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2009 Hospital, Home Health, and Nursing Facility Reimbursement ...
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12VAC30-70-50

12VAC30-70-50. Hospital reimbursement system.

The reimbursement system for hospitals includes the following components:

A. Hospitals were grouped by classes according to number of beds and urban versus rural. (Three groupings for rural - 0 to 100 beds, 101 to 170 beds, and over 170 beds; four groupings for urban - 0 to 100, 101 to 400, 401 to 600, and over 600 beds.) Groupings are similar to those used by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) in determining routine cost limitations.

B. Prospective reimbursement ceilings on allowable operating costs were established as of July 1, 1982, for each grouping. Hospitals with a fiscal year end after June 30, 1982, were subject to the new reimbursement ceilings.

The calculation of the initial group ceilings as of July 1, 1982, was based on available, allowable cost data for hospitals in calendar year 1981. Individual hospital operating costs were advanced by a reimbursement escalator from the hospital's year end to July 1, 1982. After this advancement, the operating costs were standardized using SMSA wage indices, and a median was determined for each group. These medians were readjusted by the wage index to set an actual cost ceiling for each SMSA. Therefore, each hospital grouping has a series of ceilings representing one of each SMSA area. The wage index is based on those used by HCFA in computing its Market Basket Index for routine cost limitations.

Effective July 1, 1986, and until June 30, 1988, providers subject to the prospective payment system of reimbursement had their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling computed using a new methodology. This method uses an allowance for inflation based on the percent of change in the quarterly average of the Medical Care Index of the Chase Econometrics - Standard Forecast determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began.

The prospective operating cost rate is based on the provider's allowable cost from the most recent filed cost report, plus the inflation percentage add-on.

The prospective operating cost ceiling is determined by using the base that was in effect for the provider's fiscal year that began between July 1, 1985, and June 1, 1986. The allowance for inflation percent of change for the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year began is added to this base to determine the new operating cost ceiling. This new ceiling was effective for all providers on July 1, 1986. For subsequent cost reporting periods beginning on or after July 1, 1986, the last prospective operating rate ceiling determined under this new methodology will become the base for computing the next prospective year ceiling.

Effective on and after July 1, 1988, and until June 30, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Data Resources, Incorporated Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1988, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.

Effective on or after July 1, 1989, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation shall be based on the percent of change in the moving average of the Health Care Cost HCFA-Type Hospital Market Basket, adjusted for Virginia, as developed by Data Resources, Incorporated, determined in the quarter in which the provider's new fiscal year begins. Such providers shall have their prospective operating cost rate and prospective operating cost ceiling established in accordance with the methodology which became effective July 1, 1986. Rates and ceilings in effect July 1, 1989, for all such hospitals shall be adjusted to reflect this change.

Effective on and after July 1, 1992, for providers subject to the prospective payment system, the allowance for inflation, as described above, which became effective on July 1, 1989, shall be converted to an escalation factor by adding two percentage points, (200 basis points) to the then current allowance for inflation. The escalation factor shall be applied in accordance with the inpatient hospital reimbursement methodology in effect on June 30, 1992. On July 1, 1992, the conversion to the new escalation factor shall be accomplished by a transition methodology which, for non-June 30 year end hospitals, applies the escalation factor to escalate their payment rates for the months between July 1, 1992, and their next fiscal year ending on or before May 31, 1993.

The new method will still require comparison of the prospective operating cost rate to the prospective operating ceiling. The provider is allowed the lower of the two amounts subject to the lower of cost or charges principles.

C. Subsequent to June 30, 1992, the group ceilings shall not be recalculated on allowable costs, but shall be updated by the escalator factor.

D. Prospective rates for each hospital shall be based upon the hospital's allowable costs plus the escalator factor, or the appropriate ceilings, or charges; whichever is lower. Except to eliminate costs that are found to be unallowable, no retrospective adjustment shall be made to prospective rates.

Depreciation, capital interest, and education costs approved pursuant to PRM-15 (§ 400), shall be considered as pass throughs and not part of the calculation. Capital interest is reimbursed the percentage of allowable cost specified in 12VAC30-70-271.

E. An incentive plan should be established whereby a hospital will be paid on a sliding scale, percentage for percentage, up to 25% of the difference between allowable operating costs and the appropriate per diem group ceiling when the operating costs are below the ceilings. The incentive should be calculated based on the annual cost report.

The table below presents three examples under the new plan:

Group Ceiling

Hospital's Allowable Cost Per Day

$

Difference % or Ceiling

$

Sliding Scale Incentive % of Difference

$230.00

$230.00

-0-

-0-

-0-

-0-

230.00

207.00

23.00

10%

2.30

10%

230.00

172.00

57.50

25%

14.38

25%

230.00

143.00

76.00

33%

19.00

25%

F. There will be special consideration for exception to the median operating cost limits in those instances where extensive neonatal care is provided.

G. Disproportionate share hospitals defined.

The following criteria shall be met before a hospital is determined to be eligible for a disproportionate share payment adjustment.

