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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Proposed Text

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Action:
Requirement for capnography for monitoring anesthesia or sedation
Stage: Proposed
 
18VAC60-21-291

18VAC60-21-291. Requirements for administration of conscious/moderate sedation.

A. Delegation of administration.

1. A dentist who does not hold a permit to administer conscious/moderate sedation shall only use the services of a qualified dentist or an anesthesiologist to administer such sedation in a dental office. In a licensed outpatient surgery center, a dentist who does not hold a permit to administer conscious/moderate sedation shall use either a qualified dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist to administer such sedation.

2. A dentist who holds a permit may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer conscious/moderate sedation:

a. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-290 D 2 to administer by an enteral method;

b. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-290 D 1 to administer by any method;

c. An anesthesiologist;

d. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under the medical direction and indirect supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-290 D 1; or

e. A registered nurse upon his direct instruction and under the immediate supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-290 D 1.

3. If minimal sedation is self-administered by or to a patient 13 years of age or older before arrival at the dental office, the dentist may only use the personnel listed in subdivision 2 of this subsection to administer local anesthesia. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dentist office or treatment facility.

4. Preceding the administration of conscious/moderate sedation, a permitted dentist may use the services of the following personnel under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to anesthetize the injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

5. A dentist who delegates administration of conscious/moderate sedation shall ensure that:

a. All equipment required in subsection B of this section is present, in good working order, and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover; and

b. Qualified staff is on site to monitor patients in accordance with requirements of subsection D of this section.

B. Equipment requirements. A dentist who administers conscious/moderate sedation shall have available the following equipment in sizes for adults or children as appropriate for the patient being treated and shall maintain it in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Full face mask or masks;

2. Oral and nasopharyngeal airway management adjuncts;

3. Endotracheal tubes with appropriate connectors or other appropriate airway management adjunct such as a laryngeal mask airway;

4. A laryngoscope with reserve batteries and bulbs and appropri­ately sized laryngoscope blades;

5. Pulse oximetry;

6. Blood pressure monitoring equipment;

7. Pharmacologic antagonist agents;

8. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

9. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag;

10. Appropriate emergency drugs for patient resuscitation;

11. Electrocardiographic monitor if a patient is receiving parenteral administration of sedation or if the dentist is using titration;

12. Defibrillator;

13. Suction apparatus;

14. Temperature measuring device;

15. Throat pack; and

16. Precordial or pretracheal stethoscope; and

17. A end-tidal carbon dioxide monitor (capnograph).

C. Required staffing. At a minimum, there shall be a two person treatment team for conscious/moderate sedation. The team shall include the operating dentist and a second person to monitor the patient as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 K and assist the operating dentist as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 J, both of whom shall be in the operatory with the patient throughout the dental procedure. If the second person is a dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist who administers the drugs as permitted in 18VAC60-21-291 A, such person may monitor the patient.

D. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of any controlled drug at the facility and prior to discharge.

2. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and pulse shall be monitored continually during the administration and recorded every five minutes.

3. Monitoring of the patient under conscious/moderate sedation is to begin prior to administration of sedation or, if pre-medication is self-administered by the patient, immediately upon the patient's arrival at the dental facility and shall take place continuously during the dental procedure and recovery from sedation. The person who administers the sedation or another licensed practitioner qualified to administer the same level of sedation must remain on the premises of the dental facility until the patient is evaluated and is discharged.

E. Discharge requirements.

1. The patient shall not be discharged until the responsible licensed practitioner determines that the patient's level of consciousness, oxygenation, ventilation, and circulation are satisfactory for discharge and vital signs have been taken and recorded.

2. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number.

3. The patient shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.

F. Emergency management. The dentist shall be proficient in handling emergencies and complications related to pain control procedures, including the maintenance of respiration and circulation, immediate estab­lishment of an airway, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

18VAC60-21-301

18VAC60-21-301. Requirements for administration of deep sedation or general anesthesia.

A. Preoperative requirements. Prior to the appointment for treatment under deep sedation or general anesthesia the patient shall:

1. Be informed about the personnel and procedures used to deliver the sedative or anesthetic drugs to assure informed consent as required by 18VAC60-21-260 F.

2. Have a physical evaluation as required by 18VAC60-21-260 C.

3. Be given preoperative verbal and written instructions including any dietary or medication restrictions.

B. Delegation of administration.

1. A dentist who does not meet the requirements of 18VAC60-21-300 shall only use the services of a dentist who does meet those requirements or an anesthesiologist to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia in a dental office. In a licensed outpatient surgery center, a dentist shall use either a dentist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-20-300 18VAC60-21-300, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia.

2. A dentist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-20-300 18VAC60-21-300 may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer deep sedation or general anesthesia:

a. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-300 C;

b. An anesthesiologist; or

c. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under the medical direction and indirect supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-300 C.

3. Preceding the administration of deep sedation or general anesthesia, a dentist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-20-300 18VAC60-21-300 may use the services of the following personnel under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to anesthetize the injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

C. Equipment requirements. A dentist who administers deep sedation or general anesthesia shall have available the following equipment in sizes appropriate for the patient being treated and shall maintain it in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Full face mask or masks;

2. Oral and nasopharyngeal airway management adjuncts;

3. Endotracheal tubes with appropriate connectors or other appropriate airway management adjunct such as a laryngeal mask airway;

4. A laryngoscope with reserve batteries and bulbs and appropriately sized laryngoscope blades;

5. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

6. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag;

7. Pulse oximetry and blood pressure monitoring equipment available and used in the treatment room;

8. Appropriate emergency drugs for patient resuscitation;

9. EKG monitoring equipment;

10. Temperature measuring devices;

11. Pharmacologic antagonist agents;

12. External defibrillator (manual or automatic);

13. For intubated patients, an End-Tidal CO2 monitor An end-tidal carbon dioxide monitor (capnograph);

14. Suction apparatus;

15. Throat pack; and

16. Precordial or pretracheal stethoscope.

D. Required staffing. At a minimum, there shall be a three-person treatment team for deep sedation or general anesthesia. The team shall include the operating dentist, a second person to monitor the patient as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 K, and a third person to assist the operating dentist as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 J, all of whom shall be in the operatory with the patient during the dental procedure. If a second dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist administers the drugs as permitted in 18VAC60-21-301 B, such person may serve as the second person to monitor the patient.

E. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of any controlled drug at the facility to include: temperature, blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, and respiration.

2. The patient's vital signs and EKG readings shall be monitored, recorded every five minutes, and reported to the treating dentist throughout the administration of controlled drugs and recovery. When depolarizing medications are administered, temperature shall be monitored constantly.

3. Monitoring of the patient undergoing deep sedation or general anesthesia is to begin prior to the administration of any drugs and shall take place continuously during administration, the dental procedure, and recovery from anesthesia. The person who administers the anesthesia or another licensed practitioner qualified to administer the same level of anesthesia must remain on the premises of the dental facility until the patient has regained consciousness and is discharged.

F. Emergency management.

1. A secured intravenous line must be established and maintained throughout the procedure.

2. The dentist shall be proficient in handling emergencies and complications related to pain control procedures, including the maintenance of respiration and circulation, immediate establishment of an airway, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

G. Discharge requirements.

1. The patient shall not be discharged until the responsible licensed practitioner determines that the patient's level of consciousness, oxygenation, ventilation, and circulation are satisfactory for discharge and vital signs have been taken and recorded.

2. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number for the dental practice.

3. The patient shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.