5-481-1170 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Radiographer trainee" means any individual who, under the personal supervision of a radiographer instructor, uses sources of radiation, related handling tools, or radiation survey instruments during the course of his instruction.

"Radiographer's assistant" means any individual who under the direct supervision of a radiographer, uses radiographic exposure devices, sources of radiation, related handling tools, or radiation survey instruments in industrial radiography.

"Radiographic exposure device" means any instrument containing a sealed source fastened or contained therein, in which the sealed source or shielding thereof may be moved, or otherwise changed, from a shielded to unshielded position for purposes of making a radiographic exposure.

"Radiographic operations" means all activities performed with a radiographic exposure device, or with a radiation machine. Activities include using, transporting except by common or contract carriers, or storing at a temporary job site, performing surveys to confirm the adequacy of boundaries, setting up equipment, and any activity inside restricted area boundaries. Transporting a radiation machine is not considered a radiographic operation.

"Radiographic personnel" means any radiographer, radiographer instructor, or radiographer trainee.

"Radiography" means:

1. For radioactive materials: See "Industrial radiography."

2. For x-ray: A technique for generating and recording an x-ray pattern for the purpose of providing the user with an image after termination of the exposure.

"Rating" means the operating limits as specified by the component manufacturer.

"Reasonably maximally exposed individual" means, as used in Part XVI (12VAC5-481-3460 et seq.) of this chapter, a representative of a population who is exposed to TENORM at the maximum TENORM concentration measured in environmental media found at a site along with reasonable maximum case exposure assumptions. The exposure is determined by using maximum values for one or more of the most sensitive parameters affecting exposure, based on cautious but reasonable assumptions, while leaving the others at their mean value.

"Recording" means producing a retrievable form of an image resulting from x-ray photons.

"Redundant beam monitoring system" means a combination of two dose monitoring systems in which each system is designed to terminate irradiation in accordance with a preselected number of dose monitor units.

"Reference man" means a hypothetical aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics determined by international consensus. These characteristics may be used by researchers and public health employees to standardize results of experiments and to relate biological insult to a common base. A description of the reference man is contained in the International Commission on Radiological Protection report, ICRP Publication 23, "Report of the Task Group on Reference Man."

"Reference plane" means a plane that is displaced from and parallel to the tomographic plane.

"Registrant" means any person who is registered with the agency and is legally obligated to register with the agency pursuant to these regulations and the Act.

"Registration" means registration with the agency in accordance with the regulations adopted by the agency.

"Regulations of the U.S. Department of Transportation" means the regulations in 49 CFR Parts 100 - 189.

"Rem" means the special unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in rems is equal to the absorbed dose in rad multiplied by the quality factor (1 rem = 0.01 Sv).

"Reportable event" means the administration of either:

1. A diagnostic x-ray exposure where an actual or suspected acute or long-term functional damage to an organ or a physiological system has occurred. Exempt from this reporting requirement is any event when any functional damage to a patient organ or a physiological system that was an expected outcome when the causative procedures were prescribed;

2. A procedure where the patient or operator is injured as a result of a mechanical injury;

3. A teletherapy x-ray or electron dose where the calculated weekly administered dose differs from the weekly prescribed dose by 15% or more; or

4. A brachytherapy x-ray dose where the calculated administered dose differs from the prescribed dose by 10% or more.

"Research and development" means (i) theoretical analysis, exploration, or experimentation; or (ii) the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstrative purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes. Research and development does not include the internal or external administration of radiation or radioactive material to human beings.

"Residential location" means any area where structures in which people lodge or live are located, and the grounds on which such structures are located including, but not limited to, houses, apartments, condominiums, and garages.

"Residual radioactive material" means (i) waste (that the U.S. Secretary of Energy determines to be radioactive) in the form of tailings resulting from the processing of ores for the extraction of uranium and other valuable constituents of the ores and (ii) other waste (that the U.S. Secretary of Energy determines to be radioactive) at a processing site that relates to such processing, including any residual stock of unprocessed ores or low-grade materials. This term is used only with respect to materials at sites subject to remediation under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, as amended.

"Residual radioactivity" means radioactivity in structures, materials, soils, groundwater, and other media at a site resulting from activities under the licensee's control. This includes radioactivity from all licensed and unlicensed sources used by the licensee, but excludes background radiation. It also includes radioactive materials remaining at the site as a result of routine or accidental releases of radioactive materials at the site and previous burials at the site, even if those burials were made in accordance with the provisions of Part IV (12VAC5-481-600 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Residual waste" means low-level radioactive waste resulting from processing or decontamination activities that cannot be easily separated into distinct batches attributable to specific waste generators. This waste is attributable to the processor or decontamination facility, as applicable.

"Respiratory protective device" means an apparatus, such as a respirator, used to reduce an individual's intake of airborne radioactive materials.

"Restricted area" means an area, access to which is limited by the licensee or registrant for the purpose of protecting individuals against undue risks from exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. Restricted area does not include areas used as residential quarters, but separate rooms in a residential building may be set apart as a restricted area.

"Reviewing official" means the individual who shall make the trustworthiness and reliability determination of an individual to determine whether the individual may have, or continue to have, unescorted access to the Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive materials that are possessed by the licensee.

"Roentgen" means the special unit of exposure. One roentgen (R) equals 2.58E-4 coulombs per kilogram of air (see "Exposure" and 12VAC5-481-240).

"S-tube" means a tube through which the radioactive source travels when inside a radiographic exposure device.

"Sabotage" means deliberate damage, with malevolent intent, to a Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material, a device that contains a Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material, or the components of the security system.

"Safe haven" means a readily recognizable and readily accessible site at which security is present or from which, in the event of an emergency, the transport crew can notify and wait for the local law-enforcement authorities.

"Sanitary sewerage" means a system of public sewers for carrying off waste water and refuse, but excluding sewage treatment facilities, septic tanks, and leach fields owned or operated by the licensee or registrant.

"Scan" means the complete process of collecting x-ray transmission data for the production of a tomogram. Data can be collected simultaneously during a single scan for the production of one or more tomograms.

"Scan increment" means the amount of relative displacement of the patient with respect to the CT x-ray system between successive scans measured along the direction of such displacement.

"Scan sequence" means a preselected set of two or more scans performed consecutively under preselected CT conditions of operation.

"Scan time" means the period of time between the beginning and end of x-ray transmission data accumulation for a single scan.

"Scattered radiation" means ionizing radiation emitted by interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the interaction being accompanied by a change in direction of the radiation. Scattered primary radiation means that scattered radiation which has been deviated in direction only by materials irradiated by the useful beam.

"Sealed source" means any radioactive material that is encased in a capsule designed to prevent leakage or escape of any radioactive material.

"Secondary dose monitoring system" means a system which will terminate irradiation in the event of failure of the primary dose monitoring system.

"Security zone" means any temporary or permanent area determined and established by the licensee for the physical protection of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

"Seismic area" means any area where the probability of a horizontal acceleration in rock of more than 0.3 times the acceleration of gravity in 250 years is greater than 10%, as designated by the United States Geological Survey.

"Self-contained breathing apparatus" or "SCBA" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

"Shadow tray" means a device attached to the radiation head to support auxiliary beam blocking material.

"Shallow dose equivalent" or "Hs," which applies to the external exposure of the skin or an extremity, means the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0.007 centimeter (7 mg/cm2).

"Shielded position" means the location within the radiographic exposure device or storage container which, by manufacturer's design, is the proper location for storage of the sealed source.

"Shielded-room radiography" means industrial radiography conducted in a room shielded so that radiation levels at every location on the exterior meet the limitations specified in 12VAC5-481-640.

"Shipper" means the licensed entity (i.e., the waste generator, waste collector, or waste processor) who offers low-level radioactive waste for transportation, typically consigning this type of waste to a licensed waste collector, waste processor, or land disposal facility operator.

"Shipping paper" means NRC Form 540 and, if required, NRC Form 540A, which includes the information required by the U.S. Department of Transportation in 49 CFR Part 172.

"Shutter" means a device attached to the tube housing assembly which can intercept the entire cross sectional area of the useful beam and which has a lead equivalency not less than that of the tube housing assembly.

"SI" means the abbreviation for the International System of Units.

"SID" (See "Source-image receptor distance").

"Sievert" or "Sv" means the SI unit of any of the quantities expressed as dose equivalent. The dose equivalent in sievert is equal to the absorbed dose in gray multiplied by the quality factor (1 Sv = 100 rem).

"Simulator" or "radiation therapy simulation system" means any x-ray system intended for localizing the volume to be exposed during radiation therapy and reproducing the position and size of the therapeutic irradiation field.

"Single tomogram system" means a CT x-ray system that obtains x-ray transmission data during a scan to produce a single tomogram.

"Site area emergency" means events may occur, are in progress, or have occurred that could lead to a significant release of radioactive material and that could require a response by offsite response organizations to protect persons offsite.

"Site boundary" means that line beyond which the land or property is not owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the licensee.

"Site closure and stabilization" means those actions that are taken upon completion of operations that prepare the disposal site for custodial care and that assure that the disposal site will remain stable and will not need ongoing active maintenance.

"Source" means the focal spot of the x-ray tube.

"Source assembly" means an assembly that consists of the sealed source and a connector that attaches the source to the control cable. The source assembly may include a ballstop to secure the source in the shielded position.

"Source changer" means a device designed and used for replacement of sealed sources in radiographic exposure devices, including those source changers also used for transporting and storage of sealed sources.

"Source holder" means a housing or assembly into which a radioactive source is placed for the purpose of facilitating the handling and use of the source in well-logging operations.

"Source-image receptor distance" means the distance from the source to the center of the input surface of the image receptor.

"Source material" means:

1. Uranium or thorium, or any combination thereof, in any physical or chemical form; or

2. Ores that contain by weight one-twentieth of 1.0% (0.05%) or more of uranium, thorium or any combination of uranium and thorium. Source material does not include special nuclear material.

"Source of radiation" means any radioactive material or any device or equipment emitting, or capable of producing, radiation.

"Source-skin distance" or "SSD" means the distance from the source to the center of the entrant x-ray field in the plane tangent to the patient's skin surface.

"Source traceability" means the ability to show that a radioactive source has been calibrated either by the national standards laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or by a laboratory that participates in a continuing measurement quality assurance program with National Institute of Standards and Technology or other equivalent national or international program.

"Special form radioactive material" means radioactive material that satisfies the following conditions:

1. It is either a single solid piece or is contained in a sealed capsule that can be opened only by destroying the capsule;

2. The piece or capsule has at least one dimension not less than five millimeters (0.2 in.); and

3. It satisfies the test requirements specified by the NRC of 10 CFR 71.75. A special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the NRC requirements of 10 CFR 71.4 in effect on June 30, 1983 (see 10 CFR Part 71, revised as of January 1, 1983), and constructed prior to before July 1, 1985,; a special form encapsulation designed in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.4 in effect on March 31, 1996 (see 10 CFR Part 71, revised as of January 1, 1996), and constructed before April 1, 1998; and special form material that was successfully tested before September 10, 2015, in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71.75(d) in effect before September 10, 2015, may continue to be used. A Any other special form encapsulation either designed or constructed after April 1, 1998, must meet requirements of this definition applicable at the time of its design or construction.

"Special nuclear material" means:

1. Plutonium, uranium-233, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, and any other material the NRC, pursuant to the provisions of § 51 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, (42 USC § 2071) determines to be special nuclear material, but does not include source material; or

2. Any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing but does not include source material.

"Special nuclear material in quantities not sufficient to form a critical mass" means uranium enriched in the isotope U-235 in quantities not exceeding 350 grams of contained U-235; uranium-233 in quantities not exceeding 200 grams; plutonium in quantities not exceeding 200 grams; or any combination of them in accordance with the following formula: For each kind of special nuclear material, determine the ratio between the quantity of that special nuclear material and the quantity specified above for the same kind of special nuclear material. The sum of such ratios for all of the kinds of special nuclear material in combination shall not exceed 1. For example, the following quantities in combination would not exceed the limitation and are within the formula:

(175 grams contained U235/350) + (50 grams U – 233/200) + (50 grams Pu/200) = 1

"Specific activity of a radionuclide" means the radioactivity of a radionuclide per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material in which the radionuclide is essentially uniformly distributed is the radioactivity per unit mass of the material.

"Spot film" means a radiograph that is made during a fluoroscopic examination to permanently record conditions that exist during that fluoroscopic procedure.

"Spot-film device" means a device intended to transport or position a radiographic image receptor between the x-ray source and fluoroscopic image receptor. It includes a device intended to hold a cassette over the input end of an image intensifier for the purpose of making a radiograph.

"Stability" means structural stability.

"State inspector" means an employee of the Virginia Department of Health designated to perform those duties or functions assigned the Radiological Health Program.

"Stationary beam radiation therapy" means radiation therapy without displacement of one or more mechanical axes relative to the patient during irradiation.

"Stationary x-ray equipment" (See "x-ray equipment").

"Stochastic effect" means a health effect that occurs randomly and for which the probability of the effect occurring, rather than its severity, is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold. Hereditary effects and cancer incidence are examples of stochastic effects. For purposes of this chapter, "probabilistic effect" is an equivalent term.

"Storage" means a condition in which a device or source is not being used for an extended period of time, and has been made inoperable.

"Storage area" means any location, facility, or vehicle that is used to store and secure a radiographic exposure device, a radiation machine, or a storage container when it is not used for radiographic operations. Storage areas are locked or have a physical barrier to prevent accidental exposure, tampering, or unauthorized removal of the device, machine, or container.

"Storage container" means a device in which sealed sources or radiation machines are secured and stored.

"Stray radiation" means the sum of leakage and scattered radiation.

"Subsurface tracer study" means the release of a substance tagged with radioactive material for the purpose of tracing the movement or position of the tagged substance in the well-bore or adjacent formation.

"Supplied-air respirator," "airline respirator," or "SAR" means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.

"Surface contaminated object" or "SCO" means a solid object that is not itself classed as radioactive material, but that has radioactive material distributed on any of its surfaces. An SCO must be in one of two groups with surface activity not exceeding the following limits:

1. SCO-I: A solid object on which:

a. The nonfixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm², or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm², does not exceed four becquerel per cm² (1 E-04 μCi/cm²) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 becquerel per cm² (1 E-05 μCi/cm²) for all other alpha emitters;

b. The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm², or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm², does not exceed 4 E+04 becquerel per cm² (1.0 μCi/cm²) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 E+03 becquerel per cm² (0.1 μCi/cm²) for all other alpha emitters; and

c. The nonfixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm², or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm², does not exceed 4 E+04 becquerel per cm² (1 μCi/cm²) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 E+03 Becquerel per cm² (0.1 μCi/cm²) for all other alpha emitters.

2. SCO-II: A solid object on which the limits for SCO-I are exceeded and on which:

a. The nonfixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm², or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm², does not exceed 400 becquerel per cm² (1 E-02 μCi/cm²) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters or 40 becquerel per cm² (1 E-03 μCi/cm²) for all other alpha emitters;

b. The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged over 300 cm², or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm², does not exceed 8 E+05 becquerel per cm² (20 μCi/cm²) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 E+04 becquerel per cm² (2 μCi/cm²) for all other alpha emitters; and

c. The nonfixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm², or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm², does not exceed 8 E+05 becquerel per cm² (20 μCi/cm²) for beta and gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 E+04 becquerel per cm² (2 μCi/cm²) for all other alpha emitters.

"Surveillance" means monitoring and observation of the disposal site for purposes of visual detection of need for maintenance, custodial care, evidence of intrusion, and compliance with other license and regulatory requirements.

"Survey" means an evaluation of the radiological conditions and potential hazards incident to the production, use, transfer, release, disposal, or presence of radioactive material or other sources of radiation. When appropriate, such an evaluation includes a physical survey of the location of radioactive material and measurements or calculations of levels of radiation, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material present.

"Tabletop, stationary" means a tabletop that, when assembled for use, is incapable of movement with respect to its supporting structure within the plane of the tabletop.

"Target" means that part of an x-ray tube or accelerator onto which a beam of accelerated particles is directed to produce ionizing radiation or other particles.

"Target-skin distance" or "TSD" means the distance measured along the beam axis from the center of the front surface of the x-ray target or electron virtual source, or both, to the surface of the irradiated object or patient.

"Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material" or "TENORM" means, as used in Part XVI (12VAC5-481-3460 et seq.) of this chapter, naturally occurring radionuclides whose concentrations are increased by or as a result of past or present human practices. TENORM does not include background radiation or the natural radioactivity of rocks or soils. TENORM does not include uranium or thorium in "source material" as defined in the AEA and NRC regulations.