1. Criteria.

a. A Medicaid inpatient utilization rate in excess of 8% for hospitals receiving Medicaid payments in the Commonwealth, or a low-income patient utilization rate exceeding 25% (as defined in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and as amended by the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988); and

b. At least two obstetricians with staff privileges at the hospital who have agreed to provide obstetric services to individuals entitled to such services under a State Medicaid plan. In the case of a hospital located in a rural area (that is, an area outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Executive Office of Management and Budget), the term "obstetrician" includes any physician with staff privileges at the hospital to perform nonemergency obstetric procedures.

c. Subdivision 1 b of this subsection does not apply to a hospital:

(1) At which the inpatients are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age; or

(2) Which does not offer nonemergency obstetric services as of December 21, 1987.

2. Payment adjustment.

a. Hospitals which have a disproportionately higher level of Medicaid patients shall be allowed a disproportionate share payment adjustment based on the type of hospital and on the individual hospital's Medicaid utilization. There shall be two types of hospitals: (i) Type One, consisting of state-owned teaching hospitals, and (ii) Type Two, consisting of all other hospitals. The Medicaid utilization shall be determined by dividing the number of utilization Medicaid inpatient days by the total number of inpatient days. Each hospital with a Medicaid utilization of over 8.0% shall receive a disproportionate share payment adjustment.

b. For Type One hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 8.0% times 11, times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling. For Type Two hospitals, the disproportionate share payment adjustment shall be equal to the product of (i) the hospital's Medicaid utilization in excess of 8.0% times (ii) the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or ceiling.

c. No payments made under subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection shall exceed any applicable limitations upon such payments established by federal law or regulations.

H. Outlier adjustments.

1. DMAS shall pay to all enrolled hospitals an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under one year of age.

2. DMAS shall pay to disproportionate share hospitals (as defined in paragraph G above) an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1991, involving exceptionally high costs for individuals under six years of age.

3. The outlier adjustment calculation.

a. Each eligible hospital which desires to be considered for the adjustment shall submit a log which contains the information necessary to compute the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above. This log shall contain all Medicaid claims for such individuals, including, but not limited to: (i) the patient's name and Medicaid identification number; (ii) dates of service; (iii) the remittance date paid; (iv) the number of covered days; and (v) total charges for the length of stay. Each hospital shall then calculate the per diem operating cost (which excludes capital and education) of treating such patients by multiplying the charge for each patient by the Medicaid operating cost-to-charge ratio determined from its annual cost report.

b. Each eligible hospital shall calculate the mean of its Medicaid per diem operating cost of treating individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above. Any hospital which qualifies for the extensive neonatal care provision (as governed by paragraph F, above) shall calculate a separate mean for the cost of providing extensive neonatal care to individuals identified in subdivision H 1 or 2 above.

c. Each eligible hospital shall calculate its threshold for payment of the adjustment, at a level equal to two and one-half standard deviations above the mean or means calculated in subdivision H 3 (ii) above.

d. DMAS shall pay as an outlier adjustment to each eligible hospital all per diem operating costs which exceed the applicable threshold or thresholds for that hospital.

4. Pursuant to 12VAC30-50-100, there is no limit on length of time for medically necessary stays for individuals under six years of age. This section provides that consistent with 42 CFR 441.57, payment of medical assistance services shall be made on behalf of individuals under 21 years of age, who are Medicaid eligible, for medically necessary stays in acute care facilities in excess of 21 days per admission when such services are rendered for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment of health conditions identified through a physical examination. Medical documentation justifying admission and the continued length of stay must be attached to or written on the invoice for review by medical staff to determine medical necessity. Medically unjustified days in such admissions will be denied.

12VAC30-70-221

Article 2
Prospective (DRG-Based) Payment Methodology

12VAC30-70-221. General.

A. Effective July 1, 2000, the prospective (DRG-based) payment system described in this article shall apply to inpatient hospital services provided in enrolled general acute care hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, and freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals, unless otherwise noted.

B. The following methodologies shall apply under the prospective payment system:

1. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-231, operating payments for DRG cases that are not transfer cases shall be determined on the basis of a hospital specific operating rate per case times relative weight of the DRG to which the case is assigned.

2. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-241, operating payments for per diem cases shall be determined on the basis of a hospital specific operating rate per day times the covered days for the case with the exception of payments for per diem cases in freestanding psychiatric facilities. Payments for per diem cases in freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals shall be determined on the basis of a hospital specific rate per day that represents an all-inclusive payment for operating and capital costs.

3. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-251, operating payments for transfer cases shall be determined as follows: (i) the transferring hospital shall receive an operating per diem payment, not to exceed the DRG operating payment that would have otherwise been made and (ii) the final discharging hospital shall receive the full DRG operating payment.

4. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-261, additional operating payments shall be made for outlier cases. These additional payments shall be added to the operating payments determined in subdivisions 1 and 3 of this subsection.

5. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-271, payments for capital costs shall be made on an allowable cost basis.

6. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-281, payments for direct medical education costs of nursing schools and paramedical programs shall be made on an allowable cost basis. Payment for direct graduate medical education (GME) costs for interns and residents shall be made quarterly on a prospective basis, subject to cost settlement based on the number of full time equivalent (FTE) interns and residents as reported on the cost report.

7. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-291, payments for indirect medical education costs shall be made quarterly on a prospective basis.

8. As stipulated in 12VAC30-70-301, payments to hospitals that qualify as disproportionate share hospitals shall be made quarterly on a prospective basis.

