The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"Acute care hospital" means a hospital as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code of Virginia that provides medical treatment for patients having an acute illness or injury or recovering from surgery.
"Adult" means a person 18 years of age
or more. ]
"Adult intensive care unit" means a nursing care area that provides intensive observation, diagnosis, and therapeutic procedures for persons 18 years of age or more who are critically ill. Such units may also provide intensive care to pediatric patients. An intensive care unit excludes nursing areas that provide step-down, intermediate care, or telemetry only.
"Affected area" means any part or the whole of the Commonwealth, which has been identified as where persons reside, or may be located, who are known to have been exposed to or infected with, or who are reasonably suspected to have been exposed to or infected with, a communicable disease of public health threat. "Affected area" shall include, but not be limited to, cities, counties, towns, and subsections of such areas, public and private property, buildings, and other structures.
"Arboviral infection" means a viral illness that is transmitted by a mosquito, tick, or other arthropod. This includes, but is not limited to, chikungunya, dengue, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), LaCrosse encephalitis (LAC), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), and West Nile virus (WNV) infection.
"Board" means the State Board of Health.
"Cancer" means all carcinomas, sarcomas, melanomas, leukemias, and lymphomas excluding localized basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, except for lesions of the mucous membranes.
"Central line-associated bloodstream infection" means a primary bloodstream infection identified by laboratory tests, with or without clinical signs or symptoms, in a patient with a central line device, and meeting the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) surveillance definition for laboratory-confirmed primary bloodstream infection.
"Central line device" means a vascular infusion device that terminates at or close to the heart or in one of the greater vessels. The following are considered great vessels for the purpose of reporting central line infections and counting central line days: aorta, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, internal jugular veins, subclavian veins, external iliac veins, and common femoral veins.
"Child care center" means a child day center, child day program, family day home, family day system, or registered family day home as defined by § 63.2-100 of the Code of Virginia, or a similar place providing day care of children by such other name as may be applied.
"Clinic" means any facility, freestanding or associated with a hospital, that provides preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitative, or palliative care or services to outpatients.
"Clostridium difficile infection,
laboratory-identified event" means laboratory testing on unformed stool
that yields a positive result for Clostridium difficile toxin A or B or a
toxin-producing Clostridium difficile organism detected in the stool sample by
culture or other laboratory means, with duplicate reports on a patient ruled
out according to CDC definitions in the NHSN Patient Safety Component Manual,
MDRO and CDAD Module (June 2010). ]
"Commissioner" means the State Health Commissioner or his duly designated officer or agent, unless stated in a provision of these regulations that it applies to the State Health Commissioner in his sole discretion.
"Communicable disease" means an illness due to an infectious agent or its toxic products which is transmitted, directly or indirectly, to a susceptible host from an infected person, animal, or arthropod or through the agency of an intermediate host or a vector or through the inanimate environment.
"Communicable disease of public health significance" means an illness caused by a specific or suspected infectious agent that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another. This includes but is not limited to infections caused by human immunodeficiency viruses, bloodborne pathogens, and tubercle bacillus. The State Health Commissioner may determine that diseases caused by other pathogens constitute communicable diseases of public health significance.
"Communicable disease of public health threat" means an illness of public health significance, as determined by the State Health Commissioner in accordance with these regulations, caused by a specific or suspected infectious agent that may be reasonably expected or is known to be readily transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another and has been found to create a risk of death or significant injury or impairment; this definition shall not, however, be construed to include human immunodeficiency viruses or the tubercle bacilli, unless used as a bioterrorism weapon.
"Companion animal" means any domestic or feral dog, domestic or feral cat, nonhuman primate, guinea pig, hamster, rabbit not raised for human food or fiber, exotic or native animal, reptile, exotic or native bird, or any feral animal or any animal under the care, custody, or ownership of a person or any animal that is bought, sold, traded, or bartered by any person. Agricultural animals, game species, or any animals regulated under federal law as research animals shall not be considered companion animals for the purpose of this regulation.
"Condition" means any adverse health event, such as a disease, an infection, a syndrome, or as indicated by a procedure (including but not limited to the results of a physical exam, laboratory test, or imaging interpretation) suggesting that an exposure of public health importance has occurred.
"Contact" means a person or animal known to have been in such association with an infected person or animal as to have had an opportunity of acquiring the infection.