"Technique factors" means the following conditions of operation:

1. For capacitor energy storage equipment, peak tube potential in kilovolts (kV) and quantity of charge in milliampere-seconds (mAs);

2. For field emission equipment rated for pulsed operation, peak tube potential in kilovolts (kV), and number of x-ray pulses;

3. For CT equipment designed for pulsed operation, peak tube potential in kilovolts (kV), scan time in seconds, and either tube current in milliamperes (mA), x-ray pulse width in seconds, and the number of x-ray pulses per scan, or the product of tube current, x-ray pulse width, and the number of x-ray pulses in milliampere-seconds (mAs);

4. For CT equipment not designed for pulsed operation, peak tube potential in kilovolts (kV), and either tube current in milliamperes (mA) and scan time in seconds, or the product of tube current and exposure time in milliampere-seconds (mAs) and the scan time when the scan time and exposure time are equivalent; and

5. For all other equipment, peak tube potential in kilovolts (kV), and either tube current in milliamperes (mA) and exposure time in seconds, or the product of tube current and exposure time in milliampere-seconds (mAs).

"Telemetric position monitoring system" means a data transfer system that captures information by either instrumentation or measuring devices, or both, about the location and status of a transport vehicle or package between the departure and destination locations.

"Teletherapy physicist" means an individual identified as a qualified teletherapy physicist on an agency license.

"Teletherapy" means therapeutic irradiation in which the source of radiation is at a distance from the body.

"Temporary job site" means any location where industrial radiography, wireline service, well-logging, portable gauge or x-ray fluorescence use is performed and where licensed material may be stored other than those locations of use authorized on the license.

"Tenth-value layer" or "TVL" means the thickness of a specified material that attenuates x-radiation or gamma radiation to an extent such that the air kerma rate, exposure rate, or absorbed dose rate is reduced to one-tenth of the value measured without the material at the same point.

"Test" means the process of verifying compliance with an applicable regulation.

"Therapeutic radiation machine" means x-ray or electron-producing equipment designed and used for external beam radiation therapy. For the purpose of this chapter, devices used to administer electronic brachytherapy shall also be considered therapeutic radiation machines.

"These regulations" mean all parts of this chapter.

"Tight-fitting facepiece" means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

"Tomogram" means the depiction of the x-ray attenuation properties of a section through the body.

"Tomographic plane" means that geometric plane that is identified as corresponding to the output tomogram.

"Tomographic section" means the volume of an object whose x-ray attenuation properties are imaged in a tomogram.

"Total effective dose equivalent" or "TEDE" means the sum of the effective dose equivalent for external exposures and the committed effective dose equivalent for internal exposures.

"Total organ dose equivalent" or "TODE" means the sum of the deep dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to the organ receiving the highest dose as described in 12VAC5-481-1040.

"Traceable to a National Standard" (See "Instrument traceability" or "Source traceability").

"Transfer" means, as used in Part XVI (12VAC5-481-3460 et seq.) of this chapter, the physical relocation of NORM containing materials not directly associated with commercial distribution within a business's operation or between general or specific licensees. This term does not include a change in legal title to NORM containing materials that does not involve physical movement of those materials.

"Transport container" means a package that is designed to provide radiation safety and security when sealed sources are transported and that meets all applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

"Transport index" or "TI" means the dimensionless number, rounded up to the next tenth, placed on the label of a package to designate the degree of control to be exercised by the carrier during transportation. The transport index is the number determined by multiplying the maximum radiation level in millisievert (mSv) per hour at one meter (3.3 feet) from the external surface of the package by 100 (equivalent to the maximum radiation level in millirem per hour at one meter (3.3 feet)).

"Treatment site" means the correct anatomical description of the area intended to receive a radiation dose, as described in a written directive.

"Tribal official" means the highest ranking individual that represents tribal leadership, such as the chief, president, or tribal council leadership.

"Tritium neutron generator target source" means a tritium source used within a neutron generator tube to produce neutrons for use in well-logging applications.

"Trustworthiness and reliability" means characteristics of an individual considered dependable in judgment, character, and performance, such that unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material by that individual does not constitute an unreasonable risk to the public health and safety or security. A determination of trustworthiness and reliability for this purpose is based upon the results from a background investigation.

"Tube" means an x-ray tube, unless otherwise specified.

"Tube housing assembly" means the tube housing with tube installed. It includes high-voltage or filament transformers and other appropriate elements when such are contained within the tube housing.

"Tube rating chart" means the set of curves which specify the rated limits of operation of the tube in terms of the technique factors.

"Type A quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material, the aggregate radioactivity of which does not exceed A1 for special form radioactive material or A2 for normal form radioactive material, where A1 and A2 are given in Table 1 of 12VAC5-481-3770 F or may be determined by procedures described in 12VAC5-481-3770 A through E.

"Type B quantity" means a quantity of radioactive material greater than a Type A quantity.

"Underwater irradiator" means an irradiator in which the sources always remain shielded under water and humans do not have access to the sealed sources or the space subject to irradiation without entering the pool.

"Underwater radiography" means radiographic operations performed when the radiographic exposure device or radiation machine or related equipment are beneath the surface of the water.

"Unescorted access" means solitary access to an aggregated Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material or the devices that contain the material.

"Uniform Low-Level Radioactive Waste Manifest" or "uniform manifest" means the combination of NRC Forms 540 and 541, and, if necessary, 542, and their respective continuation sheets as needed, or equivalent.

"Unirradiated uranium" means uranium containing not more than 2 x 103 Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium-235, not more than 9 x 106 Bq of fission products per gram of uranium-235, and not more than 5 x 10-3 g of uranium-236 per gram of uranium-235.

"Unrefined and unprocessed ore" means ore in its natural form prior to any processing, such as grinding, roasting, beneficiating, or refining. Processing does not include sieving or encapsulating of ore or preparation of samples for laboratory analysis.

"Unrestricted area" means an area, access to which is neither limited nor controlled by the licensee or registrant. For purposes of these regulations, "uncontrolled area" is an equivalent term.

"Uranium - natural, depleted, enriched"

1. "Natural uranium" means uranium (which may be chemically separated) with the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes, which is approximately 0.711 weight percent uranium-235, and the remainder by weight essentially uranium-238.

2. "Depleted uranium" means uranium containing less uranium-235 than the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes.

3. "Enriched uranium" means uranium containing more uranium-235 than the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes.

"Uranium sinker bar" means a weight containing depleted uranium used to pull a logging tool down toward the bottom of a well.

"Useful beam" means the radiation that passes through the tube housing port and the aperture of the beam-limiting device when the exposure switch or timer is activated.

"User seal check" or "fit check" means an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face. Examples include negative pressure check, positive pressure check, irritant smoke check, or isoamyl acetate check.

"Variable-aperture beam-limiting device" means a beam-limiting device which has capacity for stepless adjustment of the x-ray field size at a given SID.

"Very high radiation area" means an area, accessible to individuals, in which radiation levels from radiation sources external to the body could result in an individual receiving an absorbed dose in excess of five Gy (500 rad) in one hour at one meter from a source of radiation or one meter from any surface that the radiation penetrates.

"Virtual simulator" means a computed tomography (CT) unit used in conjunction with relevant software that recreates the treatment machine and that allows import, manipulation, display, and storage of images from CT or other imaging modalities, or both.

"Virtual source" means a point from which radiation appears to originate.

"Visible area" means that portion of the input surface of the image receptor over which incident x-ray photons are producing a visible image.

"Visiting authorized user" means an authorized user who is not identified on the license of the licensee being visited.

"Waste" means those low-level radioactive wastes containing source, special nuclear, or byproduct material that are acceptable for disposal in a land disposal facility. For the purposes of this definition, low-level radioactive waste means radioactive waste not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or byproduct material as defined in subdivisions 2, 3, and 4 of the definition of byproduct material.

"Waste collector" means an entity, operating under a specific license, whose principal purpose is to collect and consolidate waste generated by others, and to transfer this waste, without processing or repackaging the collected waste, to another licensed waste collector, licensed waste processor, or licensed land disposal facility.

"Waste description" means the physical, chemical and radiological description of a low-level radioactive waste as called for on NRC Form 541.

"Waste generator" means an entity, operating under a license, that (i) possesses any material or component that contains radioactivity or is radioactively contaminated for which the licensee foresees no further use, and (ii) transfers this material or component to a licensed land disposal facility or to a licensed waste collector or processor for handling or treatment prior to disposal. A licensee performing processing or decontamination services may be a "waste generator" if the transfer of low-level radioactive waste from its facility is defined as "residual waste."

"Waste handling licensees" mean persons licensed to receive and store radioactive wastes prior to disposal or persons licensed to dispose of radioactive waste.

"Waste processor" means an entity, operating under a specific license, whose principal purpose is to process, repackage, or otherwise treat low-level radioactive material or waste generated by others prior to eventual transfer of waste to a licensed low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility.

"Waste type" means a waste within a disposal container having a unique physical description (i.e., a specific waste descriptor code or description; or a waste sorbed on or solidified in a specifically defined media).

"Wedge filter" means a filter that effects continuous change in transmission over all or a part of the useful beam.

"Week" means seven consecutive days starting on Sunday.

"Weighting factor" or "wT" for an organ or tissue (T) means the proportion of the risk of stochastic effects resulting from irradiation of that organ or tissue to the total risk of stochastic effects when the whole body is irradiated uniformly. For calculating the effective dose equivalent, the values of wT are:

Organ Dose Weighting Factors

Organ or Tissue

wT

Gonads

0.25

Breast

0.15

Red bone marrow

0.12

Lung

0.12

Thyroid

0.03

Bone surfaces

0.03

Remainder

0.30a/

Whole Body

1.00b/

a/0.30 results from 0.06 for each of five "remainder" organs, excluding the skin and the lens of the eye, that receive the highest doses.

b/For the purpose of weighting the external whole body dose for adding it to the internal dose, a single weighting factor, wT = 1.0, has been specified. The use of other weighting factors for external exposure will be approved on a case-by-case basis until such time as specific guidance is issued.

"Well-bore" means a drilled hole in which wireline service operations or subsurface tracer studies are performed.

"Well-logging" means all operations involving the lowering and raising of measuring devices or tools that may contain sources of radiation into well-bores or cavities for the purpose of obtaining information about the well or adjacent formations.

"Whole body" means, for purposes of external exposure, head, trunk including male gonads, arms above the elbow, or legs above the knee.

"Wireline" means a cable containing one or more electrical conductors that is used to lower and raise logging tools in the well-bore.

"Wireline service operation" means any evaluation or mechanical service that is performed in the well-bore using devices on a wireline.

"Worker" means an individual engaged in work under a license or registration issued by the agency and controlled by a licensee or registrant but does not include the licensee or registrant.

"Working level" or "WL" means any combination of short-lived radon daughters in one liter of air that will result in the ultimate emission of 1.3E+5 MeV of potential alpha particle energy. The short-lived radon daughters of radon-222 are polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214, and polonium-214; and those of radon-220 are polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212, and polonium-212.

"Working level month" or "WLM" means an exposure to one working level for 170 hours. Two thousand working hours per year divided by 12 months per year is approximately equal to 170 hours per month.

"Written directive" means an order in writing for a specific patient, dated and signed by an authorized user prior to the administration of a radiopharmaceutical or radiation, except as specified in subdivision 6 of this definition, containing the following information:

1. For any administration of quantities greater than 1.11 megabecquerels (30 mCi) of sodium iodide I-125 or I-131: the radionuclide, and dosage;

2. For a therapeutic administration of a radiopharmaceutical other than sodium iodide I-125 or I-131: the radiopharmaceutical, dosage, and route of administration;

3. For gamma stereotactic radiosurgery: target coordinates, collimator size, plug pattern, and total dose;

4. For teletherapy: the total dose, dose per fraction, treatment site, and overall treatment period;

5. For high-dose-rate remote afterloading brachytherapy: the radionuclide, treatment site, and total dose; or

6. For all other brachytherapy,

a. Prior to implantation: the radionuclide, number of sources, and source strengths; and

b. After implantation but prior to completion of the procedure: the radionuclide, treatment site, and total source strength and exposure time (or, equivalently, the total dose).

"X-ray control" means a device that controls input power to the x-ray high-voltage generator or the x-ray tube. It includes equipment such as timers, phototimers, automatic brightness stabilizers, and similar devices, which control the technique factors of an x-ray exposure.

"X-ray exposure control" means a device, switch, button or other similar means by which an operator initiates or terminates the radiation exposure. The x-ray exposure control may include such associated equipment as timers and back-up timers.

"X-ray equipment" means an x-ray system, subsystem, or component thereof. Types of x-ray equipment are as follows:

1. "Mobile x-ray equipment" means x-ray equipment mounted on a permanent base with wheels or casters for moving while completely assembled.

2. "Portable x-ray equipment" means x-ray equipment designed to be hand-carried.

3. "Stationary x-ray equipment" means x-ray equipment that is installed in a fixed location.

"X-ray field" means that area of the intersection of the useful beam and any one of the sets of planes parallel to and including the plane of the image receptor, whose perimeter is the locus of points at which the AKR is one-fourth of the maximum in the intersection.

"X-ray high-voltage generator" means a device that transforms electrical energy from the potential supplied by the x-ray control to the tube operating potential. The device may also include means for transforming alternating current to direct current, filament transformers for the x-ray tubes, high-voltage switches, electrical protective devices, and other appropriate elements.

"X-ray system" means an assemblage of components for the controlled production of x-rays. It includes minimally an x-ray high-voltage generator, an x-ray control, a tube housing assembly, a beam-limiting device, and the necessary supporting structures. Additional components that function with the system are considered integral parts of the system.

"X-ray table" means a patient support device with its patient support structure (tabletop) interposed between the patient and the image receptor during radiography or fluoroscopy. This includes, but is not limited to, any stretcher equipped with a radiolucent panel and any table equipped with a cassette tray (or bucky), cassette tunnel, fluoroscopic image receptor, or spot-film device beneath the tabletop.

"X-ray tube" means any electron tube that is designed for the conversion of electrical energy into x-ray energy.

"Year" means the period of time beginning in January used to determine compliance with the provisions of this chapter. The licensee or registrant may change the starting date of the year used to determine compliance by the licensee or registrant provided that the change is made at the beginning of the year. If a licensee or registrant changes in a year, the licensee or registrant shall assure that no day is omitted or duplicated in consecutive years.

12VAC5-481-421

12VAC5-481-421. Requirements for license to initially transfer source material for use under the small quantities of source material general license.

A. An application for a specific license to initially transfer source material for use under 12VAC5-481-420 A or equivalent regulations of the NRC or another agreement state will be approved if:

1. The applicant satisfies the general requirements specified in 12VAC5-481-450; and

2. The applicant submits adequate information on, and the agency approves the methods to be used for quality control, labeling, and providing safety instructions to recipients.

B. Conditions of licenses to initially transfer source material for use under the small quantities of source material general license: quality control, labeling, safety instructions, and records and reports.

1. Each person licensed under subsection A of this section shall label the immediate container of each quantity of source material with the type of source material and quantity of material and the words, "radioactive material."

2. Each person licensed under subsection A of this section shall ensure that the quantities and concentrations of source material are as labeled and indicated in any transfer records.

3. Each person licensed under subsection A of this section shall provide the information specified in this subdivision to each person to whom source material is transferred for use under 12VAC5-481-420 A or equivalent provisions of the NRC or another agreement state. This information shall be transferred before the source material is transferred for the first time in each calendar year to the particular recipient. The required information includes:

a. A copy of 12VAC5-481-420 A and 12VAC5-481-570, or relevant equivalent regulations of the NRC or another agreement state.

b. Appropriate radiation safety precautions and instructions relating to handling, use, storage, and disposal of the material.

4. Each person licensed under subsection A of this section shall report transfers as follows:

a. File a report with the Director, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555. The report shall include the following information:

(1) The name, address, and license number of the person who transferred the source material;

(2) For each general licensee under 10 CFR 40.22 or equivalent agreement state provisions to whom greater than 50 grams (0.11 lb) of source material has been transferred in a single calendar quarter, the name and address of the general licensee to whom source material is distributed; a responsible agent, by name, position, or both and phone number, of the general licensee to whom the material was sent and the type, physical form, and quantity of source material transferred; and

(3) The total quantity of each type and physical form of source material transferred in the reporting period to all such generally licensed recipients.

b. File a report with the agency and other agreement state agencies that identifies all persons operating under provisions equivalent to 12VAC5-481-420 A to whom greater than 50 grams (0.11 lb) of source material has been transferred within a single calendar quarter. The report shall include the following information specific to those transfers made to the agreement state to which the report is being made:

(1) The name, address, and license number of the person who transferred the source material;

(2) The name and address of the general licensee to whom source material was distributed; a responsible agent, by name, position, or both and phone number, of the general licensee to whom the material was sent; and the type, physical form, and quantity of source material transferred; and

(3) The total quantity of each type and physical form of source material transferred in the reporting period to all such generally licensed recipients within the agreement state.

c. Submit each report by January 31 of each year covering all transfers for the previous calendar year. If no transfers were made to persons generally licensed under 12VAC5-481-420 A or equivalent NRC and other agreement state provisions during the current period, a report shall be submitted to the agency indicating so. If no transfers have been made to general licensees of the NRC or in a particular agreement state during the reporting period, this information shall be reported to the NRC or responsible agreement state agency upon request of the agency.

5. Each person licensed under subsection A of this section shall maintain all information that supports the reports required by this section concerning each transfer to a general licensee for a period of one year after the event is included in a report to the agency, the NRC, or another agreement state.

12VAC5-481-451

12VAC5-481-451. Physical protection of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

A. Any licensee who possesses or uses an aggregated quantity of Category 1 or Category 2 radioactive material equal to or in excess of those in subdivision 1 of this subsection shall establish a physical protection program that meets all requirements detailed in this section.

1. Radionuclides of concern.

Radionuclide

Category 1 (TBq)1,2

Category 1 (Ci)1,2

Category 2 (TBq)1,2

Category 2 (Ci)1,2

Am-241

60

1,620

0.6

16.2

Am-241/Be

60

1,620

0.6

16.2

Cf-252

20

540

0.2

5.4

Cm-244

50

1,350

0.5

13.5

Co-60

30

810

0.3

8.1

Cs-137

100

2,700

1

27

Gd-153

1,000

27,000

10

270

Ir-192

80

2,160

0.8

21.6

Pm-147

40,000

1,080,000

400

10,800

Pu-238

60

1,620

0.6

16.2

Pu-239/Be

60

1,620

0.6

16.2

Ra-226

40

1,080

0.4

10.8

Se-75

200

5,400

2

54

Sr-90 (Y-90)

1,000

27,000

10

270

Tm-170

20,000

540,000

200

5,400

Yb-169

300

8,100

3

81

Combinations of radioactive materials listed above3

 

 

See footnote 4 below

 

1The aggregate activity of multiple, collocated sources of the same radionuclides should be included when the total activity equals or exceeds the Category 1 or Category 2 threshold.

2The primary values used for compliance are TBq. The curie (Ci) values are rounded to two significant figures for informational purposes only.

3Radioactive materials are to be considered aggregated or collocated if breaching a common physical barrier (e.g., a locked door at the entrance to a storage room) would allow access to the radioactive material or devices containing the radioactive material.

4If several radionuclides are aggregated, the sum of the ratios of the activity of each source, i of radionuclide, n, A (i,n), to the Category 1 or Category 2 threshold for radionuclide n, Qn, listed for that radionuclide equals or exceeds one. [(aggregated source activity for radionuclide A) / (quantities of concern for radionuclide A)] + [(aggregated source activity for radionuclide B) / (quantities of concern for radionuclide B)] + etc…. ≥ 1.

2. A licensee that possesses radioactive waste that contains Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material is exempt from the requirements of this section.

3. A licensee that possesses radioactive waste that contains discrete sources, ion-exchange resins, or activated material that weighs less than 2,000 kg (4,409 lbs) is not exempt from the requirements of this section. The licensee shall implement the following requirements to secure the radioactive waste:

a. Use continuous physical barriers that allow access to the radioactive waste only through established access control points;

b. Use a locked door or gate with monitored alarm at the access control point;

c. Assess and respond to each actual or attempted unauthorized access to determine whether an actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion occurred; and

d. Immediately notify the local law-enforcement agency (LLEA) and request an armed response from the LLEA upon determination that there was an actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion of the radioactive waste.

B. Background investigations and access authorization program.

1. Personnel access authorization requirements for Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

a. Each licensee that possesses an aggregated quantity of radioactive material that equals or exceeds the Category 2 threshold shall establish, implement, and maintain its access authorization program in accordance with the requirements in this subsection. An applicant for a new license and each licensee that would become newly subject to the requirements in this subsection upon an amendment request of its license shall implement the requirements of this subsection, as appropriate, before taking possession of an aggregated quantity of radioactive material that equals or exceeds the Category 2 threshold. Any licensee that has not previously implemented the increased control requirements of this section shall implement the provisions of this subsection before aggregating radioactive material to a quantity that equals or exceeds the Category 2 threshold.

b. The licensee's access authorization program shall ensure that the individuals specified in subdivision 1 c of this subsection are trustworthy and reliable.

c. Licensees shall subject the following individuals to an access authorization program:

(1) Any individual whose assigned duties require unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material; and

(2) Reviewing officials.

d. Licensees shall approve for unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material only those individuals whose assigned job duties require unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

e. Licensees need not subject the categories of individuals listed in subdivision 5 a of this subsection to the investigation elements of the access authorization program.

2. Access authorization program requirements.

a. Granting unescorted access authorization.

(1) Licensees shall implement the requirements of this subsection for granting initial or reinstated unescorted access authorization.

(2) Individuals who have been determined to be trustworthy and reliable shall also complete the security training required by subdivision C 2 c of this section before being allowed unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

b. Reviewing officials.

(1) Reviewing officials are the only individuals who may make trustworthiness and reliability determinations that allow individuals to have unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive materials possessed by the licensee.

(2) Each licensee shall name one or more individuals to be reviewing officials. After completing the background investigation on the reviewing official, the licensee shall provide under oath or affirmation a certification that the reviewing official is deemed trustworthy and reliable by the licensee. The fingerprints of the named reviewing official shall be taken by a law-enforcement agency, a federal or state agency that provides fingerprinting services to the public, or a commercial fingerprinting service authorized by a state to take fingerprints. The licensee shall recertify that the reviewing official is deemed trustworthy and reliable every 10 years in accordance with subdivision 3 c of this subsection.

(3) Reviewing officials shall be permitted to have unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

(4) Reviewing officials cannot approve other individuals to act as reviewing officials.

(5) A reviewing official does not need to undergo a new background investigation before being named by the licensee as the reviewing official if:

(a) The individual has undergone a background investigation that included fingerprinting and an FBI criminal history records check and has been determined to be trustworthy and reliable by the licensee; or

(b) The individual is subject to a category listed in subdivision 5 a of this subsection.

c. Informed consent.

(1) Licensees may not initiate a background investigation without the informed and signed consent of the subject individual. This consent shall include authorization to share personal information with other individuals or organizations as necessary to complete the background investigation. Before a final adverse determination, the licensee shall provide the individual with an opportunity to correct any inaccurate or incomplete information that is developed during the background investigation. Licensees do not need to obtain signed consent from those individuals who meet the requirements of subdivision 3 b of this subsection. A signed consent shall be obtained prior to any reinvestigation.

(2) The subject individual may withdraw his consent at any time. Licensees shall inform the individual that:

(a) If an individual withdraws his consent, the licensee may not initiate elements of the background investigation that were not in progress at the time the individual withdrew his consent; and

(b) The withdrawal of consent for the background investigation is sufficient cause of denial or termination of unescorted access authorization.

d. Any individual who is applying for unescorted access authorization shall disclose the personal history information that is required by the licensee's access authorization program for the reviewing official to make a determination of the individual's trustworthiness and reliability. Refusal to provide, or the falsification of, any personal history information required by this subsection is sufficient cause for denial or termination of unescorted access.

e. Determination basis.

(1) The reviewing official shall determine whether to permit, deny, unfavorably terminate, maintain, or administratively withdraw an individual's unescorted access authorization based on an evaluation of all the information collected to meet the requirements of this subsection.

(2) The reviewing official may not permit any individual to have unescorted access until the reviewing official has evaluated all the information collected to meet the requirements of this subsection and determined that the individual is trustworthy and reliable. The reviewing official may deny unescorted access to any individual based on information obtained at any time during the background investigation.

(3) The licensee shall document the basis for concluding whether or not there is reasonable assurance that an individual is trustworthy and reliable.

(4) The reviewing official may terminate or administratively withdraw an individual's unescorted access authorization based on information obtained after the background investigation has been completed and the individual granted unescorted access information.

(5) Licensees shall maintain a list of persons currently approved for unescorted access authorization. When a licensee determines that a person no longer requires unescorted access or meets the access authorization requirement, the licensee shall remove the person from the approved list as soon as possible, but no later than seven working days, and take prompt measures to ensure that the individual is unable to have unescorted access to the material.

f. Licensees shall develop, implement, and maintain written procedures for implementing the access authorization program. The procedures shall include the provisions for the notification of individuals who are denied unescorted access. The procedures shall include provisions for the review, at the request of the affected individual, of a denial or termination of unescorted access authorization. The procedures shall contain a provision to ensure that the individual is informed of the grounds for the denial or termination of unescorted access authorization and allow the individual an opportunity to provide additional relevant information.

g. Right to correct and complete information.

(1) Prior to any final adverse determination, licensees shall provide each individual subject to this subsection with the right to complete, correct, and explain information obtained as a result of the licensee's background investigation. Confirmation of receipt by the individual of this notification shall be maintained by the licensee for a period of one year from the date of the notification.

(2) If, after reviewing his criminal history record, an individual believes that it is incorrect or incomplete in any respect and wishes to change, correct, update, or explain anything in the record, the individual may initiate challenge procedures. These procedures include direct application by the individual challenging the record to the law-enforcement agency that contributed the questioned information or a direct challenge as to the accuracy or completeness of any entry on the criminal history record to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division, ATTN: SCU, Mod. D-2, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Clarksburg, WV 26306 as set forth in 28 CFR 16.30 through 28 CFR 16.34. In the latter case, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) will forward the challenge to the agency that submitted the data and will request that the agency verify or correct the challenged entry. Upon receipt of an official communication directly from the agency that contributed the original information, the FBI Identification Division will make any change necessary in accordance with the information supplied by that agency. Licensees shall provide at least 10 days for an individual to initiate action to challenge the results of an FBI criminal history records check after the record being made available for his review. The licensee may make a final adverse determination based upon the criminal history records only after receipt of the FBI's confirmation or correction of the record.

h. Records.

(1) The licensee shall retain documentation regarding the trustworthiness and reliability of individual employees for three years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

(2) The licensee shall retain a copy of the current access authorization program procedures as a record for three years after the procedure is no longer needed. If any portion of the procedure is superseded, the licensee shall retain the superseded material for three years after the record is superseded.

(3) The licensee shall retain the list of individuals approved for unescorted access authorization for three years after the list is superseded or replaced.

3. Background investigations.

a. Before allowing an individual unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material or to the devices containing the material, licensees shall complete a background investigation of the individual seeking unescorted access authorization. The scope of the investigation shall encompass at least the seven years preceding the date of the background investigation or since the individual's 18th birthday, whichever is shorter. The background investigation shall include at a minimum:

(1) Fingerprinting and an FBI identification and criminal history records check in accordance with subdivision 4 of this subsection;

(2) Verification of true identity of the individual who is applying for unescorted access authorization. A licensee shall review official identification documents (e.g., driver's license; passport; government identification; certificate of birth issued by the state, province, or country of birth) and compare the documents to personal information data provided by the individual to identify any discrepancy in the information. Licensees shall document the type, expiration, and identification number of the identification document or maintain a photocopy of identifying documents on file in accordance with subdivision 6 of this subsection. Licensees shall certify in writing that the identification was properly reviewed and shall maintain the certification and all related documents for review upon inspection;

(3) Verification of employment history, including military history. Licensees shall verify the individual's employment with each previous employer for the most recent seven years before the date of application;

(4) Verification that the individual participated in the education process during the claimed period;

(5) Completion of reference checks to determine the character and reputation of the individual who has applied for unescorted access authorization. Unless other references are not available, reference checks may not be conducted with any person who is known to be a close member of the individual's family, including but not limited to, the individual's spouse, parents, siblings, or children, or any individual who resides in the individual's permanent household. Reference checks under this subsection shall be limited to whether the individual has been and continues to be trustworthy and reliable;

(6) To the extent possible, obtain independent information to corroborate the information provided by the individual (e.g., seek references not supplied by the individual); and

(7) If a previous employer, educational institution, or any other entity with which the individual claims to have been engaged fails to provide the information or indicates an inability or unwillingness to provide information within a timeframe deemed appropriate by the licensee but at least after 10 business days of the request or if the licensee is unable to reach the entity, the licensee shall document the refusal, unwillingness, or inability in the record of investigation and attempt to obtain the information from an alternate source.

b. Individuals who have been determined to be trustworthy and reliable for unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material in accordance with 12VAC5-481-451, "Increased controls and fingerprinting," as effective on October 3, 2008, can continue to have unescorted access to Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material without further investigation. These individuals shall be subject to the reinvestigation requirement of subdivision 3 c of this subsection.

c. Licensees shall conduct a reinvestigation every 10 years for any individual with unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The reinvestigation shall consist of fingerprinting and an FBI identification and criminal history records check in accordance with subdivision 4 of this subsection. The reinvestigations shall be completed within 10 years of the date on which these elements were last completed.

4. Requirements for criminal history records checks of individuals granted unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

a. General performance objective and requirements.

(1) Except for those individuals listed in subdivision 5 a of this subsection and those individuals grandfathered under subdivision 3 b of this subsection, each licensee subject to the provisions of this section shall fingerprint each individual who is to be permitted unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The licensee shall submit all collected fingerprints to the NRC for transmission to the FBI. The licensee shall use the information received from the FBI as part of the required background investigation to determine whether to grant or deny further unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive materials for that individual.

(2) The licensee shall notify each affected individual that his fingerprints will be used to secure a review of his criminal history record and shall inform him of the procedures for revising the record or adding explanations to the record.

(3) Fingerprinting is not required if a licensee is reinstating an individual's unescorted access authorization to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material if:

(a) The individual returns to the same facility that granted unescorted access authorization within 365 days of the termination of his unescorted access authorization; and

(b) The previous access was terminated under favorable conditions.

(4) Fingerprints do not need to be taken if an individual who is an employee of a licensee, contractor, manufacturer, or supplier has been granted unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, access to safeguards information, or safeguards information-modified handling by another licensee based upon a background investigation conducted under this subsection, regulations or Fingerprint Orders from another agreement state, or 10 CFR Part 73. An existing criminal history records check file may be transferred to the licensee asked to grant unescorted access in accordance with the provisions of subdivision 6 c of this subsection.

(5) Licensees shall use the information obtained as part of a criminal history records check solely for the purpose of determining an individual's suitability for unescorted access authorization to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive materials, access to safeguards information, or safeguards information-modified handling.

b. Prohibitions.

(1) Licensees may not base a final determination to deny an individual unescorted access authorization to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material solely on the basis of information received from the FBI involving:

(a) An arrest more than one year old for which there is no information of the disposition of the case; or

(b) An arrest that resulted in dismissal of the charge or an acquittal.

(2) Licensees may not use information received from a criminal history records check obtained under this subsection in a manner that would infringe upon the rights of any individual under the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, nor shall licensees use the information in any way that would discriminate among individuals on the basis of race, religion, national origin, gender, or age.

c. Procedures for processing of fingerprint checks.

(1) For the purpose of complying with this subsection, licensees shall submit to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Director, Division of Facilities and Security, 11545 Rockville Pike, ATTN: Criminal History Program/Mail Stop T-03B46M TWB-05 B32M, Rockville, MD, 20852-2738 20852, one completed, legible standard fingerprint card (form FD-258, ORIMDNRCOOOZ), electronic fingerprint scan, or, where practicable, other fingerprint record for each individual requiring unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. Copies of these forms may be obtained by writing the Office of Chief Information Services Officer, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, by calling (630) 829-9565, or by email to forms.resource@nrc.gov. Guidance on submitting electronic fingerprints can be found at http://www.nrc.gov/site-help/e-submittals.html.

(2) Fees for processing of fingerprint cards are due upon application. Licensees shall submit payment with the application for the processing of fingerprints through corporate check, certified check, cashier's check, money order, or electronic payment, made payable to the "U.S. NRC." (For guidance on making electronic payments, contact the Security Branch, Division of Facilities and Security at (301) 492-3531.) Combined payment for multiple applications is acceptable. The NRC publishes the amount of the fingerprint check application fee on the NRC public website. To find the current fee amount, go to the Electronic Submittals page at http://www.nrc.gov/site-help/e-submittals.html and see the link for the Criminal History Program under Electronic Submission Systems.

(3) The NRC will forward to the submitting licensee all data received from the FBI as a result of the licensee's application for a criminal history records check.

5. Relief.

a. Fingerprinting, identification and criminal history records checks, and other elements of the background investigation required by this subsection are not required for the following individuals prior to granting unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material:

(1) An employee of the NRC or of the executive branch of the U.S. government who has undergone fingerprinting for a prior U.S. government criminal history records check;

(2) A member of Congress;

(3) An employee of a member of Congress or congressional committee who has undergone fingerprinting for a prior U.S. government criminal history records check;

(4) The governor of a state or his designated state employee representative;

(5) Federal, state, or local law-enforcement personnel;

(6) State radiation control program directors and state homeland security advisors or their designated employee representatives;

(7) State radiation program employees conducting security inspections on behalf of the NRC under an agreement executed under § 274i of the Atomic Energy Act (42 USC § 2021i);

(8) Representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) engaged in activities associated with the U.S./IAEA Safeguards Agreement who have been certified by the NRC;

(9) Emergency response personnel who are responding to an emergency;

(10) Commercial vehicle drivers for road shipments of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material;

(11) Package handlers at transportation facilities such as freight terminals and railroad yards;

(12) Any individual who has an active federal security clearance and provides the appropriate documentation. Written confirmation from the agency or employer that granted the federal security clearance or reviewed the criminal history records check shall be provided to the licensee. The licensee shall retain this documentation for a period of three years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material; and

(13) Any individual employed by a service provider licensee for whom the service provider licensee has conducted the background investigation for the individual and approved the individual for unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. Written verification from the service provider shall be provided to the licensee. The licensee shall retain the documentation for a period of three years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

b. Fingerprinting and identification and criminal history records checks required by this subsection are not required for an individual who has had a favorably adjudicated U.S. Government criminal history records check within the last five years, under a comparable U.S. Government program involving fingerprinting and an FBI identification and criminal history records check, and the individual provides the appropriate documentation. Written confirmation from the agency or employer that reviewed the criminal history records check shall be provided to the licensee. The licensee shall retain this documentation for a period of three years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. These programs include, but are not limited to:

(1) National Agency Check;

(2) Transportation Worker Identification Credentials (TWIC) under 49 CFR Part 1572;

(3) Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives background check and clearances under 27 CFR Part 555;

(4) Health and Human Services security risk assessments for possession and use of select agents and toxins under 42 CFR Part 73;

(5) Hazardous material security threat assessment for hazardous material endorsement to commercial driver's license under 49 CFR Part 1572; and

(6) Customs and Border Protection's Free and Secure Trade (FAST) Program.

6. Protection of information.

a. Each licensee that obtains background information on an individual under this subsection shall establish and maintain a system of files and written procedures for protection of the record and the personal information from unauthorized disclosure.

b. The licensee may not disclose the record or personal information collected and maintained to persons other than the subject individual, his representative, or to those who have a need to have access to the information in performing assigned duties in the process of granting or denying unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. No individual authorized to have access to the information may disseminate the information to any other individual who does not have a need to know.

c. The personal information obtained on an individual from a background investigation may be provided to another licensee:

(1) Upon the individual's written request to the licensee holding the data to disseminate the information contained in that individual's file; and

(2) The recipient licensee verifies information such as name, date of birth, social security number, gender, and other applicable physical characteristics.

d. The licensee shall make background investigation records obtained under this subsection available for examination by an authorized representative of the agency to determine compliance with the regulations and laws.

e. The licensee shall retain all fingerprint and criminal history records (including data indicating no record) received from the FBI, or a copy of these records if the individual's file has been transferred, on an individual for three years from the date the individual no longer requires unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

7. Access authorization program review.

a. Each licensee shall be responsible for the continuing effectiveness of the access authorization program. Each licensee shall ensure that access authorization programs are reviewed to confirm compliance with the requirements of this subsection and that comprehensive actions are taken to correct any noncompliance that is identified. The review program shall evaluate all program performance objectives and requirements. The review shall be performed at least annually.

b. The results of the reviews, along with all recommendations, shall be documented. Each review report shall identify conditions that are adverse to the proper performance of the access authorization program; the cause of the conditions and, when appropriate, recommend corrective actions; and corrective actions taken. The licensee shall review the findings and take additional corrective actions necessary to preclude repetition of the condition, including reassessment of the deficient areas where indicated.

c. Review records shall be maintained for three years.

C. Physical protection requirements during use.

1. Security program.

a. Each licensee that possesses an aggregated Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material shall establish, implement, and maintain a security program in accordance with the requirements of this subsection. An applicant for a new license and each licensee that would become newly subject to the requirements of this subsection upon an amendment request for modification of its license shall implement the requirements of this subsection, as appropriate, before taking possession of an aggregated Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material. Any licensee that has not previously implemented the requirements of this subsection shall provide written notification to the agency at least 90 days before aggregating radioactive material to a quantity that equals or exceeds the Category 2 threshold.

b. Each licensee shall establish, implement, and maintain a security program that is designed to monitor and, without delay, detect, assess, and respond to an actual or attempted unauthorized access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

c. Each licensee's security program shall include the program features, as appropriate, described in subdivisions 2 through 8 of this subsection.

2. General security program requirements.

a. Security plan.

(1) Each licensee identified in subdivision 1 a of this subsection shall develop a written security plan specific to its facilities and operations. The purpose of the security plan is to establish the licensee's overall security strategy to ensure the integrated and effective functioning of the security program required by this subsection. The security plan shall, at a minimum, (i) describe the measures and strategies used to implement the requirements of this subsection and (ii) identify the security resources, equipment, and technology used to satisfy the requirements of this subsection.

(2) The security plan shall be reviewed and approved by the individual with overall responsibility for the security program.

(3) A licensee shall revise its security plan as necessary to ensure the effective implementation of agency requirements. The licensee shall ensure that (i) the revision has been reviewed and approved by the individual with overall responsibility for the security program and (ii) the affected individuals are instructed on the revised plan before the changes are implemented.

(4) The licensee shall retain a copy of the current security plan as a record for three years after the security plan is no longer required. If any portion of the plan is superseded, the licensee shall retain the superseded material for three years after the record is superseded.

b. Implementing procedures.

(1) The licensee shall develop and maintain written procedures that document how the requirements of this subsection and the security plan will be met.

(2) The implementing procedures and revisions to these procedures shall be approved in writing by the individual with overall responsibility for the security program.

(3) The licensee shall retain a copy of the current procedure as a record for three years after the procedure is no longer needed. Superseded portions of the procedure shall be retained for three years after the record is superseded.

c. Training.

(1) Each licensee shall conduct training to ensure that those individuals implementing the security program possess and maintain the knowledge, skills, and abilities to carry out their assigned duties and responsibilities effectively. The training shall include at a minimum, instruction on:

(a) The licensee's security program and procedures to secure Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, and the purpose and function of the security measures employed;

(b) The responsibility to report promptly to the licensee any condition that causes or may cause a violation of agency requirements;

(c) The responsibility of the licensee to report promptly to the local law-enforcement agency and the agency any actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material; and

(d) The appropriate response to security alarms.

(2) In determining those individuals who shall be trained on the security program, the licensee shall consider each individual's assigned activities during authorized use and response to potential situations involving actual or attempted theft, diversion, or sabotage of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The extent of the training shall be commensurate with the individual's potential involvement in the security of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

(3) Refresher training shall be provided at a frequency not to exceed 12 months and when significant changes have been made to the security program. This training shall include (i) review of the training requirements of this subsection and changes made to the security program since the last training; (ii) reports on all relevant security issues, problems, and lessons learned; (iii) relevant results of agency inspections; and (iv) relevant results of the licensee's program review and testing and maintenance.

(4) The licensee shall maintain records of the initial and refresher training for three years from the date of the training. The training records shall include dates of the training, topics covered, a list of licensee personnel in attendance, and related information.

d. Protection of information.

(1) Licensees authorized to possess Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material shall limit access to and prevent the unauthorized disclosure of their security plan, implementing procedures, and the list of individuals who have been approved for unescorted access.

(2) Efforts to limit access shall include the development, implementation, and maintenance of written policies and procedures for controlling access to and for proper handling and protection against unauthorized disclosure of the security plan and implementing procedures.

(3) Before granting an individual access to the security plan or implementing procedures, licensees shall:

(a) Evaluate an individual's need to know the security plan or implementing procedures; and

(b) If the individual has not been authorized for unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, the licensee shall complete a background investigation to determine the individual's trustworthiness and reliability. A trustworthiness and reliability determination shall be conducted by the reviewing official and shall include the background investigation elements contained in subdivisions B 3 a (2) through (7) of this section.

(4) Licensees need not subject any individual to background investigation elements for protection of information if that individual is included in the categories of individuals listed in subdivisions B 5 a (1) through (12) of this section or is a security service provider employee, provided written verification that the employee has been determined to be trustworthy and reliable, by the required background investigation in subdivisions B 3 a (2) though (7) of this subsection, has been provided by the security service provider.

(5) The licensee shall document the basis for concluding that an individual is trustworthy and reliable and should be granted access to the security plan or implementing procedures.

(6) Licensees shall maintain a list of persons currently approved for access to the security plan or implementing procedures. When a licensee determines that a person no longer needs access to the security plan or implementing procedures or no longer meets the access authorization requirements for access to the information, the licensee shall remove the person from the approved list as soon as possible, but no later than seven working days after the determination, and take prompt measures to ensure that the individual is unable to obtain the security plan or implementing procedures.

(7) When not in use, the licensee shall store its security plan and implementing procedures in a manner to prevent unauthorized access. Information stored in nonremovable electronic form shall be password protected.

(8) The licensee shall retain as a record a copy of the information protection procedures and the list of individuals approved for access to the security plan or implementing procedures for three years after the document has been superseded.

3. Local law-enforcement agency (LLEA) coordination.

a. A licensee subject to this subsection shall coordinate, to the extent practicable, with an LLEA for responding to threats to the licensee's facility, including any necessary armed response. The information provided to the LLEA shall include:

(1) A description of the facilities and the Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive materials along with a description of the licensee's security measures that have been implemented to comply with this subsection; and

(2) A notification that the licensee will request a timely armed response by the LLEA to any actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of material.

b. The licensee shall notify the agency within three business days if:

(1) The LLEA has not responded to the request for coordination within 60 days of the coordination request; or

(2) The LLEA notifies the licensee that the LLEA does not plan to participate in coordination activities.

c. The license shall document its efforts to coordinate with the LLEA. The documentation shall be kept for three years.

d. The licensee shall coordinate with the LLEA at least every 12 months, or when changes to the facility design or operation adversely affect the potential vulnerability of the licensee's material to theft, sabotage, or diversion.

4. Security zones.

a. Licensees shall ensure that all aggregated Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material are used or stored within licensee-established security zones. Security zones may be permanent or temporary.

b. Temporary security zones shall be established as necessary to meet the licensee's transitory or intermittent business activities, such as periods of maintenance, source delivery, and source replacement.

c. Security zones shall, at a minimum, allow unescorted access only to approved individuals by:

(1) Isolation of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive materials by the use of continuous physical barriers that allow access to the security zone only through established access control points. A physical barrier is a natural or man-made structure or formation sufficient for the isolation of the Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material within a security zone;

(2) Direct control of the security zone by approved individuals at all times; or

(3) A combination of continuous physical barriers and direct control.

d. For Category 1 quantities of radioactive material during periods of maintenance, source receipt, preparation for shipment, installation, or source removal or exchange, the licensee shall, at a minimum, provide sufficient individuals approved for unescorted access to maintain continuous surveillance of sources in temporary security zones and in any security zone in which physical barriers or intrusion detection systems have been disabled to allow such activities.

e. Individuals not approved for unescorted access to Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material shall be escorted by an approved individual when in a security zone.

5. Monitoring, detection, and assessment.

a. Monitoring and detection.

(1) Licensees shall establish and maintain the capability to continuously monitor and detect without delay all unauthorized entries into its security zones. Licensees shall provide the means to maintain continuous monitoring and detection capability in the event of a loss of the primary power source, or provide for an alarm and response in the event of a loss of this capability to continuously monitor and detect unauthorized entries.

(2) Monitoring and detection shall be performed by:

(a) A monitored intrusion detection system that is linked to an onsite or offsite central monitoring facility;

(b) Electronic devices for intrusion detection alarms that will alert nearby facility personnel;

(c) A monitored video surveillance system;

(d) Direct visual surveillance by approved individuals located within the security zone; or

(e) Direct visual surveillance by a licensee designed individual located outside the security zone.

(3) A licensee subject to this subsection shall also have a means to detect unauthorized removal of the radioactive material from the security zone. This detection capability shall provide:

(a) For Category 1 quantities of radioactive material, immediate detection of any attempted unauthorized removal of the radioactive material from the security zone. Such immediate detection capability shall be provided by electronic sensors linked to an alarm, continuous monitored video surveillance, or direct visual surveillance; and

(b) For Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, weekly verification through physical checks, tamper indicating devices, use, or other means to ensure that the radioactive material is present.

b. Licensees shall immediately assess each actual or attempted unauthorized entry into the security zone to determine whether the unauthorized access was an actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion.

c. For personnel and automated or electronic systems supporting the licensee's monitoring, detection, and assessments system, licensees shall:

(1) Maintain continuous capability for personnel communication and electronic data transmission and processing among site security systems; and

(2) Provide an alternate communication capability for personnel, and an alternative data transmission and processing capability, in the event of a loss of the primary means of communication or data transmission and processing. Alternative communications and data transmissions systems may not be subject to the same failure modes as the primary systems.

d. Licensees shall immediately respond to any actual or attempted unauthorized access to the security zones, or actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material at licensee facilities or temporary job sites. For any unauthorized access involving an actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, the licensee's response shall include requesting, without delay, an armed response from the LLEA.

6. Maintenance and testing.

a. Each licensee subject to this subsection shall implement a maintenance and testing program to ensure that intrusion alarms, associated communication systems, and other physical components of the systems used to secure or detect unauthorized access to radioactive material are maintained in operable condition and are capable of performing their intended function when needed. The equipment relied on to meet the security requirements of this subsection shall be inspected and tested for operability and performance at the manufacturer's suggested frequency. If there is no frequency suggested by the manufacturer or the frequency specified is greater than three months, the testing shall be performed at least quarterly, not to exceed three months.

b. The licensee shall maintain records on the maintenance and testing activities for three years.

7. Requirements for mobile devices. Each licensee that possesses mobile devices containing Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material shall:

a. Have two independent physical controls that form tangible barriers to secure the material from unauthorized removal when the device is not under direct control and constant surveillance by the licensee; and

b. For devices in or on a vehicle or trailer, unless the health and safety requirements for a site prohibit the disabling of the vehicle, the licensee shall utilize a method to disable the vehicle or trailer when not under direct control and constant surveillance by the licensee. Licensees shall not rely on the removal of an ignition key to meet this requirement.

8. Security program review.

a. Each licensee shall be responsible for the continuing effectiveness of the security program. Each licensee shall ensure that the security program is reviewed to confirm compliance with the requirements of this subsection and that comprehensive actions are taken to correct any noncompliance that is identified. The review shall include the radioactive material security program content and implementation. The review shall be conducted at least annually, not to exceed 12 months.

b. The results of the review, along with all recommendations, shall be documented. Each review report shall identify conditions that are adverse to the proper performance of the security program, the cause of the condition, corrective actions taken, and, when appropriate, recommend corrective actions. The licensee shall review the findings and take any additional corrective actions necessary to preclude repetition of the condition, including reassessment of the deficient areas where indicated.

c. The licensee shall maintain the review documentation for three years.

9. Reporting of events.

a. The licensee shall immediately notify the LLEA after determining that an unauthorized entry resulted in an actual or attempted theft, sabotage, or diversion of Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material. As soon as possible after initiating a response, but not at the expense of causing delay or interfering with the LLEA response to the event, the licensee shall notify the agency by telephone at 804-864-8150 during normal business hours and 804-624-2400 after hours. In no case shall the notification to the agency be later than four hours after the discovery of any attempted or actual theft, sabotage, or diversion.

b. The licensee shall assess any suspicious activity related to possible theft, sabotage, or diversion of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material and notify the LLEA as appropriate. As soon as possible but not later than four hours after notifying the LLEA, the licensee shall notify the agency by telephone 804-864-8150 during normal business hours and 804-624-2400 after hours.

c. The initial telephonic notification shall be followed within a period of 30 days by a written report submitted to the agency. The report shall include sufficient information for agency analysis and evaluation, including identification of any necessary corrective actions to prevent future instances.

D. Physical protection in transit.

1. Additional requirements for transfer of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. A licensee transferring a Category 1 or Category 2 quantity of radioactive material to a licensee of the agency, the NRC, or another agreement state shall meet the license verification provisions listed in this subdivision instead of those listed in 12VAC5-481-570.

a. Any licensee transferring Category 1 quantities of radioactive material to a licensee of the agency, the NRC, or another agreement state, prior to conducting such transfer, shall verify with the NRC's license verification system or the license issuing authority that the transferee's license authorizes the receipt of the type, form, and quantity of radioactive material to be transferred and that the licensee is authorized to receive radioactive material at the location requested for delivery. If the verification is conducted by contacting the license-issuing authority, the transferor shall document the verification. For transfers within the same organization, the licensee does not need to verify the transfer.

b. Any licensee transferring Category 2 quantities of radioactive material to a licensee of the agency, the NRC, or another agreement state, prior to conducting such transfer, shall verify with the NRC's license verification system or the license-issuing authority that the transferee's license authorizes the receipt of the type, form, and quantity of radioactive material to be transferred. If the verification is conducted by contacting the license-issuing authority, the transferor shall document the verification. For transfers within the same organization, the licensee does not need to verify the transfer.

c. In an emergency where the licensee cannot reach the license-issuing authority and the license verification system is nonfunctional, the licensee may accept a written certification by the transferee that it is authorized by license to receive the type, form, and quantity of radioactive material to be transferred. The certification shall include the license number, current revision number, issuing agency, expiration date, and for a Category 1 shipment, the authorized address. The licensee shall keep a copy of the certification. The certification shall be confirmed by use of the NRC's license verification system or by contacting the license-issuing authority by the end of the next business day.

d. The transferor shall keep a copy of the verification documentation as a record for three years.