C. The terms used in this article shall be defined as provided in this subsection:

"Base year" means the state fiscal year for which data is used to establish the DRG relative weights, the hospital case-mix indices, the base year standardized operating costs per case, and the base year standardized operating costs per day. The base year will change when the DRG payment system is rebased and recalibrated. In subsequent rebasings, the Commonwealth shall notify affected providers of the base year to be used in this calculation.

"Base year standardized costs per case" reflects the statewide average hospital costs per discharge for DRG cases in the base year. The standardization process removes the effects of case-mix and regional variations in wages from the claims data and places all hospitals on a comparable basis.

"Base year standardized costs per day" reflects the statewide average hospital costs per day for per diem cases in the base year. The standardization process removes the effects of regional variations in wages from the claims data and places all hospitals on a comparable basis. Base year standardized costs per day were calculated separately, but using the same calculation methodology, for the different types of per diem cases identified in this subsection under the definition of "per diem cases."

"Cost" means allowable cost as defined in Supplement 3 (12VAC30-70-10 through 12VAC30-70-130) and by Medicare principles of reimbursement.

"Disproportionate share hospital" means a hospital that meets the following criteria:

1. A Medicaid utilization rate in excess of 15%, or a low-income patient utilization rate exceeding 25% (as defined in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and as amended by the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988); and

2. At least two obstetricians with staff privileges at the hospital who have agreed to provide obstetric services to individuals entitled to such services under a state Medicaid plan. In the case of a hospital located in a rural area (that is, an area outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area as defined by the Executive Office of Management and Budget), the term "obstetrician" includes any physician with staff privileges at the hospital to perform nonemergency obstetric procedures.

3. Subdivision 2 of this definition does not apply to a hospital:

a. At which the inpatients are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age; or

b. Which does not offer nonemergency obstetric services as of December 21, 1987.

"DRG cases" means medical/surgical cases subject to payment on the basis of DRGs. DRG cases do not include per diem cases.

"DRG relative weight" means the average standardized costs for cases assigned to that DRG divided by the average standardized costs for cases assigned to all DRGs.

"Groupable cases" means DRG cases having coding data of sufficient quality to support DRG assignment.

"Hospital case-mix index" means the weighted average DRG relative weight for all cases occurring at that hospital.

"Medicaid utilization percentage" is equal to the hospital's total Medicaid inpatient days divided by the hospital's total inpatient days for a given hospital fiscal year. The Medicaid utilization percentage includes days associated with inpatient hospital services provided to Medicaid patients but reimbursed by capitated managed care providers. This definition includes all paid Medicaid days (from DMAS MR reports for fee-for-service days and managed care organization or hospital reports for HMO days) and nonpaid/denied Medicaid days to include medically unnecessary days, inappropriate level of care service days, and days that exceed any maximum day limits (with appropriate documentation). The definition of Medicaid days does not include any general assistance, Family Access to Medical Insurance Security (FAMIS), State and Local Hospitalization (SLH), charity care, low-income, indigent care, uncompensated care, bad debt, or Medicare dually eligible days. It does not include days for newborns not enrolled in Medicaid during the fiscal year even though the mother was Medicaid eligible during the birth.

"Medicare wage index" and the "Medicare geographic adjustment factor" are published annually in the Federal Register by the Health Care Financing Administration. The indices and factors used in this article shall be those in effect in the base year.

"Operating cost-to-charge ratio" equals the hospital's total operating costs, less any applicable operating costs for a psychiatric DPU, divided by the hospital's total charges, less any applicable charges for a psychiatric DPU. The operating cost-to-charge ratio shall be calculated using data from cost reports from hospital fiscal years ending in the state fiscal year used as the base year.

"Outlier adjustment factor" means a fixed factor published annually in the Federal Register by the Health Care Financing Administration. The factor used in this article shall be the one in effect in the base year.

"Outlier cases" means those DRG cases, including transfer cases, in which the hospital's adjusted operating cost for the case exceeds the hospital's operating outlier threshold for the case.

"Outlier operating fixed loss threshold" means a fixed dollar amount applicable to all hospitals that shall be calculated in the base year so as to result in an expenditure for outliers operating payments equal to 5.1% of total operating payments for DRG cases. The threshold shall be updated in subsequent years using the same inflation values applied to hospital rates.

"Per diem cases" means cases subject to per diem payment and include (i) covered psychiatric cases in general acute care hospitals and distinct part units (DPUs) of general acute care hospitals (hereinafter "acute care psychiatric cases"), (ii) covered psychiatric cases in freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals (hereinafter "freestanding psychiatric cases"), and (iii) rehabilitation cases in general acute care hospitals and rehabilitation hospitals (hereinafter "rehabilitation cases").

"Psychiatric cases" means cases with a principal diagnosis that is a mental disorder as specified in the ICD-9-CM. Not all mental disorders are covered. For coverage information, see Amount, Duration, and Scope of Services, Supplement 1 to Attachment 3.1 A & B (12VAC30-50-95 through 12VAC30-50-310). The limit of coverage of 21 days in a 60-day period for the same or similar diagnosis shall continue to apply to adult psychiatric cases.

