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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

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CH 22 and 542: Exempt Action: Local Government and Civics ...
Stage: Final
 
8VAC20-22-110

8VAC20-22-110. Requirements for renewing a license.

A. The Division Superintendent, Postgraduate Professional, Collegiate Professional, Technical Professional, Pupil Personnel Services, and School Manager Licenses may be renewed upon the completion of 180 professional development points within a five-year validity period based on an individualized professional development plan that includes ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.

B. Virginia public school divisions and public education agencies must report annually to the Department of Education that instructional personnel have completed high quality professional development each year as set forth by the Virginia Department of Education.

C. Any individual seeking renewal of a license with an endorsement in early/primary preK-3, elementary education preK-6, middle education 6-8, history and social sciences, history, or political science must complete study of the structures, function, and powers of state and local government of Virginia and the importance of citizen participation in the political process in state and local government of Virginia. The study may be satisfactorily completed using any applicable option described in the Virginia Licensure Renewal Manual, effective September 21, 2007. This requirement shall be met one time for the individual's next renewal after July 1, 2012.

C. D. Professional development points may be accrued by the completion of professional development activities to improve and increase instructional personnel's knowledge of the academic subjects the teachers teach or the area assigned from one or more of the following eight options.

1. College credit. Acceptable coursework offers content that provides new information and is offered on-campus, off-campus, or through extension by any regionally accredited two- or four-year college or university. College coursework must develop further experiences in subject content taught, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, leadership, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards and increasing student learning. At least 90 points for each five-year renewal shall be in the content area(s) currently being taught if the license holder does not hold a graduate degree. Instructional personnel must complete coursework to improve and increase the knowledge of the academic subjects or endorsement areas in which they are assigned.

2. Professional conference. A professional conference is a workshop, institute, or seminar of four or more hours that contributes to ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.

3. Curriculum development. Curriculum development is a group activity in which the license holder contributes to the improvement of the curriculum of a school, a school division, or an education institution in the teaching area assigned. This includes the alignment of curriculum frameworks, instructional materials, and assessments to provide a system with clear expectations of what is to be taught and learned.

4. Publication of article. The article must contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. Grant reports that present the results of educational research are acceptable provided the license holder had an active role in planning, analyzing, interpreting, demonstrating, disseminating, or evaluating the study or innovation. The article must be published in a recognized professional journal.

5. Publication of book. Books must be published for purchase and must contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. The published book must increase the field of content knowledge, planning and assessment for evaluating and providing students with feedback that encourages student progress and measures student achievement, instruction, safety and learning environment, communication and community relations working with students, parents, and members of the community to promote broad support for student learning. Points will not be awarded for books self-published.

6. Mentorship. Mentoring is the process by which an experienced professional, who has received mentorship training, provides assistance to one or more persons for the purpose of improving their performance. Assistance may involve role modeling, direct instruction, demonstration, observation with feedback, developing of plans, and consultation to promote instructional excellence and increased student achievement. Mentoring may include the supervision of a field experience of a preservice student teacher or an intern in an approved teacher/principal preparation program, as well as mentoring as part of the induction process for a beginning teacher or a first-year administrator. Individuals serving in this role and submitting documentation for license renewal based on the mentorship option shall receive training as a mentor prior to the assignment and at least once during the five-year renewal cycle.

7. Educational project. Educational projects must be planned, focused projects based on high standards of teaching and learning. Projects must result in a written report or other tangible product. Projects must contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. A project could include participation in new professional responsibilities, such as leading a school improvement initiative.

8. Professional development activity. Professional development activities must focus on student learning and achievement, schoolwide educational improvement, leadership, subject content, teaching strategies, and use of technologies and other essential elements in teaching to high standards. Activities must be planned, rigorous, systematic, and promote continuous inquiry and reflection. Local employing educational agencies are encouraged to design professional development activities that are conducted in school settings and linked to student learning and achievement.