2. Applicability of physical protection of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit.

a. For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material, each shipping licensee shall comply with the requirements for physical protection contained in subdivisions 3 a, 3 e, 4, 5 a (1), 5 b (1), 5 c, 6 a, 6 c, 6 e, 6 g, and 6 h of this subsection.

b. For shipments of Category 2 quantities of radioactive material, each shipping licensee shall comply with the requirements for physical protection contained in subdivisions 3 b through 3 e, 5 a (2), 5 a (3), 5 b (2), 5 c, 6 b, 6 d, 6 f, 6 g, and 6 h of this subsection.

c. The shipping licensee shall be responsible for meeting the requirements of this subsection unless the receiving licensee has agreed in writing to arrange for the in-transit physical protection required under this subsection.

3. Preplanning and coordination of shipment of Category 1 or Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

a. Each licensee that plans to transport, or deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material that is a Category 1 quantity of radioactive material outside the confines of the licensee's facility or other place of use or storage shall:

(1) Preplan and coordinate shipment arrival and departure times with the receiving licensee;

(2) Preplan and coordinate shipment information with the governor or the governor's designee of any state through which the shipment will pass to discuss the state's intention to provide law-enforcement escorts and identify safe havens; and

(3) Document the preplanning and coordination activities.

b. Each licensee that plans to transport, or deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material that is a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material outside the confines of the licensee's facility or other place of use or storage shall coordinate the shipment no-later-than arrival time and the expected shipment arrival with the receiving licensee. The licensee shall document the coordination activities.

c. Each licensee that receives a shipment of a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material shall confirm receipt of the shipment with the originator. If the shipment has not arrived by the no-later-than arrival time, the receiving licensee shall notify the originator.

d. Each licensee that transports or plans to transport a shipment of a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material and determines that the shipment will arrive after the no-later-than arrival time provided pursuant to subdivision 3 b of this subsection, shall promptly notify the receiving licensee of the new no-later-than arrival time.

e. The licensee shall retain a copy of the documentation for preplanning and coordination and any revision thereof as a record for three years.

4. As specified in subdivision 3 of this subsection, each licensee shall provide advance notification to the agency and the governor of a state, or the governor's designee, of the shipment of licensed material in a Category 1 quantity, through or across the boundary of the state, before the transport or delivery to a carrier for transport of the licensed material outside the confines of the licensee's facility or other place of use or storage.

a. Procedures for submitting advance notification;

(1) The notification shall be made to the agency and to the office of each appropriate governor or governor's designee. The contact information, including telephone and mailing addresses, of governors and governor's designees is available on the NRC website at http://nrc-stp.ornl.gov/special/designee.pdf https://scp.nrc.gov/special/designee.pdf. The notification to the agency shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-481-150.

(2) A notification delivered by mail shall be postmarked at least seven days before transport of the shipment commences at the shipping facility.

(3) A notification delivered by any means other than mail shall reach the agency at least four days before the transport of the shipment commences and shall reach the office of the governor or the governor's designee at least four days before transport of a shipment within or through the state.

b. Each advance notification of shipment of Category 1 quantities of radioactive material shall contain the following information, if available at the time of the notification:

(1) The name, address, and telephone number of the shipper, carrier, and receiver of the Category 1 radioactive material;

(2) The license numbers of the shipper and receiver;

(3) A description of the radioactive material contained in the shipment, including the radionuclides and quantity;

(4) The point of origin of the shipment and the estimated time and date that shipment will commence;

(5) The estimated time and date that the shipment is expected to enter each state along the route;

(6) The estimated time and date of arrival for the shipment at the destination; and

(7) A point of contact, with a telephone number, for current shipment information.

c. Revision notice.

(1) The licensee shall provide any information not previously available at the time of the initial notification, as soon as the information becomes available but not later than commencement of the shipment, to the agency and the governor of the state or the governor's designee.

(2) A licensee shall promptly notify the agency and governor of the state or the governor's designee of any changes to the information provided in accordance with this subdivision.

d. Each licensee who cancels a shipment for which advance notification has been sent shall send a cancellation notice to the agency and the governor of each state or to the governor's designee previously notified. The licensee shall send the cancellation notice before the shipment would have commenced or as soon thereafter as possible. The licensee shall state in the notice that it is a cancellation and identify the advance notification that is being canceled.

e. The licensee shall retain a copy of the advance notification and any revision and cancellation notices as a record for three years.

f. State officials, state employees, and other individuals, whether or not licensees of the agency, NRC, or another agreement state, who receive schedule information of the kind specified in subdivision 4 b of this subsection shall protect that information against unauthorized disclosure as specified in subdivision C 2 d of this section.

5. Requirements for physical protection of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material during shipment.

a. Shipments by road.

(1) Each licensee who transports or delivers to a carrier for transport in a single shipment a Category 1 quantity of radioactive material shall:

(a) Ensure that movement control centers are established that maintain position information from a remote location. These control centers shall monitor shipments 24 hours a day, seven days a week and have the ability to communicate immediately, in an emergency, with the appropriate law-enforcement agencies;

(b) Ensure that redundant communications are established that allow the transport to contact the escort vehicle, when an escort vehicle is used, and movement control center at all times. Redundant communications may not be subject to the same interference factors as the primary communication;

(c) Ensure that shipments are continuously and actively monitored by a telemetric position monitoring system or an alternative tracking system reporting to a movement control center. A movement control center shall provide positive confirmation of the location, status, and control over the shipment. The movement control center shall be prepared to promptly implement preplanned procedures in response to deviations from the authorized route or a notification of actual, attempted, or suspicious activities related to the theft, loss, or diversion of a shipment. These procedures will include, but not be limited to, the identification of and contact information for the appropriate LLEA along the shipment route;

(d) Provide an individual to accompany the driver for those highway shipments with a driving time period greater than the maximum number of allowable hours of service in a 24-hour duty day as established by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. The accompanying individual may be another driver; and

(e) Develop written normal and contingency procedures to address (i) notifications to the communication center and law-enforcement agencies; (ii) communication protocols that shall include a strategy for the use of authentication codes and duress codes and provisions for refueling and other stops, detours, and locations where communication is expected to be temporarily lost; (iii) loss of communication; and (iv) responses to an actual or attempted theft or diversion of a shipment.

(f) Each licensee who makes arrangements for the shipment of Category 1 quantities of radioactive material shall ensure that drivers, accompanying personnel, and movement control center personnel have access to the normal and contingency procedures.

(2) Each licensee that transports Category 2 quantities of radioactive material shall maintain constant control and surveillance during transit and have the capability for immediate communication to summon appropriate response or assistance.

(3) Each licensee who delivers to a carrier for transport in a single shipment a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material shall:

(a) Use carriers that have established package tracking systems. An established package tracking system is a documented, proven, and reliable system routinely used to transport objects of value. In order for a package tracking system to maintain constant control and surveillance, the package tracking system shall allow the shipper or transporter to identify when and where the package was last and when it should arrive at the next point of control;

(b) Use carriers that maintain constant control and surveillance during transit and have the capability for immediate communication to summon appropriate response or assistance; and

(c) Use carriers that have established tracking systems that require an authorized signature prior to releasing the package for delivery or return.

b. Shipments by rail.

(1) Each licensee who transports, or delivers to a carrier for transport, in a single shipment a Category 1 quantity of radioactive material shall:

(a) Ensure that rail shipments are monitored by a telemetric position monitoring system or an alternative tracking system reporting to the licensee, third-party, or railroad communications center. The communications center shall provide positive confirmation of the location of the shipment and its status. The communications center shall implement preplanned procedures in response to deviations from the authorized route or to a notification of actual, attempted, or suspicious activities related to the theft or diversion of a shipment. These procedures will include, but not be limited to, the identification of and contact information for the appropriate LLEA along the shipment route; and

(b) Ensure that periodic reports to the communications center are made at preset intervals.

(2) Each licensee who transports, or delivers to a carrier for transport, in a single shipment a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material shall:

(a) Use carriers that have established package tracking systems. An established package tracking system is a documented, proven, and reliable system routinely used to transport objects of value. In order for a package tracking system to maintain constant control and surveillance, the package tracking system shall allow the shipper or transporter to identify when and where the package was last and when it should arrive at the next point of control;

(b) Use carriers that maintain constant control and surveillance during transit and have the capability for immediate communication to summon appropriate response or assistance; and

(c) Use carriers that have established tracking systems that require an authorized signature prior to releasing the package for delivery or return.

c. Each licensee who makes arrangements for the shipment of Category 1 quantities of radioactive material shall immediately conduct an investigation upon discovery that a Category 1 shipment is lost or missing. Each licensee who makes arrangements for the shipment of Category 2 quantities of radioactive material shall immediately conduct an investigation, in coordination with the receiving licensee, of any shipment that has not arrived by the designated no-later-than arrival time.

6. Reporting of events.

a. The shipping licensee shall notify the appropriate LLEA and the agency within one hour of its determination that a shipment of Category 1 quantities of radioactive material is lost or missing. The appropriate LLEA would be the law-enforcement agency in the area of the shipment's last confirmed location. During the investigation required by this subsection, the shipping licensee will provide agreed upon updates to the agency on the status of the investigation.

b. The shipping licensee shall notify the agency within four hours of its determination that a shipment of Category 2 quantities of radioactive material is lost or missing. If, after 24 hours of its determination that the shipment is lost or missing, the radioactive material has not been located and secure, the licensee shall immediately notify the agency.

c. The shipping licensee shall notify the designated LLEA along the shipment route as soon as possible upon discovery of any actual or attempted theft of diversion of a shipment or suspicious activities related to the theft or diversion of a shipment of a Category 1 quantity of radioactive material. As soon as possible after notifying the LLEA, the licensee shall notify the agency upon discovery of any actual or attempted theft or diversion of a shipment, or any suspicious activity related to the shipment, of Category 1 radioactive material.

d. The shipping licensee shall notify the agency as soon as possible upon discovery of any actual or attempted theft or diversion of a shipment, or any suspicious activity related to the shipment, of a Category 2 quantity of radioactive material.

e. The shipping licensee shall notify the agency and the LLEA as soon as possible upon recovery of any lost or missing Category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

f. The shipping licensee shall notify the agency as soon as possible upon recovery of any lost or missing Category 2 quantities of radioactive material.

g. The initial telephonic notification required by subdivisions 6 a through 6 d of this subsection shall be followed within a period of 30 days by a written report submitted to the agency. The report shall include the following information:

(1) A description of the licensed material involved, including kind, quantity, and chemical and physical form;

(2) A description of the circumstances under which the loss or theft occurred;

(3) A statement of disposition, or probable disposition, of the licensed material involved;

(4) Actions that have been taken, or will be taken, to recover the material; and

(5) Procedures or measures that have been, or will be, adopted to ensure against a recurrence of the loss or theft of licensed material.

h. Subsequent to filing the written report, the licensee shall also report any additional substantive information on the loss or theft within 30 days after the licensee learns of such information.

E. Records.

1. Each record required by this section shall be legible throughout the retention period specified. The record may be the original or a reproduced copy or a microform, provided that the copy or microform is authenticated by authorized personnel and that the microform is capable of producing a clear copy throughout the required retention period. The record may also be stored in electronic media with the capability for producing legible, accurate, and complete records during the required retention period. Records such as letters, drawings, and specifications shall include all pertinent information such as stamps, initials, and signatures. The licensee shall maintain adequate safeguards against tampering with and loss of records.

2. Licensees shall maintain the records that are required by this section for the period specified. If a retention period is not otherwise specified, these records shall be retained until the agency terminates the facility's license. All records related to this section may be destroyed upon agency termination of the facility license.

12VAC5-481-1110

12VAC5-481-1110. Reporting requirements.

A. Licensees shall notify the agency as soon as possible but not later than four hours after the discovery of an event that prevents immediate protective actions necessary to avoid exposures to radiation or radioactive materials that could exceed regulatory limits or releases of licensed material that could exceed regulatory limits (events may include fires, explosions, toxic gas releases, etc.). Licensees shall:

1. If required by this subsection and subsection B, notify the agency of any event, via telephone, during normal business hours to (804) 864-8150 or after hours to the State Emergency Operations Center at (804) 624-2400.

2. Submit a written report, either by mail or by hand delivery to the agency at 109 Governor Street, 7th Floor, Richmond, VA 23219.

B. Licensees shall notify the agency within 24 hours after the discovery of any of the following events involving licensed material:

1. An unplanned contamination event that:

a. Requires access to the contaminated area by workers or the public to be restricted for more than 24 hours by imposing additional radiological controls or by prohibiting entry into the area;

b. Involves a quantity of material greater than five times the lowest annual limit on intake specified in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20; and

c. Has access to the area restricted for a reason other than to allow isotopes with a half-life of less than 24 hours to decay prior to decontamination.

2. An event in which equipment is disabled or fails to function as designed when:

a. The equipment is required by regulation or license condition to prevent releases exceeding regulatory limits, to prevent exposures to radiation and radioactive materials exceeding regulatory limits, or to mitigate the consequences of an accident;

b. The equipment is required to be available and operable when it is disabled or fails to function; and

c. No redundant equipment is available and operable to perform the required safety function.

3. An event that requires unplanned medical treatment at a medical facility of an individual with spreadable radioactive contamination on the individual's clothing or body.

4. An unplanned fire or explosion damaging any licensed material or any device, container, or equipment containing licensed material when:

a. The quantity of material involved is greater than five times the lowest annual limit on intake specified in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20; and

b. The damage affects the integrity of the licensed material or its container.

C. Notifications of any event made by licensees in response to the requirements of subsections A and B of this section shall be made to the agency, via telephone, during normal business hours to (804) 864-8150 or after hours to the State Emergency Operations Center at (804) 624-2400 and provide the following:

1. To the extent that the information is available at the time of the notification, provide a name and call back telephone number;

2. A description of the event, including date and time; if known, the sequence of occurrences leading to the event including degradation or failure of structures, systems, equipment, components; and activities of personnel relied on to prevent potential accidents;

3. The exact location of the event and whether the remaining structures, systems, equipment, components, and activities of personnel relied on to mitigate the consequences are available and reliable to perform their function;

4. Radiological or chemical hazards involved including the isotopes, quantities, and chemical and physical form of the licensed material;

5. Actual or potential health and safety consequences to the workers, the public, and the environment, including relevant chemical and any radiation data for actual personnel exposures to radiation or radioactive materials or hazardous chemicals produced from licensed material;

6. External conditions affecting the event;

7. Status of the event including actions taken by the licensee in response to the event and the current and planned site status;

8. Notification, related to the event, that were made or are planned to be made to any other local, state, or federal agencies; and

9. Status of any press releases related to the event that were made or are planned.

10. Each licensee that makes a report required by subsection A or B of this section shall submit a written follow-up report within 30 days of the initial report. Written reports prepared pursuant to other regulations may be submitted to fulfill this requirement if the report contains all necessary information and the appropriate distribution is made. These written reports must be sent to the agency at 109 Governor Street, 7th Floor, Richmond, VA 23219, and must include the following:

a. All information required from the telephone notification included in this subsection;

b. The probable cause of the event, including all factors that contributed to the event and the manufacturer and model number (if applicable) of any equipment that failed or malfunctioned;

c. Corrective actions taken or planned to prevent occurrence of similar or identical events in the future and the results of any evaluations or assessments; and

d. For licenses subject to 10 CFR Part 70 Subpart H, whether the event was identified and evaluated in the integrated safety analysis.

D. In addition to the notifications required by 12VAC5-481-1100 or subsections A and B of this section, each licensee shall submit a written report within 30 days after learning of any of the following occurrences, either by mail or by hand delivery, to the agency at 109 Governor Street, 7th Floor, Richmond, VA 23219:

1. Any incident for which notification is required by 12VAC5-481-1100 or subsections A and B of this section;

2. Doses in excess of any of the following:

a. The occupational dose limits for adults in 12VAC5-481-640;

b. The occupational dose limits for a minor in 12VAC5-481-700;

c. The limits for an embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant woman in 12VAC5-481-710;

d. The limits for an individual member of the public in 12VAC5-481-720;

e. Any applicable limits in the license; or

f. The ALARA constraints for air emissions established under 12VAC5-481-630 D;

3. Levels of radiation or concentrations of radioactive material in:

a. A restricted area in excess of any applicable limit in the license; or

b. An unrestricted area in excess of 10 times any applicable limit set forth in this part or in the license, whether or not involving exposure of any individual in excess of the limits in 12VAC5-481-720; or

4. For licensee subject to the provisions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 CFR Part 190, levels of radiation or releases of radioactive materials in excess of those standards, or of license conditions related to those standards.

E. Each report, required by subsection A of this section shall:

1. Describe the extent of exposure of individuals to radiation and radioactive material, including, as appropriate:

a. A description of the event, including the probable cause, the exact location, the isotopes and quantities, chemical and physical form of the licensed material involved, date and time of the event, and if applicable, the manufacturer and model number of any equipment that failed or malfunctioned;

b. Estimates of each individual's dose;

c. The levels of radiation and concentrations of radioactive material involved;

d. The cause of the elevated exposures, dose rates, or concentrations; and

e. Corrective steps taken or planned to ensure against a recurrence, including the schedule for achieving conformance with applicable limits, ALARA constraints, generally applicable environmental standards, and associated license conditions and the results of all evaluations or assessments.

2. Include for each individual the name, social security number, and date of birth. With respect to the limit for the embryo/fetus, the identifiers should be those of the declared pregnant woman. The report shall be prepared so that this information is stated in a separate and detachable part of the report and shall be clearly labeled for protection under privacy laws.

12VAC5-481-2970

12VAC5-481-2970. Exemptions.

A. Common and contract carriers, freight forwarders, and warehouse workers that are subject to the requirements of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) in 49 CFR Part 170 through 49 Part CFR 189 or the United States Postal Service in the Postal Service Domestic Mail Manual (DMM), Section C-023.9.0, and the United States Postal Service, are exempt from the requirements of this part to the extent that they transport or store radioactive material in the regular course of their carriage for others or storage incident thereto. Common and contract carriers that are not subject to the requirements of the DOT or United States Postal Service are subject to 12VAC5-481-2960 and other applicable requirements of these regulations.

B. A licensee is exempt from all the requirements of this part with respect to shipment or carriage of the following low-level materials:

1. NARM Natural material and ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides that are either in their natural state, or have only been processed for purposes other than the extraction of the radionuclides, and that are not intended to be processed for use of these radionuclides, provided the activity concentration of the material does not exceed 10 times the values specified in Table A-2 2 of 12VAC5-481-3770.

2. Materials for which the activity concentration is not greater than the activity concentration values specified in Table A-2 2 or Table 3 of 12VAC5-481-3770, or for which the consignment activity is not greater than the limit for an exempt consignment found in Table  A-2 2 or Table 3 of 12VAC5-481-3770.

3. Nonradioactive solid objects with radioactive substances present on any surfaces in quantities not in excess of the levels cited in the definition of "contamination" in 12VAC5-481-10.

C. Fissile material meeting one of the following requirements are exempt from classification as fissile material and from the fissile material package standards of 10 CFR 71.55 and 71.59, but are subject to all other requirements of 10 CFR 71, except as noted.

1. Individual package containing two grams or less fissile material.

2. Individual or bulk packaging containing 15 grams or less of fissile material provided the package has at least 200 grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the package but must not be included in determining the required mass for solid nonfissile material.

3. Low concentrations of solid fissile material commingled with solid nonfissile material, provided that there is at least 2,000 grams of solid nonfissile material for every gram of fissile material, and there is no more than 180 grams of fissile material distributed within 360 kg of contiguous nonfissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium may be present in the package but must not be included in determining the required mass of solid nonfissile material.

4. Uranium enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 1.0% by weight, and with total plutonium and uranium-233 content of up to 1.0% of the mass of uranium-235, provided that the mass of any beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium constitutes less than 5.0% of the uranium mass, and that the fissile material is distributed homogeneously and does not form a lattice arrangement within the package.

5. Liquid solutions of uranyl nitrate enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 2.0% by mass, with a total plutonium and uranium-233 content not exceeding 0.002% of the mass of uranium, and with a minimum nitrogen to uranium atomic ratio (N/U) of 2. The material must be contained in at least a DOT Type A package.

6. Packages containing, individually, a total plutonium mass of not more than 1,000 grams, of which not more than 20% by mass may consist of plutonium-239, plutonium-241, or any combination of these radionuclides.

D. Any physician licensed by the Commonwealth of Virginia to dispense drugs in the practice of medicine is exempt from this section with respect to transport by the physician of radioactive material for use in the practice of medicine provided the physician is an authorized user under Part VII (12VAC5-481-1660 et seq.).

12VAC5-481-3000

12VAC5-481-3000. General license: NRC-approved packages.

A. A general license is hereby issued to any licensee to transport, or to deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material in a package for which a license, certificate of compliance (CoC), or other approval has been issued by the NRC. This general license applies only to a licensee who has a quality assurance program approved by the agency as satisfying the provisions of 12VAC5-481-3130.

B. This general license applies only to a licensee who:

1. Has a copy of the specific license, CoC, or other approval by the NRC of the package and has the drawings and other documents referenced in the approval relating to the use and maintenance of the packaging and to the actions to be taken prior to shipment;

2. Complies with the terms and conditions of the license, certificate, or other approval by the NRC, as applicable, and the applicable requirements of Part XIII (12VAC5-481-2950 et seq.) of this chapter;

3. Prior to the licensee's first use of the package, submits in writing to the NRC agency the licensee's name and license number and the package identification number specified in the package approval using the appropriate method listed in 10 CFR 71.1(a) in accordance with 12VAC5-481-150; and

4. Has a quality assurance program that complies with 12VAC5-481-3130.

C. The general license in subsection A of this section applies only when the package approval authorizes use of the package under this general license.

D. For a Type B or fissile material package, the design of which was approved by the NRC before April 1, 1996, the general license is subject to the additional restrictions of 12VAC5-481-3010.

12VAC5-481-3030

12VAC5-481-3030. General License: use of foreign approved package.

A. A general license is issued to any licensee to transport, or to deliver to a carrier for transport, licensed material in a package the design of which has been approved in a foreign national competent authority certificate that has been revalidated by the DOT as meeting the applicable requirements of 49 CFR 171.12 171.23.

B. This general license applies only to international shipments made to or from locations outside the United States.

C. This general license applies only to a licensee who:

1. Has a copy of the applicable certificate, the revalidation, and the drawings and other documents referenced in the certificate relating to the use and maintenance of the packaging and to the actions to be taken prior to shipment;

2. Complies with the terms and conditions of the certificate and revalidation, and with the applicable requirements of this part; and

3. The licensee has a quality assurance program approved by the agency that complies with 12VAC5-481-3130.

12VAC5-481-3070

12VAC5-481-3070. Preliminary determinations.

Prior to the first use of any packaging for the shipment of radioactive material:, the licensee shall ascertain that the determinations made in 10 CFR 71.85(a) through (c) have been made.

1. The licensee shall ascertain that there are no cracks, pinholes, uncontrolled voids, or other defects which could significantly reduce the effectiveness of the packaging;

2. Where the maximum normal operating pressure will exceed 35 kilopascal (5 lbf/in2) gauge, the licensee shall test the containment system at an internal pressure at least 50% higher than the maximum normal operating pressure to verify the capability of that system to maintain its structural integrity at that pressure;

3. The licensee shall determine that the packaging has been fabricated in accordance with the design approved by the NRC; and

4. The licensee shall conspicuously and durably mark the packaging with its model number, serial number, gross weight, and a package identification number as assigned by the NRC.

12VAC5-481-3100

12VAC5-481-3100. Shipment records.

A. Each licensee shall maintain for a period of three years after shipment a record of each shipment of licensed material not exempt under 12VAC5-481-2970, showing, where applicable:

1. Identification of the packaging by model number and serial number;

2. Verification that the packaging, as shipped, had no significant defect;

3. Volume and identification of coolant;

4. Type and quantity of licensed material in each package, and the total quantity of each shipment;

5. Date of the shipment;

6. Name and address of the transferee;

7. Address to which the shipment was made; and

8. Results of the determinations required by 12VAC5-481-3080 and by the conditions of the package approval.

9. For each item of irradiated fissile material, in addition to the items listed in subdivisions 1 through 8 of this subsection, identification by model number and serial number; irradiation and decay history to the extent appropriate to demonstrate that its nuclear and thermal characteristics comply with license conditions; and any abnormal or unusual condition relevant to radiation safety.

10. For each fissile package and for Type B packages, in addition to the items listed in subdivisions 1 through 8 of this subsection, any special controls exercised.

B. Each licensee shall maintain, for a period of three years after the life of the packaging to which they apply, records identifying the packaging by model number, serial number, and date of manufacture.

C. The licensee shall make available to the agency for inspection, upon reasonable notice, all records required by this section. Records are valid if stamped, initialed, or signed and dated by authorized personnel, or otherwise authenticated.

D. The licensee shall maintain sufficient written records to furnish evidence of the quality of the packaging. The records to be maintained include results of the determinations made by 12VAC5-481-3000; design, fabrication, and assembly records; results of reviews, inspections, tests, and audits; results of monitoring work performance and materials analyses; and results of maintenance, modification, and repair activities. Inspection, test, and audit records must identify the inspector or data recorder, the type of observation, the results, the acceptability, and the actions to be taken in connection with any deficiencies noted. These records must be retained for three years after the life of the packaging to which they apply.

12VAC5-481-3130

Article 5
Quality Assurance

12VAC5-481-3130. Quality assurance.

A. Quality assurance requirements apply to the design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging that are important to safety. Quality assurance comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a system or component will perform satisfactorily in service. Quality assurance includes quality control, which comprises those quality assurance actions related to control of the physical characteristics and quality of the material or component to predetermined requirements. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC are is responsible for the quality assurance requirements as they apply to design, fabrication, testing, and modification of packaging. Each licensee is responsible for the quality assurance provision that applies to its use of packaging for the shipment of licensed material subject to this chapter.­

B. Each licensee, certificate holder and applicant for a CoC shall establish, maintain, and execute a quality assurance program satisfying each of that applicable criteria of this section, 10 CFR Part 71, Subpart H and satisfying any specific provisions that are applicable to the licensee's activities including procurement of packaging. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for CoC shall execute the applicable criteria in a graded approach to an extent that is commensurate with the quality assurance requirement's importance to safety.

C. Before the use of any package for the shipment of licensed material subject to this rule, each licensee shall obtain NRC approval of its quality assurance program. Using an appropriate method, each licensee shall file a description of its quality assurance program, including a discussion of which requirements of this section are applicable and how they will be satisfied by submitting the description to the agency.

D. A program for transport container inspection and maintenance limited to radiographic exposure devices, source changers, or packages transporting these devices and meeting the requirements of 12VAC5-481-1270 or equivalent NRC or agreement state requirement, is deemed to satisfy the requirements of 12VAC5-481-3000 and subsection B of this section.

E. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall be responsible for the establishment and execution of the quality assurance program. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC may delegate to others, such as contractors, agents, or consultants, the work of establishing and executing the quality assurance program, or any part of the quality assurance program, but shall retain responsibility for the program. The licensee shall clearly establish and delineate, in writing, the authority and duties of persons and organizations performing activities affecting the safety-related functions of structures, systems, and components. These activities include performing the functions associated with attaining quality objectives and the quality assurance functions. While the term licensee is used in these criteria, the requirements are applicable to whatever design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the package is accomplished with respect to a package before the time a package is issued.

F. The quality assurance functions are:

1. Assuring that an appropriate quality assurance program is established and effectively executed; and

2. Verifying, by procedures such as checking, auditing, and inspection, that activities affecting the safety-related functions have been performed correctly.

G. The persons and organizations performing quality assurance functions must have sufficient authority and organizational freedom to:

1. Identify quality problems;

2. Initiate, recommend, or provide solutions; and

3. Verify implementation of solutions.

H. Changes to the quality assurance program.

1. Each quality assurance program approval holder shall submit a description of a proposed change to its agreement state approved quality assurance program that will reduce commitments in the program description as approved by the agreement state. The quality assurance program approval holder shall not implement the change before receiving approval.

The description of a proposed change to the agreement state approved quality assurance program must identify the change, the reason for the change, and the basis for concluding that the revised program incorporating the change continues to satisfy the applicable requirements of this section.

2. Each quality assurance program approval holder may change a previously approved quality assurance program without prior agreement state approval if the change does not reduce the commitments in the quality assurance program previously approved by the agreement state. Changes to the quality assurance program that do not reduce the commitments shall be submitted to the agreement state every 24 months. In addition to quality assurance program changes involving administrative improvements and clarifications, spelling corrections, and nonsubstantive changes to punctuation or editorial items, the following changes are not considered reductions in commitment:

a. The use of a quality assurance standard approved by the agreement state that is more recent than the quality assurance standard in the licensee's current quality assurance program at the time of the change;

b. The use of generic organizational position titles that clearly denote the position function, supplemented as necessary by descriptive text, rather than specific titles, provided that there is no substantive change to either the functions of the position or reporting requirements;

c. The use of generic organization charts to indicate functional relationships, authorities, and responsibilities, or alternatively, the use of descriptive text, provided that there is no substantive change to the functional relationships, authorities, or responsibilities;

d. The elimination of quality assurance program information that duplicates language in quality assurance regulatory guides and quality assurance standards to which the quality assurance program approval holder has committed to on record; and

e. Organizational revisions that ensure that persons and organizations performing quality assurance functions continue to have the requisite authority and organizational freedom, including independence from cost and schedule when opposed to safety considerations.

3. Each quality assurance program approval holder shall maintain records of quality assurance program changes.

I. The licensee shall maintain sufficient written records to describe the activities affecting quality. These records must include the changes to the quality assurance program as required by subsection H of this section, the instructions, procedures, and drawings required by this section to prescribe quality assurance activities, and closely related specifications such as required qualifications of personnel, procedures, and equipment. The records must include the instructions or procedures that establish a records retention program that is consistent with applicable regulations and designates factors such as duration, location, and assigned responsibility. The licensee shall retain these records for three years beyond the date when the licensee last engaged in the activity for which the quality assurance program was developed. If any portion of the quality assurance program, written procedures or instructions is superseded, the licensee shall retain the superseded material for three years after it is superseded.

12VAC5-481-3770

12VAC5-481-3770. Determination of A1 and A2.

A. Values of A1 and A2 for individual radionuclides, which are the bases for many activity limits elsewhere in these regulations, are given in Table 1 of this section. The curie (Ci) values specified are obtained by converting from the Terabecquerel (TBq) value. The terabecquerel values are the regulatory standard. The curie values are for information only and are not intended to be the regulatory standard. Where values of A1 and A2 are unlimited, it is for radiation control purposes only. For nuclear criticality safety, some materials are subject to controls placed on fissile material.

B. For individual radionuclides whose identities are known, but that are not listed in Table 1 or Table 2 of this section, the A1 and A2 values or exempt material activity concentration and exempt consignment activity values contained in Table 3 of this section may be used. Otherwise, the licensee shall obtain prior agency approval for radionuclides not listed in Table 1 or Table 2 of this section, before shipping the material. The licensee shall submit requests for prior approval to the agency.

C. In the calculations of A1 and A2 for a radionuclide not in Table 1 of this section, a single radioactive decay chain, in which radionuclides are present in their naturally occurring proportions, and in which no daughter radionuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days, or longer than that of the parent radionuclide, shall be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity to be taken into account, and the A1 or A2 value to be applied, shall be those corresponding to the parent radionuclide of that chain. In the case of radioactive decay chains in which any daughter radionuclide has a half-life either longer than 10 days or greater than that of the parent radionuclide, the parent and those daughter radionuclides shall be considered as mixtures of different radionuclides.

D. For mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective activities are known, the following conditions apply:

1. For special form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package is as follows:

Description: Value for normal form radioactive
material, transported in A Sub1 package

where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide (i) in special form, and A1(i) is the A1 value for radionuclide (i).

2. For normal form radioactive material, the maximum quantity transported in a Type A package is as follows:

∑B(i)/A2(i)≤1 ∑B(i)/A2(i)≤1

where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide (i) in normal form, and A2(i) is the A2 value for radionuclide (i) in special form.

3. If the package contains both special and normal form radioactive material, the activity that may be transported in the Type A package is as follows:

∑B(i)\A1(i)+∑C(j)\A2(j)≤1

Where B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i (i) as special form radioactive material, A1(i) is the A1 value for the radionuclide (i), C(j) is the activity of radionuclide (j) as normal form radioactive material, and A2(j) is the A2 value for radionuclide (j).

4. Alternatively, the A1 value for mixtures of special form material may be determined as follows:

Description: Formula for A Sub1 value for
mixtures of special form material

where f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide (i) in the mixture, and A1(i) is the appropriate A1 value for radionuclide (i).

4. 5. Alternatively, the A2 value for mixtures of normal form material may be determined as follows:

Description: Formula for A Sub2 value for
mixtures of normal form material

where f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide (i) in the mixture, and A2(i) is the appropriate A2 value for radionuclide (i).