"Psychiatric operating cost-to-charge ratio" for the psychiatric DPU of a general acute care hospital means the hospital's operating costs for a psychiatric DPU divided by the hospital's charges for a psychiatric DPU. In the base year, this ratio shall be calculated as described in the definition of "operating cost-to-charge ratio" in this subsection, using data from psychiatric DPUs.

"Readmissions" occur when patients are readmitted to the same hospital for the same or a similar diagnosis within five days of discharge. Such cases shall be considered a continuation of the same stay and shall not be treated as a new case. Similar diagnoses shall be defined as ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes possessing the same first three digits.

"Rehabilitation operating cost-to-charge ratio" for a rehabilitation unit or hospital means the provider's operating costs divided by the provider's charges. In the base year, this ratio shall be calculated as described in the definition of "operating cost-to-charge ratio" in this subsection, using data from rehabilitation units or hospitals.

"Statewide average labor portion of operating costs" means a fixed percentage applicable to all hospitals. The percentage shall be periodically revised using the most recent reliable data from the Virginia Health Information (VHI), or its successor.

"Transfer cases" means DRG cases involving patients (i) who are transferred from one general acute care hospital to another for related care or (ii) who are discharged from one general acute care hospital and admitted to another for the same or a similar diagnosis within five days of that discharge. Similar diagnoses shall be defined as ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes possessing the same first three digits.

"Type One" hospitals means those hospitals that were state-owned teaching hospitals on January 1, 1996. "Type Two" hospitals means all other hospitals.

"Ungroupable cases" means cases assigned to DRG 469 (principal diagnosis invalid as discharge diagnosis) and DRG 470 (ungroupable) as determined by the AP-DRG Grouper.

D. The All Patient Diagnosis Related Groups (AP-DRG) Grouper shall be used in the DRG payment system. Until notification of a change is given, Version 14.0 of this grouper shall be used. DMAS shall notify hospitals when updating the system to later grouper versions.

E. Effective January 1, 2010, DRG cases shall be grouped based on the exclusion of Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) as published by Medicare periodically.  HACs shall be defined using the criteria published by Medicare in the Federal Register (73 FR 48471-48491 (August 19, 2008)).  Any significant changes to the Medicare list of conditions shall be implemented each January 1.

E. F. The primary data sources used in the development of the DRG payment methodology were the department's hospital computerized claims history file and the cost report file. The claims history file captures available claims data from all enrolled, cost-reporting general acute care hospitals, including Type One hospitals. The cost report file captures audited cost and charge data from all enrolled general acute care hospitals, including Type One hospitals. The following table identifies key data elements that were used to develop the DRG payment methodology and that will be used when the system is recalibrated and rebased.

Data Elements for DRG Payment Methodology

Data Elements

Source

Total charges for each groupable case

Claims history file

Number of groupable cases in each DRG

Claims history file

Total number of groupable cases

Claims history file

Total charges for each DRG case

Claims history file

Total number of DRG cases

Claims history file

Total charges for each acute care psychiatric case

Claims history file

Total number of acute care psychiatric days for each acute care hospital

Claims history file

Total charges for each freestanding psychiatric case

Medicare cost reports

Total number of psychiatric days for each freestanding psychiatric hospital

Medicare cost reports

Total charges for each rehabilitation case

Claims history file

Total number of rehabilitation days for each acute care and freestanding rehabilitation hospital

Claims history file

Operating cost-to-charge ratio for each hospital

Cost report file

Operating cost-to-charge ratio for each freestanding psychiatric facility licensed as a hospital

Medicare cost reports

Psychiatric operating cost-to-charge ratio for the psychiatric DPU of each general acute care hospital

Cost report file

Rehabilitation cost-to-charge ratio for each rehabilitation unit or hospital

Cost report file

Statewide average labor portion of operating costs

VHI

Medicare wage index for each hospital

Federal Register

Medicare geographic adjustment factor for each hospital

Federal Register

Outlier operating fixed loss threshold

Claims history file

Outlier adjustment factor

Federal Register

12VAC30-70-271

12VAC30-70-271. Payment for capital costs.

A. Inpatient capital costs shall be determined on an allowable cost basis and settled at the hospital's fiscal year end. Allowable cost shall be determined following the methodology described in Supplement 3 (12VAC30-70-10 through 12VAC30-70-130). Inpatient capital costs of Type One hospitals shall continue to be settled at 100% of allowable cost. For services beginning July 1, 2003, and ending June 30, 2009, inpatient capital costs of Type Two hospitals, except those with Virginia Medicaid utilization rates greater than 50%, shall be settled at 80% of allowable cost. For services beginning July 1, 2009, inpatient capital costs of Type Two hospitals, excluding Type Two hospitals with greater than 50% Virginia Medicaid utilization, shall be settled at 75% of allowable cost. For hospitals with fiscal years that are in progress and do not begin on July 1, 2003, or July 1, 2009, inpatient capital costs for the fiscal year in progress on that date those dates shall be apportioned between the time period before and the time period after that date those dates based on the number of calendar months before and after that date those dates. Capital costs apportioned before that date July 1, 2003, shall be settled at 100% of allowable cost and those after at 80% of allowable cost.

B. The exception to the policy in subsection A of this section is that the hospital specific rate per day for services in freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals, as determined in 12VAC30-70-321 B, shall be an all-inclusive payment for operating and capital costs. The capital rate per day determined in 12VAC30-70-321 will be multiplied by the same percentage of allowable cost specified in subsection A of this section.

