Definitions and General Program Requirements
"Act" means Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), as amended, 33 USC § 1251 et seq.
"Administrator" means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or an authorized representative.
"Animal feeding operation" or "AFO" means a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met: (i) animals (other than aquatic animals) have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and (ii) crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.
"Applicable standards and limitations" means all state, interstate, and federal standards and limitations to which a discharge, a sewage sludge use or disposal practice, or a related activity is subject under the CWA (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and the law, including effluent limitations, water quality standards, standards of performance, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions, best management practices, pretreatment standards, and standards for sewage sludge use or disposal under §§ 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 403 and 405 of CWA.
"Approval authority" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.
"Approved POTW Pretreatment Program" or "Program" or "POTW Pretreatment Program" means a program administered by a POTW that meets the criteria established in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter and which has been approved by the director or by the administrator in accordance with 9VAC25-31-830.
"Approved program" or "approved state" means a state or interstate program which has been approved or authorized by EPA under 40 CFR Part 123.
"Aquaculture project" means a defined managed water area which uses discharges of pollutants into that designated area for the maintenance or production of harvestable freshwater, estuarine, or marine plants or animals.
"Average monthly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar month, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar month divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that month.
"Average weekly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar week, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar week divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that week.
"Best management practices
"BMPs" means schedules of activities, prohibitions of practices,
maintenance procedures, and other management practices to implement the
prohibitions listed in 9VAC25-31-770 and to prevent or reduce the pollution of
surface waters. BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating procedures,
and practices to control plant site run-off, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste
disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.
"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-31-540, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this chapter. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight.
"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.
"Bypass" means the intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment facility.
"Class I sludge management facility" means any POTW identified under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter as being required to have an approved pretreatment program and any other treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the regional administrator, in conjunction with the director, because of the potential for its sludge use or disposal practices to adversely affect public health and the environment.
"Concentrated animal feeding operation" or "CAFO" means an AFO that is defined as a Large CAFO or as a Medium CAFO, or that is designated as a Medium CAFO or a Small CAFO. Any AFO may be designated as a CAFO by the director in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC25-31-130 B.
1. "Large CAFO." An AFO is defined as a Large CAFO if it stables or confines as many or more than the numbers of animals specified in any of the following categories:
a. 700 mature dairy cows, whether milked or dry;
b. 1,000 veal calves;
c. 1,000 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;
d. 2,500 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;
e. 10,000 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;
f. 500 horses;
g. 10,000 sheep or lambs;
h. 55,000 turkeys;
i. 30,000 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;
j. 125,000 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;
k. 82,000 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;
l. 30,000 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system; or
m. 5,000 ducks if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system.
2. "Medium CAFO." The term Medium CAFO includes any AFO with the type and number of animals that fall within any of the ranges below that has been defined or designated as a CAFO. An AFO is defined as a Medium CAFO if:
a. The type and number of animals that it stables or confines falls within any of the following ranges:
(1) 200 to 699 mature dairy cattle, whether milked or dry;
(2) 300 to 999 veal calves;
(3) 300 to 999 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;
(4) 750 to 2,499 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;
(5) 3,000 to 9,999 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;
(6) 150 to 499 horses;
(7) 3,000 to 9,999 sheep or lambs;
(8) 16,500 to 29,999 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;
(9) 37,500 to 124,999 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;
(10) 25,000 to 81,999 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;
(11) 10,000 to 29,999 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;
(12) 1,500 to 4,999 ducks, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system; and
b. Either one of the following conditions are met:
(1) Pollutants are discharged into surface waters of the state through a manmade ditch, flushing system, or other similar manmade device; or
(2) Pollutants are discharged directly into surface waters of the state that originate outside of and pass over, across, or through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined in the operation.
3. "Small CAFO." An AFO that is designated as a CAFO and is not a Medium CAFO.
"Concentrated aquatic animal production facility" means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria of this definition, or which the board designates under 9VAC25-31-140. A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a concentrated aquatic animal production facility if it contains, grows, or holds aquatic animals in either of the following categories:
1. Cold water fish species or other cold water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year but does not include:
a. Facilities which produce less than 9,090 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 20,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year; and
b. Facilities which feed less than 2,272 kilograms (approximately 5,000 pounds) of food during the calendar month of maximum feeding; or
2. Warm water fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year, but does not include:
a. Closed ponds which discharge only during periods of excess run-off; or
b. Facilities which produce less than 45,454 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 100,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year.
Cold water aquatic animals include, but are not limited to, the Salmonidae family of fish (e.g., trout and salmon).
Warm water aquatic animals include, but are not limited to, the Ictaluridae, Centrarchidae and Cyprinidae families of fish (e.g., respectively, catfish, sunfish and minnows).
"Contiguous zone" means the entire zone established by the United States under Article 24 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (37 FR 11906).
"Continuous discharge" means a discharge which occurs without interruption throughout the operating hours of the facility, except for infrequent shutdowns for maintenance, process changes, or other similar activities.
"Control authority" refers to the POTW if the POTW's pretreatment program submission has been approved in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC25-31-830 or the approval authority if the submission has not been approved.
"Co-permittee" means a permittee to a VPDES permit that is only responsible for permit conditions relating to the discharge for which it is the operator.
"CWA" means the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972) Public Law 92-500, as amended by Public Law 95-217, Public Law 95-576, Public Law 96-483, Public Law 97-117, and Public Law 100-4.
"CWA and regulations" means the Clean Water Act (CWA) and applicable regulations promulgated thereunder. For the purposes of this chapter, it includes state program requirements.
"Daily discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant measured during a calendar day or any 24-hour period that reasonably represents the calendar day for purposes of sampling. For pollutants with limitations expressed in units of mass, the daily discharge is calculated as the total mass of the pollutant discharged over the day. For pollutants with limitations expressed in other units of measurement, the daily discharge is calculated as the average measurement of the pollutant over the day.
"Department" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.
"Designated project area" means the portions of
surface within which the permittee or permit applicant plans to confine the
cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not
limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific
evidence, is expected to ensure that specific individual organisms comprising
an aquaculture crop will enjoy increased growth attributable to the discharge
, and be harvested within a defined geographic area.
"Direct discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant.
"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or an authorized representative.
"Discharge," when used without qualification, means the discharge of a pollutant.
"Discharge," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means "indirect discharge" as defined in this section.
"Discharge of a pollutant" means:
1. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to surface waters from any point source; or
2. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to the waters of the contiguous zone or the ocean from any point source other than a vessel or other floating craft which is being used as a means of transportation.