"Contact services" means a broad array of services that are offered to persons with infectious diseases and their contacts. Contact services include contact tracing, providing information about current infections, developing risk reduction plans to reduce the chances of future infections, and connecting to appropriate medical care and other services.
"Contact tracing" means the process by which an infected person or health department employee notifies others that they may have been exposed to the infected person in a manner known to transmit the infectious agent in question.
"Decontamination" means the use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy hazardous substances or organisms from a person, surface, or item to the point that such substances or organisms are no longer capable of causing adverse health effects and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.
"Department" means the State Department of Health.
"Designee" or "designated officer or agent" means any person, or group of persons, designated by the State Health Commissioner, to act on behalf of the commissioner or the board.
"Ehrlichiosis/anaplasmosis" means human infections caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis (formerly included in the category "human monocytic ehrlichiosis" or "HME"), Ehrlichia ewingii or Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly included in the category "human granulocytic ehrlichiosis" or "HGE").
"Epidemic" means the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness clearly in excess of normal expectancy.
"Essential needs" means basic human needs for sustenance including but not limited to food, water, and health care, e.g., medications, therapies, testing, and durable medical equipment.
"Exceptional circumstances" means the presence, as determined by the commissioner in his sole discretion, of one or more factors that may affect the ability of the department to effectively control a communicable disease of public health threat. Factors to be considered include but are not limited to: (i) characteristics or suspected characteristics of the disease-causing organism or suspected disease-causing organism such as virulence, routes of transmission, minimum infectious dose, rapidity of disease spread, the potential for extensive disease spread, and the existence and availability of demonstrated effective treatment; (ii) known or suspected risk factors for infection; (iii) the potential magnitude of the effect of the disease on the health and welfare of the public; and (iv) the extent of voluntary compliance with public health recommendations. The determination of exceptional circumstances by the commissioner may take into account the experience or results of investigation in Virginia, another state, or another country.
"Foodborne outbreak" means two or more cases of a similar illness acquired through the consumption of food contaminated with chemicals or an infectious agent or its toxic products. Such illnesses include but are not limited to heavy metal intoxication, staphylococcal food poisoning, botulism, salmonellosis, shigellosis, Clostridium perfringens food poisoning, hepatitis A, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection.
"Healthcare-associated infection" (also known as
nosocomial infection) means a localized or systemic condition resulting from an
adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent or agents or its toxin
or toxins that (i) occurs in a patient in a healthcare setting (e.g., a
hospital or outpatient clinic), (ii) was not found to be present or incubating
at the time of admission unless the infection was related to a previous
admission to the same setting, and (iii) if the setting is a hospital, meets
the criteria for a specific infection site as defined by CDC [
the NHSN Patient Safety Component Manual, Key Terms (June 2010) ].
"Healthcare-associated outbreak" means
any group of illnesses of common etiology occurring in patients of a healthcare
setting acquired by exposure of those patients to the disease agent while in
such a facility. ]
"Hepatitis C, acute" means the following clinical characteristics are met: (i) discrete onset of symptoms indicative of viral hepatitis and (ii) jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels and the following laboratory criteria are met: (a) serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) greater than 400 IU/L; (b) IgM anti-HAV negative (if done); (c) IgM anti-HBc negative (if done); and (d) hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) screening test positive with a signal-to-cutoff ratio predictive of a true positive as determined for the particular assay as defined by CDC, HCV antibody positive by immunoblot (RIBA), or HCV RNA positive by nucleic acid test.
"Hepatitis C, chronic" means that the laboratory criteria specified in clauses (b), (c) and (d) listed above for an acute case are met but clinical signs or symptoms of acute viral hepatitis are not present and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels do not exceed 400 IU/L. This category will include cases that may be acutely infected but not symptomatic.
"Immunization" means a procedure that increases the protective response of an individual's immune system to specified pathogens.
"Independent pathology laboratory" means a nonhospital or a hospital laboratory performing surgical pathology, including fine needle aspiration biopsy and bone marrow specimen examination services, which reports the results of such tests directly to physician offices, without reporting to a hospital or accessioning the information into a hospital tumor registry.
"Individual" means a person or companion animal. When the context requires it, "person or persons" shall be deemed to include any individual.
"Infection" means the entry and multiplication or persistence of a disease-causing organism (prion, virus, bacteria, fungus, parasite, or ectoparasite) in the body of an individual. An infection may be inapparent (i.e., without recognizable signs or symptoms but identifiable by laboratory means) or manifest (clinically apparent).