12VAC30-70-321

12VAC30-70-321. Hospital specific operating rate per day.

A. The hospital specific operating rate per day shall be equal to the labor portion of the statewide operating rate per day, as determined in subsection A of 12VAC30-70-341, times the hospital's Medicare wage index plus the nonlabor portion of the statewide operating rate per day.

B. For rural hospitals, the hospital's Medicare wage index used in this section shall be the Medicare wage index of the nearest metropolitan wage area or the effective Medicare wage index, whichever is higher.

C. Effective July 1, 2008, and ending after June 30, 2010, the hospital specific operating rate per day shall be reduced by 2.683%.

D. The hospital specific rate per day for freestanding psychiatric cases shall be equal to the hospital specific operating rate per day, as determined in subsection A of this section plus the hospital specific capital rate per day for freestanding psychiatric cases.

E. The hospital specific capital rate per day for freestanding psychiatric cases shall be equal to the Medicare geographic adjustment factor for the hospital's geographic area, times the statewide capital rate per day for freestanding psychiatric cases times the percentage of allowable cost specified in 12VAC 30-70-271.

F. The statewide capital rate per day for freestanding psychiatric cases shall be equal to the weighted average of the GAF-standardized capital cost per day of freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals.

G. The capital cost per day of freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals shall be the average charges per day of psychiatric cases times the ratio total capital cost to total charges of the hospital, using data available from Medicare cost report.

12VAC30-70-341

12VAC30-70-341. Statewide operating rate per day.

A. The statewide operating rate per day shall be equal to the base year standardized operating costs per day, as determined in subsection B of 12VAC30-70-371, times the inflation values specified in 12VAC30-70-351 times the adjustment factor specified in subsection B or C of this section.

B. The adjustment factor for acute care rehabilitation cases shall be the one specified in subsection B of 12VAC30-70-331.

C. The adjustment factor for acute care psychiatric cases for Type Two hospitals shall be 0.8400. The adjustment factor for acute care psychiatric cases for Type One hospitals shall be the one specified in subdivision B 1 of 12VAC30-70-331 times 0.8400 divided by the factor in subdivision B 2 of 12VAC30-70-331.

D. Effective July 2009, for freestanding psychiatric facilities, the adjustment factor shall be 1.0000.

12VAC30-70-351

12VAC30-70-351. Updating rates for inflation.

Each July, the DRI-Virginia Virginia moving average values as compiled and published by DRI-WEFA, Inc Global Insight (or its successor), under contract with the department shall be used to update the base year standardized operating costs per case, as determined in 12VAC30-70-361, and the base year standardized operating costs per day, as determined in 12VAC30-70-371, to the midpoint of the upcoming state fiscal year. The most current table available prior to the effective date of the new rates shall be used to inflate base year amounts to the upcoming rate year. Thus, corrections made by DRI-WEFA, Inc. Global Insight (or its successor), in the moving averages that were used to update rates for previous state fiscal years shall be automatically incorporated into the moving averages that are being used to update rates for the upcoming state fiscal year.

The inflation adjustment for hospital operating rates, disproportionate share hospitals payments, and graduate medical education payments shall be eliminated for fiscal year (FY) 2010, with the exception of long stay hospitals. This reduction will not be applicable to rebasing in FY 2011.

12VAC30-70-391

12VAC30-70-391. Recalibration and rebasing policy.

A. The department recognizes that claims experience or modifications in federal policies may require adjustment to the DRG payment system policies provided in this part. The state agency shall recalibrate (evaluate and adjust the DRG relative weights and hospital case-mix indices) and rebase (review and update the base year standardized operating costs per case and the base year standardized operating costs per day) the DRG payment system at least every three years. Recalibration and rebasing shall be done in consultation with the Medicaid Hospital Payment Policy Advisory Council noted in 12VAC30-70-490. When rebasing is carried out, if new rates are not calculated before their required effective date, hospitals required to file cost reports and freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals shall be settled at the new rates, for discharges on and after the effective date of those rates, at the time the hospitals' cost reports for the year in which the rates become effective are settled.

B. Rates for freestanding psychiatric facilities licensed as hospitals shall continue to be based on the 1998 base year. Effective July 1, 2009, rates for freestanding psychiatric facilities shall be rebased using 2005 cost data as the base year. Future rebasings shall be consistent with rebasing for all other hospitals.

12VAC30-70-9999

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (12VAC30-70)

All Patient Diagnosis Related Groups (AP-DRG) Grouper, DRG and MDC Code Listings, Version 12, January 1995.

Health Care Cost Review, Second Quarter 2000, copyright 2001, DRI-WEFA, Inc Third Quarter 2009, IHS Global Insight.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM), Physician, Volumes 1 and 2, American Medical Association, 2007.

12VAC30-80-180

12VAC30-80-180. Establishment of rate per visit.

1. A. Effective for dates of services on and after July 1, 1991, the Department of Medical Assistance Services (DMAS) shall reimburse home health agencies (HHAs) at a flat rate per visit for each type of service rendered by HHAs (i.e., nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language pathology services, and home health aide services.) In addition, supplies left in the home and extraordinary transportation costs will be paid at specific rates.