This definition includes additions of pollutants into surface waters from: surface run-off which is collected or channeled by man; discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances owned by a state, municipality, or other person which do not lead to a treatment works; and discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances, leading into privately owned treatment works. This term does not include an addition of pollutants by any indirect discharger.
"Discharge Monitoring Report
"DMR" means the form supplied by the department or an equivalent
form developed by the permittee and approved by the board, for the reporting of
self-monitoring results by permittees.
"Draft permit" means a document indicating the board's tentative decision to issue or deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate, or reissue a permit. A notice of intent to terminate a permit, and a notice of intent to deny a permit are types of draft permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination is not a draft permit. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.
"Effluent limitation" means any restriction imposed by the board on quantities, discharge rates, and concentrations of pollutants which are discharged from point sources into surface waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the ocean.
"Effluent limitations guidelines" means a regulation published by the administrator under § 304(b) of the CWA to adopt or revise effluent limitations.
"Environmental Protection Agency
"EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
"Existing source" means any source which is not a new source or a new discharger.
"Facilities or equipment" means buildings, structures, process or production equipment or machinery which form a permanent part of a new source and which will be used in its operation, if these facilities or equipment are of such value as to represent a substantial commitment to construct. It excludes facilities or equipment used in connection with feasibility, engineering, and design studies regarding the new source or water pollution treatment for the new source.
"Facility or activity" means any VPDES point source or treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other facility or activity (including land or appurtenances thereto) that is subject to regulation under the VPDES program.
"General permit" means a VPDES permit authorizing a category of discharges under the CWA and the law within a geographical area.
"Hazardous substance" means any substance designated under the Code of Virginia and 40 CFR Part 116 pursuant to § 311 of the CWA.
"Incorporated place" means a city, town, township, or village that is incorporated under the Code of Virginia.
"Indian country" means (i) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and including rights-of-way running through the reservation; (ii) all dependent Indian communities with the borders of the United States whether within the originally or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or without the limits of a state; and (iii) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same.
"Indirect discharge" means the introduction of pollutants into a POTW from any nondomestic source regulated under § 307(b), (c) or (d) of the CWA and the law.
"Indirect discharger" means a nondomestic discharger introducing pollutants to a POTW.
"Individual control strategy" means a final VPDES permit with supporting documentation showing that effluent limits are consistent with an approved wasteload allocation or other documentation that shows that applicable water quality standards will be met not later than three years after the individual control strategy is established.
"Industrial user" or "user" means a source of indirect discharge.
"Interference" means an indirect discharge which,
alone or in conjunction with an indirect discharge or discharges from other
sources, both: (i) inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment processes or
operations, or its sludge processes, use or disposal; and (ii) therefore
(ii) is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES
permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation) or
of the prevention of biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal in compliance with
the following statutory provisions and regulations or permits issued thereunder
(or more stringent state or local regulations): Section 405 of the Clean Water
Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (including Title II, more commonly
referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 USC § 6901
et seq.), and including state regulations contained in any state sludge
management plan prepared pursuant to Subtitle D of the SWDA) the Clean Air Act
(42 USC § 701 et seq.), the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC § 2601 et
seq.), and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (33 USC § 1401 et
"Interstate agency" means an agency of two or more states established by or under an agreement or compact approved by Congress, or any other agency of two or more states having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the control of pollution as determined and approved by the administrator under the CWA and regulations.
"Land application area" means, in regard to an AFO, land under the control of an AFO owner or operator, that is owned, rented, or leased to which manure, litter or process wastewater from the production area may be applied.
"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback area, where biosolids may be applied.
"Log sorting facilities" and "log storage facilities" mean facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with bark or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored on land where water is applied intentionally on the logs (wet decking).
"Major facility" means any VPDES facility or activity classified as such by the regional administrator in conjunction with the board.
"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors normally associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.
"Manmade" means constructed by man and used for the purpose of transporting wastes.
"Manure" means manure, bedding, compost and raw materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal.
"Maximum daily discharge limitation" means the highest allowable daily discharge.
"Municipal separate storm sewer" means a conveyance or system of conveyances, including roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, catch basins, curbs, gutters, ditches, manmade channels, or storm drains, (i) owned or operated by a state, city, town, borough, county, parish, district, association, or other public body (created by or pursuant to state law) having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, storm water, or other wastes, including special districts under state law, such as a sewer district, flood control district or drainage district, or similar entity, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA, that discharges to surface waters of the state; (ii) designed or used for collecting or conveying storm water; (iii) that is not a combined sewer; and (iv) that is not part of a publicly owned treatment works (POTW).
"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body created by or under state law and having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA.
"National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System" or "NPDES" means the national program for issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing permits, and imposing and enforcing pretreatment requirements under §§ 307, 402, 318, and 405 of the CWA. The term includes an approved program.
"National pretreatment standard," "pretreatment standard," or "standard," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any regulation containing pollutant discharge limits promulgated by the EPA in accordance with § 307(b) and (c) of the CWA, which applies to industrial users. This term includes prohibitive discharge limits established pursuant to 9VAC25-31-770.
"New discharger" means any building, structure, facility, or installation:
1. From which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants;
2. That did not commence the discharge of pollutants at a particular site prior to August 13, 1979;
3. Which is not a new source; and
4. Which has never received a finally effective VPDES permit for discharges at that site.
This definition includes an indirect discharger which commences discharging into surface waters after August 13, 1979. It also includes any existing mobile point source (other than an offshore or coastal oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or a coastal oil and gas developmental drilling rig) such as a seafood processing rig, seafood processing vessel, or aggregate plant, that begins discharging at a site for which it does not have a permit; and any offshore or coastal mobile oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile oil and gas developmental drilling rig that commences the discharge of pollutants after August 13, 1979.
"New source," except when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced:
(a) 1. After promulgation of standards of
performance under § 306 of the CWA which are applicable to such source; or (b) 2. After proposal of standards of performance
in accordance with § 306 of the CWA which are applicable to such source, but
only if the standards are promulgated in accordance with § 306 of the CWA
within 120 days of their proposal.
"New source," when used in Part VII of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced after the publication of proposed pretreatment standards under § 307(c) of the CWA which will be applicable to such source if such standards are thereafter promulgated in accordance with that section, provided that:
1. a. The building, structure, facility or installation is constructed at a site at which no other source is located;
b. The building, structure, facility, or installation totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or
c. The production of wastewater generating processes of the building, structure, facility, or installation are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these are substantially independent, factors such as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant, and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source should be considered.
2. Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a modification rather than a new source if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria of subdivision 1 b or c of this definition but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production equipment.
3. Construction of a new source as defined under this subdivision has commenced if the owner or operator has:
a. Begun, or caused to begin, as part of a continuous on-site construction program:
(1) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or
(2) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation, or removal of existing buildings, structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or
b. Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment which are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable time. Options to purchase or contracts which can be terminated or modified without substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility, engineering, and design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under this subdivision.
"Overburden" means any material of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies a mineral deposit, excluding topsoil or similar naturally occurring surface materials that are not disturbed by mining operations.
"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including, but not limited to, sanitation district commissions and authorities, and any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this or any other state or country, or any officer or agency of the United States, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group that owns, operates, charters, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or is responsible for any actual or potential discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters, or any facility or operation that has the capability to alter the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters in contravention of § 62.1-44.5 of the Code of Virginia.
"Owner" or "operator" means the owner or operator of any facility or activity subject to regulation under the VPDES program.
"Pass through" means a discharge which exits the POTW into state waters in quantities or concentrations which, alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation).
"Permit" means an authorization, certificate, license, or equivalent control document issued by the board to implement the requirements of this chapter. Permit includes a VPDES general permit. Permit does not include any permit which has not yet been the subject of final agency action, such as a draft permit or a proposed permit.
"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.
"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance including, but not limited to, any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, landfill leachate collection system, vessel, or other floating craft from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agriculture or agricultural storm water run-off.
"Pollutant" means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials (except those regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 USC § 2011 et seq.)), heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water. It does not mean:
1. Sewage from vessels; or
2. Water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil and gas production and disposed of in a well if the well used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes is approved by the board, and if the board determines that the injection or disposal will not result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.
"POTW treatment plant" means that portion of the POTW which is designed to provide treatment (including recycling and reclamation) of municipal sewage and industrial waste.
"Pretreatment" means the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to or in lieu of discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a POTW. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical or biological processes, process changes or by other means, except as prohibited in Part VII of this chapter. Appropriate pretreatment technology includes control equipment, such as equalization tanks or facilities, for protection against surges or slug loadings that might interfere with or otherwise be incompatible with the POTW. However, where wastewater from a regulated process is mixed in an equalization facility with unregulated wastewater or with wastewater from another regulated process, the effluent from the equalization facility must meet an adjusted pretreatment limit calculated in accordance with Part VII of this chapter.
"Pretreatment requirements" means any requirements arising under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter including the duty to allow or carry out inspections, entry or monitoring activities; any rules, regulations, or orders issued by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works; or any reporting requirements imposed by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works or by the regulations of the board. Pretreatment requirements do not include the requirements of a national pretreatment standard.
"Primary industry category" means any industry category listed in the NRDC settlement agreement (Natural Resources Defense Council et al. v. Train, 8 E.R.C. 2120 (D.D.C. 1976), modified 12 E.R.C. 1833 (D.D.C. 1979)); also listed in 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix A.
"Privately owned treatment works
"PVOTW" means any device or system which is (i) used to treat
wastes from any facility whose operator is not the operator of the treatment
works and (ii) not a POTW.
"Process wastewater" means any water which, during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product. Process wastewater from an AFO means water directly or indirectly used in the operation of the AFO for any of the following: spillage or overflow from animal or poultry watering systems; washing, cleaning, or flushing pens, barns, manure pits, or other AFO facilities; direct contact swimming, washing, or spray cooling of the animals; or dust control. Process wastewater from an AFO also includes any water that comes into contact with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding.
"Production area" means that part of an AFO that includes the animal confinement area, the manure storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area includes but is not limited to open lots, housed lots, feedlots, confinement houses, stall barns, free stall barns, milkrooms, milking centers, cowyards, barnyards, medication pens, walkers, animal walkways, and stables. The manure storage area includes but is not limited to lagoons, runoff ponds, storage sheds, stockpiles, under house or pit storages, liquid impoundments, static piles, and composting piles. The raw materials storage areas includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding materials. The waste containment area includes but is not limited to settling basins, and areas within berms and diversions that separate uncontaminated storm water. Also included in the definition of production area is any egg washing or egg processing facility, and any area used in the storage, handling, treatment, or disposal of mortalities.
"Proposed permit" means a VPDES permit prepared after the close of the public comment period (and, when applicable, any public hearing and administrative appeals) which is sent to EPA for review before final issuance. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.
"Publicly owned treatment works
"POTW" means a treatment works as defined by § 212 of the
CWA, which is owned by a state or municipality (as defined by § 502(4) of the
CWA). This definition includes any devices and systems used in the storage,
treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial wastes
of a liquid nature. It also includes sewers, pipes, and other conveyances only
if they convey wastewater to a POTW treatment plant. The term also means the
municipality as defined in § 502(4) of the CWA, which has jurisdiction over the
indirect discharges to and the discharges from such a treatment works.
"Recommencing discharger" means a source which recommences discharge after terminating operations.
"Regional administrator" means the Regional Administrator of Region III of the Environmental Protection Agency or the authorized representative of the regional administrator.
"Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities" means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap.
"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures included in a permit, including an enforceable sequence of interim requirements (for example, actions, operations, or milestone events) leading to compliance with the law, the CWA and regulations.
"Secondary industry category" means any industry category which is not a primary industry category.
"Secretary" means the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers.
"Septage" means the liquid and solid material pumped from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar domestic sewage treatment system, or a holding tank when the system is cleaned or maintained.
"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied.
"Severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production.
"Sewage from vessels" means human body wastes and the wastes from toilets and other receptacles intended to receive or retain body wastes that are discharged from vessels and regulated under § 312 of CWA.
"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or
liquid residue removed during the treatment of municipal
waste water wastewater
or domestic sewage. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, solids
removed during primary, secondary, or advanced waste water wastewater
treatment, scum, domestic septage, portable toilet pumpings, type III marine
sanitation device pumpings, and sewage sludge products. Sewage sludge does not
include grit or screenings, or ash generated during the incineration of sewage
"Sewage sludge use" or "disposal practice" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use of biosolids, or disposal of sewage sludge.
"Significant industrial user" or "SIU" means:
1. Except as provided in subdivisions 2 and 3 of this definition:
a. All industrial users subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30; and
b. Any other industrial user that: discharges an average of
25,000 gallons per day or more of process wastewater to the POTW (excluding
sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater); contributes a
process wastestream which makes up 5.0% or more of the average dry weather
hydraulic or organic capacity of the POTW treatment plant; or is designated as
such by the
Control Authority control authority, on the basis
that the industrial user has a reasonable potential for adversely affecting the
POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement.