5. 6. The exempt activity concentration for mixtures of nuclides may be determined as follows:

Description: Formula for exempt activity
concentration for mixture of nuclides

where f(i) is the fraction of activity concentration of radionuclide (i) in the mixture, and [A](i) is the activity concentration for exempt material containing radionuclide (i).

6. 7. The activity limit for an exempt consignment for mixtures of radionuclides may be determined as follows:

Description: Formula for the activity limit for an
exempt consignment for mixtures of radionuclides

where f(i) is the fraction of activity of radionuclide (i) in the mixture, and [A](i) is the activity limit for exempt consignments for radionuclide (i).

E. When the identity of each radionuclide is known, but the individual activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the radionuclides may be grouped, and the lowest A1 or A2 value or lowest [A] (activity concentration for exempt material or A (activity limit for exempt consignment) value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used in applying the formulas in subsection D of this section. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest A1 or A2 values or the lowest [A] or A value, as appropriate, for the alpha emitters and beta/gamma emitters.

F. Table 1. A1 and A2 Values for Radionuclides.

Symbol of radionuclide

Element and atomic number

A1 (TBq)

A1(Ci)b

A2 (TBq)

A2(Ci)b

Specific activity

(TBq/g)

(Ci/g)

Ac-225 (a)

Actinium (89)

8.0X10-1

2.2X10-1

6.0X10-3

1.6X10-1

2.1X103

5.8X104

Ac-227 (a)

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X10-1

9.0X10-5

2.4X10-3

2.7

7.2X101

Ac-228

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

8.4X104

2.2X106

Ag-105

Silver (47)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

1.1X103

3.0X104

Ag-108m (a)

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

9.7X10-1

2.6X101

Ag-110m (a)

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.8X102

4.7X103

Ag-111

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

5.8X103

1.6X105

Al-26

Aluminum (13)

1.0X10-1

2.7

1.0X10-1

2.7

7.0X10-4

1.9X10-2

Am-241

Americium (95)

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

1.3X10-1

3.4

Am-242m (a)

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

3.6X10-1

1.0X101

Am-243 (a)

 

5.0

1.4X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

7.4X10-3

2.0X10-1

Ar-37

Argon (18)

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.7X103

9.9X104

Ar-39

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X101

5.4X102

1.3

3.4X101

Ar-41

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.5X106

4.2X107

As-72

Arsenic (33)

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

6.2X104

1.7X106

As-73

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

8.2X102

2.2X104

As-74

 

1.0

2.7X101

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

3.7X103

9.9X104

As-76

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

5.8X104

1.6X106

As-77

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

3.9X104

1.0X106

At-211 (a)

Astatine (85)

2.0X101

5.4X102

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

7.6X104

2.1X106

Au-193

Gold (79)

7.0

1.9X102

2.0

5.4X101

3.4X104

9.2X105

Au-194

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.5X104

4.1X105

Au-195

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

6.0

1.6X102

1.4X102

3.7X103

Au-198

 

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

9.0X103

2.4X105

Au-199

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

7.7X103

2.1X105

Ba-131 (a)

Barium (56)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

3.1X103

8.4X104

Ba-133

 

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

9.4

2.6X102

Ba-133m

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.2X104

6.1X105

Ba-140 (a)

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

3.0X10-1

8.1

2.7X103

7.3X104

Be-7

Beryllium (4)

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X101

5.4X102

1.3X104

3.5X105

Be-10

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

8.3X10-4

2.2X10-2

Bi-205

Bismuth (83)

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

1.5X103

4.2X104

Bi-206

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.8X103

1.0X105

Bi-207

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

1.9

5.2X101

Bi-210

 

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

4.6X103

1.2X105

Bi-210m (a)

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

2.1X10-5

5.7X10-4

Bi-212 (a)

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

5.4X105

1.5X107

Bk-247

Berkelium (97)

8.0

2.2X102

8.0X10-4

2.2X10-2

3.8X10-2

1.0

Bk-249 (a)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0X10-1

8.1

6.1X101

1.6X103

Br-76

Bromine (35)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

9.4X104

2.5X106

Br-77

 

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

2.6X104

7.1X105

Br-82

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X104

1.1X106

C-11

Carbon (6)

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.1X107

8.4X108

C-14

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0

8.1X101

1.6X10-1

4.5

Ca-41

Calcium (20)

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

3.1X10-3

8.5X10-2

Ca-45

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0

2.7X101

6.6X102

1.8X104

Ca-47 (a)

 

3.0

8.1X101

3.0X10-1

8.1

2.3X104

6.1X105

Cd-109

Cadmium (48)

3.0X101

8.1X102

2.0

5.4X101

9.6X101

2.6X103

Cd-113m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

8.3

2.2X102

Cd-115 (a)

 

3.0

8.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.9X104

5.1X105

Cd-115m

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

9.4X102

2.5X104

Ce-139

Cerium (58)

7.0

1.9X102

2.0

5.4X101

2.5X102

6.8X103

Ce-141

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.1X103

2.8X104

Ce-143

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.5X104

6.6X105

Ce-144 (a)

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

1.2X102

3.2X103

Cf-248

Californium (98)

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-3

1.6X10-1

5.8X101

1.6X103

Cf-249

 

3.0

8.1X101

8.0X10-4

2.2X10-2

1.5X10-1

4.1

Cf-250

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X10-3

5.4X10-2

4.0

1.1X102

Cf-251

 

7.0

1.9X102

7.0X10-4

1.9X10-2

5.9X10-2

1.6

Cf-252 (h)

 

5.0X10-2 1.0X10-1

1.4 2.7

3.0X10-3

8.1X10-2

2.0X101

5.4X102

Cf-253 (a)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X10-2

1.1

1.1X103

2.9X104

Cf-254

 

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

3.1X102

8.5X103

Cl-36

Chlorine (17)

1.0X101

2.7X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.2X10-3

3.3X10-2

Cl-38

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

4.9X106

1.3X108

Cm-240

Curium (96)

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

7.5X102

2.0X104

Cm-241

 

2.0

5.4X101

1.0

2.7X101

6.1X102

1.7X104

Cm-242

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0X10-2

2.7X10-1

1.2X102

3.3X103

Cm-243

 

9.0

2.4X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

1.9X10-3

5.2X104

Cm-244

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X10-3

5.4X10-2

3.0

8.1X101

Cm-245

 

9.0

2.4X102

9.0X10-4

2.4X10-2

6.4X10-3

1.7X10-1

Cm-246

 

9.0

2.4X102

9.0X10-4

2.4X10-2

1.1X10-2

3.1X10-1

Cm-247 (a)

 

3.0

8.1X101

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

3.4X10-6

9.3X10-5

Cm-248

 

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

3.0X10-4

8.1X10-3

1.6X10-4

4.2X10-3

Co-55

Cobalt (27)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

1.1X105

3.1X106

Co-56

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.1X103

3.0X104

Co-57

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

3.1X102

8.4X103

Co-58

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.2X103

3.2X104

Co-58m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.2X105

5.9X106

Co-60

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.2X101

1.1X103

Cr-51

Chromium (24)

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.4X103

9.2X104

Cs-129

Cesium (55)

4.0

1.1X102

4.0

1.1X102

2.8X104

7.6X105

Cs-131

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.8X103

1.0X105

Cs-132

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

5.7X103

1.5X105

Cs-134

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

4.8X101

1.3X103

Cs-134m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.0X105

8.0X106

Cs-135

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0

2.7X101

4.3X10-5

1.2X10-3

Cs-136

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

2.7X103

7.3X104

Cs-137 (a)

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.2

8.7X101

Cu-64

Copper (29)

6.0

1.6X102

1.0

2.7X101

1.4X105

3.9X106

Cu-67

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

2.8X104

7.6X105

Dy-159

Dysprosium (66)

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.1X102

5.7X103

Dy-165

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.0X105

8.2X106

Dy-166 (a)

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

3.0X10-1

8.1

8.6X103

2.3X105

Er-169

Erbium (68)

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0

2.7X101

3.1X103

8.3X104

Er-171

 

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

9.0X104

2.4X106

Eu-147

Europium (63)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

1.4X103

3.7X104

Eu-148

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

6.0X102

1.6X104

Eu-149

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X101

5.4X102

3.5X102

9.4X103

Eu-150 (short lived)

 

2.0

5.4X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.1X104

1.6X106

Eu-150 (long lived)

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.1X104

1.6X106

Eu-152

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

6.5

1.8X102

Eu-152m

 

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

8.2X104

2.2X106

Eu-154

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

9.8

2.6X102

Eu-155

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

3.0

8.1X101

1.8X101

4.9X102

Eu-156

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

2.0X103

5.5X104

F-18

Fluorine (9)

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.5X106

9.5X107

Fe-52 (a)

Iron (26)

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

2.7X105

7.3X106

Fe-55

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

8.8X101

2.4X103

Fe-59

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

1.8X103

5.0X104

Fe-60 (a)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-1

5.4

7.4X10-4

2.0X10-2

Ga-67

Gallium (31)

7.0

1.9X102

3.0

8.1X101

2.2X104

6.0X105

Ga-68

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

1.5X106

4.1X107

Ga-72

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.1X105

3.1X106

Gd-146 (a)

Gadolinium (64)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

6.9X102

1.9X104

Gd-148

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X10-3

5.4X10-2

1.2

3.2X101

Gd-153

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

9.0

2.4X102

1.3X102

3.5X103

Gd-159

 

3.0

8.1X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.9X104

1.1X106

Ge-68 (a)

Germanium (32)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

2.6X102

7.1X103

Ge-71

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

5.8X103

1.6X105

Ge-77

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.3X105

3.6X106

Hf-172 (a)

Hafnium (72)

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

4.1X101

1.1X103

Hf-175

 

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

3.9X102

1.1X104

Hf-181

 

2.0

5.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

6.3X102

1.7X104

Hf-182

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

8.1X10-6

2.2X10-4

Hg-194 (a)

Mercury (80)

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.3X10-1

3.5

Hg-195m (a)

 

3.0

8.1X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

1.5X104

4.0X105

Hg-197

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

9.2X103

2.5X105

Hg-197m

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

2.5X104

6.7X105

Hg-203

 

5.0

1.4X102

1.0

2.7X101

5.1X102

1.4X104

Ho-166

Holmium (67)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

2.6X104

7.0X105

Ho-166m

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

6.6X10-2

1.8

I-123

Iodine (53)

6.0

1.6X102

3.0

8.1X101

7.1X104

1.9X106

I-124

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

9.3X103

2.5X105

I-125

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

3.0

8.1X101

6.4X102

1.7X104

I-126

 

2.0

5.4X101

1.0

2.7X101

2.9X103

8.0X104

I-129

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

6.5X10-6

1.8X10-4

I-131

 

3.0

8.1X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

4.6X103

1.2X105

I-132

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

3.8X105

1.0X107

I-133

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

4.2X104

1.1X106

I-134

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

9.9X105

2.7X107

I-135 (a)

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.3X105

3.5X106

In-111

Indium (49)

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

1.5X104

4.2X105

In-113m

 

4.0

1.1X102

2.0

5.4X101

6.2X105

1.7X107

In-114m (a)

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

8.6X102

2.3X104

In-115m

 

7.0

1.9X102

1.0

2.7X101

2.2X105

6.1X106

Ir-189 (a)

Iridium (77)

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.9X103

5.2X104

Ir-190

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

2.3X103

6.2X104

Ir-192 (c)

 

1.0 (c)

2.7X101 (c)

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.4X102

9.2X103

Ir-194

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.1X104

8.4X105

K-40

Potassium (19)

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

2.4X10-7

6.4X10-6

K-42

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.2X105

6.0X106

K-43

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.2X105

3.3X106

Kr-79

Krypton (36)

4.0

1.1X102

2.0

5.4X101

4.2X104

1.1X106

Kr-81

Krypton (36)

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

7.8X10-4

2.1X10-2

Kr-85

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.5X101

3.9X102

Kr-85m

 

8.0

2.2X102

3.0

8.1X101

3.0X105

8.2X106

Kr-87

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

1.0X106

2.8X107

La-137

Lanthanum (57)

3.0X101

8.1X102

6.0

1.6X102

1.6X10-3

4.4X10-2

La-140

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

2.1X104

5.6X105

Lu-172

Lutetium (71)

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

4.2X103

1.1X105

Lu-173

 

8.0

2.2X102

8.0

2.2X102

5.6X101

1.5X103

Lu-174

 

9.0

2.4X102

9.0

2.4X102

2.3X101

6.2X102

Lu-174m

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

2.0X102

5.3X103

Lu-177

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

4.1X103

1.1X105

Mg-28 (a)

Magnesium (12)

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

2.0X105

5.4X106

Mn-52

Manganese (25)

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.6X104

4.4X105

Mn-53

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

6.8X10-5

1.8X10-3

Mn-54

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

2.9X102

7.7X103

Mn-56

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

8.0X105

2.2X107

Mo-93

Molybdenum (42)

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X101

5.4X102

4.1X10-2

1.1

Mo-99 (a) (i) (h)

 

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.8X104

4.8X105

N-13

Nitrogen (7)

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

5.4X107

1.5X109

Na-22

Sodium (11)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

2.3X102

6.3X103

Na-24

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

3.2X105

8.7X106

Nb-93m

Niobium (41)

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0X101

8.1X102

8.8

2.4X102

Nb-94

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.9X10-3

1.9X10-1

Nb-95

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.5X103

3.9X104

Nb-97

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

9.9X105

2.7X107

Nd-147

Neodymium (60)

6.0

1.6X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.0X103

8.1X104

Nd-149

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

4.5X105

1.2X107

Ni-59

Nickel (28)

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

3.0X10-3

8.0X10-2

Ni-63

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0X101

8.1X102

2.1

5.7X101

Ni-65

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

7.1X105

1.9X107

Np-235

Neptunium (93)

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

5.2X101

1.4X103

Np-236 (short-lived)

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0

5.4X101

4.7X10-4

1.3X10-2

Np-236 (long-lived)

 

9.0X100

2.4X102

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

4.7X10-4

1.3X10-2

Np-237

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X10-3

5.4X10-2

2.6X10-5

7.1X10-4

Np-239

 

7.0

1.9X102

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

8.6X103

2.3X105

Os-185

Osmium (76)

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

2.8X102

7.5X103

Os-191

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

2.0

5.4X101

1.6X103

4.4X104

Os-191m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0X101

8.1X102

4.6X104

1.3X106

Os-193

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.0X104

5.3X105

Os-194 (a)

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.1X101

3.1X102

P-32

Phosphorus (15)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

1.1X104

2.9X105

P-33

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0

2.7X101

5.8X103

1.6X105

Pa-230 (a)

Protactinium (91)

2.0

5.4X101

7.0X10-2

1.9

1.2X103

3.3X104

Pa-231

 

4.0

1.1X102

4.0X10-4

1.1X10-2

1.7X10-3

4.7X10-2

Pa-233

 

5.0

1.4X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.7X102

2.1X104

Pb-201

Lead (82)

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

6.2X104

1.7X106

Pb-202

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X101

5.4X102

1.2X10-4

3.4X10-3

Pb-203

 

4.0

1.1X102

3.0

8.1X101

1.1X104

3.0X105

Pb-205

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

4.5X10-6

1.2X10-4

Pb-210 (a)

 

1.0

2.7X101

5.0X10-2

1.4

2.8

7.6X101

Pb-212 (a)

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

2.0X10-1

5.4

5.1X104

1.4X106

Pd-103 (a)

Palladium (46)

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.8X103

7.5X104

Pd-107

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

1.9X10-5

5.1X10-4

Pd-109

 

2.0

5.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

7.9X104

2.1X106

Pm-143

Promethium (61)

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

1.3X102

3.4X103

Pm-144

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

9.2X101

2.5X103

Pm-145

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

5.2

1.4X102

Pm-147

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0

5.4X101

3.4X101

9.3X102

Pm-148m (a)

 

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

7.9X102

2.1X104

Pm-149

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.5X104

4.0X105

Pm-151

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.7X104

7.3X105

Po-210

Polonium (84)

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

1.7X102

4.5X103

Pr-142

Praseodymium (59)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.3X104

1.2X106

Pr-143

 

3.0

8.1X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.5X103

6.7X104

Pt-188 (a)

Platinum (78)

1.0

2.7X101

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

2.5X103

6.8X104

Pt-191

 

4.0

1.1X102

3.0

8.1X101

8.7X103

2.4X105

Pt-193

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.4

3.7X101

Pt-193m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.8X103

1.6X105

Pt-195m

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

6.2X103

1.7X105

Pt-197

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.2X104

8.7X105

Pt-197m

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.7X105

1.0X107

Pu-236

Plutonium (94)