2. B. Effective for dates of services on and after July 1, 1993, DMAS shall establish a flat rate for each level of service for HHAs by peer group. There shall be three peer groups: (i) the Department of Health's HHAs, (ii) non-Department of Health HHAs whose operating office is located in the Virginia portion of the Washington DC-MD-VA metropolitan statistical area, and (iii) non-Department of Health HHAs whose operating office is located in the rest of Virginia. The use of the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) designation of urban metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) shall be incorporated in determining the appropriate peer group for these classifications.

The Department of Health's agencies are being placed in a separate peer group due to their unique cost characteristics (only one consolidated cost report is filed for all Department of Health agencies).

3. C. Rates shall be calculated as follows:

A. 1. Each home health agency shall be placed in its appropriate peer group.

B. 2. Department of Health HHAs' Medicaid cost per visit (exclusive of medical supplies costs) shall be obtained from its 1989 cost-settled Medicaid cost report. Non-Department of Health HHAs' Medicaid cost per visit (exclusive of medical supplies costs) shall be obtained from the 1989 cost-settled Medicaid Cost Reports filed by freestanding HHAs. Costs shall be inflated to a common point in time (June 30, 1991) by using the percent of change in the moving average factor of the Data Resources Inc., (DRI), National Forecast Tables for the Home Health Agency Market Basket (as published quarterly).

C. 3. To determine the flat rate per visit effective July 1, 1993, the following methodology shall be utilized:

(1) a. The peer group HHA's per visit rates shall be ranked and weighted by the number of Medicaid visits per discipline to determine a median rate per visit for each peer group at July 1, 1991.

(2) b. The HHA's peer group median rate per visit for each peer group at July 1, 1991, shall be the interim peer group rate for calculating the update through January 1, 1992. The interim peer group rate shall be updated by 100% of historical inflation from July 1, 1991, through December 31, 1992, and shall become the final interim peer group rate which shall be updated by 50% of the forecasted inflation to the end of December 31, 1993, to establish the final peer group rates. The lower of the final peer group rates or the Medicare upper limit at January 1, 1993, will be effective for payments from July 1, 1993, through December 1993.

(3) c. Separate rates shall be provided for the initial assessment, follow-up, and comprehensive visits for skilled nursing and for the initial assessment and follow-up visits for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. The comprehensive rate shall be 200% of the follow-up rate, and the initial assessment rates shall be fifteen dollars ($15.00) $15 higher than the follow-up rates. The lower of the peer group median or Medicare upper limits shall be adjusted as appropriate to assure budget neutrality when the higher rates for the comprehensive and initial assessment visits are calculated.

D. 4. The fee schedule shall be adjusted annually on or about January beginning July 1, 2010, based on the percent of change in the moving average of Data Resources, Inc., the National Forecast Tables for the Home Health Agency Market Basket determined in the third published by Global Insight (or its successor) for the second quarter of the previous calendar year in which the fiscal year begins. The report shall be the latest  published report prior to the fiscal year. The method to calculate the annual update shall be:

(1) a. All subsequent year peer group rates shall be calculated utilizing the previous final interim peer group rate established on January July 1, becoming the interim peer group rate at December 31, each year. The interim peer group rate shall be updated for 100 percent of historical inflation for the previous twelve months, January 1 through December 31, and shall become the final interim peer group rate which shall be updated by 50 percent of the forecasted inflation for the subsequent twelve months, January 1 through December 31.

(2) b. The annual July 1 update shall be compared to the Medicare upper limit per visit in effect on each January 1, and the HHA's shall receive the lower of the annual update or the Medicare upper limit per visit as the final peer group rate.

D. Effective July 1, 2009, the previous inflation increase effective January 1, 2009, shall be reduced by 50%.

12VAC30-90-41

12VAC30-90-41. Nursing facility reimbursement formula.

A. Effective on and after July 1, 2002, all NFs subject to the prospective payment system shall be reimbursed under "The Resource Utilization Group-III (RUG-III) System as defined in Appendix IV (12VAC30-90-305 through 12VAC30-90-307)." RUG-III is a resident classification system that groups NF residents according to resource utilization. Case-mix indices (CMIs) are assigned to RUG-III groups and are used to adjust the NF's per diem rates to reflect the intensity of services required by a NF's resident mix. See 12VAC30-90-305 through 12VAC30-90-307 for details on the Resource Utilization Groups.

1. Any NF receiving Medicaid payments on or after October 1, 1990, shall satisfy all the requirements of § 1919(b) through (d) of the Social Security Act as they relate to provision of services, residents' rights and administration and other matters.

2. Direct and indirect group ceilings and rates.

a. In accordance with 12VAC30-90-20 C, direct patient care operating cost peer groups shall be established for the Virginia portion of the Washington DC-MD-VA MSA, the Richmond-Petersburg MSA and the rest of the state. Direct patient care operating costs shall be as defined in 12VAC30-90-271.

b. Indirect patient care operating cost peer groups shall be established for the Virginia portion of the Washington DC-MD-VA MSA, for the rest of the state for facilities with less than 61 licensed beds, and for the rest of the state for facilities with more than 60 licensed beds.

3. Each facility's average case-mix index shall be calculated based upon data reported by that nursing facility to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (formerly HCFA) Minimum Data Set (MDS) System. See 12VAC30-90-306 for the case-mix index calculations.