2. The control authority may determine that an industrial user subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N is a nonsignificant categorical industrial user rather than a significant industrial user on a finding that the industrial user never discharges more than 100 gallons per day (gpd) of total categorical wastewater (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater, unless specifically included in the pretreatment standard) and the following conditions are met:
a. The industrial user, prior to control authority's finding, has consistently complied with all applicable categorical pretreatment standards and requirements;
b. The industrial user annually submits the certification statement required in 9VAC25-31-840 together with any additional information necessary to support the certification statement; and
c. The industrial user never discharges any untreated concentrated wastewater.
3. Upon a finding that an industrial user meeting the criteria in subdivision 1 b of this definition has no reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement, the control authority may at any time, on its own initiative or in response to a petition received from an industrial user or POTW, and in accordance with Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, determine that such industrial user is not a significant industrial user.
"Significant materials" means, but is not limited to: raw materials; fuels; materials such as solvents, detergents, and plastic pellets; finished materials such as metallic products; raw materials used in food processing or production; hazardous substances designated under § 101(14) of CERCLA (42 USC § 9601(14)); any chemical the facility is required to report pursuant to § 313 of Title III of SARA (42 USC § 11023); fertilizers; pesticides; and waste products such as ashes, slag and sludge that have the potential to be released with storm water discharges.
"Silvicultural point source" means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are operated in connection with silvicultural activities and from which pollutants are discharged into surface waters. The term does not include nonpoint source silvicultural activities such as nursery operations, site preparation, reforestation and subsequent cultural treatment, thinning, prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting operations, surface drainage, or road construction and maintenance from which there is natural run-off. However, some of these activities (such as stream crossing for roads) may involve point source discharges of dredged or fill material which may require a CWA § 404 permit.
"Site" means the land or water area where any facility or activity is physically located or conducted, including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.
"Sludge-only facility" means any treatment works treating domestic sewage whose methods of biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal are subject to regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA, and is required to obtain a VPDES permit.
"Source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants.
"Standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal" means the regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA which govern minimum requirements for sludge quality, management practices, and monitoring and reporting applicable to sewage sludge or the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge by any person.
"State" means the Commonwealth of Virginia.
"State/EPA agreement" means an agreement between the regional administrator and the state which coordinates EPA and state activities, responsibilities and programs including those under the CWA and the law.
"State Water Control Law" or "Law" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.
"Storm water" means storm water run-off, snow melt run-off, and surface run-off and drainage.
"Storm water discharge associated with industrial
activity" means the discharge from any conveyance which is used for
collecting and conveying storm water and which is directly related to
manufacturing, processing, or raw materials storage areas at an
industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or
activities excluded from the VPDES program. For the categories of industries
identified in this definition, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm
water discharges from industrial plant yards; immediate access roads and rail
lines used or traveled by carriers of raw materials, manufactured products, waste
by-products byproducts used or created by the
facility; material handling sites; refuse sites; sites used for the application
or disposal of process waste waters; sites used for the storage and maintenance
of material handling equipment; sites used for residual treatment, storage, or
disposal; shipping and receiving areas; manufacturing buildings; storage areas
(including tank farms) for raw materials, and intermediate and final products;
and areas where industrial activity has taken place in the past and significant
materials remain and are exposed to storm water. For the purposes of this
definition, material handling activities include the storage, loading and
unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate
product, final product, by-product byproduct, or waste product.
The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the plant's
industrial activities, such as office buildings and accompanying parking lots
as long as the drainage from the excluded areas is not mixed with storm water
drained from the above described areas. Industrial facilities (including
industrial facilities that are federally, state, or municipally owned or
operated that meet the description of the facilities listed in subdivisions 1 through
10 of this definition) include those facilities designated under the provisions
of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c. The following categories of facilities are considered
to be engaging in industrial activity for purposes of this subsection:
1. Facilities subject to storm water effluent limitations
guidelines, new source performance standards, or toxic pollutant effluent
standards under 40 CFR Subchapter N (except facilities with toxic
pollutant effluent standards
which that are exempted under
2. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 24 (except 2434), 26 (except 265 and 267), 28 (except 283), 29, 311, 32 (except 323), 33, 3441, 373;
3. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications
10 through 14 (mineral industry) including active or inactive mining operations
(except for areas of coal mining operations no longer meeting the definition of
a reclamation area under 40 CFR 434.11(l) because the performance bond issued
to the facility by the appropriate SMCRA authority has been released, or except
for areas of non-coal mining operations which have been released from
applicable state or federal reclamation requirements after December 17, 1990)
and oil and gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment operations,
or transmission facilities that discharge storm water contaminated by contact
with or that has come into contact with, any overburden, raw material,
intermediate products, finished products,
or waste products located on the site of such operations; (inactive mining
operations are mining sites that are not being actively mined, but which have
an identifiable owner/operator; inactive mining sites do not include sites
where mining claims are being maintained prior to disturbances associated with
the extraction, beneficiation, or processing of mined materials, nor sites
where minimal activities are undertaken for the sole purpose of maintaining a
4. Hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, including those that are operating under interim status or a permit under Subtitle C of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);
5. Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have received any industrial wastes (waste that is received from any of the facilities described under this subsection) including those that are subject to regulation under Subtitle D of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);
6. Facilities involved in the recycling of materials, including metal scrapyards, battery reclaimers, salvage yards, and automobile junkyards, including but limited to those classified as Standard Industrial Classification 5015 and 5093;
7. Steam electric power generating facilities, including coal handling sites;
8. Transportation facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 40, 41, 42 (except 4221-25), 43, 44, 45, and 5171 which have vehicle maintenance shops, equipment cleaning operations, or airport deicing operations. Only those portions of the facility that are either involved in vehicle maintenance (including vehicle rehabilitation, mechanical repairs, painting, fueling, and lubrication), equipment cleaning operations, airport deicing operations, or which are otherwise identified under subdivisions 1 through 7 or 9 and 10 of this definition are associated with industrial activity;
9. Treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment device or system, used in the storage treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated to the disposal of sewage sludge that are located within the confines of the facility, with a design flow of 1.0 mgd or more, or required to have an approved pretreatment program. Not included are farm lands, domestic gardens or lands used for sludge management where sludge is beneficially reused and which are not physically located in the confines of the facility, or areas that are in compliance with § 405 of the CWA; and
10. Facilities under Standard Industrial Classifications 20, 21, 22, 23, 2434, 25, 265, 267, 27, 283, 30, 31 (except 311), 323, 34 (except 3441), 35, 36, 37 (except 373), 38, 39, and 4221-25.