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.0X10-3

8.1X10-2

2.0X101

5.3X102

Pu-237

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

2.0X101

5.4X102

4.5X102

1.2X104

Pu-238

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

6.3X10-1

1.7X101

Pu-239

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

2.3X10-3

6.2X10-2

Pu-240

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

8.4X10-3

2.3X10-1

Pu-241 (a)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-2

1.6

3.8

1.0X102

Pu-242

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

1.5X10-4

3.9X10-3

Pu-244 (a)

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

6.7X10-7

1.8X10-5

Ra-223 (a)

Radium (88)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

7.0X10-3

1.9X10-1

1.9X103

5.1X104

Ra-224 (a)

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

5.9X103

1.6X105

Ra-225 (a)

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

4.0X10-3

1.1X10-1

1.5X103

3.9X104

Ra-226 (a)

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

3.0X10-3

8.1X10-2

3.7X10-2

1.0

Ra-228 (a)

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

1.0X101

2.7X102

Rb-81

Rubidium (37)

2.0

5.4X101

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

3.1X105

8.4X106

Rb-83 (a)

 

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

6.8X102

1.8X104

Rb-84

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.8X103

4.7X104

Rb-86

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

3.0X103

8.1X104

Rb-87

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

3.2X10-9

8.6X10-8

Rb(nat)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

6.7X106

1.8X108

Re-184

Rhenium (75)

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

6.9X102

1.9X104

Re-184m

 

3.0

8.1X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.6X102

4.3X103

Re-186

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.9X103

1.9X105

Re-187

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

1.4X10-9

3.8X10-8

Re-188

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

3.6X104

9.8X105

Re-189 (a)

 

3.0

8.1X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.5X104

6.8X105

Re(nat)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

0.0

2.4X10-8

Rh-99

Rhodium (45)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

3.0X103

8.2X104

Rh-101

 

4.0

1.1X102

3.0

8.1X101

4.1X101

1.1X103

Rh-102

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

4.5X101

1.2X103

Rh-102m

 

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

2.3X102

6.2X103

Rh-103m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.2X106

3.3X107

Rh-105

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

3.1X104

8.4X105

Rn-222 (a)

Radon (86)

3.0X10-1

8.1

4.0X10-3

1.1X10-1

5.7X103

1.5X105

Ru-97

Ruthenium (44)

5.0

1.4X102

5.0

1.4X102

1.7X104

4.6X105

Ru-103 (a)

 

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

1.2X103

3.2X104

Ru-105

 

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.5X105

6.7X106

Ru-106 (a)

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

1.2X102

3.3X103

S-35

Sulphur (16)

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0

8.1X101

1.6X103

4.3X104

Sb-122

Antimony (51)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.5X104

4.0X105

Sb-124

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.5X102

1.7X104

Sb-125

 

2.0

5.4X101

1.0

2.7X101

3.9X101

1.0X103

Sb-126

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

3.1X103

8.4X104

Sc-44

Scandium (21)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

6.7X105

1.8X107

Sc-46

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

1.3X103

3.4X104

Sc-47

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

3.1X104

8.3X105

Sc-48

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

5.5X104

1.5X106

Se-75

Selenium (34)

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

5.4X102

1.5X104

Se-79

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0

5.4X101

2.6X10-3

7.0X10-2

Si-31

Silicon (14)

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.4X106

3.9X107

Si-32

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

3.9

1.1X102

Sm-145

Samarium (62)

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

9.8X101

2.6X103

Sm-147

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

8.5X10-1

2.3X10-8

Sm-151

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0X101

2.7X102

9.7X10-1

2.6X101

Sm-153

 

9.0

2.4X102

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.6X104

4.4X105

Sn-113 (a)

Tin (50)

4.0

1.1X102

2.0

5.4X101

3.7X102

1.0X104

Sn-117m

 

7.0

1.9X102

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

3.0X103

8.2X104

Sn-119m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0X101

8.1X102

1.4X102

3.7X103

Sn-121m (a)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

Sn-123

 

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

3.0X102

8.2X103

Sn-125

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X103

1.1X105

Sn-126 (a)

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.0X10-3

2.8X10-2

Sr-82 (a)

Strontium (38)

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.3X103

6.2X104

Sr-85

 

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

8.8X102

2.4X104

Sr-85m

 

5.0

1.4X102

5.0

1.4X102

1.2X106

3.3X107

Sr-87m

 

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

4.8X105

1.3X107

Sr-89

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.1X103

2.9X104

Sr-90 (a)

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

5.1

1.4X102

Sr-91 (a)

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.3X105

3.6X106

Sr-92 (a)

 

1.0

2.7X101

3.0X10-1

8.1

4.7X105

1.3X107

T(H-3)

Tritium (1)

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.6X102

9.7X103

Ta-178 (long-lived)

Tantalum (73)

1.0

2.7X101

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

4.2X106

1.1X108

Ta-179

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.0X101

8.1X102

4.1X101

1.1X103

Ta-182

 

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

2.3X102

6.2X103

Tb-157

Terbium (65)

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

5.6X10-1

1.5X101

Tb-158

 

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

5.6X10-1

1.5X101

Tb-160

 

1.0

2.7X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

4.2X102

1.1X104

Tc-95m (a)

Technetium (43)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

8.3X102

2.2X104

Tc-96

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.2X104

3.2X105

Tc-96m (a)

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.4X106

3.8X107

Tc-97

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

5.2X10-5

1.4X10-3

Tc-97m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0

2.7X101

5.6X102

1.5X104

Tc-98

 

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

3.2X10-5

8.7X10-4

Tc-99

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.3X10-4

1.7X10-2

Tc-99m

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

4.0

1.1X102

1.9X105

5.3X106

Te-121

Tellurium (52)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

2.4X103

6.4X104

Te-121m

 

5.0

1.4X102

3.0

8.1X101

2.6X102

7.0X103

Te-123m

 

8.0

2.2X102

1.0

2.7X101

3.3X102

8.9X103

Te-125m

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.7X102

1.8X104

Te-127

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

9.8X104

2.6X106

Te-127m (a)

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

3.5X102

9.4X103

Te-129

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

7.7X105

2.1X107

Te-129m (a)

 

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.1X103

3.0X104

Te-131m (a)

 

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

3.0X104

8.0X105

Te-132 (a)

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

1.1X104

3.0X105

Th-227

Thorium (90)

1.0X101

2.7X102

5.0X10-3

1.4X10-1

1.1X103

3.1X104

Th-228 (a)

 

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

3.0X101

8.2X102

Th-229

 

5.0

1.4X102

5.0X10-4

1.4X10-2

7.9X10-3

2.1X10-1

Th-230

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

7.6X10-4

2.1X10-2

Th-231

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

2.0X104

5.3X105

Th-232

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

4.0X10-9

1.1X10-7

Th-234 (a)

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

8.6X102

2.3X104

Th(nat)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

8.1X10-9

2.2X10-7

Ti-44 (a)

Titanium (22)

5.0X10-1

1.4X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

6.4

1.7X102

Tl-200

Thallium (81)

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

2.2X104

6.0X105

Tl-201

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

4.0

1.1X102

7.9X103

2.1X105

Tl-202

 

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

2.0X103

5.3X104

Tl-204

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

1.7X101

4.6X102

Tm-167

Thulium (69)

7.0

1.9X102

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

3.1X103

8.5X104

Tm-170

 

3.0

8.1X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.2X102

6.0X103

Tm-171

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

U-230 (fast lung absorption) (a)(d)

Uranium (92)

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0X10-1

2.7

1.0X103

2.7X104

U-230 (medium lung absorption) (a)(e)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X10-3

1.1X10-1

1.0X103

2.7X104

U-230 (slow lung absorption) (a)(f)

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.0X10-3

8.1X10-2

1.0X103

2.7X104

U-232 (fast lung absorption) (d)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

1.0X10-2

2.7X10-1

8.3X10-1

2.2X101

U-232 (medium lung absorption) (e)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

7.0X10-3

1.9X10-1

8.3X10-1

2.2X101

U-232 (slow lung absorption) (f)

 

1.0X101

2.7X102

1.0X10-3

2.7X10-2

8.3X10-1

2.2X101

U-233 (fast lung absorption) (d)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

9.0X10-2

2.4

3.6X10-4

9.7X10-3

U-233 (medium lung absorption) (e)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

3.6X10-4

9.7X10-3

U-233 (slow lung absorption) (f)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-3

1.6X10-1

3.6X10-4

9.7X10-3

U-234 (fast lung absorption) (d)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

9.0X10-2

2.4

2.3X10-4

6.2X10-3

U-234 (medium lung absorption) (e)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

2.3X10-4

6.2X10-3

U-234 (slow lung absorption) (f)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-3

1.6X10-1

2.3X10-4

6.2X10-3

U-235 (all lung absorption types) (a),(d),(e),(f)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

8.0X10-8

2.2X10-6

U-236 (fast lung absorption) (d)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

2.4X10-6

6.5X10-5

U-236 (medium lung absorption) (e)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

2.0X10-2

5.4X10-1

2.4X10-6

6.5X10-5

U-236 (slow lung absorption) (f)

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

6.0X10-3

1.6X10-1

2.4X10-6

6.5X10-5

U-238 (all lung absorption types) (d),(e),(f)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

1.2X10-8

3.4X10-7

U (nat)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

2.6X10-8

7.1X10-7

U (enriched to 20% or less) (g)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

See Table
A-4

See Table
A-4

U (dep)

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

See Table
A-4

See Table
A-3

V-48

Vanadium (23)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

6.3X103

1.7X105

V-49

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.0X102

8.1X103

W-178 (a)

Tungsten (74)

9.0

2.4X102

5.0

1.4X102

1.3X103

3.4X104

W-181

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

3.0X101

8.1X102

2.2X102

6.0X103

W-185

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

3.5X102

9.4X103

W-187

 

2.0

5.4X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

2.6X104

7.0X105

W-188 (a)

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.7X102

1.0X104

Xe-122 (a)

Xenon (54)

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.8X104

1.3X106

Xe-123

 

2.0

5.4X101

7.0X10-1

1.9X101

4.4X105

1.2X10

Xe-127

 

4.0

1.1X102

2.0

5.4X101

1.0X103

2.8X104

Xe-131m

 

4.0X101

1.1X103

4.0X101

1.1X103

3.1X103

8.4X104

Xe-133

 

2.0X101

5.4X102

1.0X101

2.7X102

6.9X103

1.9X105

Xe-135

 

3.0

8.1X101

2.0

5.4X101

9.5X104

2.6X106

Y-87 (a)

Yttrium (39)

1.0

2.7X101

1.0

2.7X101

1.7X104

4.5X105

Y-88

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

5.2X102

1.4X104

Y-90

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

2.0X104

5.4X105

Y-91

 

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

9.1X102

2.5X104

Y-91m

 

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

1.5X106

4.2X10

Y-92

 

2.0X10-1

5.4

2.0X10-1

5.4

3.6X105

9.6X106

Y-93

 

3.0X10-1

8.1

3.0X10-1

8.1

1.2X105

3.3X106

Yb-169

Ytterbium (70)

4.0

1.1X102

1.0

2.7X101

8.9X102

2.4X104

Yb-175

 

3.0X101

8.1X102

9.0X10-1

2.4X101

6.6X103

1.8X105

Zn-65

Zinc (30)

2.0

5.4X101

2.0

5.4X101

3.0X102

8.2X103

Zn-69

 

3.0

8.1X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.8X106

4.9X10

Zn-69m (a)

 

3.0

8.1X101

6.0X10-1

1.6X101

1.2X105

3.3X106

Zr-88

Zirconium (40)

3.0

8.1X101

3.0

8.1X101

6.6X102

1.8X104

Zr-93

 

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

9.3X10

2.5X10

Zr-95 (a)

 

2.0

5.4X101

8.0X10-1

2.2X101

7.9X102

2.1X104

Zr-97 (a)

 

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

4.0X10-1

1.1X101

7.1X104

1.9X106

aA1 and/or A2 values include contributions from daughter nuclides with half-lives less than 10 days., as listed in the following:

Mg-28
Ca-47
Ti-44
Fe-52
Fe-60
Zn-69m
Ge-68
Rb-83
Sr-82
Sr-90
Sr-91
Sr-92
Y-87
Zr-95
Zr-97
Mo-99
Tc-95m
Tc-96m
Ru-103
Ru-106
Pd-103
Ag-108m
Ag-110m
Cd-115
In-114m
Sn-113
Sn-121m
Sn-126
Te-127m
Te-129m
Te-131m
Te-132
I-135
Xe-122
Cs-137
Ba-131
Ba-140
Ce-144
Pm-148m
Gd-146
Dy-166
Hf-172
W-178
W-188
Re-189
Os-194
Ir-189
Pt-188
Hg-194
Hg-195m
Pb-210
Pb-212
Bi-210m
Bi-212
At-211
Rn-222
Ra-223
Ra-224
Ra-225
Ra-228
Ac-225
Ac-227
Th-228
Th-234
Pa-230
U-230
U-235
Pu-241
Pu-244
Am-242m
Am-243
Cm-247
Bk-249
Cf-253

Al-28
Sc-47
Sc-44
Mn-52m
Co-60m
Zn-69
Ga-68
Kr-83m
Rb-82
Y-90
Y-91m
Y-92
Sr-87m
Nb-95m
Nb-97m, Nb-97
Tc-99m
Tc-95
Tc-96
Rh-103m
Rh-106
Rh-103m
Ag-108
Ag-110
In-115m
In-114
In-113m
Sn-121
Sb-126m
Te-127
Te-129
Te-131
I-132
Xe-135m
I-122
Ba-137m
Cs-131
La-140
Pr-144m, Pr-144
Pm-148
Eu-146
Ho-166
Lu-172
Ta-178
Re-188
Os-189m
Ir-194
Os-189m
Ir-188
Au-194
Hg-195
Bi-210
Bi-212, Po-212, TI-208
Tl-206
Tl-208, Po-212
Po-211
Po-218, Pb-214, At-218, Bi-214, Po-214
Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, Po-211, Tl-207
Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
Ac-225, Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Tl-209, Po-213, Pb-209
Ac-228
Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Po-213, Pb-209, TI-209
Fr-223
Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208, Po-212
Pa-234m, Pa-234
Ac-226, Th-226, Fr-222, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
Th-226, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
Th-231
U-237
U-240, Np-240m
Am-242, Np-238
Np-239
Pu-243
Am-245
Cm-249

bThe values of A1 and A2 in Curies (Ci) are approximate and for information only; the regulatory standard units are terabecquerels (TBq).
cThe quantity activity of Ir-192 in special form may be determined from a measurement of the rate of decay or a measurement of the radiation level at a prescribed distance from the source.
dThese values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF6, UO2F2 and UO2(NO3)2 in both normal and accident conditions of transport.
eThese values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO3, UF4, UCl4 and hexavalent compounds in both normal and accident conditions of transport.
fThese values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in notes d and e of this table.
gThese values apply to unirradiated uranium only.
hA1 = 0.1 TBq (2.7 Ci) and A2 = 0.001 TBq (0.027 Ci) for Cf-252 for domestic use.
I h A2 = 0.74 TBq (20 Ci) for Mo-99 for domestic use.

G. Table 2. Exempt Material Activity Concentrations and Exempt Consignment Activity Limits for Radionuclides.

Symbol of radionuclide

Element and atomic number

Activity concentration for exempt material (Bq/g)

Activity concentration for exempt material (Ci/g)

Activity limit for exempt consignment (Bq)

Activity limit for exempt consignment (Ci)

Ac-225

Actinium (89)

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X104

2.7X10-7

Ac-227

 

1.0X10-1

2.7X10-12

1.0X103

2.7X10-8

Ac-228

 

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Ag-105

Silver (47)

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Ag-108m (b)

 

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Ag-110m

 

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Ag-111

 

1.0X103

2.7X10-8

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Al-26

Aluminum (13)

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X105

2.7X10-6

Am-241

Americium (95)

1.0

2.7X10-11

1.0X104

2.7X10-7

Am-242m (b)

 

1.0

2.7X10-11

1.0X104

2.7X10-7

Am-243 (b)

 

1.0

2.7X10-11

1.0X103

2.7X10-8

Ar-37

Argon (18)

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

1.0X108

2.7X10-3

Ar-39

 

1.0X107

2.7X10-4

1.0X104

2.7X10-7

Ar-41

 

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X109

2.7X10-2

As-72

Arsenic (33)

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X105

2.7X10-6

As-73

 

1.0X103

2.7X10-8

1.0X107

2.7X10-4

As-74

 

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

As-76

 

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X105

2.7X10-6

As-77

 

1.0X103

2.7X10-8

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

At-211

Astatine (85)

1.0X103

2.7X10-8

1.0X107

2.7X10-4

Au-193

Gold (79)

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X107

2.7X10-4

Au-194

 

1.0X101

2.7X10-10

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Au-195

 

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X107

2.7X10-4

Au-198

 

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Au-199

 

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Ba-131

Barium (56)

1.0X102

2.7X10-9

1.0X106

2.7X10-5

Ba-133

 

1.0X102