4. The normalized facility average Medicaid CMI shall be used to calculate the direct patient care operating cost prospective ceilings and direct patient care operating cost prospective rates for each semiannual period of a NFs subsequent fiscal year. See 12VAC30-90-306 D 2 for the calculation of the normalized facility average Medicaid CMI.

a. A NFs direct patient care operating cost prospective ceiling shall be the product of the NFs peer group direct patient care ceiling and the NFs normalized facility average Medicaid CMI. A NFs direct patient care operating cost prospective ceiling will be calculated semiannually.

b. A CMI rate adjustment for each semiannual period of a nursing facility's prospective fiscal year shall be applied by multiplying the nursing facility's normalized facility average Medicaid CMI applicable to each prospective semiannual period by the nursing facility's case-mix neutralized direct patient care operating cost base rate for the preceding cost reporting period (see 12VAC30-90-307).

c. See 12VAC30-90-307 for the applicability of case-mix indices.

5. Direct and indirect ceiling calculations.

a. Effective for services on and after July 1, 2006, the direct patient care operating ceiling shall be set at 117% of the respective peer group day-weighted median of the facilities' case-mix neutralized direct care operating costs per day. The calculation of the medians shall be based on cost reports from freestanding nursing homes for provider fiscal years ending in the most recent base year. The medians used to set the peer group direct patient care operating ceilings shall be revised and case-mix neutralized every two years using the most recent reliable calendar year cost settled cost reports for freestanding nursing facilities that have been completed as of September 1.

b. The indirect patient care operating ceiling shall be set at 107% of the respective peer group day-weighted median of the facility's specific indirect operating cost per day. The calculation of the peer group medians shall be based on cost reports from freestanding nursing homes for provider fiscal years ending in the most recent base year. The medians used to set the peer group indirect operating ceilings shall be revised every two years using the most recent reliable calendar year cost settled cost reports for freestanding nursing facilities that have been completed as of September 1.

6. Reimbursement for use of specialized treatment beds. Effective for services on and after July 1, 2005, nursing facilities shall be reimbursed an additional $10 per day for those recipients who require a specialized treatment bed due to their having at least one Stage IV pressure ulcer. Recipients must meet criteria as outlined in 12VAC30-60-350, and the additional reimbursement must be preauthorized as provided in 12VAC30-60-40. Nursing facilities shall not be eligible to receive this reimbursement for individuals whose services are reimbursed under the specialized care methodology. Beginning July 1, 2005, this additional reimbursement shall be subject to adjustment for inflation in accordance with 12VAC30-90-41 B, except that the adjustment shall be made at the beginning of each state fiscal year, using the inflation factor that applies to provider years beginning at that time. This additional payment shall not be subject to direct or indirect ceilings and shall not be adjusted at year-end settlement.

B. Adjustment of ceilings and costs for inflation. Effective for provider fiscal years starting on and after July 1, 2002, ceilings and rates shall be adjusted for inflation each year using the moving average of the percentage change of the Virginia-Specific Nursing Home Input Price Index, updated quarterly, published by Standard & Poor's DRI. For state fiscal year 2003, peer group ceilings and rates for indirect costs will not be adjusted for inflation.

1. For provider years beginning in each calendar year, the percentage used shall be the moving average for the second quarter of the year, taken from the table published for the fourth quarter of the previous year. For example, in setting prospective rates for all provider years beginning in January through December 2002, ceilings and costs would be inflated using the moving average for the second quarter of 2002, taken from the table published for the fourth quarter of 2001.

2. Provider specific costs shall be adjusted for inflation each year from the cost reporting period to the prospective rate period using the moving average as specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection. If the cost reporting period or the prospective rate period is less than 12 months long, a fraction of the moving average shall be used that is equal to the fraction of a year from the midpoint of the cost reporting period to the midpoint of the prospective rate period.

3. Ceilings shall be adjusted from the common point established in the most recent rebasing calculation. Base period costs shall be adjusted to this common point using moving averages from the DRI tables corresponding to the provider fiscal period, as specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection. Ceilings shall then be adjusted from the common point to the prospective rate period using the moving average(s) for each applicable second quarter, taken from the DRI table published for the fourth quarter of the year immediately preceding the calendar year in which the prospective rate years begin. Rebased ceilings shall be effective on July 1 of each rebasing year, so in their first application they shall be adjusted to the midpoint of the provider fiscal year then in progress or then beginning. Subsequently, they shall be adjusted each year from the common point established in rebasing to the midpoint of the appropriate provider fiscal year. For example, suppose the base year is made up of cost reports from years ending in calendar year 2000, the rebasing year is SFY2003, and the rebasing calculation establishes ceilings that are inflated to the common point of July 1, 2002. Providers with years in progress on July 1, 2002, would receive a ceiling effective July 1, 2002, that would be adjusted to the midpoint of the provider year then in progress. In some cases this would mean the ceiling would be reduced from the July 1, 2002, ceiling level. The following table shows the application of these provisions for different provider fiscal periods.