"Submission" means: (i) a request by a POTW for approval of a pretreatment program to the regional administrator or the director; (ii) a request by POTW to the regional administrator or the director for authority to revise the discharge limits in categorical pretreatment standards to reflect POTW pollutant removals; or (iii) a request to the EPA by the director for approval of the Virginia pretreatment program.
"Surface waters" means:
1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;
2. All interstate waters, including interstate wetlands;
3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:
a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;
b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or
c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;
4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters under this definition;
5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;
6. The territorial sea; and
7. Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.
Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons designed to meet the requirements of the CWA and the law, are not surface waters. Surface waters do not include prior converted cropland. Notwithstanding the determination of an area's status as prior converted cropland by any other agency, for the purposes of the Clean Water Act, the final authority regarding the Clean Water Act jurisdiction remains with the EPA.
"Total dissolved solids" means the total dissolved (filterable) solids as determined by use of the method specified in 40 CFR Part 136.
"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307(a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of sludge use or disposal practices, any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405(d) of the CWA.
"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).
"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste or necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances; extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations thereof; and any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems.
"Treatment works treating domestic sewage" means a
POTW or any other sewage sludge or
waste water wastewater
treatment devices or systems, regardless of ownership (including federal
facilities), used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal
or domestic sewage, including land dedicated for the disposal of sewage sludge.
This definition does not include septic tanks or similar devices. For purposes
of this definition, domestic sewage includes waste and waste water wastewater
from humans or household operations that are discharged to or otherwise enter a
"TWTDS" means treatment works treating domestic sewage.
"Uncontrolled sanitary landfill" means a landfill or open dump, whether in operation or closed, that does not meet the requirements for run-on or run-off controls established pursuant to subtitle D of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 USC § 6901 et seq.).
"Upset," except when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology based permit effluent limitations because of factors beyond the reasonable control of the permittee. An upset does not include noncompliance to the extent caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.
"Variance" means any mechanism or provision under § 301 or § 316 of the CWA or under 40 CFR Part 125, or in the applicable effluent limitations guidelines which allows modification to or waiver of the generally applicable effluent limitation requirements or time deadlines of the CWA. This includes provisions which allow the establishment of alternative limitations based on fundamentally different factors or on §§ 301(c), 301(g), 301(h), 301(i), or 316(a) of the CWA.
"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters.
"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
permit" or "VPDES permit" means a document issued by the
board pursuant to this chapter authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the
potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface
waters and the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge. Under the
approved state program, a VPDES permit is equivalent to an NPDES permit.
"VPDES application" or "application" means the standard form or forms, including any additions, revisions or modifications to the forms, approved by the administrator and the board for applying for a VPDES permit.
"Wastewater," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means liquid and water carried industrial wastes and domestic sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities and institutions, whether treated or untreated, which are contributed to the POTW.
"Wastewater works operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of wastewater works.
"Water Management Division Director" means the director of the Region III Water Management Division of the Environmental Protection Agency or this person's delegated representative.
"Wetlands" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.
"Whole effluent toxicity" means the aggregate toxic effect of an effluent measured directly by a toxicity test.
9VAC25-31-25. Applicability of incorporated references based on the dates that they became effective.
Except as noted, when a regulation of the United States
Environmental Protection Agency set forth in Title 40 of the Code of Federal
Regulations is referenced and incorporated herein that regulation shall be as
it exists and has been published in the July 1,
9VAC25-31-30. Federal effluent guidelines.
A. The following federal regulations are hereby incorporated by reference:
Airport Deicing Operations - 40 CFR Part 449
Aluminum Forming - 40 CFR Part 467
Asbestos Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 427
Battery Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 461
Canned and Preserved Fruits and Vegetables - 40 CFR Part 407
Canned and Preserved Seafood - 40 CFR Part 408
Carbon Black Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 458
Cement Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 411
Centralized Waste Treatment - 40 CFR Part 437
Coal Mining - 40 CFR Part 434
Coil Coating - 40 CFR Part 465
Concentrated Aquatic Animal Production - 40 CFR Part 451
Copper Forming - 40 CFR Part 468
Dairy Products - 40 CFR Part 405
Electrical and Electronic Components - 40 CFR Part 469
Electroplating - 40 CFR Part 413
Explosives Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 457
Feedlots - 40 CFR Part 412
Ferroalloy Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 424
Fertilizer Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 418
Glass Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 426
Grain Mills - 40 CFR Part 406
Gum and Wood Chemicals Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 454
Hospitals - 40 CFR Part 460
Ink Formulating - 40 CFR Part 447
Inorganic Chemicals Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 415
Iron and Steel Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 420
Landfills - 40 CFR Part 445
Leather Tanning and Finishing - 40 CFR Part 425
Meat Products - 40 CFR Part 432
Metal Finishing - 40 CFR Part 433
Metal Molding and Casting - 40 CFR Part 464
Metal Products and Machinery - 40 CFR Part 438
Mineral Mining and Processing - 40 CFR Part 436
Nonferrous Metals - 40 CFR Part 421
Nonferrous Metal Forming - 40 CFR Part 471
Oil and Gas Extraction - 40 CFR Part 435
Ore Mining and Dressing - 40 CFR Part 440
Organic Chemicals, Plastics and Synthetic Fibers - 40 CFR Part 414
Paint Formulating - 40 CFR Part 446
Paving and Roofing Materials - 40 CFR Part 443
Pesticide Chemicals - 40 CFR Part 455
Petroleum Refining - 40 CFR Part 419
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 439
Phosphate Manufacturing - 40 CFR Part 422
Photographic Processing - 40 CFR Part 459
Plastics Molding and Forming - 40 CFR Part 463
Porcelain Enameling - 40 CFR Part 466
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard - 40 CFR Part 430
Rubber Processing - 40 CFR Part 428
Secondary Treatment - 40 CFR Part 133
Soaps and Detergents - 40 CFR Part 417
Steam Electric Power Generation - 40 CFR Part 423
Sugar Processing - 40 CFR Part 409
Textile Mills - 40 CFR Part 410
Timber Products - 40 CFR Part 429
Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards - 40 CFR Part 129
Transportation Equipment Cleaning - 40 CFR Part 442
Waste Combustors - 40 CFR Part 444
B. The director shall be responsible for identifying any subsequent changes in the regulations incorporated in the previous subsection or the adoption or the modification of any new national standard. Upon identifying any such federal change or adoption, the director shall initiate a regulation adopting proceedings by preparing and filing with the Registrar of Regulations the notice required by § 2.2-4006 A 4 c of the Code of Virginia or a notice of a public hearing pursuant to § 2.2-4007 C of the Code of Virginia.
A. Except in compliance with a VPDES permit, or another permit, issued by the board or other entity authorized by the board, it shall be unlawful for any person to:
1. Discharge into state waters sewage, industrial wastes, other
wastes, or any noxious or deleterious substances;
2. Otherwise alter the physical, chemical or biological
properties of such state waters and make them detrimental to the public health,
or to animal or aquatic life, or to the use of such waters for domestic or
industrial consumption, or for recreation, or for other uses
3. Discharge stormwater into state waters from municipal separate storm sewer systems or land disturbing activities.
B. Any person in violation of
A of this section, who discharges or causes or allows a discharge of
sewage, industrial waste, other wastes or any noxious or deleterious substance
into or upon state waters; or who discharges or causes or allows a discharge
that may reasonably be expected to enter state waters in violation of
subsection A of this section shall notify the department of the discharge,
immediately upon discovery of the discharge but in no case later than 24 hours
after said discovery. A written report of the unauthorized discharge shall be
submitted by the owner, to the department, within five days of discovery of the
discharge. The written report shall contain:
1. A description of the nature and location of the discharge;
2. The cause of the discharge;
3. The date on which the discharge occurred;
4. The length of time that the discharge continued;
5. The volume of the discharge;
6. If the discharge is continuing, how long it is expected to continue;
7. If the discharge is continuing, what the expected total volume of the discharge will be; and
8. Any steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate and prevent a recurrence of the present discharge or any future discharges not authorized by the permit.
Discharges reportable to the department under the immediate reporting requirements of other regulations are exempted from this requirement.
C. No permit may be issued:
1. When the conditions of the permit do not provide for compliance with the applicable requirements of the CWA or the law, or regulations promulgated under the CWA or the law;
2. When the applicant is required to obtain a state or other appropriate certification under § 401 of the CWA and that certification has not been obtained or waived;
3. When the regional administrator has objected to issuance of the permit;
4. When the imposition of conditions cannot ensure compliance with the applicable water quality requirements of all affected states;
5. When, in the judgment of the Secretary of the Army, anchorage and navigation in or on any of the waters of the United States would be substantially impaired by the discharge;
6. For the discharge of any radiological, chemical, or biological warfare agent or high-level radioactive waste;
7. For any discharge inconsistent with a plan or plan amendment approved under § 208(b) of the CWA;
8. For any discharge to the territorial sea, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the oceans in the following circumstances:
a. Before the promulgation of guidelines under § 403(c) of the CWA (for determining degradation of the waters of the territorial seas, the contiguous zone, and the oceans) unless the board determines permit issuance to be in the public interest; or
b. After promulgation of guidelines under § 403(c) of the CWA, when insufficient information exists to make a reasonable judgment whether the discharge complies with them.
9. To a new source or a new discharger, if the discharge from its construction or operation will cause or contribute to the violation of water quality standards. The owner or operator of a new source or new discharger proposing to discharge into a water segment which does not meet applicable water quality standards or is not expected to meet those standards even after the application of the effluent limitations required by the law and §§ 301(b)(1)(A) and 301(b)(1)(B) of the CWA, and for which the department has performed a pollutants load allocation for the pollutant to be discharged, must demonstrate, before the close of the public comment period, that:
a. There are sufficient remaining pollutant load allocations to allow for the discharge; and
b. The existing dischargers into that segment are subject to compliance schedules designed to bring the segment into compliance with applicable water quality standards. The board may waive the submission of information by the new source or new discharger required by this subdivision if the board determines that it already has adequate information to evaluate the request. An explanation of the development of limitations to meet the criteria of this paragraph is to be included in the fact sheet to the permit under 9VAC25-31-280.
9VAC25-31-200. Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of VPDES permits.
The following conditions, in addition to those set forth in 9VAC25-31-190, apply to all VPDES permits within the categories specified below:
A. Existing manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers. All existing manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers must notify the department as soon as they know or have reason to believe:
1. That any activity has occurred or will occur which would result in the discharge, on a routine or frequent basis, of any toxic pollutant which is not limited in the permit, if that discharge will exceed the highest of the following notification levels:
a. One hundred micrograms per liter (100 μg/l);
b. Two hundred micrograms per liter (200 μg/l) for acrolein and acrylonitrile; five hundred micrograms per liter (500 μg/l) for 2,4-dinitrophenol and for 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol; and one milligram per liter (1 mg/l) for antimony;
c. Five times the maximum concentration value reported for that pollutant in the permit application; or
d. The level established by the board in accordance with 9VAC25-31-220 F.
2. That any activity has occurred or will occur which would result in any discharge, on a nonroutine or infrequent basis, of a toxic pollutant which is not limited in the permit, if that discharge will exceed the highest of the following notification levels:
a. Five hundred micrograms per liter (500 μg/l);
b. One milligram per liter (1 mg/l) for antimony;
c. Ten times the maximum concentration value reported for that pollutant in the permit application; or
d. The level established by the board in accordance with 9VAC25-31-220 F.
B. Publicly and privately owned treatment works. All POTWs and PVOTWs must provide adequate notice to the department of the following:
1. Any new introduction of pollutants into the POTW or PVOTW from an indirect discharger which would be subject to § 301 or 306 of the CWA and the law if it were directly discharging those pollutants; and
2. Any substantial change in the volume or character of pollutants being introduced into that POTW or PVOTW by a source introducing pollutants into the POTW or PVOTW at the time of issuance of the permit.
3. For purposes of this subsection, adequate notice shall include information on (i) the quality and quantity of effluent introduced into the POTW or PVOTW, and (ii) any anticipated impact of the change on the quantity or quality of effluent to be discharged from the POTW or PVOTW.
4. When the monthly average flow influent to a POTW or PVOTW reaches 95% of the design capacity authorized by the VPDES permit for each month of any three-month period, the owner shall within 30 days notify the department in writing and within 90 days submit a plan of action for ensuring continued compliance with the terms of the permit.
a. The plan shall include the necessary steps and a prompt schedule of implementation for controlling any current problem, or any problem which could be reasonably anticipated, resulting from high influent flows.
b. Upon receipt of the owner's plan of action, the board shall notify the owner whether the plan is approved or disapproved. If the plan is disapproved, such notification shall state the reasons and specify the actions necessary to obtain approval of the plan.
c. Failure to timely submit an adequate plan shall be deemed a violation of the permit.
d. Nothing herein shall in any way impair the authority of the board to take enforcement action under § 62.1-44.15, 62.1-44.23, or 62.1-44.32 of the Code of Virginia.
