Allowing the air to be polluted affects all surrounding localities since air, and the pollution in it, travels. Requiring Data Centers to contribute to the expansion of the grid and having a rotational schedule with strict time/day limits might be a better alternative.
Unfortunately, this variance also relies on on self-monitoring. Given the “fraud triangle” (https://uvamagazine.org/articles/honor_up_close) is self-monitoring wise? Where is the check and balance?
No one will live or die if 50% of the data centers cannot operate but someone may die if their air is polluted. Let's avoid that and find other solutions.