D. E. A minimum of 90 points (three semester hours in a content area) at the undergraduate (two-year or four-year institution) or graduate level in the license holder's endorsement areas shall be required of license holders without a master's degree and may be satisfied at the undergraduate (two-year or four-year institution) or graduate level. Special education coursework designed to assist classroom teachers and other school personnel in working with students with disabilities, a course in gifted education, a course in educational technology, or a course in English as a second language may be completed to satisfy the content course requirement for one cycle of the renewal process. Professional development activities designed to support the Virginia Standards of Learning, Standards of Accreditation, and Assessments may be accepted in lieu of the content course for one renewal cycle. The substance of the activities must clearly support these initiatives and address one or more of the following areas: (i) new content knowledge to implement the Virginia Standards of Learning; (ii) curriculum development initiative designed to translate the standards from standards to classroom objectives; (iii) teaching beginning reading skills including phonemic awareness and the structure of language (phonics); (iv) staff development activities in assessment to assist classroom teachers in the utilization of test results to improve classroom instruction; and (v) professional development designed to implement the technology standards in the schools. Technical Professional License holders without baccalaureate degrees may satisfy the requirement through career and technical education workshops, career and technical education institutes, or through undergraduate coursework at two-year or four-year institutions.

E. F. Content area courses are courses at the undergraduate level (two-year or four-year institution) or at the graduate level that will not duplicate previous courses taken in the humanities, history and social sciences, the sciences, mathematics, health and physical education, and the fine arts. These courses are usually available through the college or department of arts and sciences. License holders with elementary education, middle education, special education, or reading endorsements must satisfy the 90-point requirement through reading coursework or content coursework in one of the areas listed above. Courses available through a regionally accredited college's or institution's department of education may be used to satisfy the content requirement for those license holders with endorsements in health and physical education, career and technical education, and library science education.

F. G. With prior approval of the division superintendent, the 90 points in a content area also may be satisfied through coursework taken to obtain a new teaching endorsement or coursework taken because of a particular need of a particular teacher.

G. H. The remaining 90 points may be accrued by activities drawn from one or more of the eight renewal options. Renewal work is designed to provide licensed personnel with opportunities for professional development relative to the grade levels or teaching fields to which they are assigned or for which they seek an added endorsement. Such professional development encompasses (i) responsible remediation of any area of an individual's knowledge or skills that fail to meet the standards of competency and (ii) responsible efforts to increase the individual's knowledge of new developments in his field and to respond to new curricular demands within the person's area of professional competence.

H. I. The proposed work toward renewal in certain options must be approved in advance by the chief executive officer or designee of the employing educational agency. Persons who are not employed by an educational agency may renew or reinstate their license by submitting to the Office of Professional Licensure, Department of Education, their individualized renewal record and verification of points, including official student transcripts of coursework taken at an accredited two-year or four-year college or university.

I. J. Accrual of professional development points shall be determined by criteria set forth by the Virginia Department of Education.

J. K. Persons seeking license renewal as teachers must demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

K. L. Virginia school divisions and nonpublic schools will recommend renewal of licenses using the renewal point system. The renewal recommendation must include verification of demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction.

L. M. Training in instructional methods tailored to promote academic progress and effective preparation for the Standards of Learning tests and end-of-grade assessments is required for licensure renewal.

M. N. If they have not already met the requirement, persons seeking licensure renewal as teachers must complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Board of Education in consultation with the Department of Social Services that are relevant to the specific teacher licensure routes.

8VAC20-22-9999

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (8VAC20-22)

Virginia Licensure Renewal Manual, eff. September 21, 2007, Virginia Department of Education.

8VAC20-542-70

Part VII
Competencies for Endorsement Areas

Article 1
General Competencies

8VAC20-542-70. Competencies for endorsement areas.

A. The professional education program develops, maintains, and continuously evaluates high quality professional education programs that are collaboratively designed and based on identified needs of the preK-12 community. Candidates in education programs for teachers demonstrate competence in the core academic content areas that they plan to teach. The indicator of the achievement of this standard shall include the following:

Candidates demonstrate an understanding of competencies including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning for the content areas they plan to teach.

B. All teacher education programs in early/primary preK-3, elementary education preK-6, middle education 6-8, and history and social sciences must include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

8VAC20-542-100

8VAC20-542-100. Early/primary education preK-3.

The program for early/primary education preK-3 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer/technology;

b. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

c. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

d. The use of appropriate methods including those in visual and performing arts , to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem solve;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom management skills through methods that shall build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, children with limited proficiency in English, and children with diverse cultural needs;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading/English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including: oral language (speaking and listening), reading, and writing, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-3 (early/primary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment and screening measures for the component of reading: phoneme awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to tailor instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and flexible skill-level groupings.