C. Wastewater works operator requirements.
1. The permittee shall employ or contract at least one wastewater works operator who holds a current wastewater license appropriate for the permitted facility. The license shall be issued in accordance with Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia and the regulations of the Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators and Onsite Sewage System Professionals Regulations (18VAC160-20). Notwithstanding the foregoing requirement, unless the discharge is determined by the board on a case-by-case basis to be a potential contributor of pollution, no licensed operator is required for wastewater treatment works:
a. That have a design hydraulic capacity equal to or less than 0.04 mgd;
b. That discharge industrial waste or other waste from coal mining operations; or
c. That do not utilize biological or physical/chemical treatment.
2. In making this case-by-case determination, the board shall consider the location of the discharge with respect to state waters, the size of the discharge, the quantity and nature of pollutants reaching state waters and the treatment methods used at the wastewater works.
3. The permittee shall notify the department in writing whenever he is not complying, or has grounds for anticipating he will not comply with the requirements of subdivision 1 of this subsection. The notification shall include a statement of reasons and a prompt schedule for achieving compliance.
D. Lake level contingency plans. Any VPDES permit issued for a surface water impoundment whose primary purpose is to provide cooling water to power generators shall include a lake level contingency plan to allow specific reductions in the flow required to be released when the water level above the dam drops below designated levels due to drought conditions, and such plan shall take into account and minimize any adverse effects of any release reduction requirements on downstream users. This subsection shall not apply to any such facility that addresses releases and flow requirements during drought conditions in a Virginia Water Protection Permit.
E. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). The activities of the CAFO shall not contravene the Water Quality Standards, as amended and adopted by the board, or any provision of the State Water Control Law. There shall be no point source discharge of manure, litter or process wastewater to surface waters of the state except in the case of an overflow caused by a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm. Agricultural storm water discharges as defined in subdivision C 3 of 9VAC25-31-130 are permitted. Domestic sewage or industrial waste shall not be managed under the Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit for CAFOs (9VAC25-191). Any permit issued to a CAFO shall include:
1. Requirements to develop, implement and comply with a nutrient management plan. At a minimum, a nutrient management plan shall include best management practices and procedures necessary to implement applicable effluent limitations and standards. Permitted CAFOs must have their nutrient management plans developed and implemented and be in compliance with the nutrient management plan as a requirement of the permit. The nutrient management plan must, to the extent applicable:
a. Ensure adequate storage of manure, litter, and process wastewater, including procedures to ensure proper operation and maintenance of the storage facilities;
b. Ensure proper management of mortalities (i.e., dead animals) to ensure that they are not disposed of in a liquid manure, storm water, or process wastewater storage or treatment system that is not specifically designed to treat animal mortalities;
c. Ensure that clean water is diverted, as appropriate, from the production area;
d. Prevent direct contact of confined animals with surface waters of the state;
e. Ensure that chemicals and other contaminants handled on site are not disposed of in any manure, litter, process wastewater, or stormwater storage or treatment system unless specifically designed to treat such chemicals and other contaminants;
f. Identify appropriate site specific conservation practices to be implemented, including as appropriate buffers or equivalent practices, to control runoff of pollutants to surface waters of the state;
g. Identify protocols for appropriate testing of manure, litter, process wastewater and soil;
h. Establish protocols to land apply manure, litter or process wastewater in accordance with site specific nutrient management practices that ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter or process wastewater; and
i. Identify specific records that will be maintained to document the implementation and management of the minimum elements described above.
2. Recordkeeping requirements. The permittee must create, maintain for five years, and make available to the director upon request the following records:
a. All applicable records identified pursuant to subdivision 1 i of this subsection;
b. In addition, all CAFOs subject to EPA Effluent Guidelines for Feedlots (40 CFR Part 412) must comply with recordkeeping requirements as specified in 40 CFR 412.37(b) and (c) and 40 CFR 412.47(b) and (c);
A copy of the CAFO's site-specific nutrient management plan must be maintained on site and made available to the director upon request.
3. Requirements relating to transfer of manure or process wastewater to other persons. Prior to transferring manure, litter or process wastewater to other persons, large CAFOs must provide the recipient of the manure, litter or process wastewater with the most current nutrient analysis. The analysis provided must be consistent with the requirements of EPA Effluent Guidelines for Feedlots (40 CFR Part 412). Large CAFOs must retain for five years records of the date, recipient name and address and approximate amount of manure, litter or process wastewater transferred to another person.
4. Annual reporting requirements for CAFOs. The permittee must submit an annual report to the director. The annual report must include:
a. The number and type of animals, whether in open confinement or housed under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55 pounds, mature dairy cows, dairy heifers, veal calves, sheep and lambs, horses, ducks, turkeys, other);
b. Estimated amount of total manure, litter and process wastewater generated by the CAFO in the previous 12 months (tons/gallons);
c. Estimated amount of total manure, litter and process wastewater transferred to other persons by the CAFO in the previous 12 months (tons/gallons);
d. Total number of acres for land application covered by the nutrient management plan developed in accordance with subdivision 1 of this subsection;
e. Total number of acres under control of the CAFO that were used for land application of manure, litter and process wastewater in the previous 12 months;
f. Summary of all manure, litter and process wastewater discharges from the production area that occurred in the previous 12 months including date, time and approximate volume;
g. A statement indicating whether the current version of the CAFO's nutrient management plan was developed or approved by a certified nutrient management planner; and
h. The actual crop(s) planted and actual yield(s) for each field, the actual nitrogen and phosphorus content of the manure, litter, and process wastewater, the results of calculations conducted in accordance with subdivisions 5 a (2) and 5 b (4) of this subsection, and the amount of manure, litter, and process wastewater applied to each field during the previous 12 months; and, for any CAFO that implements a nutrient management plan that addresses rates of application in accordance with subdivision 5 b of this subsection, the results of any soil testing for nitrogen and phosphorus taken during the preceding 12 months, the data used in calculations conducted in accordance with subdivision 5 b (4) of this subsection, and the amount of any supplemental fertilizer applied during the previous 12 months.