Table I
Application of Inflation to Different Provider Fiscal Periods

Provider FYE

Effective Date of New Ceiling

First PFYE After Rebasing Date

Inflation Time Span from Ceiling Date to Midpoint of First PFY

Second PFYE After Rebasing Date

Inflation Time Span from Ceiling Date to Midpoint of Second PFY

3/31

7/1/02

3/31/03

+ 1/4 year

3/31/04

+ 1-1/4 years

6/30

7/1/02

6/30/03

+ 1/2 year

6/30/04

+ 1-1/2 years

9/30

7/1/02

9/30/02

- 1/4 year

9/30/03

+ 3/4 year

12/31

7/1/02

12/31/02

-0-

12/31/03

+ 1 year

The following table shows the DRI tables that would provide the moving averages for adjusting ceilings for different prospective rate years.

Table II
Source Tables for DRI Moving Average Values

Provider FYE

Effective Date of New Ceiling

First PFYE After Rebasing Date

Source DRI Table for First PFY Ceiling Inflation

Second PFYE After Rebasing Date

Source DRI Table for Second PFY Ceiling Inflation

3/31

7/1/02

3/31/03

Fourth Quarter 2001

3/31/04

Fourth Quarter 2002

6/30

7/1/02

6/30/03

Fourth Quarter 2001

6/30/04

Fourth Quarter 2002

9/30

7/1/02

9/30/02

Fourth Quarter 2000

9/30/03

Fourth Quarter 2001

12/31

7/1/02

12/31/02

Fourth Quarter 2000

12/31/03

Fourth Quarter 2001

In this example, when ceilings are inflated for the second PFY after the rebasing date, the ceilings will be inflated from July 1, 2002, using moving averages from the DRI table specified for the second PFY. That is, the ceiling for years ending June 30, 2004, will be the June 30, 2002, base period ceiling, adjusted by 1/2 of the moving average for the second quarter of 2002, compounded with the moving average for the second quarter of 2003. Both these moving averages will be taken from the fourth quarter 2002 DRI table.

C. The RUG-III Nursing Home Payment System shall require comparison of the prospective operating cost rates to the prospective operating ceilings. The provider shall be reimbursed the lower of the prospective operating cost rate or prospective operating ceiling.

D. Nonoperating costs. Plant or capital, as appropriate, costs shall be reimbursed in accordance with Articles 1, 2, and 3 of this subpart. Plant costs shall not include the component of cost related to making or producing a supply or service.

NATCEPs cost shall be reimbursed in accordance with 12VAC30-90-170.

E. The prospective rate for each NF shall be based upon operating cost and plant/capital cost components or charges, whichever is lower, plus NATCEPs costs. The disallowance of nonreimbursable operating costs in any current fiscal year shall be reflected in a subsequent year's prospective rate determination. Disallowances of nonreimbursable plant or capital, as appropriate, costs and NATCEPs costs shall be reflected in the year in which the nonreimbursable costs are included.

F. Effective July 1, 2001, for those NFs whose indirect operating cost rates are below the ceilings, an incentive plan shall be established whereby a NF shall be paid, on a sliding scale, up to 25% of the difference between its allowable indirect operating cost rates and the indirect peer group ceilings.

1. The following table presents four incentive examples:

 

Peer Group Ceilings

Allowable Cost Per Day

Difference

% of Ceiling

Sliding Scale

Scale % Difference

 

$30.00

$27.00

$3.00

10%

$0.30

10%

 

30.00

22.50

7.50

25%

1.88

25%

 

30.00

20.00

10.00

33%

2.50

25%

 

30.00

30.00

0

0

 

 

2. Efficiency incentives shall be calculated only for the indirect patient care operating ceilings and costs. Effective July 1, 2001, a direct care efficiency incentive shall no longer be paid.

G. Quality of care requirement. A cost efficiency incentive shall not be paid for the number of days for which a facility is out of substantial compliance according to the Virginia Department of Health survey findings as based on federal regulations.

H. Sale of facility. In the event of the sale of a NF, the prospective base operating cost rates for the new owner's first fiscal period shall be the seller's prospective base operating cost rates before the sale.

I. Public notice. To comply with the requirements of § 1902(a)(28)(c) of the Social Security Act, DMAS shall make available to the public the data and methodology used in establishing Medicaid payment rates for nursing facilities. Copies may be obtained by request under the existing procedures of the Virginia Freedom of Information Act.

J. Effective July 1, 2005, the total per diem payment to each nursing home shall be increased by $3.00 per day. This increase in the total per diem payment shall cease effective July 1, 2006. Effective July 1, 2006, when cost data that include time periods before July 1, 2005, are used to set facility specific rates, a portion of the $3.00 per day amount identified above, based on the percentage of patient days in the provider's cost reporting period that fall before July 1, 2005, adjusted for appropriate inflation and multiplied times the provider's Medicaid utilization rate, shall be allocated to the facility specific direct and indirect cost per day prior to comparison to the peer group ceilings. For purposes of this subsection, $1.68 of the $3.00 shall be considered direct costs and $1.32 of the $3.00 shall be considered indirect costs.

K. Effective July 1, 2008, and ending after June 30, 2010 2009, the operating rate for nursing facilities shall be reduced by 1.329%.

L. Effective July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010, there will be no inflation adjustment for nursing facility operating rates and ceilings and specialized care operating rates and ceilings. Exempt from this are government-owned nursing facilities with Medicaid utilization of 85% or greater in provider fiscal year 2007.