(2) Oral communication. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching oral language (speaking and listening);

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects;

(d) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, as through storytelling, drama, choral/oral reading, etc.

(3) Reading/literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound/symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, and word attack skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary/concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text predicting, retelling, summarizing and guiding students to make connections beyond the text;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(f) Demonstrate the ability to foster the appreciation of a variety of literature; and

(g) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction books, at appropriate reading levels.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing, written expression, and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing;

(b) Be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling," orthographic patterns, and strategies for promoting generalization of spelling study to writing; and

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach the writing process: plan, draft, revise, edit, and share in the narrative, descriptive, and explanative modes.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading and writing.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-3. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems, their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion and percent;

(c) Algebra: operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities, linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic form of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two- and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; measures of central tendency, range, and normal distribution; and

(f) Computer science: terminology, simple programming, and software applications.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes – reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical representations at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics, and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the role of technology and the ability to use calculators and computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to American social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of American's constitutional republic, its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government; and

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by the basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans.; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and the social sciences, and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing critical thinking skills in helping them to understand:

(a) The relationship between past and present;

(b) The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers;

(c) How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people;

(d) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the earth, life, and physical sciences as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including:

(a) The role of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena; and

(b) The science skills of data analysis, measurement, observation, prediction, and experimentation.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active elementary science program, including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Conduct research projects and experiments in a safe environment;

(c) Organize key science content into meaningful units of instruction;

(d) Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(e) Evaluate instructional materials, instruction, and student achievement; and

(f) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of elementary school science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines to ensure:

(a) The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

(b) Student achievement in science.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science, including:

(a) Its social and cultural significance;

(b) The relationship of science to technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-542-110

8VAC20-542-110. Elementary education preK-6.

The program in elementary education preK-6 may require that the candidate has completed an undergraduate major in interdisciplinary studies (focusing on the areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences, and science) or in Virginia's core academic areas of English, mathematics, history and social sciences (i.e., history, government, geography and economics), or science and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the needed knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer/technology;

b. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

c. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

d. The use of appropriate methods , including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem solve;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that shall build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and children with limited proficiency in English, and children with diverse cultural needs;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply, quantitative and qualitative research; and

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading/English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including: oral language (speaking and listening), reading, writing, and literature, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-6 (elementary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment and screening measures for the components of reading: phoneme awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading level, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to tailor instruction, for acceleration, intervention, remediation and flexible skill-level groupings.

(2) Oral communication. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching oral language (speaking and listening);

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, as through storytelling, drama, choral/oral reading, etc.

(3) Reading/literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound/symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, decoding skills, and word attack skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary/concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax and semantics;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text, including questioning, predicting, summarizing, clarifying, and associating the unknown with what is known;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(f) Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature; and

(g) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction books, at appropriate reading levels.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing, written expression, and usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing;

(b) Be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling," orthographic patterns, and strategies for promoting generalization of spelling study to writing; and

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach the writing process: plan draft, revise, edit, and share in the narrative, descriptive, and explanative modes.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading, writing, and research.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-6. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems, their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion and percent;

(c) Algebra: operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities, linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic form of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two- and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions;

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; measures of central tendency, range, and normal distribution; and

(f) Computer science: terminology, simple programming, and software applications.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes – reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical representations at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics, and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the role of technology and the ability to use calculators and computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social sciences disciplines as defined in the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to American social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic, its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the Rule of Law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government; and

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans.; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing critical thinking skills in helping them to understand:

(a) The relationship between past and present;

(b) The use of primary sources such as artifacts, letters, photographs, and newspapers;

(c) How events in history are shaped both by the ideas and actions of people;

(d) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(e) Civic participation in a democracy; and

(f) The relationship between history, literature, art, and music.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the earth, life, and physical sciences as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades;

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including:

(a) The role of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena; and

(b) The science skills of data analysis, measurement, observation, prediction, and experimentation.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active elementary science program including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Conduct research projects and experiments in a safe environment;

(c) Organize key science content into meaningful units of instruction;

(d) Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(e) Evaluate instructional materials, instruction, and student achievement; and

(f) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of elementary school science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent course work reflecting each of these core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines to ensure:

(a) The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

(b) Student achievement in science.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science including:

(a) Its social and cultural significance;

(b) The relationship of science to technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-542-120

8VAC20-542-120. Middle education 6-8.