5. Terms of the nutrient management plan. Any permit issued to a CAFO shall require compliance with the terms of the CAFO's site-specific nutrient management plan. The terms of the nutrient management plan are the information, protocols, best management practices, and other conditions in the nutrient management plan determined by the board to be necessary to meet the requirements of subdivision 1 of this subsection. The terms of the nutrient management plan, with respect to protocols for land application of manure, litter, or process wastewater required by subdivision 4 h of this subsection and, as applicable, 40 CFR 412.4(c), shall include the fields available for land application; field-specific rates of application properly developed, as specified in subdivisions 5 a and b of this subsection, to ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter, or process wastewater; and any timing limitations identified in the nutrient management plan concerning land application on the fields available for land application. The terms shall address rates of application using one of the following two approaches, unless the board specifies that only one of these approaches may be used:
a. Linear approach. An approach that expresses rates of application as pounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, according to the following specifications:
(1) The terms include maximum application rates from manure, litter, and process wastewater for each year of permit coverage, for each crop identified in the nutrient management plan, in chemical forms determined to be acceptable to the board, in pounds per acre, per year, for each field to be used for land application, and certain factors necessary to determine such rates. At a minimum, the factors that are terms shall include: the outcome of the field-specific assessment of the potential for nitrogen and phosphorus transport from each field; the crops to be planted in each field or any other uses of a field such as pasture or fallow fields; the realistic yield goal for each crop or use identified for each field; the nitrogen and phosphorus recommendations from sources specified by the board for each crop or use identified for each field; credits for all nitrogen in the field that will be plant available; consideration of multi-year phosphorus application; and accounting for all other additions of plant available nitrogen and phosphorus to the field. In addition, the terms include the form and source of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land-applied; the timing and method of land application; and the methodology by which the nutrient management plan accounts for the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied.
(2) Large CAFOs that use this approach shall calculate the maximum amount of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied at least once each year using the results of the most recent representative manure, litter, and process wastewater tests for nitrogen and phosphorus taken within 12 months of the date of land application; or
b. Narrative rate approach. An approach that expresses rates of application as a narrative rate of application that results in the amount, in tons or gallons, of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied, according to the following specifications:
(1) The terms include maximum amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus derived from all sources of nutrients, for each crop identified in the nutrient management plan, in chemical forms determined to be acceptable to the board, in pounds per acre, for each field, and certain factors necessary to determine such amounts. At a minimum, the factors that are terms shall include: the outcome of the field-specific assessment of the potential for nitrogen and phosphorus transport from each field; the crops to be planted in each field or any other uses such as pasture or fallow fields (including alternative crops identified in accordance with subdivision 5 b (2) of this subsection); the realistic yield goal for each crop or use identified for each field; and the nitrogen and phosphorus recommendations from sources specified by the board for each crop or use identified for each field. In addition, the terms include the methodology by which the nutrient management plan accounts for the following factors when calculating the amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied: results of soil tests conducted in accordance with protocols identified in the nutrient management plan, as required by subdivision 1 g of this subsection; credits for all nitrogen in the field that will be plant available; the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied; consideration of multi-year phosphorus application; accounting for all other additions of plant available nitrogen and phosphorus to the field; the form and source of manure, litter, and process wastewater; the timing and method of land application; and volatilization of nitrogen and mineralization of organic nitrogen.
(2) The terms of the nutrient management plan include alternative crops identified in the CAFO's nutrient management plan that are not in the planned crop rotation. Where a CAFO includes alternative crops in its nutrient management plan, the crops shall be listed by field, in addition to the crops identified in the planned crop rotation for that field, and the nutrient management plan shall include realistic crop yield goals and the nitrogen and phosphorus recommendations from sources specified by the board for each crop. Maximum amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from all sources of nutrients and the amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied shall be determined in accordance with the methodology described in subdivision 5 b (1) of this subsection.
(3) For CAFOs using this approach, the following projections shall be included in the nutrient management plan submitted to the board, but are not terms of the nutrient management plan: the CAFO's planned crop rotations for each field for the period of permit coverage; the projected amount of manure, litter, or process wastewater to be applied; projected credits for all nitrogen in the field that will be plant available; consideration of multi-year phosphorus application; accounting for all other additions of plant available nitrogen and phosphorus to the field; and the predicted form, source, and method of application of manure, litter, and process wastewater for each crop. Timing of application for each field, insofar as it concerns the calculation of rates of application, is not a term of the nutrient management plan.
(4) CAFOs that use this approach shall calculate maximum amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied at least once each year using the methodology required in subdivision 5 b (1) of this subsection before land applying manure, litter, and process wastewater and shall rely on the following data:
(a) A field-specific determination of soil levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, including, for nitrogen, a concurrent determination of nitrogen that will be plant available consistent with the methodology required by subdivision 5 b (1) of this subsection, and for phosphorus, the results of the most recent soil test conducted in accordance with soil testing requirements approved by the board; and
(b) The results of most recent representative manure, litter, and process wastewater tests for nitrogen and phosphorus taken within 12 months of the date of land application, in order to determine the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied.
9VAC25-31-300. Public comments and requests for public hearings.
During the public comment period provided under 9VAC25-31-290,
any interested person may submit written comments on the draft permit and may
request a public hearing, if no public hearing has already been scheduled. A
request for a public hearing shall be in writing and shall
state the nature
of the issues proposed to be raised in the public hearing, pursuant to the
board's Procedural Rule No. 1 (9VAC25-230-10 et seq.) or its successor meet
the requirements of § 62.1-44.15:02 B of the Code of Virginia. All comments
shall be considered in making the final decision and shall be answered as
provided in 9VAC25-31-320.
9VAC25-31-310. Public hearings.
The board shall hold a public hearing whenever it
finds, on the basis of requests, a significant degree of public interest in a
draft permit or permits. 2. The board may also hold a public hearing at its
discretion, whenever, for instance, such a hearing might clarify one or more
issues involved in the permit decision. 3. Procedures for public hearings and permits before
the board are those set forth in § 62.1-44.15:02 of the Code of Virginia.
2. Public notice of the public hearing shall be given as specified in 9VAC25-31-290 of this chapter.
4. 3. Any public hearing convened pursuant to
this section shall be held in the geographical area of the proposed discharge,
or in another appropriate area. Related groups of permit applications may be
considered at any such public hearing.
B. Any person may submit oral or written statements and data concerning the draft permit. Reasonable limits may be set upon the time allowed for oral statements, and the submission of statements in writing may be required. The public comment period for the draft permit shall automatically be extended to the close of any public hearing under this section. The hearing officer may also extend the comment period by so stating at the public hearing.
C. A tape recording or written transcript of the hearing shall be made available to the public.
D. Proceedings at, and the decision from, the public hearing
will be governed by
the board's Procedural Rule No. 1 (9VAC25-230-10 et
seq.) or its successor § 62.1-44.15:02 of the Code of Virginia.