"Influenza A, novel virus" means infection of a human with an influenza A virus subtype that is different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and H3 viruses. Novel subtypes include H2, H5, H7, and H9 subtypes or influenza H1 and H3 subtypes originating from a nonhuman species.
"Invasive" means the organism is affecting a normally sterile site, including but not limited to blood or cerebrospinal fluid.
"Investigation" means an inquiry into the incidence, prevalence, extent, source, mode of transmission, causation of, and other information pertinent to a disease occurrence.
"Isolation" means the physical separation, including confinement or restriction of movement, of an individual or individuals who are infected with, or are reasonably suspected to be infected with, a communicable disease in order to prevent or limit the transmission of the communicable disease to uninfected and unexposed individuals.
"Isolation, complete" means the full-time confinement or restriction of movement of an individual or individuals infected with, or reasonably suspected to be infected with, a communicable disease in order to prevent or limit the transmission of the communicable disease to uninfected and unexposed individuals.
"Isolation, modified" means a selective, partial limitation of freedom of movement or actions of an individual or individuals infected with, or reasonably suspected to be infected with, a communicable disease. Modified isolation is designed to meet particular situations and includes but is not limited to the exclusion of children from school, the prohibition or restriction from engaging in a particular occupation or using public or mass transportation, or requirements for the use of devices or procedures intended to limit disease transmission.
"Isolation, protective" means the physical separation of a susceptible individual or individuals not infected with, or not reasonably suspected to be infected with, a communicable disease from an environment where transmission is occurring, or is reasonably suspected to be occurring, in order to prevent the individual or individuals from acquiring the communicable disease.
"Laboratory" as used herein means a clinical laboratory that examines materials derived from the human body for the purpose of providing information on the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease.
"Laboratory director" means any person in charge of supervising a laboratory conducting business in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
"Law-enforcement agency" means any sheriff's office, police department, adult or youth correctional officer, or other agency or department that employs persons who have law-enforcement authority that is under the direction and control of the Commonwealth or any local governing body. "Law-enforcement agency" shall include, by order of the Governor, the Virginia National Guard.
"Lead, elevated blood levels" means a confirmed blood level greater than or equal to 10 micrograms of lead per deciliter (μg/dL) of whole blood in a child or children 15 years of age and younger, a venous blood lead level greater than or equal to 25 μg/dL in a person older than 15 years of age, or such lower blood lead level as may be recommended for individual intervention by the department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"Least restrictive" means the minimal limitation of the freedom of movement and communication of an individual while under an order of isolation or an order of quarantine that also effectively protects unexposed and susceptible individuals from disease transmission.
"Medical care facility" means any hospital or nursing home licensed in the Commonwealth, or any hospital operated by or contracted to operate by an entity of the United States government or the Commonwealth of Virginia.
"Midwife" means any person who is licensed as a nurse midwife by the Virginia Boards of Nursing and Medicine or who is licensed by the Board of Medicine as a certified professional midwife.
"National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)" means a surveillance system created by the CDC for accumulating, exchanging, and integrating relevant information on infectious adverse events associated with healthcare delivery.
"Nucleic acid detection" means laboratory testing of a clinical specimen to determine the presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) specific for an infectious agent using any method, including hybridization, sequencing, or amplification such as polymerase chain reaction.
"Nurse" means any person licensed as a professional nurse or as a licensed practical nurse by the Virginia Board of Nursing.
"Occupational outbreak" means a cluster of illness or disease that is indicative of a work-related exposure. Such conditions include but are not limited to silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, pneumoconiosis, and tuberculosis.
"Outbreak" means the occurrence of more cases of a disease than expected.
"Period of communicability" means the time or times during which the etiologic agent may be transferred directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person, or from an infected animal to a person.
"Physician" means any person licensed to practice medicine or osteopathy by the Virginia Board of Medicine.
"Quarantine" means the physical separation, including confinement or restriction of movement, of an individual or individuals who are present within an affected area or who are known to have been exposed, or may reasonably be suspected to have been exposed, to a communicable disease and who do not yet show signs or symptoms of infection with the communicable disease in order to prevent or limit the transmission of the communicable disease of public health threat to unexposed and uninfected individuals.
"Quarantine, complete" means the full-time confinement or restriction of movement of an individual or individuals who do not have signs or symptoms of infection but may have been exposed, or may reasonably be suspected to have been exposed, to a communicable disease of public health threat in order to prevent the transmission of the communicable disease of public health threat to uninfected individuals.
"Quarantine, modified" means a selective, partial limitation of freedom of movement or actions of an individual or individuals who do not have signs or symptoms of the infection but have been exposed to, or are reasonably suspected to have been exposed to, a communicable disease of public health threat. Modified quarantine may be designed to meet particular situations and includes but is not limited to limiting movement to the home, work, and/or one or more other locations, the prohibition or restriction from using public or mass transportation, or requirements for the use of devices or procedures intended to limit disease transmission.
"Reportable disease" means an illness due to a specific toxic substance, occupational exposure, or infectious agent, which affects a susceptible individual, either directly, as from an infected animal or person, or indirectly through an intermediate host, vector, or the environment, as determined by the board.
"SARS" means severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) disease.
"School" means (i) any public school from kindergarten through grade 12 operated under the authority of any locality within the Commonwealth; (ii) any private or parochial school that offers instruction at any level or grade from kindergarten through grade 12; (iii) any private or parochial nursery school or preschool, or any private or parochial child care center licensed by the Commonwealth; and (iv) any preschool handicap classes or Head Start classes.
"Serology" means the testing of blood, serum, or other body fluids for the presence of antibodies or other markers of an infection or disease process.
"Surgical Care Improvement Project
(SCIP)" means a national quality initiative supported by The Joint
Commission, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and other partners
in healthcare that is designed to improve surgical care in hospitals. ]
"Surveillance" means the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome-specific data for use in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice. A surveillance system includes the functional capacity for data analysis as well as the timely dissemination of these data to persons who can undertake effective prevention and control activities.
"Susceptible individual" means a person or animal who is vulnerable to or potentially able to contract a disease or condition. Factors that affect an individual's susceptibility include but are not limited to physical characteristics, genetics, previous or chronic exposures, chronic conditions or infections, immunization history, or use of medications.
"Toxic substance" means any substance, including any raw materials, intermediate products, catalysts, final products, or by-products of any manufacturing operation conducted in a commercial establishment, that has the capacity, through its physical, chemical or biological properties, to pose a substantial risk of death or impairment either immediately or over time, to the normal functions of humans, aquatic organisms, or any other animal but not including any pharmaceutical preparation which deliberately or inadvertently is consumed in such a way as to result in a drug overdose.
"Tubercle bacilli" means disease-causing organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and Mycobacterium africanum or other members as may be established by the commissioner.
"Tuberculin skin test (TST)" means a test for demonstrating infection with tubercle bacilli, performed according to the Mantoux method, in which 0.1 ml of 5 TU strength tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is injected intradermally on the volar surface of the arm. Any reaction is observed 48-72 hours after placement and palpable induration is measured across the diameter transverse to the long axis of the arm. The measurement of the indurated area is recorded in millimeters and the significance of the measured induration is based on existing national and department guidelines.
"Tuberculosis" means a disease caused by tubercle bacilli.
"Tuberculosis, active disease" (also "active tuberculosis disease" and "active TB disease"), as defined by § 32.1-49.1 of the Code of Virginia, means a disease caused by an airborne microorganism and characterized by the presence of either (i) a specimen of sputum or other bodily fluid or tissue that has been found to contain tubercle bacilli as evidenced by culture or nucleic acid amplification, including preliminary identification by rapid methodologies; (ii) a specimen of sputum or other bodily fluid or tissue that is suspected to contain tubercle bacilli as evidenced by smear, and where sufficient clinical and radiographic evidence of active tuberculosis disease is present as determined by a physician licensed to practice medicine in Virginia; or (iii) sufficient clinical and radiographic evidence of active tuberculosis disease as determined by the commissioner is present, but a specimen of sputum or other bodily fluid or tissue containing, or suspected of containing, tubercle bacilli is unobtainable.
"Tuberculosis infection in children age less than 4 years" means a significant reaction resulting from a tuberculin skin test (TST) or other approved test for latent infection without clinical or radiographic evidence of active tuberculosis disease, in children from birth up to their fourth birthday.
"Vaccinia, disease or adverse event" means vaccinia infection or serious or unexpected events in persons who received the smallpox vaccine or their contacts, including but not limited to bacterial infections, eczema vaccinatum, erythema multiforme, generalized vaccinia, progressive vaccinia, inadvertent inoculation, post-vaccinial encephalopathy or encephalomyelitis, ocular vaccinia, and fetal vaccinia.
"Waterborne outbreak" means two or more cases of a similar illness acquired through the ingestion of or other exposure to water contaminated with chemicals or an infectious agent or its toxic products. Such illnesses include but are not limited to giardiasis, viral gastroenteritis, cryptosporidiosis, hepatitis A, cholera, and shigellosis. A single case of laboratory-confirmed primary amebic meningoencephalitis or of waterborne chemical poisoning is considered an outbreak.
Report Reporting of Healthcare-Associated Infections
12VAC5-90-370. Reporting of healthcare-associated infections.
A. Reportable infections [
and method and timing of
reporting ]. [ 1. Acute care hospitals shall collect enter
data on the following healthcare-associated infection infections in the
specified patient population: into CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network
according to CDC protocols in the NHSN Patient Safety Component Manual Modules:
Identifying HAIs (November 2009), Device-associated Module CLABSI Events (June
2010), MDRO and CDAD Module (June 2010), and CDC Locations and Descriptions
(July 2010). Acute care hospitals shall ensure that accurate and complete data
are entered at least quarterly within one month of the close of the calendar
year quarter and shall authorize the department to have access to
hospital-specific data contained in the NHSN database. central 1. Central line-associated bloodstream
infections in adult intensive care units, including the number of central-line
days in each population at risk, expressed per 1,000 catheter-days. 2. Central line-associated bloodstream infections outside
intensive care, including in one adult inpatient medical ward and one adult
inpatient surgical ward. Wards selected should be those with the longest length
of stay during the previous calendar year, excluding cardiology, obstetrics,
psychiatry, hospice, and step-down units. Data shall include the number of
central-line days in each population at risk. 3. Clostridium difficile infection, laboratory-identified
events on inpatient units, with the exceptions recommended by CDC protocol in
the NHSN Patient Safety Component Manual, MDRO and CDAD Module (June 2010).
Data shall be collected year-round at the overall facility-wide level. Data
shall include patient days. 2. All acute care hospitals with adult intensive care units
shall (i) participate in CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network by July 1,
2008, (ii) submit data on the above named infection to the NHSN according to CDC
protocols and ensure that all data from July 1, 2008, to December 31, 2008, are
entered into the NHSN by January 31, 2009, and (iii) ensure accurate and
complete data are available quarterly thereafter according to a schedule
established by the department. 3. All acute care hospitals reporting the information noted
above shall authorize the department to have access to hospital-specific data
contained in the NHSN database. B. Reportable process measures. Acute care hospitals
shall report to the department quarterly, within one month of the close of the
calendar year quarter, aggregate counts of the Surgical Care Improvement
Project (SCIP) Core Measures pertaining to the following surgical procedures:
hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, and coronary artery bypass graft. Data
shall be collected in accordance with the Specification Manual for National
Hospital Inpatient Quality Measures (Version 3.3) and shall include counts of
the patient population and the applicable SCIP measures for each of the above designated
surgical procedures. Reports shall be submitted to the department's Division of
Surveillance and Investigation. [ Data reported into the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network
(NHSN) for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Inpatient
Quality Reporting Program shall be shared, through the NHSN, with the
B. Liability protection and data release. Any person making such report as authorized herein shall be immune from liability as provided by § 32.1-38 of the Code of Virginia. Infection rate data may be released to the public by the department upon request. Data shall be aggregated to ensure that no individual patient may be identified.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (12VAC5-90)
Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, [ 18th
Edition, [ 2008, ] American Public Health Association
[ , 2004 ]
National Healthcare Safety Network Patient Safety
Component Manual, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Key Terms, June 2010. Multidrug-Resistant Organism & Clostridium
difficile-Associated Disease (MDRO/CDAD) Module (MDRO and CDAD Module), June
2010. Identifying Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI) in
NHSN (Identifying HAIs), November 2009. Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI)
Event (Device-associated Module CLABSI), June 2010. CDC Locations and Descriptions, July 2010. Specification Manual for National Hospital Inpatient
Quality Measures, Version 3.3, 04-01-11 (2Q11) through 12-31-11 (4Q11), Centers
for Medicare & Medicaid Services and The Joint Commission. ]