The program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the required knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Virginia Standards of Learning for grades 6-8;

b. The use of appropriate methods, including direct instruction, to help learners develop knowledge and skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and solve problems;

c. The ability to plan and teach collaboratively to facilitate interdisciplinary learning;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of preadolescents at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that shall build responsibility and self-discipline and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of preadolescents, including children with disabilities, gifted children, and children with limited proficiency in the English language;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, apply, and conduct quantitative and qualitative research;

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication;

k. An understanding of how to apply a variety of school organizational structures, schedules, groupings, and classroom formats appropriately for middle level learners;

l. Skill in promoting the development of all students' abilities for academic achievement and continued learning; and

m. The ability to use reading in the content area strategies appropriate to text and student needs.

2. English.

a. Possession of the skills necessary to teach the writing process, to differentiate among the forms of writing (narrative, descriptive, informational, and persuasive), and to use computers and other available technology;

b. Understanding of and knowledge in grammar, usage, and mechanics and its integration in writing;

c. Understanding and the nature and development of language and its impact on vocabulary development and spelling;

d. Understanding of and knowledge in techniques and strategies to enhance reading comprehension and fluency;

e. Understanding of and knowledge in the instruction of speaking, and listening, and note taking; and

f. Knowledge of varied works from current and classic young adult literature appropriate for English instruction of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry.

3. History and social sciences.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(1) United States history.

(a) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (Declaration of American Independence, the general principles of the Constitution of the United States, the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, the charters of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612, of The Virginia Company, and the Virginia Declaration of Rights), and historical challenges to the American political system (i.e., slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and civil rights);

(b) The influence of religious traditions on the American heritage and on contemporary American society;

(c) The changing role of America around the world; the relationship between domestic affairs and foreign policy; global political and economic interactions;

(d) The influence of immigration on American political, social, and economic life;

(e) Origins, effects, aftermath and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the Post-Cold War Era;

(f) Social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century; and

(g) Tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and between cultural diversity and civic unity.

(2) World history.

(a) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient, American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(b) Origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist and Islamic religious traditions;

(c) Medieval society and institutions; relations with Islam; feudalism and the evolution of representative government;

(d) The social, political, and economic contributions of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(e) The culture and ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(f) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(g) The sources, results, and influence of the American and French revolutions;

(h) The social consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics and culture;

(i) The global influence of European ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries (liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism); and

(j) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars.

(3) Civics and economics.

(a) Essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments;

(b) Importance of the Rule of Law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(c) Rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(d) Nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(e) American political culture;

(f) Values and principles of the American constitutional republic;

(g) Structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(h) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(i) Structures, functions, and powers of the national government; and Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(j) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies. Structures, functions, and powers of the national government; and

(k) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies.

b. Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of these disciplines helps students go beyond critical thinking skills to help them appreciate:

(1) The significance of the past to their lives and to society;

(2) Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

(3) How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

(4) The interplay of change and continuity;

(5) Historical cause and effect;

(6) The importance of individuals who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

(7) The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics; and

(8) The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions.

4. Mathematics.

a. Understanding of the knowledge and skills necessary to teach the Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning and how curriculum may be organized to teach these standards to diverse learners;

b. Understanding of a core knowledge base of concepts and procedures within the discipline of mathematics, including the following strands: number and number sense; computation and estimation; geometry and measurement; statistics and probability; patterns, functions, and algebra;

c. Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and the mathematical structures inherent in the content strands;

d. Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - becoming mathematical problem solvers, reasoning mathematically, communicating mathematically, making mathematical connections, and representing and describing mathematical ideas, generalizations, and relationships using a variety of methods - at different levels of complexity;

e. Understanding of the history of mathematics, including the contributions of various individuals and cultures toward the development of mathematics, and the role of mathematics in culture and society;

f. Understanding of the major current curriculum studies and trends in mathematics;

g. Understanding of the role of technology and the ability to use graphing utilities and computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics;

h. Understanding of and the ability to select, adapt, evaluate and use instructional materials and resources, including professional journals and technology;

i. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies for managing, assessing, and monitoring student learning, including diagnosing student errors; and

j. Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

5. Science.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of the Earth, life, and physical sciences as defined in the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the middle grades.

b. Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including:

(1) Function of research design and experimentation;

(2) Role of science in explaining and predicting events and phenomena; and

(3) Science skills of data analysis, measurement, observation, prediction, and experimentation.

c. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes for an active middle school science program, including the ability to:

(1) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(2) Conduct research projects and experiments;

(3) Implement safety rules/procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(4) Organize key science content into meaningful units of instruction;

(5) Adapt instruction to diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(6) Evaluate instructional materials, instruction, and student achievement; and

(7) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science.

d. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of the Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of middle school science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these core science areas.

e. Understanding of the core scientific disciplines to ensure:

(1) The placement of science in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(2) The ability to teach the processes and organize concepts common to the natural and physical sciences; and

(3) Student achievement in science.

f. Understanding of the contributions and significance of science to include:

(1) Its social and cultural significance;

(2) The relationship of science to technology; and

(3) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-542-330

8VAC20-542-330. History and social sciences.

The program in history and social sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and the social sciences, including in:

a. United States history.

(1) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (Declaration of American Independence, the general principles of the Constitution of the United States, the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, the charters of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612, of the Virginia Company, and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); and historical challenges to the American political system;

(2) The influence of religious traditions on American heritage and contemporary American society;

(3) The influence of immigration on American political, social, and economic life;

(4) The origins, effects, aftermath and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the Post-Cold War Era;

(5) The social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century;

(6) The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and between cultural diversity and national unity; and

(7) The difference between a democracy and a republic.

b. World history.

(1) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(2) The origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist and Islamic religious traditions;

(3) Medieval society, institutions, and civilizations; feudalism and the evolution of representative government;

(4) The social, political, and economic contributions of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(5) The culture and ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(6) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(7) The sources, results, and influences of the American and French revolutions;

(8) The social consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics and culture;

(9) The global influence of European ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries (liberalism, republicanism, social democracy, Marxism, nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism); and

(10) The origins, effects, aftermath and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the Post-Cold War Era.

c. Civics/government and economics.

(1) The essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments;

(2) The importance of the Rule of Law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(3) The rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(4) The nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(5) American political culture;

(6) Values and principles of the American constitutional republic;

(7) The structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(8) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(9) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(9) (10) The structures, functions, and powers of the national government;

(10) (11) The role of the United States in foreign policy and national security;

(11) (12) The structure of the federal judiciary;

(12) (13) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies;

(13) (14) Knowledge of the impact of the government role in the economy and individual economic and political freedoms;

(14) (15) Knowledge of economic systems in the areas of productivity and key economic indicators; and

(15) (16) The analysis of global economic trends.

d. Geography.

(1) Use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(2) Physical and human characteristics of places;

(3) Relationship between human activity and the physical environment;

(4) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(5) Characteristics and distribution of ecosystems on the earth;

(6) Characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations;

(7) Patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

(8) Processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement;

(9) How the forces of conflict and cooperation influence the division and control of the earth's surface;

(10) How physical systems affect human systems;

(11) Changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources; and

(12) Applying geography to interpret the past and the present and to plan for the future.

2. Understanding of history and social sciences to appreciate the significance of:

a. Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

b. How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

c. The interplay of change and continuity;

d. How people in other times and places have struggled with fundamental questions of truth, justice, and personal responsibility;

e. The importance of individuals who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

f. The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics;

g. The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions;

h. How ideas have real consequences;

i. The importance of primary documents and the potential problems with second-hand accounts; and

j. How scientific and technological advances affect the workplace, healthcare, and education.

3. Understanding of the use of the content and processes of history and social sciences instruction, including:

a. Fluency in historical analysis skills;

b. Skill in debate, discussion, and persuasive writing;

c. The ability to organize key social science content into meaningful units of instruction;

d. The ability to provide instruction using a variety of instructional techniques;

e. The ability to evaluate primary and secondary instructional resources, instruction, and student achievement; and

f. The ability to incorporate appropriate technologies into social science instruction.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of one of the social sciences disciplines at a level equivalent to an undergraduate major, along with sufficient understanding of the three supporting disciplines to ensure:

a. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of social science;

b. An understanding of the significance of the social sciences;

c. Student achievement in the social sciences; and

d. An understanding of the media influence on contemporary America.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing.