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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

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Action:
Final Exempt CH 31 Changes in Response to 2022 Board Bill
Stage: Final
 
9VAC25-31-10 Definitions

"Act" means Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), as amended, 33 USC § 1251 et seq.

"Administrator" means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or an authorized representative.

"Animal feeding operation" or "AFO" means a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met: (i) animals (other than aquatic animals) have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and (ii) crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.

"Applicable standards and limitations" means all state, interstate, and federal standards and limitations to which a discharge, a sewage sludge use or disposal practice, or a related activity is subject under the CWA (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and the law, including effluent limitations, water quality standards, standards of performance, toxic effluent standards or prohibitions, best management practices, pretreatment standards, and standards for sewage sludge use or disposal under §§ 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 403, and 405 of CWA.

"Approval authority" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Approved POTW Pretreatment Program" or "Program" or "POTW Pretreatment Program" means a program administered by a POTW that meets the criteria established in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter and which has been approved by the director or by the administrator in accordance with 9VAC25-31-830.

"Approved program" or "approved state" means a state or interstate program that has been approved or authorized by EPA under 40 CFR Part 123.

"Aquaculture project" means a defined managed water area that uses discharges of pollutants into that designated area for the maintenance or production of harvestable freshwater, estuarine, or marine plants or animals.

"Average monthly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar month, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar month divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that month.

"Average weekly discharge limitation" means the highest allowable average of daily discharges over a calendar week, calculated as the sum of all daily discharges measured during a calendar week divided by the number of daily discharges measured during that week.

"Best management practices" or "BMPs" means schedules of activities, prohibitions of practices, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to implement the prohibitions listed in 9VAC25-31-770 and to prevent or reduce the pollution of surface waters. BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating procedures, and practices to control plant site run-off, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-31-540, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this chapter. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight.

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board. When used outside the context of the promulgation of regulations, including regulations to establish general permits, "board" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Bypass" means the intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment facility.

"Class I sludge management facility" means any POTW identified under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter as being required to have an approved pretreatment program and any other treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the regional administrator, in conjunction with the director, because of the potential for its sludge use or disposal practices to adversely affect public health and the environment.

"Concentrated animal feeding operation" or "CAFO" means an AFO that is defined as a Large CAFO or as a Medium CAFO, or that is designated as a Medium CAFO or a Small CAFO. Any AFO may be designated as a CAFO by the director in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC25-31-130 B.

1. "Large CAFO." An AFO is defined as a Large CAFO if it stables or confines as many or more than the numbers of animals specified in any of the following categories:

a. 700 mature dairy cows, whether milked or dry;

b. 1,000 veal calves;

c. 1,000 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;

d. 2,500 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;

e. 10,000 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;

f. 500 horses;

g. 10,000 sheep or lambs;

h. 55,000 turkeys;

i. 30,000 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;

j. 125,000 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

k. 82,000 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

l. 30,000 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system; or

m. 5,000 ducks if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system.

2. "Medium CAFO." The term Medium CAFO includes any AFO with the type and number of animals that fall within any of the ranges below that has been defined or designated as a CAFO. An AFO is defined as a Medium CAFO if:

a. The type and number of animals that it stables or confines falls within any of the following ranges:

(1) 200 to 699 mature dairy cattle, whether milked or dry;

(2) 300 to 999 veal calves;

(3) 300 to 999 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs;

(4) 750 to 2,499 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more;

(5) 3,000 to 9,999 swine each weighing less than 55 pounds;

(6) 150 to 499 horses;

(7) 3,000 to 9,999 sheep or lambs;

(8) 16,500 to 29,999 laying hens or broilers, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system;

(9) 37,500 to 124,999 chickens (other than laying hens), if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(10) 25,000 to 81,999 laying hens, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(11) 10,000 to 29,999 ducks, if the AFO uses other than a liquid manure handling system;

(12) 1,500 to 4,999 ducks, if the AFO uses a liquid manure handling system; and

b. Either one of the following conditions are met:

(1) Pollutants are discharged into surface waters of the state through a man-made ditch, flushing system, or other similar man-made device; or

(2) Pollutants are discharged directly into surface waters of the state that originate outside of and pass over, across, or through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined in the operation.

3. "Small CAFO." An AFO that is designated as a CAFO and is not a Medium CAFO.

"Concentrated aquatic animal production facility" means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility that meets the criteria of this definition, or that the board department designates under 9VAC25-31-140. A hatchery, fish farm, or other facility is a concentrated aquatic animal production facility if it contains, grows, or holds aquatic animals in either of the following categories:

1. Cold water fish species or other cold water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year but does not include:

a. Facilities which produce less than 9,090 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 20,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year; and

b. Facilities which feed less than 2,272 kilograms (approximately 5,000 pounds) of food during the calendar month of maximum feeding; or

2. Warm water fish species or other warm water aquatic animals in ponds, raceways, or other similar structures which discharge at least 30 days per year, but does not include:

a. Closed ponds which discharge only during periods of excess run-off; or

b. Facilities which produce less than 45,454 harvest weight kilograms (approximately 100,000 pounds) of aquatic animals per year.

Cold water aquatic animals include the Salmonidae family of fish (e.g., trout and salmon).

Warm water aquatic animals include the Ictaluridae, Centrarchidae and Cyprinidae families of fish (e.g., respectively, catfish, sunfish and minnows).

"Contiguous zone" means the entire zone established by the United States under Article 24 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone (37 FR 11906).

"Continuous discharge" means a discharge which occurs without interruption throughout the operating hours of the facility, except for infrequent shutdowns for maintenance, process changes, or other similar activities.

"Control authority" refers to the POTW if the POTW's pretreatment program submission has been approved in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC25-31-830 or the approval authority if the submission has not been approved.

"Controversial permit" means a water permitting action for which a public hearing has been granted pursuant to 9VAC25-31-315.

"Co-permittee" means a permittee to a VPDES permit that is only responsible for permit conditions relating to the discharge for which it is the operator.

"CWA" means the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972) Public Law 92-500, as amended by Public Law 95-217, Public Law 95-576, Public Law 96-483, Public Law 97-117, and Public Law 100-4.

"CWA and regulations" means the Clean Water Act (CWA) and applicable regulations promulgated thereunder. For the purposes of this chapter, it includes state program requirements.

"Daily discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant measured during a calendar day or any 24-hour period that reasonably represents the calendar day for purposes of sampling. For pollutants with limitations expressed in units of mass, the daily discharge is calculated as the total mass of the pollutant discharged over the day. For pollutants with limitations expressed in other units of measurement, the daily discharge is calculated as the average measurement of the pollutant over the day.

"Department" or "DEQ" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Designated project area" means the portions of surface within which the permittee or permit applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to ensure that specific individual organisms comprising an aquaculture crop will enjoy increased growth attributable to the discharge of pollutants and be harvested within a defined geographic area.

"Direct discharge" means the discharge of a pollutant.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or an authorized representative.

"Discharge," when used without qualification, means the discharge of a pollutant.

"Discharge," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means "indirect discharge" as defined in this section.

"Discharge of a pollutant" means:

1. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to surface waters from any point source; or

2. Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to the waters of the contiguous zone or the ocean from any point source other than a vessel or other floating craft which is being used as a means of transportation.

This definition includes additions of pollutants into surface waters from: surface run-off that is collected or channeled by man; discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances owned by a state, municipality, or other person that do not lead to a treatment works; and discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances, leading into privately owned treatment works. This term does not include an addition of pollutants by any indirect discharger.

"Discharge Monitoring Report" or "DMR" means the form supplied by the department or an equivalent form developed by the permittee and approved by the board department, for the reporting of self-monitoring results by permittees.

"Draft permit" means a document indicating the board's department's tentative decision to issue or deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate, or reissue a permit. A notice of intent to terminate a permit, and a notice of intent to deny a permit are types of draft permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination is not a draft permit. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.

"Effluent limitation" means any restriction imposed by the board or department on quantities, discharge rates, and concentrations of pollutants that are discharged from point sources into surface waters, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the ocean.

"Effluent limitations guidelines" means a regulation published by the administrator under § 304(b) of the CWA to adopt or revise effluent limitations.

"Environmental Protection Agency" or "EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Existing source" means any source that is not a new source or a new discharger.

"Facilities or equipment" means buildings, structures, process or production equipment or machinery that form a permanent part of a new source and that will be used in its operation, if these facilities or equipment are of such value as to represent a substantial commitment to construct. It excludes facilities or equipment used in connection with feasibility, engineering, and design studies regarding the new source or water pollution treatment for the new source.

"Facility or activity" means any VPDES point source or treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other facility or activity (including land or appurtenances thereto) that is subject to regulation under the VPDES program.

"General permit" means a VPDES permit authorizing a category of discharges under the CWA and the law within a geographical area.

"Hazardous substance" means any substance designated under the Code of Virginia and 40 CFR Part 116 pursuant to § 311 of the CWA.

"Incorporated place" means a city, town, township, or village that is incorporated under the Code of Virginia.

"Indian country" means (i) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the United States government, notwithstanding the issuance of any patent, and including rights-of-way running through the reservation; (ii) all dependent Indian communities with the borders of the United States whether within the originally or subsequently acquired territory thereof, and whether within or without the limits of a state; and (iii) all Indian allotments, the Indian titles to which have not been extinguished, including rights-of-way running through the same.

"Indirect discharge" means the introduction of pollutants into a POTW from any nondomestic source regulated under § 307(b), (c) or (d) of the CWA and the law.

"Indirect discharger" means a nondomestic discharger introducing pollutants to a POTW.

"Individual control strategy" means a final VPDES permit with supporting documentation showing that effluent limits are consistent with an approved wasteload allocation or other documentation that shows that applicable water quality standards will be met not later than three years after the individual control strategy is established.

"Industrial residual" means solid or semisolid industrial waste including solids, residues, and precipitates separated or created by the unit processes of a device or system used to treat industrial wastes.

"Industrial user" or "user" means a source of indirect discharge.

"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade, or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Interference" means an indirect discharge that, alone or in conjunction with an indirect discharge or discharges from other sources, both: (i) inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment processes or operations, or its sludge processes, use, or disposal; and (ii) therefore is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation) or of the prevention of biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal in compliance with the following statutory provisions and regulations or permits issued thereunder (or more stringent state or local regulations): Section 405 of the Clean Water Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (including Title II, more commonly referred to as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), and including state regulations contained in any state sludge management plan prepared pursuant to Subtitle D of the SWDA) the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 701 et seq.), the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC § 2601 et seq.), and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (33 USC § 1401 et seq.).

"Interstate agency" means an agency of two or more states established by or under an agreement or compact approved by Congress, or any other agency of two or more states having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the control of pollution as determined and approved by the administrator under the CWA and regulations.

"Land application" means, in regard to sewage, biosolids, and industrial residuals, the distribution of treated wastewater of acceptable quality, referred to as effluent, or stabilized sewage sludge of acceptable quality, referred to as biosolids, or industrial residuals by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing crops or vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this chapter are not considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge or industrial residuals in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this chapter, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to an AFO, land under the control of an AFO owner or operator that is owned, rented, or leased to which manure, litter, or process wastewater from the production area may be applied.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback area, where biosolids may be applied.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 or 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Log sorting facilities" and "log storage facilities" mean facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with bark or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored on land where water is applied intentionally on the logs (wet decking).

"Major facility" means any VPDES facility or activity classified as such by the regional administrator in conjunction with the board department.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors normally associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Man-made" means constructed by man and used for the purpose of transporting wastes.

"Manure" means manure, bedding, compost and raw materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal.

"Maximum daily discharge limitation" means the highest allowable daily discharge.

"Municipal separate storm sewer" means a conveyance or system of conveyances (including roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, catch basins, curbs, gutters, ditches, man-made channels, or storm drains): (i) owned or operated by a state, city, town, borough, county, parish, district, association, or other public body (created by or pursuant to state law) having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, stormwater, or other wastes, including special districts under state law, such as a sewer district, flood control district or drainage district, or similar entity, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA that discharges to surface waters of the state; (ii) designed or used for collecting or conveying stormwater; (iii) that is not a combined sewer; and (iv) that is not part of a publicly owned treatment works (POTW).

"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body created by or under state law and having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes, or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA.

"National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System" or "NPDES" means the national program for issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing permits, and imposing and enforcing pretreatment requirements under §§ 307, 402, 318, and 405 of the CWA. The term includes an approved program.

"National pretreatment standard," "pretreatment standard," or "standard," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any regulation containing pollutant discharge limits promulgated by EPA in accordance with § 307(b) and (c) of the CWA, which applies to industrial users. This term includes prohibitive discharge limits established pursuant to 9VAC25-31-770.

"New discharger" means any building, structure, facility, or installation:

1. From which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants;

2. That did not commence the discharge of pollutants at a particular site prior to August 13, 1979;

3. That is not a new source; and

4. That has never received a finally effective VPDES permit for discharges at that site.

This definition includes an indirect discharger which commences discharging into surface waters after August 13, 1979. It also includes any existing mobile point source (other than an offshore or coastal oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or a coastal oil and gas developmental drilling rig) such as a seafood processing rig, seafood processing vessel, or aggregate plant, that begins discharging at a site for which it does not have a permit, and any offshore or coastal mobile oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile oil and gas developmental drilling rig that commences the discharge of pollutants after August 13, 1979.

"New source," except when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced:

1. After promulgation of standards of performance under § 306 of the CWA that are applicable to such source; or

2. After proposal of standards of performance in accordance with § 306 of the CWA that are applicable to such source, but only if the standards are promulgated in accordance with § 306 of the CWA within 120 days of their proposal.

"New source," when used in Part VII of this chapter, means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of which commenced after the publication of proposed pretreatment standards under § 307(c) of the CWA that will be applicable to such source if such standards are thereafter promulgated in accordance with that section, provided that:

1. a. The building, structure, facility, or installation is constructed at a site at which no other source is located;

b. The building, structure, facility, or installation totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or

c. The production of wastewater generating processes of the building, structure, facility, or installation are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these are substantially independent, factors such as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant, and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source should be considered.

2. Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a modification rather than a new source if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria of subdivision 1 b or c of this definition but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production equipment.

3. Construction of a new source as defined under this subdivision has commenced if the owner or operator has:

a. Begun, or caused to begin, as part of a continuous on-site construction program:

(1) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or

(2) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation, or removal of existing buildings, structures, or facilities that is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or

b. Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment that are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable time. Options to purchase or contracts that can be terminated or modified without substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility, engineering, and design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under this subdivision.

"Overburden" means any material of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies a mineral deposit, excluding topsoil or similar naturally occurring surface materials that are not disturbed by mining operations.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including sanitation district commissions and authorities, and any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this or any other state or country, or any officer or agency of the United States, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group that owns, operates, charters, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or is responsible for any actual or potential discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters, or any facility or operation that has the capability to alter the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters in contravention of § 62.1-44.5 of the Code of Virginia.

"Owner" or "operator" means the owner or operator of any facility or activity subject to regulation under the VPDES program.

"Pass through" means a discharge that exits the POTW into state waters in quantities or concentrations that, alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, is a cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's VPDES permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation).

"Permit" means an authorization, certificate, license, or equivalent control document issued by the board department to implement the requirements of this chapter. Permit includes a VPDES general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board. Permit does not include any permit that has not yet been the subject of final agency action, such as a draft permit or a proposed permit.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance including any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, landfill leachate collection system, vessel, or other floating craft from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agriculture or agricultural stormwater run-off.

"Pollutant" means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials (except those regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 USC § 2011 et seq.)), heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water. It does not mean:

1. Sewage from vessels; or

2. Water, gas, or other material that is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil and gas production and disposed of in a well if the well used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes is approved by the board department, and if the board department determines that the injection or disposal will not result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.

"POTW treatment plant" means that portion of the POTW that is designed to provide treatment (including recycling and reclamation) of municipal sewage and industrial waste.

"Pretreatment" means the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to or in lieu of discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a POTW. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical, or biological processes, process changes or by other means, except as prohibited in Part VII of this chapter. Appropriate pretreatment technology includes control equipment, such as equalization tanks or facilities, for protection against surges or slug loadings that might interfere with or otherwise be incompatible with the POTW. However, where wastewater from a regulated process is mixed in an equalization facility with unregulated wastewater or with wastewater from another regulated process, the effluent from the equalization facility must meet an adjusted pretreatment limit calculated in accordance with Part VII of this chapter.

"Pretreatment requirements" means any requirements arising under Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter including the duty to allow or carry out inspections, entry or monitoring activities; any rules, regulations, or orders issued by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works; or any reporting requirements imposed by the owner of a publicly owned treatment works or by the regulations of the board. Pretreatment requirements do not include the requirements of a national pretreatment standard.

"Primary industry category" means any industry category listed in the NRDC settlement agreement (Natural Resources Defense Council et al. v. Train, 8 E.R.C. 2120 (D.D.C. 1976), modified 12 E.R.C. 1833 (D.D.C. 1979)); also listed in 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix A.

"Privately owned treatment works" or "PVOTW" means any device or system that is (i) used to treat wastes from any facility whose operator is not the operator of the treatment works and (ii) not a POTW.

"Process wastewater" means any water that, during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product. Process wastewater from an AFO means water directly or indirectly used in the operation of the AFO for any of the following: spillage or overflow from animal or poultry watering systems; washing, cleaning, or flushing pens, barns, manure pits, or other AFO facilities; direct contact swimming, washing, or spray cooling of the animals; or dust control. Process wastewater from an AFO also includes any water that comes into contact with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs, or bedding.

"Production area" means that part of an AFO that includes the animal confinement area, the manure storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area includes open lots, housed lots, feedlots, confinement houses, stall barns, free stall barns, milkrooms, milking centers, cowyards, barnyards, medication pens, walkers, animal walkways, and stables. The manure storage area includes lagoons, runoff ponds, storage sheds, stockpiles, under house or pit storages, liquid impoundments, static piles, and composting piles. The raw materials storage areas include feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding materials. The waste containment area includes settling basins, and areas within berms and diversions that separate uncontaminated stormwater. Also included in the definition of production area is any egg washing or egg processing facility, and any area used in the storage, handling, treatment, or disposal of mortalities.

"Proposed permit" means a VPDES permit prepared after the close of the public comment period (and, when applicable, any public hearing and administrative appeals) which is sent to EPA for review before final issuance. A proposed permit is not a draft permit.

"Publicly owned treatment works" or "POTW" means a treatment works as defined by § 212 of the CWA, which is owned by a state or municipality (as defined by § 502(4) of the CWA). This definition includes any devices and systems used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid nature. It also includes sewers, pipes, and other conveyances only if they convey wastewater to a POTW treatment plant. The term also means the municipality as defined in § 502(4) of the CWA, which has jurisdiction over the indirect discharges to and the discharges from such a treatment works.

"Recommencing discharger" means a source which recommences discharge after terminating operations.

"Regional administrator" means the Regional Administrator of Region III of the Environmental Protection Agency or the authorized representative of the regional administrator.

"Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities" means facilities that process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap.

"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures included in a permit, including an enforceable sequence of interim requirements (for example, actions, operations, or milestone events) leading to compliance with the law, the CWA and regulations.

"Secondary industry category" means any industry category that is not a primary industry category.

"Secretary" means the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers.

"Septage" means the liquid and solid material pumped from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar domestic sewage treatment system, or a holding tank when the system is cleaned or maintained.

"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied.

"Severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production.

"Sewage from vessels" means human body wastes and the wastes from toilets and other receptacles intended to receive or retain body wastes that are discharged from vessels and regulated under § 312 of CWA.

"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue removed during the treatment of municipal wastewater or domestic sewage. Sewage sludge includes solids removed during primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment, scum, domestic septage, portable toilet pumpings, type III marine sanitation device pumpings, and sewage sludge products. Sewage sludge does not include grit or screenings, or ash generated during the incineration of sewage sludge.

"Sewage sludge use" or "disposal practice" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use of biosolids, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Significant industrial user" or "SIU" means:

1. Except as provided in subdivisions 2 and 3 of this definition:

a. All industrial users subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30; and

b. Any other industrial user that: discharges an average of 25,000 gallons per day or more of process wastewater to the POTW (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater); contributes a process wastestream which makes up 5.0% or more of the average dry weather hydraulic or organic capacity of the POTW treatment plant; or is designated as such by the control authority, on the basis that the industrial user has a reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement.

2. The control authority may determine that an industrial user subject to categorical pretreatment standards under 9VAC25-31-780 and 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N is a nonsignificant categorical industrial user rather than a significant industrial user on a finding that the industrial user never discharges more than 100 gallons per day (gpd) of total categorical wastewater (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown wastewater, unless specifically included in the pretreatment standard) and the following conditions are met:

a. The industrial user, prior to control authority's finding, has consistently complied with all applicable categorical pretreatment standards and requirements;

b. The industrial user annually submits the certification statement required in 9VAC25-31-840 together with any additional information necessary to support the certification statement; and

c. The industrial user never discharges any untreated concentrated wastewater.

3. Upon a finding that an industrial user meeting the criteria in subdivision 1 b of this definition has no reasonable potential for adversely affecting the POTW's operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement, the control authority may at any time, on its own initiative or in response to a petition received from an industrial user or POTW, and in accordance with Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, determine that such industrial user is not a significant industrial user.

"Significant materials" means, but is not limited to: raw materials; fuels; materials such as solvents, detergents, and plastic pellets; finished materials such as metallic products; raw materials used in food processing or production; hazardous substances designated under § 101(14) of CERCLA (42 USC § 9601(14)); any chemical the facility is required to report pursuant to § 313 of Title III of SARA (42 USC § 11023); fertilizers; pesticides; and waste products such as ashes, slag and sludge that have the potential to be released with stormwater discharges.

"Silvicultural point source" means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities that are operated in connection with silvicultural activities and from which pollutants are discharged into surface waters. The term does not include nonpoint source silvicultural activities such as nursery operations, site preparation, reforestation and subsequent cultural treatment, thinning, prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting operations, surface drainage, or road construction and maintenance from which there is natural run-off. However, some of these activities (such as stream crossing for roads) may involve point source discharges of dredged or fill material which may require a CWA § 404 permit.

"Site" means the land or water area where any facility or activity is physically located or conducted, including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.

"Sludge-only facility" means any treatment works treating domestic sewage whose methods of biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal are subject to regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA, and is required to obtain a VPDES permit.

"Source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants.

"Standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal" means the regulations promulgated pursuant to the law and § 405(d) of the CWA that govern minimum requirements for sludge quality, management practices, and monitoring and reporting applicable to sewage sludge or the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge by any person.

"State" means the Commonwealth of Virginia.

"State/EPA agreement" means an agreement between the regional administrator and the state which coordinates EPA and state activities, responsibilities and programs including those under the CWA and the law.

"State Water Control Law" or "Law" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Stormwater" means stormwater run-off, snow melt run-off, and surface run-off and drainage.

"Stormwater" discharge associated with industrial activity" means the discharge from any conveyance that is used for collecting and conveying stormwater and that is directly related to manufacturing, processing or raw materials storage areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities excluded from the VPDES program under 9VAC25-31. For the categories of industries identified in this definition, the term includes stormwater discharges from industrial plant yards; immediate access roads and rail lines used or traveled by carriers of raw materials, manufactured products, waste material, or byproducts used or created by the facility; material handling sites; refuse sites; sites used for the application or disposal of process wastewaters; sites used for the storage and maintenance of material handling equipment; sites used for residual treatment, storage, or disposal; shipping and receiving areas; manufacturing buildings; storage areas (including tank farms) for raw materials, and intermediate and final products; and areas where industrial activity has taken place in the past and significant materials remain and are exposed to stormwater. For the purposes of this definition, material handling activities include the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product, byproduct, or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the plant's industrial activities, such as office buildings and accompanying parking lots, as long as the drainage from the excluded areas is not mixed with stormwater drained from the above described areas. Industrial facilities (including industrial facilities that are federally, state, or municipally owned or operated that meet the description of the facilities listed in subdivisions 1 through 10 of this definition) include those facilities designated under the provisions of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c or under 9VAC25-31-120 A 7 a (1) or (2) of the VPDES Permit Regulation. The following categories of facilities are considered to be engaging in industrial activity for purposes of this subsection:

1. Facilities subject to stormwater effluent limitations guidelines, new source performance standards, or toxic pollutant effluent standards under 40 CFR Subchapter N (except facilities with toxic pollutant effluent standards that are exempted under category 10 of this definition);

2. Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 24 (except 2434), 26 (except 265 and 267), 28 (except 283 and 285), 29, 311, 32 (except 323), 33, 3441, 373 (Office of Management and Budget (OMB) SIC Manual, 1987);

3. Facilities classified as SIC 10 through 14 (mineral industry) (OMB SIC Manual, 1987) including active or inactive mining operations (except for areas of coal mining operations no longer meeting the definition of a reclamation area under 40 CFR 434.11(l) because the performance bond issued to the facility by the appropriate Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) (30 USC § 1201 et seq.) authority has been released, or except for areas of non-coal mining operations that have been released from applicable state or federal reclamation requirements after December 17, 1990) and oil and gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment operations, or transmission facilities that discharge stormwater contaminated by contact with or that has come into contact with, any overburden, raw material, intermediate products, finished products, byproducts, or waste products located on the site of such operations (inactive mining operations are mining sites that are not being actively mined, but which have an identifiable owner or operator; inactive mining sites do not include sites where mining claims are being maintained prior to disturbances associated with the extraction, beneficiation, or processing of mined materials, nor sites where minimal activities are undertaken for the sole purpose of maintaining a mining claim);

4. Hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, including those that are operating under interim status or a permit under Subtitle C of RCRA (42 USC § 6901 et seq.);

5. Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have received any industrial wastes (waste that is received from any of the facilities described under this subsection) including those that are subject to regulation under Subtitle D of RCRA;

6. Facilities involved in the recycling of materials, including metal scrapyards, battery reclaimers, salvage yards, and automobile junkyards, including but limited to those classified as SIC 5015 and 5093;

7. Steam electric power generating facilities, including coal handling sites;

8. Transportation facilities classified as SIC 40, 41, 42 (except 4221-25), 43, 44, 45, and 5171 that have vehicle maintenance shops, equipment cleaning operations, or airport deicing operations. Only those portions of the facility that are either involved in vehicle maintenance (including vehicle rehabilitation, mechanical repairs, painting, fueling, and lubrication), equipment cleaning operations, airport deicing operations, or that are otherwise identified under subdivisions 1 through 7 or 9 and 10 of this definition are associated with industrial activity;

9. Treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment device or system, used in the storage treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated to the disposal of sewage sludge that are located within the confines of the facility, with a design flow of 1.0 mgd or more, or required to have an approved pretreatment program. Not included are farm lands, domestic gardens, or lands used for sludge management where sludge is beneficially reused and which are not physically located in the confines of the facility, or areas that are in compliance with § 405 of the CWA; and

10. Facilities under SIC 20, 21, 22, 23, 2434, 25, 265, 267, 27, 283, 30, 31 (except 311), 323, 34 (except 3441), 35, 36, 37 (except 373), 38, 39, and 4221-25.

"Submission" means: (i) a request by a POTW for approval of a pretreatment program to the regional administrator or the director; (ii) a request by POTW to the regional administrator or the director for authority to revise the discharge limits in categorical pretreatment standards to reflect POTW pollutant removals; or (iii) a request to EPA by the director for approval of the Virginia pretreatment program.

"Surface waters" means:

1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate wetlands;

3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:

a. That are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or

c. That are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters under this definition;

5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;

6. The territorial sea; and

7. Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.

Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons designed to meet the requirements of the CWA and the law, are not surface waters. Surface waters do not include prior converted cropland. Notwithstanding the determination of an area's status as prior converted cropland by any other agency, for the purposes of the Clean Water Act, the final authority regarding the Clean Water Act jurisdiction remains with EPA.

"Total dissolved solids" means the total dissolved (filterable) solids as determined by use of the method specified in 40 CFR Part 136.

"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307(a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of sludge use or disposal practices, any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405(d) of the CWA.

"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).

"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste or necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances; extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations thereof; and any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems.

"Treatment works treating domestic sewage" means a POTW or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment devices or systems, regardless of ownership (including federal facilities), used in the storage, treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated for the disposal of sewage sludge. This definition does not include septic tanks or similar devices. For purposes of this definition, domestic sewage includes waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that are discharged to or otherwise enter a treatment works.

"TWTDS" means treatment works treating domestic sewage.

"Uncontrolled sanitary landfill" means a landfill or open dump, whether in operation or closed, that does not meet the requirements for run-on or run-off controls established pursuant to subtitle D of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 USC § 6901 et seq.).

"Upset," except when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology based permit effluent limitations because of factors beyond the reasonable control of the permittee. An upset does not include noncompliance to the extent caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.

"Variance" means any mechanism or provision under § 301 or § 316 of the CWA or under 40 CFR Part 125, or in the applicable effluent limitations guidelines that allows modification to or waiver of the generally applicable effluent limitation requirements or time deadlines of the CWA. This includes provisions that allow the establishment of alternative limitations based on fundamentally different factors or on § 301(c), 301(g), 301(h), 301(i), or 316(a) of the CWA.

"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit" or "VPDES permit" means a document issued an individual permit issued by the department, or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board pursuant to this chapter authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters and the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge. Under the approved state program, a VPDES permit is equivalent to an NPDES permit.

"VPDES application" or "application" means the standard form or forms, including any additions, revisions or modifications to the forms, approved by the administrator and the board department for applying for a VPDES permit.

"Wastewater," when used in Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter, means liquid and water carried industrial wastes and domestic sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities and institutions, whether treated or untreated, that are contributed to the POTW.

"Wastewater works operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of wastewater works.

"Water Management Division Director" means the director of the Region III Water Management Division of the Environmental Protection Agency or this person's delegated representative.

"Wetlands" means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.

"Whole effluent toxicity" means the aggregate toxic effect of an effluent measured directly by a toxicity test.

9VAC25-31-15 Permit rationale

In granting a permit pursuant to this chapter, the department shall provide in writing a clear and concise statement of the legal basis, scientific rationale, and justification for the decision reached. When the decision of the department is to deny a permit, the department shall, in consultation with legal counsel, provide a clear and concise statement explaining the reason for the denial, the scientific justification for the same, and how the department's decision is in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Copies of the decision, certified by the director, shall be mailed by certified mail to the permittee or applicant.

9VAC25-31-20 Purpose

This chapter delineates the procedures and requirements to be followed in connection with VPDES permits issued by the board department or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board pursuant to the Clean Water Act and the State Water Control Law.

9VAC25-31-40 Exclusions

The following discharges do not require VPDES permits:

1. Any discharge of sewage from vessels, effluent from properly functioning marine engines, laundry, shower, and galley sink wastes, or any other discharge incidental to the normal operation of a vessel. This exclusion does not apply to rubbish, trash, garbage, or other such materials discharged overboard; nor to other discharges when the vessel is operating in a capacity other than as a means of transportation such as when used as an energy or mining facility, a storage facility or a seafood processing facility, or when secured to a storage facility or a seafood processing facility, or when secured to the bed of the ocean, contiguous zone or surface waters for the purpose of mineral or oil exploration or development.

2. Discharges of dredged or fill material into surface waters which are regulated under § 404 of the CWA.

3. The introduction of sewage, industrial wastes or other pollutants into publicly owned treatment works by indirect dischargers. Plans or agreements to switch to this method of disposal in the future do not relieve dischargers of the obligation to have and comply with permits until all discharges of pollutants to surface waters are eliminated. This exclusion does not apply to the introduction of pollutants to privately owned treatment works or to other discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances owned by a state, municipality, or other party not leading to treatment works.

4. Any discharge in compliance with the instructions of an on-scene coordinator pursuant to 40 CFR Part 300 (The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan) or 33 CFR 153.10(e) (Pollution by Oil and Hazardous Substances).

5. Any introduction of pollutants from nonpoint source agricultural and silvicultural activities, including stormwater run-off from orchards, cultivated crops, pastures, range lands, and forest lands, but not discharges from concentrated animal feeding operations, discharges from concentrated aquatic animal production facilities, discharges to aquaculture projects, and discharges from silvicultural point sources.

6. Return flows from irrigated agriculture.

7. Discharges into a privately owned treatment works, except as the board and department may otherwise require.

9VAC25-31-50 Prohibitions

A. Except in compliance with a VPDES permit, or another permit, issued by the board department or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board or other entity authorized by the board or department, it shall be unlawful for any person to:

1. Discharge into state waters sewage, industrial wastes, other wastes, or any noxious or deleterious substances;

2. Otherwise alter the physical, chemical or biological properties of such state waters and make them detrimental to the public health, or to animal or aquatic life, or to the use of such waters for domestic or industrial consumption, or for recreation, or for other uses; or

3. Discharge stormwater into state waters from municipal separate storm sewer systems or land disturbing activities.

B. Any person in violation of subsection A of this section, who discharges or causes or allows a discharge of sewage, industrial waste, other wastes or any noxious or deleterious substance into or upon state waters; or who discharges or causes or allows a discharge that may reasonably be expected to enter state waters in violation of subsection A of this section shall notify the department of the discharge, immediately upon discovery of the discharge but in no case later than 24 hours after said discovery. A written report of the unauthorized discharge shall be submitted by the owner, to the department, within five days of discovery of the discharge. The written report shall contain:

1. A description of the nature and location of the discharge;

2. The cause of the discharge;

3. The date on which the discharge occurred;

4. The length of time that the discharge continued;

5. The volume of the discharge;

6. If the discharge is continuing, how long it is expected to continue;

7. If the discharge is continuing, what the expected total volume of the discharge will be; and

8. Any steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate and prevent a recurrence of the present discharge or any future discharges not authorized by the permit.

Discharges reportable to the department under the immediate reporting requirements of other regulations are exempted from this requirement.

C. No permit may be issued:

1. When the conditions of the permit do not provide for compliance with the applicable requirements of the CWA or the law, or regulations promulgated under the CWA or the law;

2. When the applicant is required to obtain a state or other appropriate certification under § 401 of the CWA and that certification has not been obtained or waived;

3. When the regional administrator has objected to issuance of the permit;

4. When the imposition of conditions cannot ensure compliance with the applicable water quality requirements of all affected states;

5. When, in the judgment of the Secretary of the Army, anchorage and navigation in or on any of the waters of the United States would be substantially impaired by the discharge;

6. For the discharge of any radiological, chemical, or biological warfare agent or high-level radioactive waste;

7. For any discharge inconsistent with a plan or plan amendment approved under § 208(b) of the CWA;

8. For any discharge to the territorial sea, the waters of the contiguous zone, or the oceans in the following circumstances:

a. Before the promulgation of guidelines under § 403(c) of the CWA (for determining degradation of the waters of the territorial seas, the contiguous zone, and the oceans) unless the board or department determines permit issuance to be in the public interest; or

b. After promulgation of guidelines under § 403(c) of the CWA, when insufficient information exists to make a reasonable judgment whether the discharge complies with them.

9. To a new source or a new discharger, if the discharge from its construction or operation will cause or contribute to the violation of water quality standards. The owner or operator of a new source or new discharger proposing to discharge into a water segment which does not meet applicable water quality standards or is not expected to meet those standards even after the application of the effluent limitations required by the law and §§ 301(b)(1)(A) and 301(b)(1)(B) of the CWA, and for which the department has performed a pollutants load allocation for the pollutant to be discharged, must demonstrate, before the close of the public comment period, that:

a. There are sufficient remaining pollutant load allocations to allow for the discharge; and

b. The existing dischargers into that segment are subject to compliance schedules designed to bring the segment into compliance with applicable water quality standards. The board department may waive the submission of information by the new source or new discharger required by this subdivision if the board department determines that it already has adequate information to evaluate the request. An explanation of the development of limitations to meet the criteria of this paragraph is to be included in the fact sheet to the permit under 9VAC25-31-280.

9VAC25-31-70 Continuation of expiring permits

A. The permit shall expire at the end of its term, except that the conditions of an expired permit continue in force until the effective date of a new permit if:

1. The permittee has submitted a timely application as required by this chapter, which is a complete application for a new permit; and

2. The board department, through no fault of the permittee, does not issue a new permit or the board, through no fault of the permittee, does not issue a new general permit as a regulation adopted by the board with an effective date on or before the expiration date of the previous permit.

B. Permits continued under this section remain fully effective and enforceable.

C. When the permittee is not in compliance with the conditions of the expiring or expired permit the board department may choose to do any or all of the following:

1. Initiate enforcement action based upon the permit which has been continued;

2. Issue a notice of intent to deny the new permit. If the permit is denied, the owner or operator would then be required to cease the activities authorized by the continued permit or be subject to enforcement action for operating without a permit;

3. Issue a new permit with appropriate conditions; or

4. Take other actions authorized by this chapter.

9VAC25-31-90 Guidance documents

The board department may develop and use guidance, as appropriate, to implement technical and regulatory details of the VPDES permit program. Such guidance is distinguished from regulation by the fact that it is not binding on either the board department or permittees. If a more appropriate methodology than that called for in guidance is available in a given situation, the more appropriate methodology shall be used to the extent it is consistent with applicable regulations and the State Water Control Law.

9VAC25-31-100 Application for a permit

A. Duty to apply. The following shall submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section. The requirements for concentrated animal feeding operations are described in subdivisions C 1 and 2 of 9VAC25-31-130.

1. Any person who discharges or proposes to discharge pollutants; and

2. Any person who owns or operates a sludge-only facility whose biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice is regulated by 9VAC25-31-420 through 9VAC25-31-720 and who does not have an effective permit.

B. Exceptions. The following are not required to submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section unless the board department requires otherwise:

1. Persons covered by general permits;

2. Persons excluded from the requirement for a permit by this chapter; or

3. A user of a privately owned treatment works.

C. Who applies.

1. The owner of the facility or operation.

2. When a facility or activity is owned by one person but is operated by another person, it is the operator's duty to obtain a permit.

3. Notwithstanding the requirements of subdivision 2 of this subsection, biosolids land application by the operator may be authorized by the owner's permit.

D. Time to apply.

1. Any person proposing a new discharge shall submit an application at least 180 days before the date on which the discharge is to commence, unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board department. Facilities proposing a new discharge of stormwater associated with industrial activity shall submit an application 180 days before that facility commences industrial activity which may result in a discharge of stormwater associated with that industrial activity. Different submittal dates may be required under the terms of applicable general permits. Persons proposing a new discharge are encouraged to submit their applications well in advance of the 180-day requirement to avoid delay. New discharges composed entirely of stormwater, other than those dischargers identified in 9VAC25-31-120 A 1, shall apply for and obtain a permit according to the application requirements in 9VAC25-31-120 B.

2. All TWTDS whose biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practices are regulated by 9VAC25-31-420 through 9VAC25-31-720 must submit permit applications according to the applicable schedule in subdivision 2 a or b of this subsection.

a. A TWTDS with a currently effective VPDES permit must submit a permit application at the time of its next VPDES permit renewal application. Such information must be submitted in accordance with subsection D of this section.

b. Any other TWTDS not addressed under subdivision 2 a of this subsection must submit the information listed in subdivisions 2 b (1) through (5) of this subsection to the department within one year after publication of a standard applicable to its biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice or practices, using a form provided by the department. The board department will determine when such TWTDS must submit a full permit application.

(1) The TWTDS's name, mailing address, location, and status as federal, state, private, public or other entity;

(2) The applicant's name, address, telephone number, electronic mail address, and ownership status;

(3) A description of the biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practices. Unless the biosolids meets the requirements of subdivision Q 9 d of this section, the description must include the name and address of any facility where biosolids or sewage sludge is sent for treatment or disposal and the location of any land application sites;

(4) Annual amount of sewage sludge generated, treated, used or disposed (estimated dry weight basis); and

(5) The most recent data the TWTDS may have on the quality of the biosolids or sewage sludge.

c. Notwithstanding subdivision 2 a or b of this subsection, the board department may require permit applications from any TWTDS at any time if the board department determines that a permit is necessary to protect public health and the environment from any potential adverse effects that may occur from toxic pollutants in sewage sludge.

d. Any TWTDS that commences operations after promulgation of an applicable standard for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal shall submit an application to the department at least 180 days prior to the date proposed for commencing operations.

E. Duty to reapply. All permittees with a currently effective permit shall submit a new application at least 180 days before the expiration date of the existing permit, unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board department. The board department shall not grant permission for applications to be submitted later than the expiration date of the existing permit.

F. Completeness.

1. The board department shall not issue a permit before receiving a complete application for a permit except for VPDES general permits. An application for a permit is complete when the board department receives an application form and any supplemental information which are completed to its satisfaction. The completeness of any application for a permit shall be judged independently of the status of any other permit application or permit for the same facility or activity.

2. No application for a VPDES permit to discharge sewage into or adjacent to state waters from a privately owned treatment works serving, or designed to serve, 50 or more residences shall be considered complete unless the applicant has provided the department with notification from the State Corporation Commission that the applicant is incorporated in the Commonwealth and is in compliance with all regulations and relevant orders of the State Corporation Commission.

3. No application for a new individual VPDES permit authorizing a new discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes shall be considered complete unless it contains notification from the county, city, or town in which the discharge is to take place that the location and operation of the discharging facility are consistent with applicable ordinances adopted pursuant to Chapter 22 (§ 15.2-2200 et seq.) of Title 15.2 of the Code of Virginia. The county, city, or town shall inform in writing the applicant and the board department of the discharging facility's compliance or noncompliance not more than 30 days from receipt by the chief administrative officer, or his agent, of a request from the applicant. Should the county, city, or town fail to provide such written notification within 30 days, the requirement for such notification is waived. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any discharge for which a valid VPDES permit had been issued prior to March 10, 2000.

4. A permit application shall not be considered complete if the board department has waived application requirements under subsection K or Q of this section and EPA has disapproved the waiver application. If a waiver request has been submitted to EPA more than 210 days prior to permit expiration and EPA has not disapproved the waiver application 181 days prior to permit expiration, the permit application lacking the information subject to the waiver application shall be considered complete.

5. Except as specified in subdivision 5 a of this subsection, a permit application shall not be considered complete unless all required quantitative data are collected in accordance with sufficiently sensitive analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136 or required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N (Effluent Guidelines and Standards) or O (Sewage Sludge).

a. For the purposes of this requirement, a method approved under 40 CFR Part 136 or required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N or O is "sufficiently sensitive" when:

(1) The method minimum level (ML) is at or below the level of the applicable water quality criterion for the measured pollutant or pollutant parameter;

(2) The method ML is above the applicable water quality criterion, but the amount of the pollutant or pollutant parameter in a facility's discharge is high enough that the method detects and quantifies the level of the pollutant or pollutant parameter in the discharge; or

(3) The method has the lowest ML of the analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136 or required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N or O for the measured pollutant or pollutant parameter.

b. When there is no analytical method that has been approved under 40 CFR 136, required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N or O, and is not otherwise required by the director, the applicant may use any suitable method but shall provide a description of the method. When selecting a suitable method, other factors such as a method's precision, accuracy, or resolution, may be considered when assessing the performance of the method.

6. In accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 A of the Code of Virginia, no application for a permit or variance to authorize the storage of biosolids shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality in which the biosolids is to be stored that the storage site is consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall confirm or deny consistency within 30 days of receiving a request for certification. If the governing body does not so respond, the site shall be deemed consistent.

7. No application for a permit to land apply biosolids in accordance with Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter shall be complete unless it includes the written consent of the landowner to apply biosolids on his property.

G. Information requirements. All applicants for VPDES permits, other than POTWs and other TWTDS, shall provide the following information to the department, using the application form provided by the department (additional information required of applicants is set forth in subsections H through L and Q through R of this section).

1. The activities conducted by the applicant that require it to obtain a VPDES permit;

2. Name, mailing address, and location of the facility for which the application is submitted;

3. Up to four SIC and NAICS codes that best reflect the principal products or services provided by the facility;

4. The operator's name, address, telephone number, electronic mail address, ownership status, and status as federal, state, private, public, or other entity;

5. Whether the facility is located on Indian lands;

6. A listing of all permits or construction approvals received or applied for under any of the following programs:

a. Hazardous Waste Management program under RCRA (42 USC § 6921);

b. UIC program under SDWA (42 USC § 300h);

c. VPDES program under the CWA and the law;

d. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.);

e. Nonattainment program under the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.);

f. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAPS) preconstruction approval under the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.);

g. Ocean dumping permits under the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act (33 USC § 14 et seq.);

h. Dredge or fill permits under § 404 of the CWA; and

i. Other relevant environmental permits, including state permits;

7. A topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) extending one mile beyond the property boundaries of the source, depicting the facility and each of its intake and discharge structures; each of its hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities; each well where fluids from the facility are injected underground; and those wells, springs, other surface water bodies, and drinking water wells listed in public records or otherwise known to the applicant in the map area;

8. A brief description of the nature of the business;

9. An indication of whether the facility uses cooling water and the source of the cooling water; and

10. An indication of whether the facility is requesting any of the variances in subsection M of this section, if known at the time of application.

H. Application requirements for existing manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers. Existing manufacturing, commercial mining, and silvicultural dischargers applying for VPDES permits, except for those facilities subject to the requirements of subsection I of this section, shall provide the following information to the department, using application forms provided by the department.

1. The latitude and longitude of each outfall to the nearest 15 seconds and the name of the receiving water.

2. A line drawing of the water flow through the facility with a water balance, showing operations contributing wastewater to the effluent and treatment units. Similar processes, operations, or production areas may be indicated as a single unit, labeled to correspond to the more detailed identification under subdivision 3 of this subsection. The water balance must show approximate average flows at intake and discharge points and between units, including treatment units. If a water balance cannot be determined (for example, for certain mining activities), the applicant may provide instead a pictorial description of the nature and amount of any sources of water and any collection and treatment measures.

3. A narrative identification of each type of process, operation, or production area that contributes wastewater to the effluent for each outfall, including process wastewater, cooling water, and stormwater run-off; the average flow that each process contributes; and a description of the treatment the wastewater receives, including the ultimate disposal of any solid or fluid wastes other than by discharge. Processes, operations, or production areas may be described in general terms (for example, dye-making reactor, distillation tower). For a privately owned treatment works, this information shall include the identity of each user of the treatment works. The average flow of point sources composed of stormwater may be estimated. The basis for the rainfall event and the method of estimation must be indicated.

4. If any of the discharges described in subdivision 3 of this subsection are intermittent or seasonal, a description of the frequency, duration and flow rate of each discharge occurrence (except for stormwater run-off, spillage or leaks).

5. If an effluent guideline promulgated under § 304 of the CWA applies to the applicant and is expressed in terms of production (or other measure of operation), a reasonable measure of the applicant's actual production reported in the units used in the applicable effluent guideline. The reported measure must reflect the actual production of the facility as required by 9VAC25-31-230 B 2.

6. If the applicant is subject to any present requirements or compliance schedules for construction, upgrading or operation of waste treatment equipment, an identification of the abatement requirement, a description of the abatement project, and a listing of the required and projected final compliance dates.

7. Information on the discharge of pollutants specified in this subdivision (except information on stormwater discharges that is to be provided as specified in 9VAC25-31-120).

a. When quantitative data for a pollutant are required, the applicant must collect a sample of effluent and analyze it for the pollutant in accordance with analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136 unless use of another method is required under 40 CFR Subchapter N or O. When no analytical method is approved, the applicant may use any suitable method but must provide a description of the method. When an applicant has two or more outfalls with substantially identical effluents, the board department may allow the applicant to test only one outfall and report that the quantitative data also apply to the substantially identical outfalls. The requirements in subdivisions 7 e and f of this subsection that an applicant must provide quantitative data for certain pollutants known or believed to be present do not apply to pollutants present in a discharge solely as the result of their presence in intake water; however, an applicant must report such pollutants as present. When this subdivision requires analysis of pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, fecal coliform (including E. coli) and Enterococci (previously known as fecal streptococcus at 40 CFR 122.26 (d)(2)(iii)(A)(3)), or volatile organics, grab samples must be collected for those pollutants. For all other pollutants, a 24-hour composite sample, using a minimum of four grab samples, must be used unless specified otherwise at 40 CFR 136. However, a minimum of one grab sample may be taken for effluents from holding ponds or other impoundments with a retention period greater than 24 hours. In addition, for discharges other than stormwater discharges, the board department may waive composite sampling for any outfall for which the applicant demonstrates that the use of an automatic sampler is infeasible and that the minimum of four grab samples will be a representative sample of the effluent being discharged. Results of analyses of individual grab samples for any parameter may be averaged to obtain the daily average. Grab samples that are not required to be analyzed immediately (see Table II at 40 CFR 136.3 (e)) may be composited in the laboratory, provided that container, preservation, and holding time requirements are met (see Table II at 40 CFR 136.3(e)) and that sample integrity is not compromised by compositing.

b. For stormwater discharges, all samples shall be collected from the discharge resulting from a storm event that is greater than 0.1 inch and at least 72 hours from the previously measurable (greater than 0.1 inch rainfall) storm event. Where feasible, the variance in the duration of the event and the total rainfall of the event should not exceed 50% from the average or median rainfall event in that area. For all applicants, a flow-weighted composite shall be taken for either the entire discharge or for the first three hours of the discharge. The flow-weighted composite sample for a stormwater discharge may be taken with a continuous sampler or as a combination of a minimum of three sample aliquots taken in each hour of discharge for the entire discharge or for the first three hours of the discharge, with each aliquot being separated by a minimum period of 15 minutes (applicants submitting permit applications for stormwater discharges under 9VAC25-31-120 C may collect flow-weighted composite samples using different protocols with respect to the time duration between the collection of sample aliquots, subject to the approval of the board department). However, a minimum of one grab sample may be taken for stormwater discharges from holding ponds or other impoundments with a retention period greater than 24 hours. For a flow-weighted composite sample, only one analysis of the composite of aliquots is required. For stormwater discharge samples taken from discharges associated with industrial activities, quantitative data must be reported for the grab sample taken during the first 30 minutes (or as soon thereafter as practicable) of the discharge for all pollutants specified in 9VAC25-31-120 B 1. For all stormwater permit applicants taking flow-weighted composites, quantitative data must be reported for all pollutants specified in 9VAC25-31-120 except pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus. The board department may allow or establish appropriate site-specific sampling procedures or requirements, including sampling locations, the season in which the sampling takes place, the minimum duration between the previous measurable storm event and the storm event sampled, the minimum or maximum level of precipitation required for an appropriate storm event, the form of precipitation sampled (snow melt or rain fall), protocols for collecting samples under 40 CFR Part 136, and additional time for submitting data on a case-by-case basis. An applicant is expected to know or have reason to believe that a pollutant is present in an effluent based on an evaluation of the expected use, production, or storage of the pollutant, or on any previous analyses for the pollutant. (For example, any pesticide manufactured by a facility may be expected to be present in contaminated stormwater run-off from the facility.)

c. Every applicant must report quantitative data for every outfall for the following pollutants:

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5);

(2) Chemical oxygen demand;

(3) Total organic carbon;

(4) Total suspended solids;

(5) Ammonia (as N);

(6) Temperature (both winter and summer); and

(7) pH.

d. The board department may waive the reporting requirements for individual point sources or for a particular industry category for one or more of the pollutants listed in subdivision 7 c of this subsection if the applicant has demonstrated that such a waiver is appropriate because information adequate to support issuance of a permit can be obtained with less stringent requirements.

e. Each applicant with processes in one or more primary industry category (see 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix A) contributing to a discharge must report quantitative data for the following pollutants in each outfall containing process wastewater, except as indicated in subdivisions 7 e (3), (4), and (5) of this subsection:

(1) The organic toxic pollutants in the fractions designated in Table I of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D for the applicant's industrial category or categories unless the applicant qualifies as a small business under subdivision 8 of this subsection. Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D lists the organic toxic pollutants in each fraction. The fractions result from the sample preparation required by the analytical procedure which uses gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A determination that an applicant falls within a particular industrial category for the purposes of selecting fractions for testing is not conclusive as to the applicant's inclusion in that category for any other purposes.

(2) The pollutants listed in Table III of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the toxic metals, cyanide, and total phenols).

(3) Subdivision H 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of the VPDES Application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to coal mines.

(4) Subdivision H 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of Item V-C of the VPDES Application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to:

(a) Testing and reporting for all four organic fractions in the Greige Mills Subcategory of the Textile Mills industry (subpart C-Low water use processing of 40 CFR Part 410), and testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

(b) Testing and reporting for the volatile, base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the Base and Precious Metals Subcategory of the Ore Mining and Dressing industry (40 CFR Part 440, Subpart B) and testing and reporting for all four fractions in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

(c) Testing and reporting for all four GC/MS fractions in the Porcelain Enameling industry.

(5) Subdivision H 7 e (1) of this section and the corresponding portions of Item V-C of the VPDES Application Form 2C are suspended as they apply to:

(a) Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin-Based Derivatives Subcategory (subpart F) of the Gum and Wood Chemicals industry (40 CFR Part 454), and testing and reporting for the pesticide and base-neutral fractions in all other subcategories of this industrial category.

(b) Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the leather tanning and finishing, paint and ink formulation, and photographic supplies industrial categories.

(c) Testing and reporting for the acid, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the petroleum refining industrial category.

(d) Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Papergrade Sulfite Subcategories (subparts J and U) of the Pulp and Paper industry (40 CFR Part 430); testing and reporting for the base/neutral and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: Deink (subpart Q), Dissolving Kraft (subpart F), and Paperboard from Waste Paper (subpart E); testing and reporting for the volatile, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: BCT Bleached Kraft (subpart H), Semi-Chemical (subparts B and C), and Nonintegrated-Fine Papers (subpart R); and testing and reporting for the acid, base/neutral, and pesticide fractions in the following subcategories: Fine Bleached Kraft (subpart I), Dissolving Sulfite Pulp (subpart K), Groundwood-Fine Papers (subpart O), Market Bleached Kraft (subpart G), Tissue from Wastepaper (subpart T), and Nonintegrated-Tissue Papers (subpart S).

(e) Testing and reporting for the base/neutral fraction in the Once-Through Cooling Water, Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Transport Water process waste streams of the Steam Electric Power Plant industrial category.

f. Each applicant must indicate whether it knows or has reason to believe that any of the pollutants in Table IV of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain conventional and nonconventional pollutants) is discharged from each outfall. If an applicable effluent limitations guideline either directly limits the pollutant or, by its express terms, indirectly limits the pollutant through limitations on an indicator, the applicant must report quantitative data. For every pollutant discharged that is not so limited in an effluent limitations guideline, the applicant must either report quantitative data or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged.

g. Each applicant must indicate whether it knows or has reason to believe that any of the pollutants listed in Table II or Table III of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the toxic pollutants and total phenols) for which quantitative data are not otherwise required under subdivision 7 e of this subsection, is discharged from each outfall. For every pollutant expected to be discharged in concentrations of 10 ppb or greater the applicant must report quantitative data. For acrolein, acrylonitrile, 2,4 dinitrophenol, and 2-methyl-4,6 dinitrophenol, where any of these four pollutants are expected to be discharged in concentrations of 100 ppb or greater the applicant must report quantitative data. For every pollutant expected to be discharged in concentrations less than 10 ppb, or in the case of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 2,4 dinitrophenol, and 2-methyl-4,6 dinitrophenol, in concentrations less than 100 ppb, the applicant must either submit quantitative data or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged. An applicant qualifying as a small business under subdivision 8 of this subsection is not required to analyze for pollutants listed in Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the organic toxic pollutants).

h. Each applicant must indicate whether it knows or has reason to believe that any of the pollutants in Table V of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain hazardous substances and asbestos) are discharged from each outfall. For every pollutant expected to be discharged, the applicant must briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged, and report any quantitative data it has for any pollutant.

i. Each applicant must report qualitative data, generated using a screening procedure not calibrated with analytical standards, for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) if it:

(1) Uses or manufactures 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5,-T); 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid (Silvex, 2,4,5,-TP); 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl, 2,2-dichloropropionate (Erbon); O,O-dimethyl O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphorothioate (Ronnel); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP); or hexachlorophene (HCP); or

(2) Knows or has reason to believe that TCDD is or may be present in an effluent.

j. Where quantitative data are required in subdivisions H 7 a through i of this section, existing data may be used, if available, in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of the application, provided that all data requirements are met; sampling was performed, collected, and analyzed no more than four and one-half years prior to submission; all data are representative of the discharge; and all available representative data are considered in the values reported.

8. An applicant which qualifies as a small business under one of the following criteria is exempt from the requirements in subdivision 7 e (1) or 7 f of this subsection to submit quantitative data for the pollutants listed in Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the organic toxic pollutants):

a. For coal mines, a probable total annual production of less than 100,000 tons per year; or

b. For all other applicants, gross total annual sales averaging less than $100,000 per year (in second quarter 1980 dollars).

9. A listing of any toxic pollutant that the applicant currently uses or manufactures as an intermediate or final product or byproduct. The board department may waive or modify this requirement for any applicant if the applicant demonstrates that it would be unduly burdensome to identify each toxic pollutant and the board department has adequate information to issue the permit.

10. Reserved.

11. An identification of any biological toxicity tests that the applicant knows or has reason to believe have been made within the last three years on any of the applicant's discharges or on a receiving water in relation to a discharge.

12. If a contract laboratory or consulting firm performed any of the analyses required by subdivision 7 of this subsection, the identity of each laboratory or firm and the analyses performed.

13. In addition to the information reported on the application form, applicants shall provide to the board department, at its request, such other information, including pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board department, as the board department may reasonably require to assess the discharges of the facility and to determine whether to issue a VPDES permit. The additional information may include additional quantitative data and bioassays to assess the relative toxicity of discharges to aquatic life and requirements to determine the cause of the toxicity.

I. Application requirements for manufacturing, commercial, mining and silvicultural facilities which discharge only nonprocess wastewater. Except for stormwater discharges, all manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers applying for VPDES permits that discharge only nonprocess wastewater not regulated by an effluent limitations guideline or new source performance standard shall provide the following information to the department using application forms provided by the department:

1. Outfall number, latitude and longitude to the nearest 15 seconds, and the name of the receiving water;

2. Date of expected commencement of discharge;

3. An identification of the general type of waste discharged, or expected to be discharged upon commencement of operations, including sanitary wastes, restaurant or cafeteria wastes, or noncontact cooling water. An identification of cooling water additives (if any) that are used or expected to be used upon commencement of operations, along with their composition if existing composition is available;

4. a. Quantitative data for the pollutants or parameters listed below, unless testing is waived by the board department. The quantitative data may be data collected over the past 365 days, if they remain representative of current operations, and must include maximum daily value, average daily value, and number of measurements taken. The applicant must collect and analyze samples in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. When analysis of pH, temperature, residual chlorine, oil and grease, or fecal coliform (including E. coli), and Enterococci (previously known as fecal streptococcus) and volatile organics is required in subdivisions I 4 a (1) through (11) of this section, grab samples must be collected for those pollutants. For all other pollutants, a 24-hour composite sample, using a minimum of four grab samples, must be used unless specified otherwise at 40 CFR Part 136. For a composite sample, only one analysis of the composite of aliquots is required. New dischargers must include estimates for the pollutants or parameters listed below instead of actual sampling data, along with the source of each estimate. All levels must be reported or estimated as concentration and as total mass, except for flow, pH, and temperature.

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5).

(2) Total suspended solids (TSS).

(3) Fecal coliform (if believed present or if sanitary waste is or will be discharged).

(4) Total residual chlorine (if chlorine is used).

(5) Oil and grease.

(6) Chemical oxygen demand (COD) (if noncontact cooling water is or will be discharged).

(7) Total organic carbon (TOC) (if noncontact cooling water is or will be discharged).

(8) Ammonia (as N).

(9) Discharge flow.

(10) pH.

(11) Temperature (winter and summer).

b. The board department may waive the testing and reporting requirements for any of the pollutants or flow listed in subdivision 4 a of this subsection if the applicant submits a request for such a waiver before or with his application that demonstrates that information adequate to support issuance of a permit can be obtained through less stringent requirements.

c. If the applicant is a new discharger, he must submit the information required in subdivision 4 a of this subsection by providing quantitative data in accordance with that section no later than two years after commencement of discharge. However, the applicant need not submit testing results that he has already performed and reported under the discharge monitoring requirements of his VPDES permit.

d. The requirements of subdivisions 4 a and 4 c of this subsection that an applicant must provide quantitative data or estimates of certain pollutants do not apply to pollutants present in a discharge solely as a result of their presence in intake water. However, an applicant must report such pollutants as present. Net credit may be provided for the presence of pollutants in intake water if the requirements of 9VAC25-31-230 G are met;

5. A description of the frequency of flow and duration of any seasonal or intermittent discharge (except for stormwater run-off, leaks, or spills);

6. A brief description of any treatment system used or to be used;

7. Any additional information the applicant wishes to be considered, such as influent data for the purpose of obtaining net credits pursuant to 9VAC25-31-230 G;

8. Signature of certifying official under 9VAC25-31-110; and

9. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board department.

J. Application requirements for new and existing concentrated animal feeding operations and aquatic animal production facilities. New and existing concentrated animal feeding operations and concentrated aquatic animal production facilities shall provide the following information to the department, using the application form provided by the department:

1. For concentrated animal feeding operations:

a. The name of the owner or operator;

b. The facility location and mailing address;

c. Latitude and longitude of the production area (entrance to the production area);

d. A topographic map of the geographic area in which the CAFO is located showing the specific location of the production area, in lieu of the requirements of subdivision G 7 of this section;

e. Specific information about the number and type of animals, whether in open confinement or housed under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55 pounds, mature dairy cows, dairy heifers, veal calves, sheep and lambs, horses, ducks, turkeys, other);

f. The type of containment and storage (anaerobic lagoon, roofed storage shed, storage ponds, underfloor pits, above ground storage tanks, below ground storage tanks, concrete pad, impervious soil pad, other) and total capacity for manure, litter, and process wastewater storage (tons/gallons);

g. The total number of acres under control of the applicant available for land application of manure, litter, or process wastewater;

h. Estimated amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater generated per year (tons/gallons); and

i. For CAFOs required to seek coverage under a permit after December 31, 2009, a nutrient management plan that at a minimum satisfies the requirements specified in subsection E of 9VAC25-31-200 and subdivision C 5 of 9VAC25-31-130, including, for all CAFOs subject to 40 CFR Part 412 Subpart C or Subpart D, the requirements of 40 CFR 412.4(c), as applicable.

2. For concentrated aquatic animal production facilities:

a. The maximum daily and average monthly flow from each outfall;

b. The number of ponds, raceways, and similar structures;

c. The name of the receiving water and the source of intake water;

d. For each species of aquatic animals, the total yearly and maximum harvestable weight;

e. The calendar month of maximum feeding and the total mass of food fed during that month; and

f. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board department.

K. Application requirements for new and existing POTWs and treatment works treating domestic sewage. Unless otherwise indicated, all POTWs and other dischargers designated by the board department must provide to the department, at a minimum, the information in this subsection using an application form provided by the department. Permit applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board department may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board department may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit, if approved by the regional administrator. The waiver request to the regional administrator must include the board's department's justification for the waiver. A regional administrator's disapproval of the board's department's proposed waiver does not constitute final agency action but does provide notice to the board department and permit applicant that EPA may object to any board department-issued permit issued in the absence of the required information.

1. All applicants must provide the following information:

a. Name, mailing address, and location of the facility for which the application is submitted;

b. Name, mailing address, telephone number, and electronic mail address of the applicant and indication as to whether the applicant is the facility's owner, operator, or both;

c. Identification of all environmental permits or construction approvals received or applied for (including dates) under any of the following programs:

(1) Hazardous Waste Management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subpart C;

(2) Underground Injection Control program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA);

(3) NPDES program under the Clean Water Act (CWA);

(4) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act;

(5) Nonattainment program under the Clean Air Act;

(6) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) preconstruction approval under the Clean Air Act;

(7) Ocean dumping permits under the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act;

(8) Dredge or fill permits under § 404 of the CWA; and

(9) Other relevant environmental permits, including state permits;

d. The name and population of each municipal entity served by the facility, including unincorporated connector districts. Indicate whether each municipal entity owns or maintains the collection system and whether the collection system is separate sanitary or combined storm and sanitary, if known;

e. Information concerning whether the facility is located in Indian country and whether the facility discharges to a receiving stream that flows through Indian country;

f. The facility's design flow rate (the wastewater flow rate the plant was built to handle), annual average daily flow rate, and maximum daily flow rate for each of the previous three years;

g. Identification of types of collection systems used by the treatment works (i.e., separate sanitary sewers or combined storm and sanitary sewers) and an estimate of the percent of sewer line that each type comprises;

h. The following information for outfalls to surface waters and other discharge or disposal methods:

(1) For effluent discharges to surface waters, the total number and types of outfalls (e.g., treated effluent, combined sewer overflows, bypasses, constructed emergency overflows);

(2) For wastewater discharged to surface impoundments:

(a) The location of each surface impoundment;

(b) The average daily volume discharged to each surface impoundment; and

(c) Whether the discharge is continuous or intermittent;

(3) For wastewater applied to the land:

(a) The location of each land application site;

(b) The size of each land application site, in acres;

(c) The average daily volume applied to each land application site, in gallons per day; and

(d) Whether land application is continuous or intermittent;

(4) For effluent sent to another facility for treatment prior to discharge:

(a) The means by which the effluent is transported;

(b) The name, mailing address, contact person, phone number, and electronic mail address of the organization transporting the discharge, if the transport is provided by a party other than the applicant;

(c) The name, mailing address, contact person, phone number, electronic mail address, and VPDES permit number (if any) of the receiving facility; and

(d) The average daily flow rate from this facility into the receiving facility, in millions of gallons per day; and

(5) For wastewater disposed of in a manner not included in subdivisions 1 h (1) through (4) of this subsection (e.g., underground percolation, underground injection):

(a) A description of the disposal method, including the location and size of each disposal site, if applicable;

(b) The annual average daily volume disposed of by this method, in gallons per day; and

(c) Whether disposal through this method is continuous or intermittent; and

i. An indication of whether applicant is operating under or requesting to operate under a variance as specified in subsection N of this section, if known at the time of application.

2. All applicants with a design flow greater than or equal to 0.1 mgd must provide the following information:

a. The current average daily volume of inflow and infiltration, in gallons per day, and steps the facility is taking to minimize inflow and infiltration;

b. A topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) extending at least one mile beyond property boundaries of the treatment plant, including all unit processes, and showing:

(1) Treatment plant area and unit processes;

(2) The major pipes or other structures through which wastewater enters the treatment plant and the pipes or other structures through which treated wastewater is discharged from the treatment plant. Include outfalls from bypass piping, if applicable;

(3) Each well where fluids from the treatment plant are injected underground;

(4) Wells, springs, and other surface water bodies listed in public records or otherwise known to the applicant within 1/4 mile of the treatment works' property boundaries;

(5) Sewage sludge management facilities (including on-site treatment, storage, and disposal sites); and

(6) Location at which waste classified as hazardous under RCRA enters the treatment plant by truck, rail, or dedicated pipe;

c. Process flow diagram or schematic:

(1) A diagram showing the processes of the treatment plant, including all bypass piping and all backup power sources or redundancy in the system. This includes a water balance showing all treatment units, including disinfection, and showing daily average flow rates at influent and discharge points, and approximate daily flow rates between treatment units; and

(2) A narrative description of the diagram; and

d. The following information regarding scheduled improvements:

(1) The outfall number of each outfall affected;

(2) A narrative description of each required improvement;

(3) Scheduled or actual dates of completion for the following:

(a) Commencement of construction;

(b) Completion of construction;

(c) Commencement of discharge; and

(d) Attainment of operational level; and

(4) A description of permits and clearances concerning other federal or state requirements.

3. Each applicant must provide the following information for each outfall, including bypass points, through which effluent is discharged, as applicable:

a. The following information about each outfall:

(1) Outfall number;

(2) State, county, and city or town in which outfall is located;

(3) Latitude and longitude, to the nearest second;

(4) Distance from shore and depth below surface;

(5) Average daily flow rate, in million gallons per day;

(6) The following information for each outfall with a seasonal or periodic discharge:

(a) Number of times per year the discharge occurs;

(b) Duration of each discharge;

(c) Flow of each discharge; and

(d) Months in which discharge occurs; and

(7) Whether the outfall is equipped with a diffuser and the type (e.g., high-rate) of diffuser used.

b. The following information, if known, for each outfall through which effluent is discharged to surface waters:

(1) Name of receiving water;

(2) Name of watershed/river/stream system and United States Soil Conservation Service 14-digit watershed code;

(3) Name of State Management/River Basin and United States Geological Survey 8-digit hydrologic cataloging unit code; and

(4) Critical flow of receiving stream and total hardness of receiving stream at critical low flow (if applicable).

c. The following information describing the treatment provided for discharges from each outfall to surface waters:

(1) The highest level of treatment (e.g., primary, equivalent to secondary, secondary, advanced, other) that is provided for the discharge for each outfall and:

(a) Design biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 or CBOD5) removal (percent);

(b) Design suspended solids (SS) removal (percent); and, where applicable;

(c) Design phosphorus (P) removal (percent);

(d) Design nitrogen (N) removal (percent); and

(e) Any other removals that an advanced treatment system is designed to achieve.

(2) A description of the type of disinfection used, and whether the treatment plant dechlorinates (if disinfection is accomplished through chlorination).

4. Effluent monitoring for specific parameters.

a. As provided in subdivisions 4 b through 4 k of this subsection, all applicants must submit to the department effluent monitoring information for samples taken from each outfall through which effluent is discharged to surface waters, except for CSOs. The board department may allow applicants to submit sampling data for only one outfall on a case-by-case basis, where the applicant has two or more outfalls with substantially identical effluent. The board department may also allow applicants to composite samples from one or more outfalls that discharge into the same mixing zone. For POTWs applying prior to commencement of discharge, data shall be submitted no later than 24 months after the commencement of discharge;

b. All applicants must sample and analyze for the following pollutants:

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 or CBOD5);

(2) Fecal coliform;

(3) Design flow rate;

(4) pH;

(5) Temperature; and

(6) Total suspended solids.

c. All applicants with a design flow greater than or equal to 0.1 mgd must sample and analyze for the following pollutants:

(1) Ammonia (as N);

(2) Chlorine (total residual, TRC);

(3) Dissolved oxygen;

(4) Nitrate/Nitrite;

(5) Kjeldahl nitrogen;

(6) Oil and grease;

(7) Phosphorus; and

(8) Total dissolved solids.

d. Facilities that do not use chlorine for disinfection, do not use chlorine elsewhere in the treatment process, and have no reasonable potential to discharge chlorine in their effluent may delete chlorine.

e. All POTWs with a design flow rate equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, all POTWs with approved pretreatment programs or POTWs required to develop a pretreatment program, and other POTWs, as required by the board department must sample and analyze for the pollutants listed in Table 2 of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix J, and for any other pollutants for which the board department or EPA have established water quality standards applicable to the receiving waters.

f. The board department may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis.

g. Applicants must provide data from a minimum of three samples taken within 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the seasonal variation in the discharge from each outfall. Existing data may be used, if available, in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application. The board department may require additional samples, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis.

h. All existing data for pollutants specified in subdivisions 4 b through 4 f of this subsection that is collected within 4-1/2 years of the application must be included in the pollutant data summary submitted by the applicant. If, however, the applicant samples for a specific pollutant on a monthly or more frequent basis, it is only necessary, for such pollutant, to summarize all data collected within one year of the application.

i. Applicants must collect samples of effluent and analyze such samples for pollutants in accordance with analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136 unless an alternative is specified in the existing VPDES permit. When analysis of pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, fecal coliform (including E. coli), or volatile organics is required in subdivisions K 4 b, c, and e of this section, grab samples must be collected for those pollutants. For all other pollutants, 24-hour composite samples must be used. For a composite sample, only one analysis of the composite of aliquots is required.

j. The effluent monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(1) Maximum daily discharge, expressed as concentration or mass, based upon actual sample values;

(2) Average daily discharge for all samples, expressed as concentration or mass, and the number of samples used to obtain this value;

(3) The analytical method used; and

(4) The threshold level (i.e., method detection limit, minimum level, or other designated method endpoints) for the analytical method used.

k. Unless otherwise required by the board department, metals must be reported as total recoverable.

5. Effluent monitoring for whole effluent toxicity.

a. All applicants must provide an identification of any whole effluent toxicity tests conducted during the 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the application on any of the applicant's discharges or on any receiving water near the discharge. For POTWs applying prior to commencement of discharge, data shall be submitted no later than 24 months after the commencement of discharge.

b. As provided in subdivisions 5 c through i of this subsection, the following applicants must submit to the department the results of valid whole effluent toxicity tests for acute or chronic toxicity for samples taken from each outfall through which effluent is discharged to surface waters, except for combined sewer overflows:

(1) All POTWs with design flow rates greater than or equal to one million gallons per day;

(2) All POTWs with approved pretreatment programs or POTWs required to develop a pretreatment program;

(3) Other POTWs, as required by the board department, based on consideration of the following factors:

(a) The variability of the pollutants or pollutant parameters in the POTW effluent (based on chemical-specific information, the type of treatment plant, and types of industrial contributors);

(b) The ratio of effluent flow to receiving stream flow;

(c) Existing controls on point or nonpoint sources, including total maximum daily load calculations for the receiving stream segment and the relative contribution of the POTW;

(d) Receiving stream characteristics, including possible or known water quality impairment, and whether the POTW discharges to a coastal water, or a water designated as an outstanding natural resource water; or

(e) Other considerations (including the history of toxic impacts and compliance problems at the POTW) that the board department determines could cause or contribute to adverse water quality impacts.

c. Where the POTW has two or more outfalls with substantially identical effluent discharging to the same receiving stream segment, the board department may allow applicants to submit whole effluent toxicity data for only one outfall on a case-by-case basis. The board department may also allow applicants to composite samples from one or more outfalls that discharge into the same mixing zone.

d. Each applicant required to perform whole effluent toxicity testing pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must provide:

(1) Results of a minimum of four quarterly tests for a year, from the year preceding the permit application; or

(2) Results from four tests performed at least annually in the 4-1/2 year period prior to the application, provided the results show no appreciable toxicity using a safety factor determined by the board department.

e. Applicants must conduct tests with multiple species (no less than two species, e.g., fish, invertebrate, plant) and test for acute or chronic toxicity, depending on the range of receiving water dilution. The board department recommends that applicants conduct acute or chronic testing based on the following dilutions: (i) acute toxicity testing if the dilution of the effluent is greater than 100:1 at the edge of the mixing zone or (ii) chronic toxicity testing if the dilution of the effluent is less than or equal to 100:1 at the edge of the mixing zone.

f. Each applicant required to perform whole effluent toxicity testing pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must provide the number of chronic or acute whole effluent toxicity tests that have been conducted since the last permit reissuance.

g. Applicants must provide the results using the form provided by the department, or test summaries if available and comprehensive, for each whole effluent toxicity test conducted pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection for which such information has not been reported previously to the department.

h. Whole effluent toxicity testing conducted pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must be conducted using methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136, as directed by the board department.

i. For whole effluent toxicity data submitted to the department within 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the application, applicants must provide the dates on which the data were submitted and a summary of the results.

j. Each POTW required to perform whole effluent toxicity testing pursuant to subdivision 5 b of this subsection must provide any information on the cause of toxicity and written details of any toxicity reduction evaluation conducted, if any whole effluent toxicity test conducted within the past 4-1/2 years revealed toxicity.

6. Applicants must submit the following information about industrial discharges to the POTW:

a. Number of significant industrial users (SIUs) and nonsignificant categorical industrial users (NSCIUs), including SIUs and NSCIUs that truck or haul waste, discharging to the POTW; and

b. POTWs with one or more SIUs shall provide the following information for each SIU, as defined in 9VAC25-31-10, that discharges to the POTW:

(1) Name and mailing address;

(2) Description of all industrial processes that affect or contribute to the SIU's discharge;

(3) Principal products and raw materials of the SIU that affect or contribute to the SIU's discharge;

(4) Average daily volume of wastewater discharged, indicating the amount attributable to process flow and nonprocess flow;

(5) Whether the SIU is subject to local limits;

(6) Whether the SIU is subject to categorical standards and, if so, under which category and subcategory; and

(7) Whether any problems at the POTW (e.g., upsets, pass through, interference) have been attributed to the SIU in the past 4-1/2 years.

c. The information required in subdivisions 6 a and b of this subsection may be waived by the board department for POTWs with pretreatment programs if the applicant has submitted either of the following that contain information substantially identical to that required in subdivisions 6 a and b of this subsection:

(1) An annual report submitted within one year of the application; or

(2) A pretreatment program.

7. Discharges from hazardous waste generators and from waste cleanup or remediation sites. POTWs receiving Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or RCRA Corrective Action wastes or wastes generated at another type of cleanup or remediation site must provide the following information:

a. If the POTW receives, or has been notified that it will receive, by truck, rail, or dedicated pipe any wastes that are regulated as RCRA hazardous wastes pursuant to 40 CFR Part 261, the applicant must report the following:

(1) The method by which the waste is received (i.e., whether by truck, rail, or dedicated pipe); and

(2) The hazardous waste number and amount received annually of each hazardous waste.

b. If the POTW receives, or has been notified that it will receive, wastewaters that originate from remedial activities, including those undertaken pursuant to CERCLA and § 3004(u) or 3008(h) of RCRA, the applicant must report the following:

(1) The identity and description of the site or facility at which the wastewater originates;

(2) The identities of the wastewater's hazardous constituents, as listed in Appendix VIII of 40 CFR Part 261, if known; and

(3) The extent of treatment, if any, the wastewater receives or will receive before entering the POTW.

c. Applicants are exempt from the requirements of subdivision 7 b of this subsection if they receive no more than 15 kilograms per month of hazardous wastes, unless the wastes are acute hazardous wastes as specified in 40 CFR 261.30(d) and 261.33(e).

8. Each applicant with combined sewer systems must provide the following information:

a. The following information regarding the combined sewer system:

(1) A map indicating the location of the following:

(a) All CSO discharge points;

(b) Sensitive use areas potentially affected by CSOs (e.g., beaches, drinking water supplies, shellfish beds, sensitive aquatic ecosystems, and outstanding national resource waters); and

(c) Waters supporting threatened and endangered species potentially affected by CSOs; and

(2) A diagram of the combined sewer collection system that includes the following information:

(a) The location of major sewer trunk lines, both combined and separate sanitary;

(b) The locations of points where separate sanitary sewers feed into the combined sewer system;

(c) In-line and off-line storage structures;

(d) The locations of flow-regulating devices; and

(e) The locations of pump stations.

b. The following information for each CSO discharge point covered by the permit application:

(1) The following information on each outfall:

(a) Outfall number;

(b) State, county, and city or town in which outfall is located;

(c) Latitude and longitude, to the nearest second;

(d) Distance from shore and depth below surface;

(e) Whether the applicant monitored any of the following in the past year for this CSO: (i) rainfall, (ii) CSO flow volume, (iii) CSO pollutant concentrations, (iv) receiving water quality, or (v) CSO frequency; and

(f) The number of storm events monitored in the past year;

(2) The following information about CSO overflows from each outfall:

(a) The number of events in the past year;

(b) The average duration per event, if available;

(c) The average volume per CSO event, if available; and

(d) The minimum rainfall that caused a CSO event, if available, in the last year;

(3) The following information about receiving waters:

(a) Name of receiving water;

(b) Name of watershed/stream system and the United States Soil Conservation Service watershed (14-digit) code, if known; and

(c) Name of State Management/River Basin and the United States Geological Survey hydrologic cataloging unit (8-digit) code, if known; and

(4) A description of any known water quality impacts on the receiving water caused by the CSO (e.g., permanent or intermittent beach closings, permanent or intermittent shellfish bed closings, fish kills, fish advisories, other recreational loss, or exceedance of any applicable state water quality standard).

9. All applicants must provide the name, mailing address, telephone number, electronic mail address, and responsibilities of all contractors responsible for any operational or maintenance aspects of the facility.

10. All applications must be signed by a certifying official in compliance with 9VAC25-31-110.

11. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board department.

L. Application requirements for new sources and new discharges. New manufacturing, commercial, mining and silvicultural dischargers applying for VPDES permits (except for new discharges of facilities subject to the requirements of subsection I of this section or new discharges of stormwater associated with industrial activity that are subject to the requirements of 9VAC25-31-120 B 1 and this subsection) shall provide the following information to the department, using the application forms provided by the department:

1. The expected outfall location in latitude and longitude to the nearest 15 seconds and the name of the receiving water;

2. The expected date of commencement of discharge;

3. a. Description of the treatment that the wastewater will receive, along with all operations contributing wastewater to the effluent, average flow contributed by each operation, and the ultimate disposal of any solid or liquid wastes not discharged;

b. A line drawing of the water flow through the facility with a water balance as described in subdivision H 2;

c. If any of the expected discharges will be intermittent or seasonal, a description of the frequency, duration and maximum daily flow rate of each discharge occurrence (except for stormwater run-off, spillage, or leaks);

4. If a new source performance standard promulgated under § 306 of the CWA or an effluent limitation guideline applies to the applicant and is expressed in terms of production (or other measure of operation), a reasonable measure of the applicant's expected actual production reported in the units used in the applicable effluent guideline or new source performance standard for each of the first three years. Alternative estimates may also be submitted if production is likely to vary;

5. The requirements in subdivisions I 4 a, b, and c of this section that an applicant must provide estimates of certain pollutants expected to be present do not apply to pollutants present in a discharge solely as a result of their presence in intake water; however, an applicant must report such pollutants as present. Net credits may be provided for the presence of pollutants in intake water if the requirements of 9VAC25-31-230 G are met. All levels (except for discharge flow, temperature, and pH) must be estimated as concentration and as total mass.

a. Each applicant must report estimated daily maximum, daily average, and source of information for each outfall for the following pollutants or parameters. The board department may waive the reporting requirements for any of these pollutants and parameters if the applicant submits a request for such a waiver before or with his application which demonstrates that information adequate to support issuance of the permit can be obtained through less stringent reporting requirements:

(1) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).

(2) Chemical oxygen demand (COD).

(3) Total organic carbon (TOC).

(4) Total suspended solids (TSS).

(5) Flow.

(6) Ammonia (as N).

(7) Temperature (winter and summer).

(8) pH.

b. Each applicant must report estimated daily maximum, daily average, and source of information for each outfall for the following pollutants, if the applicant knows or has reason to believe they will be present or if they are limited by an effluent limitation guideline or new source performance standard either directly or indirectly through limitations on an indicator pollutant: all pollutants in Table IV of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain conventional and nonconventional pollutants).

c. Each applicant must report estimated daily maximum, daily average and source of information for the following pollutants if he knows or has reason to believe that they will be present in the discharges from any outfall:

(1) The pollutants listed in Table III of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (the toxic metals, in the discharge from any outfall, Total cyanide, and total phenols);

(2) The organic toxic pollutants in Table II of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (except bis (chloromethyl) ether, dichlorofluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane). This requirement is waived for applicants with expected gross sales of less than $100,000 per year for the next three years, and for coal mines with expected average production of less than 100,000 tons of coal per year.

d. The applicant is required to report that 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) may be discharged if he uses or manufactures one of the following compounds, or if he knows or has reason to believe that TCDD will or may be present in an effluent:

(1) 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) (CAS #93-76-5);

(2) 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid (Silvex, 2,4,5-TP) (CAS #93-72-1);

(3) 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl 2,2-dichloropropionate (Erbon) (CAS #136-25-4);

(4) 0,0-dimethyl 0-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphorothioate (Ronnel) (CAS #299-84-3);

(5) 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) (CAS #95-95-4); or

(6) Hexachlorophene (HCP) (CAS #70-30-4);

e. Each applicant must report any pollutants listed in Table V of 40 CFR Part 122 Appendix D (certain hazardous substances) if he believes they will be present in any outfall (no quantitative estimates are required unless they are already available).

f. No later than 24 months after the commencement of discharge from the proposed facility, the applicant is required to submit the information required in subsection H of this section. However, the applicant need not complete those portions of subsection H of this section requiring tests that have already been performed and reported under the discharge monitoring requirements of the VPDES permit;

6. Each applicant must report the existence of any technical evaluation concerning his wastewater treatment, along with the name and location of similar plants of which he has knowledge;

7. Any optional information the permittee wishes to have considered;

8. Signature of certifying official under 9VAC25-31-110; and

9. Pertinent plans, specifications, maps, and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board department.

M. Variance requests by non-POTWs. A discharger which is not a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) may request a variance from otherwise applicable effluent limitations under any of the following statutory or regulatory provisions within the times specified in this subsection:

1. Fundamentally different factors.

a. A request for a variance based on the presence of fundamentally different factors from those on which the effluent limitations guideline was based shall be filed as follows:

(1) For a request from best practicable control technology currently available (BPT), by the close of the public comment period for the draft permit; or

(2) For a request from best available technology economically achievable (BAT) or best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT), by no later than:

(a) July 3, 1989, for a request based on an effluent limitation guideline promulgated before February 4, 1987, to the extent July 3, 1989, is not later than that provided under previously promulgated regulations; or

(b) 180 days after the date on which an effluent limitation guideline is published in the Federal Register for a request based on an effluent limitation guideline promulgated on or after February 4, 1987.

b. The request shall explain how the requirements of the applicable regulatory or statutory criteria have been met.

2. A request for a variance from the BAT requirements for CWA § 301(b)(2)(F) pollutants (commonly called nonconventional pollutants) pursuant to § 301(c) of the CWA because of the economic capability of the owner or operator, or pursuant to § 301(g) of the CWA (provided however that a § 301(g) variance may only be requested for ammonia; chlorine; color; iron; total phenols (when determined by the administrator to be a pollutant covered by § 301(b)(2)(F) of the CWA) and any other pollutant which the administrator lists under § 301(g)(4) of the CWA) must be made as follows:

a. For those requests for a variance from an effluent limitation based upon an effluent limitation guideline by:

(1) Submitting an initial request to the regional administrator, as well as to the department, stating the name of the discharger, the permit number, the outfall number, the applicable effluent guideline, and whether the discharger is requesting a § 301(c) or 301(g) of the CWA modification, or both. This request must have been filed not later than 270 days after promulgation of an applicable effluent limitation guideline; and

(2) Submitting a completed request no later than the close of the public comment period for the draft permit demonstrating that: (i) all reasonable ascertainable issues have been raised and all reasonably available arguments and materials supporting their position have been submitted; and (ii) that the applicable requirements of 40 CFR Part 125 have been met. Notwithstanding this provision, the complete application for a request under § 301(g) of the CWA shall be filed 180 days before EPA must make a decision (unless the Regional Division Director establishes a shorter or longer period); or

b. For those requests for a variance from effluent limitations not based on effluent limitation guidelines, the request need only comply with subdivision 2 a (2) of this subsection and need not be preceded by an initial request under subdivision 2 a (1) of this subsection.

3. A modification under § 302(b)(2) of the CWA of requirements under § 302(a) of the CWA for achieving water quality related effluent limitations may be requested no later than the close of the public comment period for the draft permit on the permit from which the modification is sought.

4. A variance for alternate effluent limitations for the thermal component of any discharge must be filed with a timely application for a permit under this section, except that if thermal effluent limitations are established on a case-by-case basis or are based on water quality standards the request for a variance may be filed by the close of the public comment period for the draft permit. A copy of the request shall be sent simultaneously to the department.

N. Variance requests by POTWs. A discharger which is a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) may request a variance from otherwise applicable effluent limitations under any of the following statutory provisions as specified in this paragraph:

1. A request for a modification under § 301(h) of the CWA of requirements of § 301(b)(1)(B) of the CWA for discharges into marine waters must be filed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR Part 125, Subpart G.

2. A modification under § 302(b)(2) of the CWA of the requirements under § 302(a) of the CWA for achieving water quality based effluent limitations shall be requested no later than the close of the public comment period for the draft permit on the permit from which the modification is sought.

O. Expedited variance procedures and time extensions.

1. Notwithstanding the time requirements in subsections M and N of this section, the board department may notify a permit applicant before a draft permit is issued that the draft permit will likely contain limitations which are eligible for variances. In the notice the board department may require the applicant as a condition of consideration of any potential variance request to submit a request explaining how the requirements of 40 CFR Part 125 applicable to the variance have been met and may require its submission within a specified reasonable time after receipt of the notice. The notice may be sent before the permit application has been submitted. The draft or final permit may contain the alternative limitations that may become effective upon final grant of the variance.

2. A discharger who cannot file a timely complete request required under subdivisions M 2 a (2) or M 2 b of this section may request an extension. The extension may be granted or denied at the discretion of the board department. Extensions shall be no more than six months in duration.

P. Recordkeeping. Except for information required by subdivision D 2 of this section, which shall be retained for a period of at least five years from the date the application is signed (or longer as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter), applicants shall keep records of all data used to complete permit applications and any supplemental information submitted under this section for a period of at least three years from the date the application is signed.

Q. Sewage sludge management. All TWTDS subject to subdivision D 2 a of this section must provide the information in this subsection to the department using an application form approved by the department. New applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board department may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board department may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit, if approved by the regional administrator. The waiver request to the regional administrator must include the board's department's justification for the waiver. A regional administrator's disapproval of the board's department's proposed waiver does not constitute final agency action, but does provide notice to the board department and the permit applicant that EPA may object to any board department issued permit issued in the absence of the required information.

1. All applicants must submit the following information:

a. The name, mailing address, and location of the TWTDS for which the application is submitted;

b. Whether the facility is a Class I Sludge Management Facility;

c. The design flow rate (in million gallons per day);

d. The total population served;

e. The TWTDS's status as federal, state, private, public, or other entity;

f. The name, mailing address, telephone number, and electronic mail address of the applicant; and

g. Indication whether the applicant is the owner, operator, or both.

2. All applicants must submit the facility's VPDES permit number, if applicable, and a listing of all other federal, state, and local permits or construction approvals received or applied for under any of the following programs:

a. Hazardous Waste Management program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA);

b. UIC program under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA);

c. NPDES program under the Clean Water Act (CWA);

d. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program under the Clean Air Act;

e. Nonattainment program under the Clean Air Act;

f. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) preconstruction approval under the Clean Air Act;

g. Dredge or fill permits under § 404 of the CWA;

h. Other relevant environmental permits, including state or local permits.

3. All applicants must identify any generation, treatment, storage, land application of biosolids, or disposal of sewage sludge that occurs in Indian country.

4. All applicants must submit a topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) extending one mile beyond property boundaries of the facility and showing the following information:

a. All sewage sludge management facilities, including on-site treatment, storage, and disposal sites; and

b. Wells, springs, and other surface water bodies that are within 1/4 mile of the property boundaries and listed in public records or otherwise known to the applicant.

5. All applicants must submit a line drawing or a narrative description that identifies all sewage sludge management practices employed during the term of the permit, including all units used for collecting, dewatering, storing, or treating sewage sludge; the destination of all liquids and solids leaving each such unit; and all processes used for pathogen reduction and vector attraction reduction.

6. All applicants must submit an odor control plan that contains at minimum:

a. Methods used to minimize odor in producing biosolids;

b. Methods used to identify malodorous biosolids before land application (at the generating facility);

c. Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids that have been delivered to the field, prior to land application; and

d. Methods used to abate malodor from biosolids if land applied.

7. The applicant must submit biosolids monitoring data for the pollutants for which limits in biosolids have been established in Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter for the applicant's use or disposal practices on the date of permit application with the following conditions:

a. When applying for authorization to land apply a biosolids source not previously included in a VPDES or Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit, the biosolids shall be sampled and analyzed for PCBs. The sample results shall be submitted with the permit application or request to add the source.

b. The board department may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis.

c. Applicants must provide data from a minimum of three samples taken within 4-1/2 years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the biosolids and should be taken at least one month apart. Existing data may be used in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application.

d. Applicants must collect and analyze samples in accordance with analytical methods specified in 9VAC25-31-490, 40 CFR Part 503 (March 26, 2007), and 40 CFR Part 136 (March 26, 2007).

e. The monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(1) Average monthly concentration for all samples (mg/kg dry weight), based upon actual sample values;

(2) The analytical method used; and

(3) The method detection level.

8. If the applicant is a person who prepares biosolids or sewage sludge, as defined in 9VAC25-31-500, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. If the applicant's facility generates biosolids or sewage sludge, the total dry metric tons per 365-day period generated at the facility.

b. If the applicant's facility receives biosolids or sewage sludge from another facility, the following information for each facility from which biosolids or sewage sludge is received:

(1) The name, mailing address, and location of the other facility;

(2) The total dry metric tons per 365-day period received from the other facility; and

(3) A description of any treatment processes occurring at the other facility, including blending activities and treatment to reduce pathogens or vector attraction characteristics.

c. If the applicant's facility changes the quality of biosolids or sewage sludge through blending, treatment, or other activities, the following information:

(1) Whether the Class A pathogen reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A or the Class B pathogen reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 B are met, and a description of any treatment processes used to reduce pathogens in sewage sludge;

(2) Whether any of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through 8 are met, and a description of any treatment processes used to reduce vector attraction properties in sewage sludge; and

(3) A description of any other blending, treatment, or other activities that change the quality of sewage sludge.

d. If biosolids from the applicant's facility meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through 8, and if the biosolids is applied to the land, the applicant must provide the total dry metric tons per 365-day period of sewage sludge subject to this subsection that is applied to the land.

e. If biosolids from the applicant's facility is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, and the biosolids is not subject to subdivision 8 d of this subsection, the applicant must provide the following information:

(1) The total dry metric tons per 365-day period of biosolids subject to this subsection that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land; and

(2) A copy of all labels or notices that accompany the biosolids being sold or given away.

f. If biosolids or sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is provided to another person who prepares biosolids, as defined in 9VAC25-31-500, and the biosolids is not subject to subdivision 8 d of this subsection, the applicant must provide the following information for each facility receiving the biosolids or sewage sludge:

(1) The name, mailing address, and electronic mail address of the receiving facility;

(2) The total dry metric tons per 365-day period of biosolids or sewage sludge subject to this subsection that the applicant provides to the receiving facility;

(3) A description of any treatment processes occurring at the receiving facility, including blending activities and treatment to reduce pathogens or vector attraction characteristic;

(4) A copy of the notice and necessary information that the applicant is required to provide the receiving facility under 9VAC25-31-530 G; and

(5) If the receiving facility places biosolids in bags or containers for sale or give-away for application to the land, a copy of any labels or notices that accompany the biosolids.

9. If biosolids from the applicant's facility is applied to the land in bulk form and is not subject to subdivision 8 d, e, or f of this subsection, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. Written permission of landowners on the most current form approved by the board department.

b. The total dry metric tons per 365-day period of biosolids subject to this subsection that is applied to the land.

c. If any land application sites are located in states other than the state where the biosolids is prepared, a description of how the applicant will notify the permitting authority for the state where the land application sites are located.

d. The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application:

(1) The DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying the land application field or site. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities and the site's location;

(2) The site's latitude and longitude in decimal degrees to three decimal places and method of determination;

(3) A legible topographic map and aerial photograph, including legend, of proposed application areas to scale as needed to depict the following features:

(a) Property boundaries;

(b) Surface water courses;

(c) Water supply wells and springs;

(d) Roadways;

(e) Rock outcrops;

(f) Slopes;

(g) Frequently flooded areas (National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) designation);

(h) Occupied dwellings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and all existing extended dwelling and property line setback distances;

(i) Publicly accessible properties and occupied buildings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and the associated extended setback distances; and

(j) The gross acreage of the fields where biosolids will be applied;

(4) County map or other map of sufficient detail to show general location of the site and proposed transport vehicle haul routes to be utilized from the treatment plant;

(5) County tax maps labeled with Tax Parcel ID or IDs for each farm to be included in the permit, which may include multiple fields, to depict properties within 400 feet of the field boundaries;

(6) A USDA soil survey map, if available, of proposed sites for land application of biosolids;

(7) The name, mailing address, telephone number, and electronic mail address of each site owner, if different from the applicant;

(8) The name, mailing address, telephone number, and electronic mail address of the person who applies biosolids to the site, if different from the applicant;

(9) Whether the site is agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, as such site types are defined in 9VAC25-31-500;

(10) Description of agricultural practices including a list of proposed crops to be grown;

(11) Whether either of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 or 10 is met at the site, and a description of any procedures employed at the time of use to reduce vector attraction properties in biosolids;

(12) Pertinent calculations justifying storage and land area requirements for biosolids application including an annual biosolids balance incorporating such factors as precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil percolation rates, wastewater loading, and monthly storage (input and drawdown); and

(13) Other information that describes how the site will be managed, as specified by the board department.

e. The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application, if the applicant intends to apply bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 2 to the site:

(1) Whether the applicant has contacted the permitting authority in the state where the bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 2 will be applied, to ascertain whether bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 2 has been applied to the site on or since July 20, 1993, and if so, the name of the permitting authority and the name, phone number, and electronic mail address, if available, of a contact person at the permitting authority; and

(2) Identification of facilities other than the applicant's facility that have sent, or are sending, biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 2 to the site since July 20, 1993, if, based on the inquiry in subdivision 9 e (1) of this subsection, bulk biosolids subject to cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-31-540 B Table 2 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

10. Biosolids storage facilities not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant. Plans and specifications for biosolids storage facilities not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant generating the biosolids, including routine and on-site storage, shall be submitted for issuance of a certificate to construct and a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790) and shall depict the following information:

a. Site layout on a recent 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle or other appropriate scaled map;

b. Location of any required soil, geologic, and hydrologic test holes or borings;

c. Location of the following field features within 0.25 miles of the site boundary (indicate on map) with the approximate distances from the site boundary:

(1) Water wells (operating or abandoned);

(2) Surface waters;

(3) Springs;

(4) Public water supplies;

(5) Sinkholes;

(6) Underground and surface mines;

(7) Mine pool (or other) surface water discharge points;

(8) Mining spoil piles and mine dumps;

(9) Quarries;

(10) Sand and gravel pits;

(11) Gas and oil wells;

(12) Diversion ditches;

(13) Occupied dwellings, including industrial and commercial establishments;

(14) Landfills and dumps;

(15) Other unlined impoundments;

(16) Septic tanks and drainfields; and

(17) Injection wells;

d. Topographic map (10-foot contour preferred) of sufficient detail to clearly show the following information:

(1) Maximum and minimum percent slopes;

(2) Depressions on the site that may collect water;

(3) Drainage ways that may attribute to rainfall run-on to or run-off from this site; and

(4) Portions of the site, if any, that are located within the 100-year floodplain;

e. Data and specifications for the liner proposed for seepage control;

f. Scaled plan view and cross-sectional view of the facilities showing inside and outside slopes of all embankments and details of all appurtenances;

g. Calculations justifying impoundment capacity; and

h. Groundwater monitoring plans for the facilities if required by the department. The groundwater monitoring plan shall include pertinent geohydrological data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth.

11. Staging. Generic plans are required for staging of biosolids.

12. A biosolids management plan shall be provided that includes the following minimum site specific information at the time of permit application:

a. A comprehensive, general description of the operation shall be provided, including biosolids source or sources, quantities, flow diagram illustrating treatment works biosolids flows and solids handling units, site description, methodology of biosolids handling for application periods, including storage and nonapplication period storage, and alternative management methods when storage is not provided.

b. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation as required for application sites prior to board department authorization under the following conditions:

(1) Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

(2) Sites where land application is proposed more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate;

(3) Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; or

(4) Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

13. Biosolids transport.

a. General description of transport vehicles to be used;

b. Procedures for biosolids offloading at the biosolids facilities and the land application site together with spill prevention, cleanup (including vehicle cleaning), field reclamation, and emergency spill notification and cleanup measures; and

c. Voucher system used for documentation and recordkeeping.

14. Field operations.

a. Storage.

(1) Routine storage at facilities not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant – supernatant handling and disposal, biosolids handling, and loading of transport vehicles, equipment cleaning, freeboard maintenance, and inspections for structural integrity;

(2) On-site storage – procedures for department/board department approval and implementation;

(3) Staging – procedures to be followed including either designated site locations provided in the "Design Information" or the specific site criteria for such locations including the liner/cover requirements and the time limit assigned to such use; and

(4) Field reestablishment of offloading (staging) areas.

b. Application methodology.

(1) Description and specifications on spreader vehicles;

(2) Procedures for calibrating equipment for various biosolids contents to ensure uniform distribution and appropriate loading rates on a day-to-day basis; and

(3) Procedures used to ensure that operations address the following constraints: application of biosolids to frozen ground, pasture/hay fields, crops for direct human consumption and saturated or ice-covered or snow-covered ground; establishment of setback distances, slopes, prohibited access for beef and dairy animals, and soil pH requirements; and proper site specific biosolids loading rates on a field-by-field basis.

15. An applicant for a permit authorizing the land application of biosolids shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which the applicant proposes to land apply biosolids, written evidence of financial responsibility. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with requirements specified in Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation.

16. If sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is placed on a surface disposal site, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. The total dry metric tons of sewage sludge from the applicant's facility that is placed on surface disposal sites per 365-day period.

b. The following information for each surface disposal site receiving sewage sludge from the applicant's facility that the applicant does not own or operate:

(1) The site name or number, contact person, mailing address, telephone number, and electronic mail address for the surface disposal site; and

(2) The total dry metric tons from the applicant's facility per 365-day period placed on the surface disposal site.

c. The following information for each active sewage sludge unit at each surface disposal site that the applicant owns or operates:

(1) The name or number and the location of the active sewage sludge unit;

(2) The unit's latitude and longitude to the nearest second, and method of determination;

(3) If not already provided, a topographic map (or other map if a topographic map is unavailable) that shows the unit's location;

(4) The total dry metric tons placed on the active sewage sludge unit per 365-day period;

(5) The total dry metric tons placed on the active sewage sludge unit over the life of the unit;

(6) A description of any liner for the active sewage sludge unit, including whether it has a maximum permeability of 1 X 10-7cm/sec;

(7) A description of any leachate collection system for the active sewage sludge unit, including the method used for leachate disposal, and any federal, state, and local permit number(s) for leachate disposal;

(8) If the active sewage sludge unit is less than 150 meters from the property line of the surface disposal site, the actual distance from the unit boundary to the site property line;

(9) The remaining capacity (dry metric tons) for the active sewage sludge unit;

(10) The date on which the active sewage sludge unit is expected to close, if such a date has been identified;

(11) The following information for any other facility that sends sewage sludge to the active sewage sludge unit:

(a) The name, contact person, mailing address, and electronic mail address of the facility; and

(b) Available information regarding the quality of the sewage sludge received from the facility, including any treatment at the facility to reduce pathogens or vector attraction characteristics;

(12) Whether any of the vector attraction reduction options of 9VAC25-31-720 B 9 through 11 is met at the active sewage sludge unit, and a description of any procedures employed at the time of disposal to reduce vector attraction properties in sewage sludge;

(13) The following information, as applicable to any groundwater monitoring occurring at the active sewage sludge unit:

(a) A description of any groundwater monitoring occurring at the active sewage sludge unit;

(b) Any available groundwater monitoring data, with a description of the well locations and approximate depth to groundwater;

(c) A copy of any groundwater monitoring plan that has been prepared for the active sewage sludge unit;

(d) A copy of any certification that has been obtained from a qualified groundwater scientist that the aquifer has not been contaminated; and

(14) If site-specific pollutant limits are being sought for the sewage sludge placed on this active sewage sludge unit, information to support such a request.

17. If sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is fired in a sewage sludge incinerator, the applicant must provide the following information:

a. The total dry metric tons of sewage sludge from the applicant's facility that is fired in sewage sludge incinerators per 365-day period.

b. The following information for each sewage sludge incinerator firing the applicant's sewage sludge that the applicant does not own or operate:

(1) The name or number, contact person, mailing address, telephone number, and electronic mail address of the sewage sludge incinerator; and

(2) The total dry metric tons from the applicant's facility per 365-day period fired in the sewage sludge incinerator.

18. If sewage sludge from the applicant's facility is sent to a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF), the applicant must provide the following information for each MSWLF to which sewage sludge is sent:

a. The name, contact person, mailing address, electronic mail address, location, and all applicable permit numbers of the MSWLF;

b. The total dry metric tons per 365-day period sent from this facility to the MSWLF;

c. A determination of whether the sewage sludge meets applicable requirements for disposal of sewage sludge in a MSWLF, including the results of the paint filter liquids test and any additional requirements that apply on a site-specific basis; and

d. Information, if known, indicating whether the MSWLF complies with criteria set forth in the Solid Waste Management Regulations, 9VAC20-81.

19. All applicants must provide the name, mailing address, telephone number, electronic mail address, and responsibilities of all contractors responsible for any operational or maintenance aspects of the facility related to biosolids or sewage sludge generation, treatment, use, or disposal.

20. At the request of the board department, the applicant must provide any other information necessary to determine the appropriate standards for permitting under Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter, and must provide any other information necessary to assess the biosolids use and sewage sludge disposal practices, determine whether to issue a permit, or identify appropriate permit requirements; and pertinent plans, specifications, maps and such other relevant information as may be required, in scope and details satisfactory to the board department.

21. All applications must be signed by a certifying official in compliance with 9VAC25-31-110.

R. Applications for facilities with cooling water intake structures.

1. Application requirements. New facilities with new or modified cooling water intake structures. New facilities with cooling water intake structures as defined in 9VAC25-31-165 must report the information required under subdivisions 2, 3, and 4 of this subsection and under 9VAC25-31-165. Requests for alternative requirements under 9VAC25-31-165 must be submitted with the permit application.

2. Source water physical data. These include:

a. A narrative description and scaled drawings showing the physical configuration of all source water bodies used by the facility, including area dimensions, depths, salinity and temperature regimes, and other documentation that supports the determination of the water body type where each cooling water intake structure is located;

b. Identification and characterization of the source water body's hydrological and geomorphologic features, as well as the methods used to conduct any physical studies to determine the intake's area of influence within the water body and the results of such studies; and

c. Location maps.

3. Cooling water intake structure data. These include:

a. A narrative description of the configuration of each cooling water intake structure and where it is located in the water body and in the water column;

b. Latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds for each cooling water intake structure;

c. A narrative description of the operation of each cooling water intake structure, including design intake flow, daily hours of operation, number of days of the year in operation and seasonal changes, if applicable;

d. A flow distribution and water balance diagram that includes all sources of water to the facility, recirculation flows and discharges; and

e. Engineering drawings of the cooling water intake structure.

4. Source water baseline biological characterization data. This information is required to characterize the biological community in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure and to characterize the operation of the cooling water intake structures. The department may also use this information in subsequent permit renewal proceedings to determine if the design and construction technology plan as required in 9VAC25-31-165 should be revised. This supporting information must include existing data if available. Existing data may be supplemented with data from newly conducted field studies. The information must include:

a. A list of the data in subdivisions 4 b through 4 f of this subsection that is not available and efforts made to identify sources of the data;

b. A list of species (or relevant taxa) for all life stages and their relative abundance in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure;

c. Identification of the species and life stages that would be most susceptible to impingement and entrainment. Species evaluated should include the forage base as well as those most important in terms of significance to commercial and recreational fisheries;

d. Identification and evaluation of the primary period of reproduction, larval recruitment, and period of peak abundance for relevant taxa;

e. Data representative of the seasonal and daily activities (e.g., feeding and water column migration) of biological organisms in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure;

f. Identification of all threatened, endangered, and other protected species that might be susceptible to impingement and entrainment at the cooling water intake structures;

g. Documentation of any public participation or consultation with federal or state agencies undertaken in development of the plan; and

h. If information requested in this subdivision 4 is supplemented with data collected using field studies, supporting documentation for the source water baseline biological characterization must include a description of all methods and quality assurance procedures for sampling, and data analysis including a description of the study area; taxonomic identification of sampled and evaluated biological assemblages (including all life stages of fish and shellfish); and sampling and data analysis methods. The sampling and/or data analysis methods used must be appropriate for a quantitative survey and based on consideration of methods used in other biological studies performed within the same source water body. The study area should include, at a minimum, the area of influence of the cooling water intake structure.

9VAC25-31-110 Signatories to permit applications and reports

A. All permit applications shall be signed as follows:

1. For a corporation: by a responsible corporate officer. For the purpose of this section, a responsible corporate officer means: (i) a president, secretary, treasurer, or vice-president of the corporation in charge of a principal business function, or any other person who performs similar policy-making or decision-making functions for the corporation, or (ii) the manager of one or more manufacturing, production, or operating facilities, provided the manager is authorized to make management decisions that govern the operation of the regulated facility, including having the explicit or implicit duty of making major capital investment recommendations, and initiating and directing other comprehensive measures to assure long-term environmental compliance with environmental laws and regulations; the manager can ensure that the necessary systems are established or actions taken to gather complete and accurate information for permit application requirements; and where authority to sign documents has been assigned or delegated to the manager in accordance with corporate procedures;

2. For a partnership or sole proprietorship: by a general partner or the proprietor, respectively; or

3. For a municipality, state, federal, or other public agency: by either a principal executive officer or ranking elected official. For purposes of this section, a principal executive officer of a federal agency includes: (i) the chief executive officer of the agency, or (ii) a senior executive officer having responsibility for the overall operations of a principal geographic unit of the agency.

B. All reports required by permits, and other information requested by the board department shall be signed by a person described in subsection A of this section, or by a duly authorized representative of that person. A person is a duly authorized representative only if:

1. The authorization is made in writing by a person described in subsection A of this section;

2. The authorization specifies either an individual or a position having responsibility for the overall operation of the regulated facility or activity such as the position of plant manager, operator of a well or a well field, superintendent, position of equivalent responsibility, or an individual or position having overall responsibility for environmental matters for the company. (A duly authorized representative may thus be either a named individual or any individual occupying a named position.); and

3. The written authorization is submitted to the department.

C. If an authorization under subsection B of this section is no longer accurate because a different individual or position has responsibility for the overall operation of the facility, a new authorization satisfying the requirements of subsection B of this section must be submitted to the department prior to or together with any reports, or information to be signed by an authorized representative.

D. Any person signing a document under subsection A or B of this section shall make the following certification:

"I certify under penalty of law that this document and all attachments were prepared under my direction or supervision in accordance with a system designed to assure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate the information submitted. Based on my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system, or those persons directly responsible for gathering the information, the information submitted is, to the best of my knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations."

E. Electronic reporting. If documents described in subsection A or B of this section are submitted electronically by or on behalf of the VPDES-regulated facility, any person providing the electronic signature for such documents shall meet all relevant requirements of this section and shall ensure that all of the relevant requirements of Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D are met for that submission).

9VAC25-31-120 Stormwater discharges

A. Permit requirements.

1. Prior to October 1, 1994, discharges composed entirely of stormwater shall not be required to obtain a VPDES permit except:

a. A discharge with respect to which a permit has been issued prior to February 4, 1987;

b. A discharge associated with industrial activity; or

c. A discharge which either the board department or the regional administrator determines to contribute to a violation of a water quality standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to surface waters. This designation may include a discharge from any conveyance or system of conveyances used for collecting and conveying stormwater run-off, except for those discharges from conveyances which do not require a permit under subdivision 2 of this subsection or agricultural stormwater run-off which is exempted from the definition of point source.

2. The board or department may not require a permit for discharges of stormwater run-off from mining operations or oil and gas exploration, production, processing or treatment operations, or transmission facilities, composed entirely of flows which are from conveyances or systems of conveyances (including pipes, conduits, ditches, and channels) used for collecting and conveying precipitation run-off and which are not contaminated by contact with or that has not come into contact with, any overburden, raw material, intermediate products, finished product, by-product or waste products located on the site of such operations.

3. In addition to meeting the requirements of subsection B of this section, an operator of a stormwater discharge associated with industrial activity which discharges through a large or medium municipal separate storm sewer system shall submit, to the operator of the municipal separate storm sewer system receiving the discharge no later than May 15, 1991, or 180 days prior to commencing such discharge: the name of the facility; a contact person and phone number; the location of the discharge; a description, including Standard Industrial Classification, which best reflects the principal products or services provided by each facility; and any existing VPDES permit number.

4. For stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity from point sources which discharge through a nonmunicipal or nonpublicly owned separate storm sewer system, the board department, in its discretion, may issue: a single VPDES permit, with each discharger a co-permittee to a permit issued to the operator of the portion of the system that discharges into surface waters; or, individual permits to each discharger of stormwater associated with industrial activity through the nonmunicipal conveyance system.

a. All stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity that discharge through a stormwater discharge system that is not a municipal separate storm sewer must be covered by an individual permit, or a permit issued to the operator of the portion of the system that discharges to surface waters, with each discharger to the nonmunicipal conveyance a co-permittee to that permit.

b. Where there is more than one operator of a single system of such conveyances, all operators of stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity must submit applications.

c. Any permit covering more than one operator shall identify the effluent limitations, or other permit conditions, if any, that apply to each operator.

5. Conveyances that discharge stormwater run-off combined with municipal sewage are point sources that must obtain VPDES permits in accordance with the procedures of 9VAC25-31-100 and are not subject to the provisions of this section.

6. Whether a discharge from a municipal separate storm sewer is or is not subject to VPDES regulation shall have no bearing on whether the owner or operator of the discharge is eligible for funding under Title II, Title III or Title VI of the CWA.

7. a. On and after October 1, 1994, for discharges composed entirely of stormwater, that are not required by subdivision 1 of this subsection to obtain a permit, operators shall be required to obtain a VPDES permit only if:

(1) The board department or the EPA regional administrator determines that stormwater controls are needed for the discharge based on wasteload allocations that are part of "total maximum daily loads" (TMDLs) that address the pollutant(s) of concern; or

(2) The board department or the EPA regional administrator determines that the discharge, or category of discharges within a geographic area, contributes to a violation of a water quality standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to surface waters.

b. Operators of nonmunicipal sources designated pursuant to subdivisions 7 a (1) and (2) of this subsection shall seek coverage under a VPDES permit in accordance with subdivision B 1 of this section.

c. Operators of stormwater discharges designated pursuant to subdivisions 7 a (1) and (2) of this subsection shall apply to the board department for a permit within 180 days of receipt of notice, unless permission for a later date is granted by the board department.

B. Application requirements for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity.

1. Dischargers of stormwater associated with industrial activity are required to apply for an individual permit or seek coverage under a promulgated stormwater general permit. Facilities that are required to obtain an individual permit, or any discharge of stormwater which the board department is evaluating for designation under subdivision A 1 c of this section, shall submit a VPDES application in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC25-31-100 as modified and supplemented by the provisions of this subsection.

a. Except as provided in subdivisions 1 b and c of this subsection, the operator of a stormwater discharge associated with industrial activity subject to this section shall provide:

(1) A site map showing topography (or indicating the outline of drainage areas served by the outfall or outfalls covered in the application if a topographic map is unavailable) of the facility including: each of its drainage and discharge structures; the drainage area of each stormwater outfall; paved areas and buildings within the drainage area of each stormwater outfall, each past or present area used for outdoor storage or disposal of significant materials, each existing structural control measure to reduce pollutants in stormwater run-off, materials loading and access areas, areas where pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied, each of its hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities (including each area not required to have a RCRA permit that is used for accumulating hazardous waste under 40 CFR 262.34); each well where fluids from the facility are injected underground; springs, and other surface water bodies which receive stormwater discharges from the facility;

(2) An estimate of the area of impervious surfaces (including paved areas and building roofs) and the total area drained by each outfall (within a mile radius of the facility) and a narrative description of the following: Significant materials that in the three years prior to the submittal of this application have been treated, stored or disposed in a manner to allow exposure to stormwater; method of treatment, storage or disposal of such materials; materials management practices employed, in the three years prior to the submittal of this application, to minimize contact by these materials with stormwater runoff; materials loading and access areas; the location, manner and frequency in which pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied; the location and a description of existing structural and nonstructural control measures to reduce pollutants in stormwater runoff; and a description of the treatment the stormwater receives, including the ultimate disposal of any solid or fluid wastes other than by discharge;

(3) A certification that all outfalls that should contain stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity have been tested or evaluated for the presence of nonstormwater discharges that are not covered by a VPDES permit; tests for such nonstormwater discharges may include smoke tests, fluorometric dye tests, analysis of accurate schematics, as well as other appropriate tests. The certification shall include a description of the method used, the date of any testing, and the onsite drainage points that were directly observed during a test;

(4) Existing information regarding significant leaks or spills of toxic or hazardous pollutants at the facility that have taken place within the three years prior to the submittal of this application;

(5) Quantitative data based on samples collected during storm events and collected in accordance with 9VAC25-31-100 of this part from all outfalls containing a stormwater discharge associated with industrial activity for the following parameters:

(a) Any pollutant limited in an effluent guideline to which the facility is subject;

(b) Any pollutant listed in the facility's VPDES permit for its process wastewater (if the facility is operating under an existing VPDES permit);

(c) Oil and grease, pH, BOD5, COD, TSS, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen;

(d) Any information on the discharge required under 9VAC25-31-100 G 7 f and g;

(e) Flow measurements or estimates of the flow rate, and the total amount of discharge for the storm event or events sampled, and the method of flow measurement or estimation; and

(f) The date and duration (in hours) of the storm event or events sampled, rainfall measurements or estimates of the storm event (in inches) which generated the sampled run-off and the duration between the storm event sampled and the end of the previous measurable (greater than 0.1 inch rainfall) storm event (in hours);

(6) Operators of a discharge which is composed entirely of stormwater are exempt from the requirements of 9VAC25-31-100 G 2, G 3, G 4, G 5, G 7 c, G 7 d, G 7 e, and G 7 h; and

(7) Operators of new sources or new discharges that are composed in part or entirely of stormwater must include estimates for the pollutants or parameters listed in subdivision 1 a (5) of this subsection instead of actual sampling data, along with the source of each estimate. Operators of new sources or new discharges composed in part or entirely of stormwater must provide quantitative data for the parameters listed in subdivision 1 a (5) of this subsection within two years after commencement of discharge, unless such data has already been reported under the monitoring requirements of the VPDES permit for the discharge. Operators of a new source or new discharge that is composed entirely of stormwater are exempt from the requirements of 9VAC25-31-100 K 3 b, K 3 c, and K 5.

b. The operator of an existing or new discharge composed entirely of stormwater from an oil or gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment operation, or transmission facility is not required to submit a permit application in accordance with subdivision 1 a of this subsection, unless the facility:

(1) Has had a discharge of stormwater resulting in the discharge of a reportable quantity for which notification is or was required pursuant to 40 CFR 117.21 or 40 CFR 302.6 at any time since November 16, 1987;

(2) Has had a discharge of stormwater resulting in the discharge of a reportable quantity for which notification is or was required pursuant to 40 CFR 110.6 at any time since November 16, 1987; or

(3) Contributes to a violation of a water quality standard.

c. The operator of an existing or new discharge composed entirely of stormwater from a mining operation is not required to submit a permit application unless the discharge has come into contact with any overburden, raw material, intermediate products, finished product, byproduct, or waste products located on the site of such operations.

d. Applicants shall provide such other information the board department may reasonably require to determine whether to issue a permit.

2. No application for a VPDES permit authorizing direct or indirect discharge of stormwater runoff from a new municipal solid waste landfill into a local watershed protection district established and designated as such by city ordinance prior to January 1, 2006, shall be considered complete unless it contains certification from the local governing body of the city in which the discharge is to take place, that the discharge is consistent with the city's ordinance establishing and designating the local watershed protection district. This requirement shall apply to applications for new or modified individual VPDES permits and for new or modified coverage under general VPDES permits. This requirement does not apply to any municipal solid waste landfill in operation on or before January 1, 2006.

C. Application deadlines. Any operator of a point source required to obtain a permit under this section that does not have an effective VPDES permit authorizing discharges from its stormwater outfalls shall submit an application in accordance with the following deadlines:

1. Individual applications.

a. Except as provided in subdivision 1 b of this subsection, for any stormwater discharge associated with industrial activity as defined in this chapter which is not authorized by a stormwater general permit, a permit application made pursuant to subsection B of this section shall be submitted to the department by October 1, 1992;

b. For any stormwater discharge associated with industrial activity from a facility that is owned or operated by a municipality with a population of less than 100,000 that is not authorized by a general or individual permit, other than an airport, powerplant, or uncontrolled sanitary landfill, permit applications must be submitted to the department by March 10, 2003;

2. A permit application shall be submitted to the department within 180 days of notice, unless permission for a later date is granted by the board department, for:

a. A stormwater discharge which either the board department or the regional administrator, determines that the discharge contributes to a violation of a water quality standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to surface waters; or

b. A stormwater discharge subject to subdivision B 1 d of this section;

3. Facilities with existing VPDES permits for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity shall maintain existing permits. Facilities with permits for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity which expire on or after May 18, 1992, shall submit a new application in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC25-31-100 and 9VAC25-31-120 B (Form 1, Form 2F, and other applicable forms) 180 days before the expiration of such permits.

D. Petitions.

1. Any person may petition the board department to require a VPDES permit for a discharge that is composed entirely of stormwater which contributes to a violation of a water quality standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to surface waters.

2. The board department shall make a final determination on any petition received under this section within 90 days after receiving the petition.

E. Conditional exclusion for no exposure of industrial activities and materials to stormwater. Discharges composed entirely of stormwater are not stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity if there is no exposure of industrial materials and activities to rain, snow, snowmelt or run-off and the discharger satisfies the conditions in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this subsection. No exposure means that all industrial materials and activities are protected by a storm resistant shelter to prevent exposure to rain, snow, snowmelt, and run-off. Industrial materials or activities include material handling equipment or activities, industrial machinery, raw materials, intermediate products, by-products, final products, or waste products. Material handling activities include the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product or waste product.

1. To qualify for this exclusion, the operator of the discharge must:

a. Provide a storm resistant shelter to protect industrial materials and activities from exposure to rain, snow, snow melt, and run-off;

b. Complete and sign (according to 9VAC25-31-110) a certification that there are no discharges of stormwater contaminated by exposure to industrial materials and activities from the entire facility, except as provided in subdivision 2 of this subsection;

c. Submit the signed certification to the department once every five years. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all certifications submitted in compliance with this section shall be submitted electronically by the owner or operator to the department in compliance with this section and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, owners or operators may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit;

d. Allow the department to inspect the facility to determine compliance with the no exposure conditions;

e. Allow the department to make any no exposure inspection reports available to the public upon request; and

f. For facilities that discharge through an MS4, upon request, submit a copy of the certification of no exposure to the MS4 operator, as well as allow inspection and public reporting by the MS4 operator.

2. Storm resistant shelter is not required for:

a. Drums, barrels, tanks, and similar containers that are tightly sealed, provided those containers are not deteriorated and do not leak ("sealed" means banded or otherwise secured and without operational taps or valves);

b. Adequately maintained vehicles used in material handling; and

c. Final products, other than products that would be mobilized in stormwater discharge (e.g., rock salt).

3. a. This conditional exclusion from the requirement for a VPDES permit is available on a facility-wide basis only, not for individual outfalls. If a facility has some discharges of stormwater that would otherwise be no exposure discharges, individual permit requirements should be adjusted accordingly.

b. If circumstances change and industrial materials or activities become exposed to rain, snow, snow melt, or run-off, the conditions for this exclusion no longer apply. In such cases, the discharge becomes subject to enforcement for unpermitted discharge. Any conditionally exempt discharger who anticipates changes in circumstances should apply for and obtain permit authorization prior to the change of circumstances.

c. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the board department retains the authority to require permit authorization (and deny this exclusion) upon making a determination that the discharge causes, has a reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an instream excursion above an applicable water quality standard, including designated uses.

4. The no exposure certification requires the submission of the following information, at a minimum, to aid the board department in determining if the facility qualifies for the no exposure exclusion:

a. The legal name, address, and phone number of the discharger.

b. The facility name and address, the county name and the latitude and longitude where the facility is located.

c. Certification that indicates that none of the following materials or activities are, or will be in the foreseeable future, exposed to precipitation:

(1) Using, storing, or cleaning industrial machinery or equipment, and areas where residuals from using, storing, or cleaning industrial machinery or equipment remain and are exposed to stormwater;

(2) Materials or residuals on the ground or in stormwater inlets from spills/leaks;

(3) Materials or products from past industrial activity;

(4) Material handling equipment (except adequately maintained vehicles);

(5) Materials or products during loading/unloading or transporting activities;

(6) Materials or products stored outdoors (except final products intended for outside use, e.g., new cars, where exposure to stormwater does not result in the discharge of pollutants);

(7) Materials contained in open, deteriorated or leaking storage drums, barrels, tanks, and similar containers;

(8) Materials or products handled/stored on roads or railways owned or maintained by the discharger;

(9) Waste material (except waste in covered, nonleaking containers, e.g., dumpsters);

(10) Application or disposal of process wastewater (unless otherwise permitted); and

(11) Particulate matter or visible deposits of residuals from roof stacks/vents not otherwise regulated, i.e., under an air quality control permit, and evident in the stormwater outflow.

d. All no exposure certifications must include the following certification statement and be signed in accordance with the signatory requirements of 9VAC25-31-110: "I certify under penalty of law that I have read and understand the eligibility requirements for claiming a condition of no exposure and obtaining an exclusion from VPDES stormwater permitting; and that there are no discharges of stormwater contaminated by exposure to industrial activities or materials from the industrial facility identified in this document (except as allowed under 9VAC25-31-120 E 2). I understand that I am obligated to submit a no exposure certification form once every five years to the Department of Environmental Quality and, if requested, to the operator of the local MS4 into which this facility discharges (where applicable). I understand that I must allow the department, or MS4 operator where the discharge is into the local MS4, to perform inspections to confirm the condition of no exposure and to make such inspection reports publicly available upon request. I understand that I must obtain coverage under a VPDES permit prior to any point source discharge of stormwater associated with industrial activity from the facility. I certify under penalty of law that this document and all attachments were prepared under my direction or supervision in accordance with a system designed to assure that qualified personnel properly gathered and evaluated the information submitted. Based upon my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system, or those persons directly involved in gathering the information, the information submitted is to the best of my knowledge and belief true, accurate and complete. I am aware there are significant penalties for submitting false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations."

9VAC25-31-130 Concentrated animal feeding operations

A. Permit requirement for CAFOs.

1. Concentrated animal feeding operations as defined in 9VAC25-31-10 or designated in accordance with subsection B of this section are point sources that require VPDES permits for discharges. Once an operation is defined as a CAFO, the VPDES requirements for CAFOs apply with respect to all animals in confinement at the operation and all manure, litter and process wastewater generated by those animals or the production of those animals, regardless of the type of animal.

2. Two or more animal feeding operations under common ownership are considered, for the purposes of this chapter, to be a single animal feeding operation if they adjoin each other or if they use a common area or system for the disposal of wastes.

B. Case-by-case designations. The board department may designate any animal feeding operation as a concentrated animal feeding operation upon determining that it is a significant contributor of pollution to surface waters.

1. In making this designation the board department shall consider the following factors:

a. The size of the animal feeding operation and the amount of wastes reaching surface waters;

b. The location of the animal feeding operation relative to surface waters;

c. The means of conveyance of animal wastes and process wastewaters into surface waters;

d. The slope, vegetation, rainfall, and other factors affecting the likelihood or frequency of discharge of animal wastes and process wastewaters into surface waters; and

e. Other relevant factors.

2. No animal feeding operation with less than the numbers of animals set forth in the definition of Medium CAFO in this regulation shall be designated as a concentrated animal feeding operation unless:

a. Pollutants are discharged into surface waters through a manmade ditch, flushing system, or other similar manmade device; or

b. Pollutants are discharged directly into surface waters which originate outside of the facility and pass over, across, or through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the animals confined in the operation.

3. A permit application shall not be required from a concentrated animal feeding operation designated under this subsection until the board department has conducted an on-site inspection of the operation and determined that the operation should and could be regulated under the VPDES permit program.

C. VPDES permit authorization.

1. Permit requirement. The owners or operators of a CAFO shall not discharge unless the discharge is authorized by a VPDES permit. In order to obtain authorization under a VPDES permit, the CAFO owner or operator shall either apply for an individual VPDES permit or apply for coverage under a VPDES general permit. The owners or operators of a CAFO must have obtained authorization under the VPDES permit at the time that the CAFO discharges.

2. Information to submit with permit application. A permit application for an individual permit must include the information specified in 9VAC25-31-100 J. A notice of intent for a general permit must include the information specified in 9VAC25-31-100 J and 9VAC25-31-170.

3. Land application discharges from a CAFO are subject to VPDES requirements. The discharge of manure, litter or process wastewater to surface waters from a CAFO as the result of the application of that manure, litter or process wastewater by the CAFO to land areas under its control is a discharge from that CAFO subject to VPDES requirements, except where it is an agricultural stormwater discharge as provided in 33 USC § 1362(14). For purposes of this subdivision, where the manure, litter or process wastewater has been applied in accordance with a nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and in accordance with site specific nutrient management practices that ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter, or process wastewater, as specified in subdivisions E 1 f through i of 9VAC25-31-200, a precipitation-related discharge of manure, litter or process wastewater from land areas under the control of a CAFO is an agricultural stormwater discharge.

a. For unpermitted Large CAFOs, a precipitation-related discharge of manure, litter, or process wastewater from land areas under the control of a CAFO shall be considered an agricultural stormwater discharge only where the manure, litter, or process wastewater has been land applied in accordance with site-specific nutrient management practices that ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter, or process wastewater, as specified in subdivisions E 1 f through i of 9VAC25-31-200.

b. Unpermitted Large CAFOs shall maintain documentation specified in subdivision E 1 i of 9VAC25-31-200 either on site or at a nearby office, or otherwise make such documentation readily available to department staff upon request.

4. Procedures for CAFOs seeking coverage under a general permit. CAFO owners or operators shall submit a registration statement when seeking authorization to discharge under a general permit in accordance with subsection B of 9VAC25-31-170. The board department will review registration statements submitted by CAFO owners or operators to ensure that the registration statement includes the information required by subsection J of 9VAC25-31-100, including a nutrient management plan that meets the requirements of subsection E of 9VAC25-31-200 and applicable effluent limitations and standards, including those specified in 40 CFR Part 412. When additional information is necessary to complete the registration statement or clarify, modify, or supplement previously submitted material, the board department may request such information from the owner or operator. If the board department makes a preliminary determination that the registration statement meets the requirements of subsection J of 9VAC25-31-100 and subsection E of 9VAC25-31-200, the board department will notify the public of the board's department's proposal to grant coverage under the permit to the CAFO and make available for public review and comment the registration statement submitted by the CAFO, including the CAFO's nutrient management plan, and the draft terms of the nutrient management plan to be incorporated into the permit. The process for submitting public comments and public hearing requests, and the public hearing process if a request for a public hearing is granted, shall follow the procedures applicable to draft permits set forth in 9VAC25-31-300, 9VAC25-31-310, and 40 CFR 124.13. The board may establish, either by regulation or in the general permit, an appropriate period of time for the public to comment and request a public hearing that differs from the time period specified in 9VAC25-31-290. The board's department's response to significant comments received during the comment period is governed by 9VAC25-31-320, and, if necessary, the board department will require the CAFO owner or operator to revise the nutrient management plan in order to be granted permit coverage. When the board department authorizes coverage for the CAFO owner or operator under the general permit, the terms of the nutrient management plan shall become incorporated as terms and conditions of the permit for the CAFO. The board department will notify the CAFO owner or operator and inform the public that coverage has been authorized and of the terms of the nutrient management plan incorporated as terms and conditions of the permit applicable to the CAFO.

5. Changes to a nutrient management plan. Any permit issued to a CAFO shall require the following procedures to apply when a CAFO owner or operator makes changes to the CAFO's nutrient management plan previously submitted to the board department:

a. The CAFO owner or operator shall provide the board department with the most current version of the CAFO's nutrient management plan and identify changes from the previous version, except that the results of calculations made in accordance with the requirements of subdivisions E 5 a (2) and E 5 b (4) of 9VAC25-31-200 are not subject to the requirements of this subdivision 5.

b. The board department will review the revised nutrient management plan to ensure that it meets the requirements of this section and applicable effluent limitations and standards, including those specified in 40 CFR Part 412, and will determine whether the changes to the nutrient management plan necessitate revision to the terms of the nutrient management plan incorporated into the permit issued to the CAFO. If revision to the terms of the nutrient management plan is not necessary, the board department will notify the CAFO owner or operator and upon such notification the CAFO may implement the revised nutrient management plan. If revision to the terms of the nutrient management plan is necessary, the board department will determine whether such changes are substantial changes as described in subdivision 5 c of this subsection.

(1) If the board department determines that the changes to the terms of the nutrient management plan are not substantial, the board department will make the revised nutrient management plan publicly available and include it in the permit record, revise the terms of the nutrient management plan incorporated into the permit, and notify the owner or operator and inform the public of any changes to the terms of the nutrient management plan that are incorporated into the permit.

(2) If the board department determines that the changes to the terms of the nutrient management plan are substantial, the board department will notify the public and make the proposed changes and the information submitted by the CAFO owner or operator available for public review and comment. The process for public comments, public hearing requests, and the public hearing process if a public hearing is held shall follow the procedures applicable to draft permits set forth in 9VAC25-31-300, 9VAC25-31-310, and 40 CFR 124.13. The board may establish, either by regulation or the department may establish in the CAFO's permit, an appropriate period of time for the public to comment and request a public hearing on the proposed changes that differs from the time period specified in 9VAC25-31-290. The board department will respond to all significant comments received during the comment period as provided in 9VAC25-31-320, and require the CAFO owner or operator to further revise the nutrient management plan if necessary, in order to approve the revision to the terms of the nutrient management plan incorporated into the CAFO's permit. Once the board department incorporates the revised terms of the nutrient management plan into the permit, the board department will notify the owner or operator and inform the public of the final decision concerning revisions to the terms and conditions of the permit.

c. Substantial changes to the terms of a nutrient management plan incorporated as terms and conditions of a permit include:

(1) Addition of new land application areas not previously included in the CAFO's nutrient management plan. Except that if the land application area that is being added to the nutrient management plan is covered by terms of a nutrient management plan incorporated into an existing VPDES permit in accordance with the requirements of subdivision E 5 of 9VAC25-31-200, and the CAFO owner or operator applies manure, litter, or process wastewater on the newly added land application area in accordance with the existing field-specific permit terms applicable to the newly added land application area, such addition of new land would be a change to the new CAFO owner or operator's nutrient management plan but not a substantial change for purposes of this section;

(2) Any changes to the field-specific maximum annual rates for land application, as set forth in subdivision E 5 a of 9VAC25-31-200, and to the maximum amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus derived from all sources for each crop, as set forth in subdivision E 5 b of 9VAC25-31-200;

(3) Addition of any crop or other uses not included in the terms of the CAFO's nutrient management plan and corresponding field-specific rates of application expressed in accordance with subdivision E 5 of 9VAC25-31-200; and

(4) Changes to site-specific components of the CAFO's nutrient management plan, where such changes are likely to increase the risk of nitrogen and phosphorus transport to state waters.

6. Causes for modification of nutrient management plans. The incorporation of the terms of a CAFO's nutrient management plan into the terms and conditions of a general permit when a CAFO obtains coverage under a general permit in accordance with subdivision C 4 of 9VAC25-31-130 and 9VAC25-31-170 is not a cause for modification pursuant to the requirements of 9VAC25-31-370.

9VAC25-31-140 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities

A. Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities, as defined in this chapter, are point sources subject to the VPDES permit program.

B. Case-by-case designations. The board department may designate any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production facility upon determining that it is a significant contributor of pollution to surface waters.

1. In making this designation the board department shall consider the following factors:

a. The location and quality of the receiving surface waters;

b. The holding, feeding, and production capacities of the facility;

c. The quantity and nature of the pollutants reaching surface waters; and

d. Other relevant factors.

2. A permit application shall not be required from a concentrated aquatic animal production facility designated under this subsection until the department has conducted on-site inspection of the facility and has determined that the facility should and could be regulated under the VPDES permit program.

9VAC25-31-165 Requirements applicable to cooling water intake structures

A. Definitions. The following definitions apply specifically to this section:

"Annual mean flow" means the average of daily flows over a calendar year.

"Closed-cycle recirculating system" means a system designed, using minimized makeup and blowdown flows, to withdraw water from a natural or other water source to support contact and/or noncontact cooling uses within a facility. The water is usually sent to a cooling canal or channel, lake, pond, or tower to allow waste heat to be dissipated to the atmosphere and then is returned to the system. (Some facilities divert the waste heat to other process operations.) New source water (make-up water) is added to the system to replenish losses that have occurred due to blowdown, drift, and evaporation.

"Cooling water" means water used for contact or noncontact cooling, including water used for equipment cooling, evaporative cooling tower makeup, and dilution of effluent heat content. The intended use of the cooling water is to absorb waste heat rejected from the process or processes used, or from auxiliary operations on the facility's premises. Cooling water that is used in a manufacturing process either before or after it is used for cooling is considered process water for the purposes of calculating the percentage of a new facility's intake flow that is used for cooling purposes.

"Cooling water intake structure" means the total physical structure and any associated constructed waterways used to withdraw cooling water from state waters. The cooling water intake structure extends from the point at which water is withdrawn from the surface water source up to, and including, the intake pumps.

"Design intake flow" means the value assigned (during the facility's design) to the total volume of water withdrawn from a source water body over a specific time period.

"Design intake velocity" means the value assigned (during the design of a cooling water intake structure) to the average speed at which intake water passes through the open area of the intake screen (or other device) against which organisms might be impinged or through which they might be entrained.

"Entrainment" means the incorporation of all life stages of fish and shellfish with intake water flow entering and passing through a cooling water intake structure and into a cooling water system.

"Estuary" means a semi-enclosed body of water that has a free connection with open seas and within which the seawater is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage. The salinity of an estuary exceeds 0.5 parts per thousand (by mass) but is typically less than 30 parts per thousand (by mass).

"Existing facility" means any facility that is not a new facility.

"Freshwater river or stream" means a lotic (free-flowing) system that does not receive significant inflows of water from oceans or bays due to tidal action. For the purposes of this section, a flow-through reservoir with a retention time of seven days or less will be considered a freshwater river or stream.

"Hydraulic zone of influence" means that portion of the source water body hydraulically affected by the cooling water intake structure withdrawal of water.

"Impingement" means the entrapment of all life stages of fish and shellfish on the outer part of an intake structure or against a screening device during periods of intake water withdrawal.

"Lake or reservoir" means any inland body of open water with some minimum surface area free of rooted vegetation and with an average hydraulic retention time of more than seven days. Lakes or reservoirs might be natural water bodies or impounded streams, usually fresh, surrounded by land or by land and a man-made retainer (e.g., a dam). Lakes or reservoirs might be fed by rivers, streams, springs, and/or local precipitation. Flow-through reservoirs with an average hydraulic retention time of seven days or less should be considered a freshwater river or stream.

"Maximize" means to increase to the greatest amount, extent, or degree reasonably possible.

"Minimize" means to reduce to the smallest amount, extent, or degree reasonably possible.

"Natural thermal stratification" means the naturally-occurring division of a water body into horizontal layers of differing densities as a result of variations in temperature at different depths.

"New facility" means any building, structure, facility, or installation that meets the definition of a "new source" or "new discharger" and is a greenfield or stand-alone facility that commences construction after January 17, 2002, and uses either a newly constructed cooling water intake structure, or an existing cooling water intake structure whose design capacity is increased to accommodate the intake of additional cooling water. A greenfield facility is a facility that is constructed at a site at which no other source is located, or that totally replaces the process or production equipment at an existing facility. A stand-alone facility is a new, separate facility that is constructed on property where an existing facility is located and whose processes are substantially independent of the existing facility at the same site. New facility does not include new units that are added to a facility for purposes of the same general industrial operation (for example, a new peaking unit at an electrical generating station).

"Ocean" means marine open coastal waters with a salinity greater than or equal to 30 parts per thousand (by mass).

"Source water" means the water body from which the cooling water is withdrawn.

"Thermocline" means the middle layer of a thermally stratified lake or reservoir. In this layer, there is a rapid decrease in temperatures.

"Tidal excursion" means the horizontal distance along the estuary or tidal river that a particle moves during one tidal cycle of ebb and flow.

"Tidal river" means the most seaward reach of a river or stream where the salinity is typically less than or equal to 0.5 parts per thousand (by mass) at a time of annual low flow and whose surface elevation responds to the effects of coastal lunar tides.

B. Cooling water intake structures for new facilities.

1. Applicability.

a. This section applies to a new facility if it:

(1) Is a point source that uses or proposes to use a cooling water intake structure;

(2) Has at least one cooling water intake structure that uses at least 25% of the water it withdraws for cooling purposes as specified in subdivision 1 c of this subsection; and

(3) Has a design intake flow greater than two million gallons per day (MGD).

b. Use of a cooling water intake structure includes obtaining cooling water by any sort of contract or arrangement with an independent supplier (or multiple suppliers) of cooling water if the supplier or suppliers withdraw(s) water from waters of the United States. Use of cooling water does not include obtaining cooling water from a public water system or the use of treated effluent that otherwise would be discharged to state waters. This provision is intended to prevent circumvention of these requirements by creating arrangements to receive cooling water from an entity that is not itself a point source.

c. The threshold requirement that at least 25% of water withdrawn be used for cooling purposes must be measured on an average monthly basis. A new facility meets the 25% cooling water threshold if, based on the new facility's design, any monthly average over a year for the percentage of cooling water withdrawn is expected to equal or exceed 25% of the total water withdrawn.

d. This section does not apply to facilities that employ cooling water intake structures in the offshore and coastal subcategories of the oil and gas extraction point source category as defined under 40 CFR 435.10 and 40 CFR 435.40.

2. Compliance.

a. The owner or operator of a new facility must comply with either Track I in subdivision 2 b or c of this subsection or Track II in subdivision 2 d of this subsection. In addition to meeting the requirements in subdivision 2 b, c or d of this subsection, the owner or operator of a new facility may be required to comply with subdivision 2 e of this subsection.

b. Track I requirements for new facilities that withdraw equal to or greater than 10 MGD. Facilities must comply with all of the following requirements:

(1) Reduce intake flow, at a minimum, to a level commensurate with that which can be attained by a closed-cycle recirculating cooling water system;

(2) Design and construct each cooling water intake structure to a maximum through-screen design intake velocity of 0.5 ft/s;

(3) Design and construct the cooling water intake structure such that the total design intake flow from all cooling water intake structures meets the following requirements:

(a) For cooling water intake structures located in a freshwater river or stream, the total design intake flow must be no greater than 5.0% of the source water annual mean flow;

(b) For cooling water intake structures located in a lake or reservoir, the total design intake flow must not disrupt the natural thermal stratification or turnover pattern (where present) of the source water except in cases where the disruption is determined to be beneficial to the management of fisheries for fish and shellfish by any fishery management agency(ies);

(c) For cooling water intake structures located in an estuary or tidal river, the total design intake flow over one tidal cycle of ebb and flow must be no greater than 1.0% of the volume of the water column within the area centered about the opening of the intake with a diameter defined by the distance of one tidal excursion at the mean low water level;

(4) Select and implement design and construction technologies or operational measures for minimizing impingement mortality of fish and shellfish if:

(a) There are threatened or endangered or otherwise protected federal, state, or tribal species, or critical habitat for these species, within the hydraulic zone of influence of the cooling water intake structure; or

(b) Based on information submitted by any fishery management agency(ies) or other relevant information, there are migratory and/or sport or commercial species of impingement concern to the board department that pass through the hydraulic zone of influence of the cooling water intake structure; or

(c) It is determined by the board department, based on information submitted by any fishery management agency(ies) or other relevant information that the proposed facility, after meeting the technology-based performance requirements in subdivision 2 b (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection, would still contribute unacceptable stress to the protected species, critical habitat of those species, or species of concern;

(5) Select and implement design and construction technologies or operational measures for minimizing entrainment of entrainable life stages of fish and shellfish if:

(a) There are threatened or endangered or otherwise protected federal, state, or tribal species, or critical habitat for these species, within the hydraulic zone of influence of the cooling water intake structure; or

(b) Based on information submitted by any fishery management agency(ies) or other relevant information, there are or would be undesirable cumulative stressors affecting entrainable life stages of species of concern to the board department, and the board department determines that the proposed facility, after meeting the technology-based performance requirements in subdivision 2 b (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection, would contribute unacceptable stress to these species of concern;

(6) Submit the application information required in 9VAC25-31-100 Q and subdivision 4 b of this subsection;

(7) Implement the monitoring requirements specified in subdivision 5 of this subsection;

(8) Implement the record-keeping requirements specified in subdivision 6 of this subsection.

c. Track I requirements for new facilities that withdraw equal to or greater than two MGD and less than 10 MGD and that choose not to comply with subdivision 2 b of this subsection. Facilities must comply with all of the following requirements:

(1) Design and construct each cooling water intake structure at the facility to a maximum through-screen design intake velocity of 0.5 ft/s;

(2) Design and construct the cooling water intake structure such that the total design intake flow from all cooling water intake structures at the facility meets the following requirements:

(a) For cooling water intake structures located in a freshwater river or stream, the total design intake flow must be no greater than 5.0% of the source water annual mean flow;

(b) For cooling water intake structures located in a lake or reservoir, the total design intake flow must not disrupt the natural thermal stratification or turnover pattern (where present) of the source water except in cases where the disruption is determined to be beneficial to the management of fisheries for fish and shellfish by any fishery management agency(ies);

(c) For cooling water intake structures located in an estuary or tidal river, the total design intake flow over one tidal cycle of ebb and flow must be no greater than 1.0% of the volume of the water column within the area centered about the opening of the intake with a diameter defined by the distance of one tidal excursion at the mean low water level;

(3) Select and implement design and construction technologies or operational measures for minimizing impingement mortality of fish and shellfish if:

(a) There are threatened or endangered or otherwise protected federal, state, or tribal species, or critical habitat for these species, within the hydraulic zone of influence of the cooling water intake structure; or

(b) Based on information submitted by any fishery management agency(ies) or other relevant information there are migratory and/or sport or commercial species of impingement concern to the board department that pass through the hydraulic zone of influence of the cooling water intake structure; or

(c) It is determined by the board department, based on information submitted by any fishery management agency(ies) or other relevant information that the proposed facility, after meeting the technology-based performance requirements in subdivisions 2 c (1) and (2) of this subsection, would still contribute unacceptable stress to the protected species, critical habitat of those species, or species of concern;

(4) Select and implement design and construction technologies or operational measures for minimizing entrainment of entrainable life stages of fish and shellfish;

(5) Submit the application information required in 9VAC25-31-100 Q and 9VAC25-31-165 B 4;

(6) Implement the monitoring requirements specified in 9VAC25-31-165 B 5;

(7) Implement the recordkeeping requirements specified in 9VAC25-31-165 B 6.

d. Track II. The owner or operator of a new facility that chooses to comply under Track II must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Demonstrate to the board department that the technologies employed will reduce the level of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures to a comparable level to that which would be achieved using the requirements of subdivision 3 b (1) and (2) of this subsection. This demonstration must include a showing that the impacts to fish and shellfish, including important forage and predator species, within the watershed will be comparable to those that would result implementing the requirements of subdivisions 3 b (1) and (2) of this subsection. This showing may include consideration of impacts other than impingement mortality and entrainment, including measures that will result in increases in fish and shellfish, but it must demonstrate comparable performance for species that the board department identifies as species of concern. In identifying such species the board department may consider information provided by fishery management agencies with responsibility for fisheries potentially affected by the cooling water intake structure along with data and information from other sources.

(2) Design and construct the cooling water intake structure such that the total design intake flow from all cooling water intake structures at the facility meet the following requirements:

(a) For cooling water intake structures located in a freshwater river or stream, the total design intake flow must be no greater than 5.0% of the source water annual mean flow;

(b) For cooling water intake structures located in a lake or reservoir, the total design intake flow must not disrupt the natural thermal stratification or turnover pattern (where present) of the source water except in cases where the disruption is determined to be beneficial to the management of fisheries for fish and shellfish by any fishery management agency(ies);

(c) For cooling water intake structures located in an estuary or tidal river, the total design intake flow over one tidal cycle of ebb and flow must be no greater than 1.0% of the volume of the water column within the area centered about the opening of the intake with a diameter defined by the distance of one tidal excursion at the mean low water level.

(3) Submit the application information required in 9VAC25-31-100 Q and 9VAC25-31-165 B 4 c.

(4) Implement the monitoring requirements specified in 9VAC25-31-165 B 5.

(5) Implement the record-keeping requirements specified in 9VAC25-31-165 B 6.

e. The owner or operator of a new facility must comply with any more stringent requirements relating to the location, design, construction, and capacity of a cooling water intake structure or monitoring requirements at a new facility that the board department deems are reasonably necessary to comply with any provision of state law, including compliance with state water quality standards (including designated uses, criteria, and antidegradation requirements).

3. Alternative requirements.

a. Any interested person may request that alternative requirements less stringent than those specified in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 a through e be imposed in the permit. The board department may establish alternative requirements less stringent than the requirements of 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 a through e only if:

(1) There is an applicable requirement under 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 a through e;

(2) The board department determines that data specific to the facility indicate that compliance with the requirement at issue would result in compliance costs wholly out of proportion to those EPA considered in establishing the requirement at issue or would result in significant adverse impacts on local air quality, significant adverse impacts on local water resources other than impingement or entrainment, or significant adverse impacts on local energy markets;

(3) The alternative requirement requested is no less stringent than justified by the wholly out of proportion cost or the significant adverse impacts on local air quality, significant adverse impacts on local water resources other than impingement or entrainment, or significant adverse impacts on local energy markets; and

(4) The alternative requirement will ensure compliance with other applicable provisions of the Clean Water Act and state law.

b. The burden is on the person requesting the alternative requirement to demonstrate that alternative requirements should be authorized.

4. Application information requirements.

a. The owner or operator of a new facility must submit to the department:

(1) A statement of intention to comply with either:

(a) The Track I requirements for new facilities that withdraw equal to or greater than 10 MGD in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b;

(b) The Track I requirements for new facilities that withdraw equal to or greater than 2 MGD and less than 10 MGD in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 c or;

(c) The requirements for Track II in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 d.

(2) The owner or operator must also submit the application information required by 9VAC25-31-100 Q and the information required in either subdivision 4 b of this subsection for Track I or subdivision 4 c of this section for Track II when application is made for a new or reissued VPDES permit.

b. Track I application requirements. To demonstrate compliance with Track I requirements in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b or c, collect and submit to the department the information in subdivision 4 b (1) through (4) of this subsection.

(1) Flow reduction information. To comply with the flow reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1), submit the following information to demonstrate reduction of flow to a level commensurate with that which can be attained by a closed-cycle recirculating cooling water system:

(a) A narrative description of the system that has been designed to reduce intake flow to a level commensurate with that which can be attained by a closed-cycle recirculating cooling water system and any engineering calculations, including documentation demonstrating that make-up and blowdown flows have been minimized; and

(b) If the flow reduction requirement is met entirely, or in part, by reusing or recycling water withdrawn for cooling purposes in subsequent industrial processes, provide documentation that the amount of cooling water that is not reused or recycled has been minimized.

(2) Velocity information. Submit the following information to demonstrate compliance with the requirement to meet a maximum through-screen design intake velocity of no more than 0.5 ft/s at each cooling water intake structure:

(a) A narrative description of the design, structure, equipment, and operation used to meet the velocity requirement; and

(b) Design calculations showing that the velocity requirement will be met at minimum ambient source water surface elevations (based on best professional judgment using available hydrological data) and maximum head loss across the screens or other device.

(3) Source water body flow information. Submit the following information to demonstrate that the cooling water intake structure meets the flow requirements in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (3) and c (2):

(a) If the cooling water intake structure is located in a freshwater river or stream, provide the annual mean flow and any supporting documentation and engineering calculations to show that the cooling water intake structure meets the flow requirements;

(b) If the cooling water intake structure is located in an estuary or tidal river, provide the mean low water tidal excursion distance and any supporting documentation and engineering calculations to show that the cooling water intake structure facility meets the flow requirements; and

(c) If the cooling water intake structure is located in a lake or reservoir, provide a narrative description of the water body thermal stratification, and any supporting documentation and engineering calculations to show that the natural thermal stratification and turnover pattern will not be disrupted by the total design intake flow. In cases where the disruption is determined to be beneficial to the management of fisheries for fish and shellfish provide supporting documentation and include a written concurrence from any fisheries management agency(ies) with responsibility for fisheries potentially affected by the cooling water intake structure(s).

(4) Design and Construction Technology Plan. To comply with 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (4) and (5), or 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 c (3) and (4), submit the following information in a Design and Construction Technology Plan:

(a) Information to demonstrate whether or not the criteria in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (4) and b (5), or 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 c (3) and c (4) are met;

(b) Delineation of the hydraulic zone of influence for the cooling water intake structure;

(c) New facilities required to install design and construction technologies and/or operational measures must develop a plan explaining the technologies and measures selected based on information collected for the Source Water Biological Baseline Characterization required by 9VAC25-31-100 Q. (Examples of appropriate technologies include, but are not limited to, wedgewire screens, fine mesh screens, fish handling and return systems, barrier nets, aquatic filter barrier systems, etc. Examples of appropriate operational measures include, but are not limited to, seasonal shutdowns or reductions in flow, continuous operations of screens, etc.) The plan must contain the following information:

(i) A narrative description of the design and operation of the design and construction technologies, including fish-handling and return systems, that will be used to maximize the survival of those species expected to be most susceptible to impingement. Provide species-specific information that demonstrates the efficacy of the technology;

(ii) A narrative description of the design and operation of the design and construction technologies that will be used to minimize entrainment of those species expected to be the most susceptible to entrainment. Provide species-specific information that demonstrates the efficacy of the technology; and

(iii) Design calculations, drawings, and estimates to support the descriptions provided in 9VAC25-31-165 B 4 b (4) (c) (i) and (ii).

c. Application requirements for Track II. In order to with the requirements of Track II in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 d collect and submit the following information:

(1) Source water body flow information. Submit to the department the following information to demonstrate that the cooling water intake structure meets the source water body requirements in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 d (2):

(a) If the cooling water intake structure is located in a freshwater river or stream, provide the annual mean flow and any supporting documentation and engineering calculations to show that the cooling water intake structure meets the flow requirements;

(b) If the cooling water intake structure is located in an estuary or tidal river, provide the mean low water tidal excursion distance and any supporting documentation and engineering calculations to show that the cooling water intake structure facility meets the flow requirements; and

(c) If the cooling water intake structure is located in a lake or reservoir, provide a narrative description of the water body thermal stratification, and any supporting documentation and engineering calculations to show that the natural thermal stratification and thermal or turnover pattern will not be disrupted by the total design intake flow. In cases where the disruption is determined to be beneficial to the management of fisheries for fish and shellfish provide supporting documentation and include a written concurrence from any fisheries management agency(ies) with responsibility for fisheries potentially affected by the cooling water intake structure(s).

(2) Track II Comprehensive Demonstration Study. Perform and submit the results of a Comprehensive Demonstration Study (study). This information is required to characterize the source water baseline in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure(s), characterize operation of the cooling water intake(s), and to confirm that the technology(ies) proposed and/or implemented at the cooling water intake structure reduce the impacts to fish and shellfish to levels comparable to those achieved by implementation of the requirements in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1) and (2) of Track I. To demonstrate the "comparable level" requirement, include information showing that:

(a) Both impingement mortality and entrainment of all life stages of fish and shellfish are reduced by 90% or greater of the reduction that would be achieved through 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1) and (2); or

(b) If the demonstration includes consideration of impacts other than impingement mortality and entrainment, that the measures taken will maintain the fish and shellfish in the water body at a substantially similar level to that which would be achieved through 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1) and (2); and

(c) Develop and submit a plan to the department containing a proposal for how information will be collected to support the study. The plan must include:

(i) A description of the proposed and/or implemented technology(ies) to be evaluated in the study;

(ii) A list and description of any historical studies characterizing the physical and biological conditions in the vicinity of the proposed or actual intakes and their relevancy to the proposed study. If existing source water body data is used, it must be no more than five years old, demonstrated sufficient to develop a scientifically valid estimate of potential impingement and entrainment impacts, and include documentation that the data were collected using appropriate quality assurance/quality control procedures;

(iii) Any public participation or consultation with federal or state agencies undertaken in developing the plan; and

(iv) A sampling plan for data that will be collected using actual field studies in the source water body. The sampling plan must document all methods and quality assurance procedures for sampling, and data analysis. The sampling and data analysis methods proposed must be appropriate for a quantitative survey and based on consideration of methods used in other studies performed in the source water body. The sampling plan must include a description of the study area (including the area of influence of the cooling water intake structure and at least 100 meters beyond); taxonomic identification of the sampled or evaluated biological assemblages (including all life stages of fish and shellfish); and sampling and data analysis methods; and

(d) Submit documentation of the results of the study to the director. Documentation of the results of the study must include:

(i) Source Water Biological Study. The Source Water Biological Study must include a taxonomic identification and characterization of aquatic biological resources including a summary of historical and contemporary aquatic biological resources; determination and description of the target populations of concern (those species of fish and shellfish and all life stages that are most susceptible to impingement and entrainment); and a description of the abundance and temporal/spatial characterization of the target populations based on the collection of multiple years of data to capture the seasonal and daily activities (e.g., spawning, feeding and water column migration) of all life stages of fish and shellfish found in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure; an identification of all threatened or endangered species that might be susceptible to impingement and entrainment by the proposed cooling water intake structure(s); and a description of additional chemical, water quality, and other anthropogenic stresses on the source water body.

(ii) Evaluation of potential cooling water intake structure effects. This evaluation will include calculations of the reduction in impingement mortality and entrainment of all life stages of fish and shellfish that would need to be achieved by the technologies selected to implement requirements under Track II and an engineering estimate of efficacy for the proposed and/or implemented technologies used to minimize impingement mortality and entrainment of all life stages of fish and shellfish and maximize survival of impinged life stages of fish and shellfish, demonstrating that the technologies reduce impingement mortality and entrainment of all life stages of fish and shellfish to a comparable level to that which would be achieved implementing the requirements in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1) and (2) of Track I. The efficacy projection must include a site-specific evaluation of technology(ies) suitability for reducing impingement mortality and entrainment based on the results of the Source Water Biological Study. Efficacy estimates may be determined based on case studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of the cooling water intake structure and/or site-specific technology prototype studies.

(iii) Evaluation of proposed restoration measures. If restoration measures are proposed to maintain the fish and shellfish provide information and data to show coordination with the appropriate fishery management agency(ies) and a plan that provides a list of the measures to implement to demonstrate and continue to ensure that restoration measures will maintain the fish and shellfish in the water body to a substantially similar level to that which would be achieved through 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1) and (2).

(iv) Verification monitoring plan. Include in the study a plan to conduct, at a minimum, two years of monitoring to verify the full-scale performance of the proposed or implemented technologies or operational measures. The verification study must begin at the start of operations of the cooling water intake structure and continue for a sufficient period of time to demonstrate that the facility is reducing the level of impingement and entrainment to the level documented in 9VAC25-31-165 B 4 c (2) (d) (ii). The plan must describe the frequency of monitoring and the parameters to be monitored. The department will use the verification monitoring to confirm that the level of impingement mortality and entrainment reduction required in is met and that the operation of the technology has been optimized. Include a plan to conduct monitoring to verify that restoration measures will maintain the fish and shellfish in the water body to a substantially similar level as that which would be achieved through 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (1) and (2).

5. Monitoring. The owner or operator of a new facility will be required to perform monitoring to demonstrate compliance with the requirements specified in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2.

a. Biological monitoring. Monitor both impingement and entrainment of the commercial, recreational, and forage base fish and shellfish species identified in either the Source Water Baseline Biological Characterization data or the Comprehensive Demonstration Study, depending on whether compliance with Track I or Track II was chosen. The monitoring methods used must be consistent with those used for the Source Water Baseline Biological Characterization or the Comprehensive Demonstration Study. Follow the monitoring frequencies identified below for at least two years after the initial permit issuance.

(1) Impingement sampling. Collect samples to monitor impingement rates (simple enumeration) for each species over a 24-hour period and no less than once per month when the cooling water intake structure is in operation.

(2) Entrainment sampling. Collect samples to monitor entrainment rates (simple enumeration) for each species over a 24-hour period and no less than biweekly during the primary period of reproduction, larval recruitment, and peak abundance identified during the Source Water Baseline Biological Characterization or the Comprehensive Demonstration Study. Collect samples only when the cooling water intake structure is in operation.

b. Velocity monitoring. If the facility uses surface intake screen systems, monitor head loss across the screens and correlate the measured value with the design intake velocity. The head loss across the intake screen must be measured at the minimum ambient source water surface elevation (best professional judgment based on available hydrological data). The maximum head loss across the screen for each cooling water intake structure must be used to determine compliance with the velocity requirement in 9VAC25-31-165 B 2 b (2) or c (1). If the facility uses devices other than surface intake screens, monitor velocity at the point of entry through the device. Monitor head loss or velocity during initial facility startup, and thereafter, at the frequency specified in the VPDES permit.

c. Visual or remote inspections. Conduct visual inspections or employ remote monitoring devices during the period the cooling water intake structure is in operation. Conduct visual inspections at least weekly to ensure that any design and construction technologies are maintained and operated to ensure that they will continue to function as designed. Alternatively, inspect via remote monitoring devices to ensure that the impingement and entrainment technologies are functioning as designed.

6. Records and reporting. The owner or operator of a new facility is required to keep records and report information and data to the department as follows:

a. Keep records of all the data used to complete the permit application and show compliance with the requirements, any supplemental information developed under 9VAC25-31-165 B 4, and any compliance monitoring data submitted under 9VAC25-31-165 B 5, for a period of at least three years from the date of permit issuance. The department may require that these records be kept for a longer period.

b. Provide the following to the department in a yearly status report:

(1) Biological monitoring records for each cooling water intake structure as required by 9VAC25-31-165 B 5 a;

(2) Velocity and head loss monitoring records for each cooling water intake structure as required by 9VAC25-31-165 B 5 b; and

(3) Records of visual or remote inspections as required in 9VAC25-31-165 B 5 c.

C. Cooling water intake structures for existing facilities.

Existing facilities that are not subject to requirements under this section must meet requirements under section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act determined by the department on a case-by-case, best professional judgment (BPJ) basis.

9VAC25-31-170 General permits

A. The board may issue a general permit in accordance with the following:

1. The general permit shall be written to cover one or more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the permit under subdivision 2 b of this subsection, except those covered by individual permits, within a geographic area. The area should correspond to existing geographic or political boundaries, such as:

a. Designated planning areas under §§ 208 and 303 of the CWA;

b. Sewer districts or sewer authorities;

c. City, county, or state political boundaries;

d. State highway systems;

e. Standard metropolitan statistical areas as defined by the Office of Management and Budget;

f. Urbanized areas as designated by the Bureau of the Census according to criteria in 30 FR 15202 (May 1, 1974); or

g. Any other appropriate division or combination of boundaries.

2. The general permit may be written to regulate one or more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities, within the area described in subdivision 1 of this subsection, where the sources within a covered subcategory of discharges are either:

a. Stormwater point sources; or

b. One or more categories or subcategories of point sources other than stormwater point sources, or one or more categories or subcategories of treatment works treating domestic sewage, if the sources or treatment works treating domestic sewage within each category or subcategory all:

(1) Involve the same or substantially similar types of operations;

(2) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or disposal practices;

(3) Require the same effluent limitations, operating conditions, or standards for sewage sludge use or disposal;

(4) Require the same or similar monitoring; and

(5) In the opinion of the board, are more appropriately controlled under a general permit than under individual permits.

3. Where sources within a specific category of dischargers are subject to water quality-based limits imposed pursuant to 9VAC25-31-220, the sources in that specific category or subcategory shall be subject to the same water quality-based effluent limitations.

4. The general permit must clearly identify the applicable conditions for each category or subcategory of dischargers or treatment works treating domestic sewage covered by the permit.

5. The general permit may exclude specified sources or areas from coverage.

B. Administration.

1. General permits may be issued, modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated in accordance with applicable requirements of this chapter.

2. Authorization to discharge, or authorization to engage in sludge use and disposal practices.

a. Except as provided in subdivisions 2 e and 2 f of this subsection, dischargers (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) seeking coverage under a general permit shall submit to the department a written notice of intent to be covered by the general permit. A discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) who fails to submit a notice of intent in accordance with the terms of the permit is not authorized to discharge, (or in the case of a sludge disposal permit, to engage in a sludge use or disposal practice), under the terms of the general permit unless the general permit, in accordance with subdivision 2 e of this subsection, contains a provision that a notice of intent is not required or the board department notifies a discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) that it is covered by a general permit in accordance with subdivision 2 f of this subsection. A complete and timely notice of intent (NOI) to be covered in accordance with general permit requirements fulfills the requirements for permit applications for the purposes of this chapter. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all notices of intent submitted in compliance with this subsection shall be submitted electronically by the discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) to the department in compliance with this subsection and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, dischargers (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit.

b. The contents of the notice of intent shall be specified in the general permit and shall require the submission of information necessary for adequate program implementation, including at a minimum, the legal name and address of the owner or operator, the facility name and address, type of facility or discharges, and the receiving stream or streams and other required data elements as identified in Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 127, as adopted by reference in 9VAC25-31-1030. General permits for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining, inactive oil and gas operations, or inactive landfills occurring on federal lands where an operator cannot be identified may contain alternative notice of intent requirements. Notices of intent for coverage under a general permit for concentrated animal feeding operations must include the information specified in 9VAC25-31-100 J 1, including a topographic map. All notices of intent shall be signed in accordance with 9VAC25-31-110.

c. General permits shall specify the deadlines for submitting notices of intent to be covered and the date or dates when a discharger is authorized to discharge under the permit.

d. General permits shall specify whether a discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) that has submitted a complete and timely notice of intent to be covered in accordance with the general permit and that is eligible for coverage under the permit, is authorized to discharge, (or in the case of a sludge disposal permit, to engage in a sludge use or disposal practice), in accordance with the permit either upon receipt of the notice of intent by the department, after a waiting period specified in the general permit, on a date specified in the general permit, or upon receipt of notification of inclusion by the board department. Coverage may be terminated or revoked in accordance with subdivision 3 of this subsection.

e. Discharges other than discharges from publicly owned treatment works, combined sewer overflows, primary industrial facilities, and stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity, may, at the discretion of the board department, be authorized to discharge under a general permit without submitting a notice of intent where the board department finds that a notice of intent requirement would be inappropriate. In making such a finding, the board department shall consider: the type of discharge; the expected nature of the discharge; the potential for toxic and conventional pollutants in the discharges; the expected volume of the discharges; other means of identifying discharges covered by the permit; and the estimated number of discharges to be covered by the permit. The board department shall provide in the public notice of the general permit the reasons for not requiring a notice of intent.

f. The board department may notify a discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) that it is covered by a general permit, even if the discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) has not submitted a notice of intent to be covered. A discharger (or treatment works treating domestic sewage) so notified may request an individual permit under subdivision 3 c of this subsection.

g. A CAFO owner or operator may be authorized to discharge under a general permit only in accordance with the process described in subdivision C 4 of 9VAC25-31-130.

3. Requiring an individual permit.

a. The board department may require any discharger authorized by a general permit to apply for and obtain an individual VPDES permit. Any interested person may request the board department to take action under this subdivision. Cases where an individual VPDES permit may be required include the following:

(1) The discharger or treatment works treating domestic sewage is not in compliance with the conditions of the general VPDES permit;

(2) A change has occurred in the availability of demonstrated technology or practices for the control or abatement of pollutants applicable to the point source or treatment works treating domestic sewage;

(3) Effluent limitation guidelines are promulgated for point sources covered by the general VPDES permit;

(4) A water quality management plan containing requirements applicable to such point sources is approved;

(5) Circumstances have changed since the time of the request to be covered so that the discharger is no longer appropriately controlled under the general permit, or either a temporary or permanent reduction or elimination of the authorized discharge is necessary;

(6) Standards for sewage sludge use or disposal have been promulgated for the sludge use and disposal practice covered by the general VPDES permit; or

(7) The discharge is a significant contributor of pollutants. In making this determination, the board department may consider the following factors:

(a) The location of the discharge with respect to surface waters;

(b) The size of the discharge;

(c) The quantity and nature of the pollutants discharged to surface waters; and

(d) Other relevant factors.

b. Permits required on a case-by-case basis.

(1) The board department may determine, on a case-by-case basis, that certain concentrated animal feeding operations, concentrated aquatic animal production facilities, stormwater discharges, and certain other facilities covered by general permits that do not generally require an individual permit may be required to obtain an individual permit because of their contributions to water pollution.

(2) Whenever the board department decides that an individual permit is required under this subsection, except as provided in subdivision 3 b (3) of this subsection, the board department shall notify the discharger in writing of that decision and the reasons for it, and shall send an application form with the notice. The discharger must apply for a permit within 60 days of notice, unless permission for a later date is granted by the board department. The question whether the designation was proper will remain open for consideration during the public comment period for the draft permit and in any subsequent public hearing.

(3) Prior to a case-by-case determination that an individual permit is required for a stormwater discharge under this subsection, the board department may require the discharger to submit a permit application or other information regarding the discharge under the law and § 308 of the CWA. In requiring such information, the board department shall notify the discharger in writing and shall send an application form with the notice. The discharger must apply for a permit under 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 within 60 days of notice or under 9VAC25-31-120 A 7 within 180 days of notice, unless permission for a later date is granted by the board department. The question whether the initial designation was proper will remain open for consideration during the public comment period for the draft permit and in any subsequent public hearing.

c. Any owner or operator authorized by a general permit may request to be excluded from the coverage of the general permit by applying for an individual permit. The owner or operator shall submit an application under 9VAC25-31-100 with reasons supporting the request. The request shall be processed under the applicable parts of this chapter. The request shall be granted by issuing of an individual permit if the reasons cited by the owner or operator are adequate to support the request.

d. When an individual VPDES permit is issued to an owner or operator otherwise subject to a general VPDES permit, the applicability of the general permit to the individual VPDES permittee is automatically terminated on the effective date of the individual permit.

e. A source excluded from a general permit solely because it already has an individual permit may request that the individual permit be revoked, and that it be covered by the general permit. Upon revocation of the individual permit, the general permit shall apply to the source.

9VAC25-31-180 New sources and new dischargers

A. Criteria for new source determination.

1. Except as otherwise provided in an applicable new source performance standard, a source is a new source if it meets the definition of new source in this chapter, and

a. It is constructed at a site at which no other source is located; or

b. It totally replaces the process or production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or

c. Its processes are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these processes are substantially independent, the board department shall consider such factors as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant; and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source.

2. A source meeting the requirements of subdivisions 1 a, b, or c of this subsection is a new source only if a new source performance standard is independently applicable to it. If there is no such independently applicable standard, the source is a new discharger.

3. Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a permit modification subject to 9VAC25-31-390 rather than a new source (or a new discharger) if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria of subdivisions 1 b or c of this subsection but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production equipment.

4. Construction of a new source has commenced if the owner or operator has:

a. Begun, or caused to begin as part of a continuous on-site construction program:

(1) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or

(2) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation or removal of existing buildings, structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or

b. Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment which are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable time. Options to purchase or contracts which can be terminated or modified without substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility engineering, and design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under the paragraph.

B. Effect of compliance with new source performance standards. The provisions of this subsection do not apply to existing sources which modify their pollution control facilities or construct new pollution control facilities and achieve performance standards, but which are neither new sources or new dischargers or otherwise do not meet the requirements of this subdivision.

1. Except as provided in subdivision 2 of this subsection, any new discharger, the construction of which commenced after October 18, 1972, or new source which meets the applicable promulgated new source performance standards before the commencement of discharge, may not be subject to any more stringent new source performance standards or to any more stringent technology-based standards under § 301(b)(2) of the CWA for the soonest ending of the following periods:

a. Ten years from the date that construction is completed;

b. Ten years from the date the source begins to discharge process or other nonconstruction related wastewater; or

c. The period of depreciation or amortization of the facility for the purposes of §§ 167 or 169 (or both) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 USC 167 and 26 USC 169, respectively).

2. The protection from more stringent standards of performance afforded by subdivision 1 of this subsection does not apply to:

a. Additional or more stringent permit conditions which are not technology based; for example, conditions based on water quality standards, or toxic effluent standards or prohibitions under the law and § 307(a) of the CWA; or

b. Additional permit conditions controlling toxic pollutants or hazardous substances which are not controlled by new source performance standards. This includes permit conditions controlling pollutants other than those identified as toxic pollutants or hazardous substances when control of these pollutants has been specifically identified as the method to control the toxic pollutants or hazardous substances.

3. When a VPDES permit issued to a source with a protection period under subdivision 1 of this subsection will expire on or after the expiration of the protection period, that permit shall require the owner or operator of the source to comply with the requirements of § 301 of the CWA and any other then applicable requirements of the CWA and the law immediately upon the expiration of the protection period. No additional period for achieving compliance with these requirements may be allowed except when necessary to achieve compliance with requirements promulgated less than three years before the expiration of the protection period.

4. The owner or operator of a new source, a new discharger which commenced discharge after August 13, 1979, or a recommencing discharger shall install and have in operating condition, and shall start-up all pollution control equipment required to meet the conditions of its permits before beginning to discharge. Within the shortest feasible time (not to exceed 90 days), the owner or operator must meet all permit conditions. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply if the owner or operator is issued a permit containing a compliance schedule under 9VAC25-31-250 A 2.

5. After the effective date of new source performance standards, it shall be unlawful for any owner or operator of any new source to operate the source in violation of those standards applicable to the source.

9VAC25-31-190 Conditions applicable to all permits

The following conditions apply to all VPDES permits. Additional conditions applicable to VPDES permits are in 9VAC25-31-200. All conditions applicable to VPDES permits shall be incorporated into the permits either expressly or by reference. If incorporated by reference, a specific citation to this regulation must be given in the permit.

A. The permittee must comply with all conditions of the permit. Any permit noncompliance constitutes a violation of the law and the CWA, except that noncompliance with certain provisions of the permit may constitute a violation of the law but not the CWA. Permit noncompliance is grounds for enforcement action; for permit termination, revocation and reissuance, or modification; or denial of a permit renewal application.

The permittee shall comply with effluent standards or prohibitions established under § 307(a) of the CWA for toxic pollutants and with standards for sewage sludge use or disposal established under § 405(d) of the CWA within the time provided in the chapters that establish these standards or prohibitions or standards for sewage sludge use or disposal, even if the permit has not yet been modified to incorporate the requirement.

B. If the permittee wishes to continue an activity regulated by the permit after the expiration date of the permit, the permittee must apply for and obtain a new permit.

C. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the permitted activity in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of the permit.

D. The permittee shall take all reasonable steps to minimize or prevent any discharge or sludge use or disposal in violation of the permit which has a reasonable likelihood of adversely affecting human health or the environment.

E. The permittee shall at all times properly operate and maintain all facilities and systems of treatment and control (and related appurtenances) that are installed or used by the permittee to achieve compliance with the conditions of the permit. Proper operation and maintenance also includes adequate laboratory controls and appropriate quality assurance procedures. This provision requires the operation of back-up or auxiliary facilities or similar systems that are installed by a permittee only when the operation is necessary to achieve compliance with the conditions of the permit.

F. Permits may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated for cause. The filing of a request by the permittee for a permit modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination, or a notification of planned changes or anticipated noncompliance does not stay any permit condition.

G. Permits do not convey any property rights of any sort, or any exclusive privilege.

H. The permittee shall furnish to the department, within a reasonable time, any information that the board department may request to determine whether cause exists for modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating the permit or to determine compliance with the permit. The board department may require the permittee to furnish, upon request, such plans, specifications, and other pertinent information as may be necessary to determine the effect of the wastes from the permittee's discharge on the quality of state waters, or such other information as may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of the law. The permittee shall also furnish to the department upon request, copies of records required to be kept by the permit.

I. The permittee shall allow the director, or an authorized representative (including an authorized contractor acting as a representative of the administrator), upon presentation of credentials and other documents as may be required by law, to:

1. Enter upon the permittee's premises where a regulated facility or activity is located or conducted, or where records must be kept under the conditions of the permit;

2. Have access to and copy, at reasonable times, any records that must be kept under the conditions of the permit;

3. Inspect at reasonable times any facilities, equipment (including monitoring and control equipment), practices, or operations regulated or required under the permit; and

4. Sample or monitor at reasonable times, for the purposes of assuring permit compliance or as otherwise authorized by the CWA and the law, any substances or parameters at any location.

J. Monitoring and records.

1. Samples and measurements taken for the purpose of monitoring shall be representative of the monitored activity.

2. Except for records of monitoring information required by the permit related to the permittee's sewage sludge use and disposal activities, which shall be retained for a period of at least five years (or longer as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter), the permittee shall retain records of all monitoring information, including all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip chart recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, copies of all reports required by the permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the permit, for a period of at least three years from the date of the sample, measurement, report or application. This period of retention shall be extended automatically during the course of any unresolved litigation regarding the regulated activity or regarding control standards applicable to the permittee, or as requested by the board department.

3. Records of monitoring information shall include:

a. The date, exact place, and time of sampling or measurements;

b. The individual who performed the sampling or measurements;

c. The date analyses were performed;

d. The individual who performed the analyses;

e. The analytical techniques or methods used; and

f. The results of such analyses.

4. Monitoring results must be conducted according to test procedures approved under 40 CFR Part 136 or alternative EPA approved methods; or, in the case of sludge use or disposal, approved under 40 CFR Part 136 unless otherwise specified in Part VI of this chapter, unless other test procedures have been specified in the permit.

5. Samples taken shall be analyzed by a laboratory certified under 1VAC30-45, Certification for Noncommercial Environmental Laboratories, or 1VAC30-46, Accreditation for Commercial Environmental Laboratories.

K. All applications, reports, or information submitted to the department shall be signed and certified as required by 9VAC25-31-110.

L. Reporting requirements.

1. The permittee shall give notice to the department as soon as possible of any planned physical alterations or additions to the permitted facility. Notice is required only when:

a. The alteration or addition to a permitted facility may meet one of the criteria for determining whether a facility is a new source in 9VAC25-31-180 A;

b. The alteration or addition could significantly change the nature or increase the quantity of pollutants discharged. This notification applies to pollutants which are subject neither to effluent limitations in the permit, nor to notification requirements under 9VAC25-31-200 A 1; or

c. The alteration or addition results in a significant change in the permittee's sludge use or disposal practices, and such alteration, addition, or change may justify the application of permit conditions that are different from or absent in the existing permit, including notification of additional use or disposal sites not reported during the permit application process or not reported pursuant to an approved land application plan.

2. The permittee shall give advance notice to the department of any planned changes in the permitted facility or activity which may result in noncompliance with permit requirements.

3. Permits are not transferable to any person except after notice to the department. The board department may require modification or revocation and reissuance of permits to change the name of the permittee and incorporate such other requirements as may be necessary under the law or the CWA.

4. Monitoring results shall be reported at the intervals specified in the permit.

a. Monitoring results must be reported on a Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) or forms provided or specified by the department for reporting results of monitoring of sludge use or disposal practices. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all reports and forms submitted in compliance with this subdivision 4 shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subdivision 4 and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, permittees may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit.

b. If the permittee monitors any pollutant specifically addressed by the permit more frequently than required by the permit using test procedures approved under 40 CFR Part 136 or, in the case of sludge use or disposal, approved under 40 CFR Part 136 unless otherwise specified in Part VI of this chapter, or as specified in the permit, the results of this monitoring shall be included in the calculation and reporting of the data submitted in the DMR or sludge reporting form specified by the department.

c. Calculations for all limitations which require averaging of measurements shall utilize an arithmetic mean unless otherwise specified in the permit.

5. Reports of compliance or noncompliance with, or any progress reports on, interim and final requirements contained in any compliance schedule of the permit shall be submitted no later than 14 days following each schedule date.

6. If any unusual or extraordinary discharge including a bypass or upset should occur from a facility and such discharge enters or could be expected to enter state waters, the owner shall promptly notify, in no case later than 24 hours, the department by telephone after the discovery of such discharge. This notification shall provide all available details of the incident, including any adverse effects on aquatic life and the known number of fish killed. The permittee shall reduce the report to writing and shall submit it to the department within five days of discovery of the discharge in accordance with subdivision 7 a of this subsection. Unusual and extraordinary discharges include but are not limited to any discharge resulting from:

a. Unusual spillage of materials resulting directly or indirectly from processing operations;

b. Breakdown of processing or accessory equipment;

c. Failure or taking out of service of the treatment plant or auxiliary facilities (such as sewer lines or wastewater pump stations); and

d. Flooding or other acts of nature.

7. Twenty-four hour and five-day reporting.

a. The permittee shall report any noncompliance that may endanger health or the environment. Any information shall be provided orally within 24 hours from the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. A report in a format required by the department shall also be provided within five days of the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. The five-day report shall contain a description of the noncompliance and its cause; the period of noncompliance, including exact dates and times, and if the noncompliance has not been corrected, the anticipated time it is expected to continue; and steps taken or planned to reduce, eliminate, and prevent reoccurrence of the noncompliance.

(1) For noncompliance events related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events, these reports must include the data described in subdivision 7 a of this subsection with the exception of time of discovery, as well as the type of event (i.e., combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events); type of sewer overflow structure (e.g., manhole, combine sewer overflow outfall); discharge volumes untreated by the treatment works treating domestic sewage; types of human health and environmental impacts of the sewer overflow event; and whether the noncompliance was related to wet weather.

(2) As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all reports related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events submitted in compliance with this subdivision 7 shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subdivision 7 and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, permittees may be required to electronically submit reports related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events under this subdivision by a particular permit.

(3) The director may also require permittees to electronically submit reports not related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events under this subdivision.

b. The following shall be reported within 24 hours under this subdivision:

(1) Any unanticipated bypass that exceeds any effluent limitation in the permit.

(2) Any upset that exceeds any effluent limitation in the permit.

(3) Violation of a maximum daily discharge limitation for any of the pollutants listed in the permit to be reported within 24 hours.

c. The board department may waive the five-day report on a case-by-case basis for reports under this subdivision if the oral report has been received within 24 hours.

8. The permittee shall report all instances of noncompliance not reported under subdivisions 4, 5, 6, and 7 of this subsection, in a format required by the department at the time the next monitoring reports are submitted. The reports shall contain the information listed in subdivision 7 of this subsection.

a. For noncompliance events related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events, these reports shall contain the information described in subdivision 7 a of this subsection and the applicable required data in Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 127 as adopted by reference in 9VAC25-31-1030.

b. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all reports related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events submitted in compliance with this subdivision 8 shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subdivision 8 and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, permittees may be required to electronically submit reports related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events under this section by a particular permit.

c. The director may also require permittees to electronically submit reports not related to combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows, or bypass events under this section.

9. Where the permittee becomes aware that it failed to submit any relevant facts in a permit application, or submitted incorrect information in a permit application or in any report to the department, it shall promptly submit such facts or information.

10. The owner, operator, or the duly authorized representative of an VPDES-regulated entity is required to electronically submit the required information, as specified in Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 127 as adopted by reference in 9VAC25-31-1030, to the department.

M. Bypass.

1. The permittee may allow any bypass to occur which does not cause effluent limitations to be exceeded, but only if it also is for essential maintenance to assure efficient operation. These bypasses are not subject to the provisions of subdivisions 2 and 3 of this subsection.

2. Notice.

a. Anticipated bypass. If the permittee knows in advance of the need for a bypass, it shall submit prior notice, if possible at least 10 days before the date of the bypass. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all notices submitted in compliance with this subdivision shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subdivision and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, permittees may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit.

b. Unanticipated bypass. The permittee shall submit notice of an unanticipated bypass as required in subdivision L 7 of this section. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all notices submitted in compliance with this subdivision shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subdivision and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, permittees may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit.

3. Prohibition of bypass.

a. Bypass is prohibited, and the board department may take enforcement action against a permittee for bypass, unless:

(1) Bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life, personal injury, or severe property damage;

(2) There were no feasible alternatives to the bypass, such as the use of auxiliary treatment facilities, retention of untreated wastes, or maintenance during normal periods of equipment downtime. This condition is not satisfied if adequate back-up equipment should have been installed in the exercise of reasonable engineering judgment to prevent a bypass which occurred during normal periods of equipment downtime or preventive maintenance; and

(3) The permittee submitted notices as required under subdivision 2 of this subsection.

b. The board department may approve an anticipated bypass, after considering its adverse effects, if the board department determines that it will meet the three conditions listed above in subdivision 3 a of this subsection.

N. Upset.

1. An upset constitutes an affirmative defense to an action brought for noncompliance with such technology based permit effluent limitations if the requirements of subdivision 2 of this subsection are met. No determination made during administrative review of claims that noncompliance was caused by upset, and before an action for noncompliance, is final administrative action subject to judicial review.

2. A permittee who wishes to establish the affirmative defense of upset shall demonstrate, through properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs, or other relevant evidence that:

a. An upset occurred and that the permittee can identify the cause or causes of the upset;

b. The permitted facility was at the time being properly operated;

c. The permittee submitted notice of the upset as required in subdivision L 7 b (2) of this section (24-hour notice); and

d. The permittee complied with any remedial measures required under subsection D of this section.

3. In any enforcement proceeding the permittee seeking to establish the occurrence of an upset has the burden of proof.

9VAC25-31-200 Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of VPDES permits

The following conditions, in addition to those set forth in 9VAC25-31-190, apply to all VPDES permits within the categories specified below:

A. Existing manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers. All existing manufacturing, commercial, mining, and silvicultural dischargers must notify the department as soon as they know or have reason to believe:

1. That any activity has occurred or will occur which would result in the discharge, on a routine or frequent basis, of any toxic pollutant that is not limited in the permit, if that discharge will exceed the highest of the following notification levels:

a. One hundred micrograms per liter (100 μg/l);

b. Two hundred micrograms per liter (200 μg/l) for acrolein and acrylonitrile; five hundred micrograms per liter (500 μg/l) for 2,4-dinitrophenol and for 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol; and one milligram per liter (1 mg/l) for antimony;

c. Five times the maximum concentration value reported for that pollutant in the permit application; or

d. The level established by the board department in accordance with 9VAC25-31-220 F.

2. That any activity has occurred or will occur which would result in any discharge, on a nonroutine or infrequent basis, of a toxic pollutant that is not limited in the permit, if that discharge will exceed the highest of the following notification levels:

a. Five hundred micrograms per liter (500 μg/l);

b. One milligram per liter (1 mg/l) for antimony;

c. Ten times the maximum concentration value reported for that pollutant in the permit application; or

d. The level established by the board department in accordance with 9VAC25-31-220 F.

B. Publicly and privately owned treatment works. All POTWs and PVOTWs must provide adequate notice to the department of the following:

1. Any new introduction of pollutants into the POTW or PVOTW from an indirect discharger that would be subject to § 301 or 306 of the CWA and the law if it were directly discharging those pollutants; and

2. Any substantial change in the volume or character of pollutants being introduced into that POTW or PVOTW by a source introducing pollutants into the POTW or PVOTW at the time of issuance of the permit.

3. For purposes of this subsection, adequate notice shall include information on (i) the quality and quantity of effluent introduced into the POTW or PVOTW, and (ii) any anticipated impact of the change on the quantity or quality of effluent to be discharged from the POTW or PVOTW.

4. When the monthly average flow influent to a POTW or PVOTW reaches 95% of the design capacity authorized by the VPDES permit for each month of any three-month period, the owner shall within 30 days notify the department in writing and within 90 days submit a plan of action for ensuring continued compliance with the terms of the permit.

a. The plan shall include the necessary steps and a prompt schedule of implementation for controlling any current problem, or any problem which could be reasonably anticipated, resulting from high influent flows.

b. Upon receipt of the owner's plan of action, the board department shall notify the owner whether the plan is approved or disapproved. If the plan is disapproved, such notification shall state the reasons and specify the actions necessary to obtain approval of the plan.

c. Failure to timely submit an adequate plan shall be deemed a violation of the permit.

d. Nothing herein shall in any way impair the authority of the board department to take enforcement action under § 62.1-44.15, 62.1-44.23, or 62.1-44.32 of the Code of Virginia.

C. Wastewater works operator requirements.

1. The permittee shall employ or contract at least one wastewater works operator who holds a current wastewater license appropriate for the permitted facility. The license shall be issued in accordance with Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia and Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators Licensing Regulations (18VAC160-30). Notwithstanding the foregoing requirement, unless the discharge is determined by the board department on a case-by-case basis to be a potential contributor of pollution, no licensed operator is required for wastewater treatment works:

a. That have a design hydraulic capacity equal to or less than 0.04 mgd;

b. That discharge industrial waste or other waste from coal mining operations; or

c. That do not utilize biological or physical/chemical treatment.

2. In making this case-by-case determination, the board department shall consider the location of the discharge with respect to state waters, the size of the discharge, the quantity and nature of pollutants reaching state waters and the treatment methods used at the wastewater works.

3. The permittee shall notify the department in writing whenever he is not complying, or has grounds for anticipating he will not comply with the requirements of subdivision 1 of this subsection. The notification shall include a statement of reasons and a prompt schedule for achieving compliance.

D. Lake level contingency plans. Any VPDES permit issued for a surface water impoundment whose primary purpose is to provide cooling water to power generators shall include a lake level contingency plan to allow specific reductions in the flow required to be released when the water level above the dam drops below designated levels due to drought conditions, and such plan shall take into account and minimize any adverse effects of any release reduction requirements on downstream users. This subsection shall not apply to any such facility that addresses releases and flow requirements during drought conditions in a Virginia Water Protection Permit.

E. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The activities of the CAFO shall not contravene the Water Quality Standards, as amended and adopted by the board, or any provision of the State Water Control Law. There shall be no point source discharge of manure, litter or process wastewater to surface waters of the state except in the case of an overflow caused by a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm. Agricultural stormwater discharges as defined in subdivision C 3 of 9VAC25-31-130 are permitted. Domestic sewage or industrial waste shall not be managed under the Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit for CAFOs (9VAC25-191). Any permit issued to a CAFO shall include:

1. Requirements to develop, implement and comply with a nutrient management plan. At a minimum, a nutrient management plan shall include best management practices and procedures necessary to implement applicable effluent limitations and standards. Permitted CAFOs must have their nutrient management plans developed and implemented and be in compliance with the nutrient management plan as a requirement of the permit. The nutrient management plan must, to the extent applicable:

a. Ensure adequate storage of manure, litter, and process wastewater, including procedures to ensure proper operation and maintenance of the storage facilities;

b. Ensure proper management of mortalities (i.e., dead animals) to ensure that they are not disposed of in a liquid manure, stormwater, or process wastewater storage or treatment system that is not specifically designed to treat animal mortalities;

c. Ensure that clean water is diverted, as appropriate, from the production area;

d. Prevent direct contact of confined animals with surface waters of the state;

e. Ensure that chemicals and other contaminants handled on site are not disposed of in any manure, litter, process wastewater, or stormwater storage or treatment system unless specifically designed to treat such chemicals and other contaminants;

f. Identify appropriate site specific conservation practices to be implemented, including as appropriate buffers or equivalent practices, to control runoff of pollutants to surface waters of the state;

g. Identify protocols for appropriate testing of manure, litter, process wastewater and soil;

h. Establish protocols to land apply manure, litter or process wastewater in accordance with site specific nutrient management practices that ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter or process wastewater; and

i. Identify specific records that will be maintained to document the implementation and management of the minimum elements described above.

2. Recordkeeping requirements. The permittee must create, maintain for five years, and make available to the director upon request the following records:

a. All applicable records identified pursuant to subdivision 1 i of this subsection;

b. In addition, all CAFOs subject to EPA Effluent Guidelines for Feedlots (40 CFR Part 412) must comply with recordkeeping requirements as specified in 40 CFR 412.37(b) and (c) and 40 CFR 412.47(b) and (c);

A copy of the CAFO's site-specific nutrient management plan must be maintained on site and made available to the director upon request.

3. Requirements relating to transfer of manure or process wastewater to other persons. Prior to transferring manure, litter or process wastewater to other persons, large CAFOs must provide the recipient of the manure, litter or process wastewater with the most current nutrient analysis. The analysis provided must be consistent with the requirements of EPA Effluent Guidelines for Feedlots (40 CFR Part 412). Large CAFOs must retain for five years records of the date, recipient name and address, and approximate amount of manure, litter, or process wastewater transferred to another person.

4. Annual reporting requirements for CAFOs. The permittee must submit an annual report to the director. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all annual reports submitted in compliance with this subsection shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subsection and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, the permittee may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit. The annual report must include:

a. The number and type of animals, whether in open confinement or housed under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55 pounds, mature dairy cows, dairy heifers, veal calves, sheep and lambs, horses, ducks, turkeys, other);

b. Estimated amount of total manure, litter and process wastewater generated by the CAFO in the previous 12 months (tons/gallons);

c. Estimated amount of total manure, litter and process wastewater transferred to other persons by the CAFO in the previous 12 months (tons/gallons);

d. Total number of acres for land application covered by the nutrient management plan developed in accordance with subdivision 1 of this subsection;

e. Total number of acres under control of the CAFO that were used for land application of manure, litter and process wastewater in the previous 12 months;

f. Summary of all manure, litter, and process wastewater discharges from the production area that occurred in the previous 12 months including for each discharge the date of discovery, duration of discharge, and approximate volume;

g. A statement indicating whether the current version of the CAFO's nutrient management plan was developed or approved by a certified nutrient management planner; and

h. The actual crops planted and actual yield for each field, the actual nitrogen and phosphorus content of the manure, litter, and process wastewater, the results of calculations conducted in accordance with subdivisions 5 a (2) and 5 b (4) of this subsection, and the amount of manure, litter, and process wastewater applied to each field during the previous 12 months; and, for any CAFO that implements a nutrient management plan that addresses rates of application in accordance with subdivision 5 b of this subsection, the results of any soil testing for nitrogen and phosphorus taken during the preceding 12 months, the data used in calculations conducted in accordance with subdivision 5 b (4) of this subsection, and the amount of any supplemental fertilizer applied during the previous 12 months.

5. Terms of the nutrient management plan. Any permit issued to a CAFO shall require compliance with the terms of the CAFO's site-specific nutrient management plan. The terms of the nutrient management plan are the information, protocols, best management practices, and other conditions in the nutrient management plan determined by the board department to be necessary to meet the requirements of subdivision 1 of this subsection. The terms of the nutrient management plan, with respect to protocols for land application of manure, litter, or process wastewater required by subdivision 4 h of this subsection and, as applicable, 40 CFR 412.4(c), shall include the fields available for land application; field-specific rates of application properly developed, as specified in subdivisions 5 a and b of this subsection, to ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter, or process wastewater; and any timing limitations identified in the nutrient management plan concerning land application on the fields available for land application. The terms shall address rates of application using one of the following two approaches, unless the board department specifies that only one of these approaches may be used:

a. Linear approach. An approach that expresses rates of application as pounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, according to the following specifications:

(1) The terms include maximum application rates from manure, litter, and process wastewater for each year of permit coverage, for each crop identified in the nutrient management plan, in chemical forms determined to be acceptable to the board department, in pounds per acre, per year, for each field to be used for land application, and certain factors necessary to determine such rates. At a minimum, the factors that are terms shall include: the outcome of the field-specific assessment of the potential for nitrogen and phosphorus transport from each field; the crops to be planted in each field or any other uses of a field such as pasture or fallow fields; the realistic yield goal for each crop or use identified for each field; the nitrogen and phosphorus recommendations from sources specified by the board department for each crop or use identified for each field; credits for all nitrogen in the field that will be plant available; consideration of multi-year phosphorus application; and accounting for all other additions of plant available nitrogen and phosphorus to the field. In addition, the terms include the form and source of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land-applied; the timing and method of land application; and the methodology by which the nutrient management plan accounts for the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied.

(2) Large CAFOs that use this approach shall calculate the maximum amount of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied at least once each year using the results of the most recent representative manure, litter, and process wastewater tests for nitrogen and phosphorus taken within 12 months of the date of land application; or

b. Narrative rate approach. An approach that expresses rates of application as a narrative rate of application that results in the amount, in tons or gallons, of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied, according to the following specifications:

(1) The terms include maximum amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus derived from all sources of nutrients, for each crop identified in the nutrient management plan, in chemical forms determined to be acceptable to the board department, in pounds per acre, for each field, and certain factors necessary to determine such amounts. At a minimum, the factors that are terms shall include: the outcome of the field-specific assessment of the potential for nitrogen and phosphorus transport from each field; the crops to be planted in each field or any other uses such as pasture or fallow fields (including alternative crops identified in accordance with subdivision 5 b (2) of this subsection); the realistic yield goal for each crop or use identified for each field; and the nitrogen and phosphorus recommendations from sources specified by the board department for each crop or use identified for each field. In addition, the terms include the methodology by which the nutrient management plan accounts for the following factors when calculating the amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied: results of soil tests conducted in accordance with protocols identified in the nutrient management plan, as required by subdivision 1 g of this subsection; credits for all nitrogen in the field that will be plant available; the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied; consideration of multi-year phosphorus application; accounting for all other additions of plant available nitrogen and phosphorus to the field; the form and source of manure, litter, and process wastewater; the timing and method of land application; and volatilization of nitrogen and mineralization of organic nitrogen.

(2) The terms of the nutrient management plan include alternative crops identified in the CAFO's nutrient management plan that are not in the planned crop rotation. Where a CAFO includes alternative crops in its nutrient management plan, the crops shall be listed by field, in addition to the crops identified in the planned crop rotation for that field, and the nutrient management plan shall include realistic crop yield goals and the nitrogen and phosphorus recommendations from sources specified by the board department for each crop. Maximum amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from all sources of nutrients and the amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied shall be determined in accordance with the methodology described in subdivision 5 b (1) of this subsection.

(3) For CAFOs using this approach, the following projections shall be included in the nutrient management plan submitted to the board department, but are not terms of the nutrient management plan: the CAFO's planned crop rotations for each field for the period of permit coverage; the projected amount of manure, litter, or process wastewater to be applied; projected credits for all nitrogen in the field that will be plant available; consideration of multi-year phosphorus application; accounting for all other additions of plant available nitrogen and phosphorus to the field; and the predicted form, source, and method of application of manure, litter, and process wastewater for each crop. Timing of application for each field, insofar as it concerns the calculation of rates of application, is not a term of the nutrient management plan.

(4) CAFOs that use this approach shall calculate maximum amounts of manure, litter, and process wastewater to be land applied at least once each year using the methodology required in subdivision 5 b (1) of this subsection before land applying manure, litter, and process wastewater and shall rely on the following data:

(a) A field-specific determination of soil levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, including, for nitrogen, a concurrent determination of nitrogen that will be plant available consistent with the methodology required by subdivision 5 b (1) of this subsection, and for phosphorus, the results of the most recent soil test conducted in accordance with soil testing requirements approved by the board department; and

(b) The results of most recent representative manure, litter, and process wastewater tests for nitrogen and phosphorus taken within 12 months of the date of land application, in order to determine the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the manure, litter, and process wastewater to be applied.

9VAC25-31-210 Establishing permit conditions

A. In addition to conditions required in all permits, the board department shall establish conditions, as required on a case-by-case basis, to provide for and assure compliance with all applicable requirements of the law, the CWA and regulations. These shall include conditions under 9VAC25-31-240 (duration of permits), 9VAC25-31-250 (schedules of compliance), 9VAC25-31-220 (monitoring), electronic reporting requirements of 40 CFR Part 3 and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. 1. An applicable requirement is a state statutory or regulatory requirement which takes effect prior to final administrative disposition of a permit. An applicable requirement is also any requirement which takes effect prior to the modification or revocation and reissuance of a permit, to the extent allowed in Part V of this chapter.

2. New or reissued permits, and to the extent allowed under Part V of this chapter modified or revoked and reissued permits, shall incorporate each of the applicable requirements referenced in 9VAC25-31-220 and 9VAC25-31-230.

C. All permit conditions shall be incorporated either expressly or by reference. If incorporated by reference, a specific citation to the applicable regulations or requirements must be given in the permit.

9VAC25-31-220 Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions

In addition to the conditions established under 9VAC25-31-210 A, each VPDES permit shall include conditions meeting the following requirements when applicable.

A. 1. Technology-based effluent limitations and standards based on effluent limitations and standards promulgated under § 301 of the CWA, on new source performance standards promulgated under § 306 of CWA, on case-by-case effluent limitations determined under § 402(a)(1) of CWA, or a combination of the three. For new sources or new dischargers, these technology-based limitations and standards are subject to the provisions of 9VAC25-31-180 B (protection period).

2. The board department may authorize a discharger subject to technology-based effluent limitations guidelines and standards in a VPDES permit to forego sampling of a pollutant found at 40 CFR Subchapter N if the discharger has demonstrated through sampling and other technical factors that the pollutant is not present in the discharge or is present only at background levels from intake water and without any increase in the pollutant due to activities of the discharger. This waiver is good only for the term of the permit and is not available during the term of the first permit issued to a discharger. Any request for this waiver must be submitted when applying for a reissued permit or modification of a reissued permit. The request must demonstrate through sampling or other technical information, including information generated during an earlier permit term, that the pollutant is not present in the discharge or is present only at background levels from intake water and without any increase in the pollutant due to activities of the discharger. Any grant of the monitoring waiver must be included in the permit as an express permit condition and the reasons supporting the grant must be documented in the permit's fact sheet or statement of basis. This provision does not supersede certification processes and requirements already established in existing effluent limitations guidelines and standards.

B. Other effluent limitations and standards.

1. Other effluent limitations and standards under §§ 301, 302, 303, 307, 318, and 405 of the CWA. If any applicable toxic effluent standard or prohibition (including any schedule of compliance specified in such effluent standard or prohibition) is promulgated under § 307(a) of the CWA for a toxic pollutant and that standard or prohibition is more stringent than any limitation on the pollutant in the permit, the board department shall institute proceedings under this chapter to modify or revoke and reissue the permit to conform to the toxic effluent standard or prohibition.

2. Standards for sewage sludge use or disposal under § 405(d) of the CWA and Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter unless those standards have been included in a permit issued under the appropriate provisions of Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), Part C of Safe Drinking Water Act (42 USC § 300f et seq.), the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (33 USC § 1401 et seq.), or the Clean Air Act (42 USC § 4701 et seq.), or in another permit issued by the Department of Environmental Quality or any other appropriate state agency under another permit program approved by the administrator. When there are no applicable standards for sewage sludge use or disposal, the permit may include requirements developed on a case-by-case basis to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effects which may occur from toxic pollutants in sewage sludge. If any applicable standard for sewage sludge use or disposal is promulgated under § 405(d) of the CWA and that standard is more stringent than any limitation on the pollutant or practice in the permit, the board department may initiate proceedings under this chapter to modify or revoke and reissue the permit to conform to the standard for sewage sludge use or disposal.

3. Requirements applicable to cooling water intake structures at new facilities under § 316 (b) of the CWA, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-165.

C. Reopener clause. For any permit issued to a treatment works treating domestic sewage (including sludge-only facilities), the board department shall include a reopener clause to incorporate any applicable standard for sewage sludge use or disposal promulgated under § 405(d) of the CWA. The board department may promptly modify or revoke and reissue any permit containing the reopener clause required by this subdivision if the standard for sewage sludge use or disposal is more stringent than any requirements for sludge use or disposal in the permit, or controls a pollutant or practice not limited in the permit.

D. Water quality standards and state requirements. Any requirements in addition to or more stringent than promulgated effluent limitations guidelines or standards under §§ 301, 304, 306, 307, 318, and 405 of the CWA necessary to:

1. Achieve water quality standards established under the law and § 303 of the CWA, including state narrative criteria for water quality.

a. Limitations must control all pollutants or pollutant parameters (either conventional, nonconventional, or toxic pollutants) which the board department determines are or may be discharged at a level which will cause, have the reasonable potential to cause, or contribute to an excursion above any Virginia water quality standard, including Virginia narrative criteria for water quality.

b. When determining whether a discharge causes, has the reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an in-stream excursion above a narrative or numeric criteria within a Virginia water quality standard, the board department shall use procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability of the pollutant or pollutant parameter in the effluent, the sensitivity of the species to toxicity testing (when evaluating whole effluent toxicity), and where appropriate, the dilution of the effluent in the receiving water.

c. When the board department determines, using the procedures in subdivision 1 b of this subsection, that a discharge causes, has the reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an in-stream excursion above the allowable ambient concentration of a Virginia numeric criteria within a Virginia water quality standard for an individual pollutant, the permit must contain effluent limits for that pollutant.

d. Except as provided in this subdivision, when the board department determines, using the procedures in subdivision 1 b of this subsection, toxicity testing data, or other information, that a discharge causes, has the reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an in-stream excursion above a narrative criterion within an applicable Virginia water quality standard, the permit must contain effluent limits for whole effluent toxicity. Limits on whole effluent toxicity are not necessary where the board department demonstrates in the fact sheet or statement of basis of the VPDES permit, using the procedures in subdivision 1 b of this subsection, that chemical-specific limits for the effluent are sufficient to attain and maintain applicable numeric and narrative Virginia water quality standards.

e. Where Virginia has not established a water quality criterion for a specific chemical pollutant that is present in an effluent at a concentration that causes, has the reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an excursion above a narrative criterion within an applicable Virginia water quality standard, the board department must establish effluent limits using one or more of the following options:

(1) Establish effluent limits using a calculated numeric water quality criterion for the pollutant which the board department demonstrates will attain and maintain applicable narrative water quality criteria and will fully protect the designated use. Such a criterion may be derived using a proposed Virginia criterion, or an explicit policy or regulation interpreting Virginia's narrative water quality criterion, supplemented with other relevant information which may include: EPA's Water Quality Standards Handbook, August 1994, risk assessment data, exposure data, information about the pollutant from the Food and Drug Administration, and current EPA criteria documents;

(2) Establish effluent limits on a case-by-case basis, using EPA's water quality criteria, published under § 307(a) of the CWA, supplemented where necessary by other relevant information; or

(3) Establish effluent limitations on an indicator parameter for the pollutant of concern, provided:

(a) The permit identifies which pollutants are intended to be controlled by the use of the effluent limitation;

(b) The fact sheet required by 9VAC25-31-280 sets forth the basis for the limit, including a finding that compliance with the effluent limit on the indicator parameter will result in controls on the pollutant of concern which are sufficient to attain and maintain applicable water quality standards;

(c) The permit requires all effluent and ambient monitoring necessary to show that during the term of the permit the limit on the indicator parameter continues to attain and maintain applicable water quality standards; and

(d) The permit contains a reopener clause allowing the board department to modify or revoke and reissue the permit if the limits on the indicator parameter no longer attain and maintain applicable water quality standards.

f. When developing water quality-based effluent limits under this subdivision the board department shall ensure that:

(1) The level of water quality to be achieved by limits on point sources established under this subsection is derived from, and complies with all applicable water quality standards; and

(2) Effluent limits developed to protect a narrative water quality criterion, a numeric water quality criterion, or both, are consistent with the assumptions and requirements of any available wasteload allocation for the discharge prepared by Virginia and approved by EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 130.7;

2. Attain or maintain a specified water quality through water quality related effluent limits established under the law and § 302 of the CWA;

3. Conform to the conditions of a Virginia Water Protection Permit (VWPP) issued under the law and § 401 of the CWA;

4. Conform to applicable water quality requirements under § 401(a)(2) of the CWA when the discharge affects a state other than Virginia;

5. Incorporate any more stringent limitations, treatment standards, or schedule of compliance requirements established under the law or regulations in accordance with § 301(b)(1)(C) of the CWA;

6. Ensure consistency with the requirements of a Water Quality Management plan approved by EPA under § 208(b) of the CWA;

7. Incorporate § 403(c) criteria under 40 CFR Part 125, Subpart M, for ocean discharges; or

8. Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by fundamentally different factors, under 40 the CFR Part 125, Subpart D.

E. Technology-based controls for toxic pollutants. Limitations established under subsection A, B, or D of this section, to control pollutants meeting the criteria listed in subdivision 1 of this subsection. Limitations will be established in accordance with subdivision 2 of this subsection. An explanation of the development of these limitations shall be included in the fact sheet.

1. Limitations must control all toxic pollutants which the board department determines (based on information reported in a permit application or in a notification required by the permit or on other information) are or may be discharged at a level greater than the level which can be achieved by the technology-based treatment requirements appropriate to the permittee; or

2. The requirement that the limitations control the pollutants meeting the criteria of subdivision 1 of this subsection will be satisfied by:

a. Limitations on those pollutants; or

b. Limitations on other pollutants which, in the judgment of the board department, will provide treatment of the pollutants under subdivision 1 of this subsection to the levels required by the law and 40 CFR Part 125, Subpart A.

F. A notification level which exceeds the notification level of 9VAC25-31-200 A 1 a, b, or c, upon a petition from the permittee or on the board's department's initiative. This new notification level may not exceed the level which can be achieved by the technology-based treatment requirements appropriate to the permittee.

G. Twenty-four-hour reporting. Pollutants for which the permittee must report violations of maximum daily discharge limitations under 9VAC25-31-190 L 7 b (3) (24-hour reporting) shall be listed in the permit. This list shall include any toxic pollutant or hazardous substance, or any pollutant specifically identified as the method to control a toxic pollutant or hazardous substance.

H. Durations for permits, as set forth in 9VAC25-31-240.

I. Monitoring requirements. The following monitoring requirements:

1. Requirements concerning the proper use, maintenance, and installation, when appropriate, of monitoring equipment or methods (including biological monitoring methods when appropriate);

2. Required monitoring including type, intervals, and frequency sufficient to yield data which are representative of the monitored activity including, when appropriate, continuous monitoring;

3. Applicable reporting requirements based upon the impact of the regulated activity and as specified in 9VAC25-31-190, subdivisions 5 through 8 of this subsection, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Reporting shall be no less frequent than specified in the above regulation;

4. To assure compliance with permit limitations, requirements to monitor:

a. The mass (or other measurement specified in the permit) for each pollutant limited in the permit;

b. The volume of effluent discharged from each outfall;

c. Other measurements as appropriate including pollutants in internal waste streams; pollutants in intake water for net limitations; frequency, rate of discharge, etc., for noncontinuous discharges; pollutants subject to notification requirements; and pollutants in sewage sludge or other monitoring as specified in Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter; or as determined to be necessary on a case-by-case basis pursuant to the law and § 405(d)(4) of the CWA; and

d. According to sufficiently sensitive test procedures (i.e., methods) approved under 40 CFR Part 136 for the analysis of pollutants or pollutant parameters or required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N or O.

(1) For the purposes of this subdivision, a method is "sufficiently sensitive" when:

(a) The method minimum level (ML) is at or below the level of the effluent limit established in the permit for the measured pollutant or pollutant parameter; or

(b) The method has the lowest ML of the analytical methods approved under 40 CFR Part 136 or required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N or O for the measured pollutant or pollutant parameter.

(2) In the case of pollutants or pollutant parameters for which there are no approved methods under 40 CFR Part 136 or methods are not otherwise required under 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter N or O, monitoring shall be conducted according to a test procedure specified in the permit for such pollutants or pollutant parameters;

5. Except as provided in subdivisions 7 and 8 of this subsection, requirements to report monitoring results shall be established on a case-by-case basis with a frequency dependent on the nature and effect of the discharge, but in no case less that once a year. For sewage sludge use or disposal practices, requirements to monitor and report results shall be established on a case-by-case basis with a frequency dependent on the nature and effect of the sewage sludge use or disposal practice; minimally this shall be as specified in Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter (where applicable), but in no case less than once a year. All results shall be electronically reported in compliance with 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter;

6. Requirements to report monitoring results for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity which are subject to an effluent limitation guideline shall be established on a case-by-case basis with a frequency dependent on the nature and effect of the discharge, but in no case less than once a year;

7. Requirements to report monitoring results for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity (other than those addressed in subdivision 6 of this subsection) shall be established on a case-by-case basis with a frequency dependent on the nature and effect of the discharge. At a minimum, a permit for such a discharge must require:

a. The discharger to conduct an annual inspection of the facility site to identify areas contributing to a stormwater discharge associated with industrial activity and evaluate whether measures to reduce pollutant loading identified in a stormwater pollution prevention plan are adequate and properly implemented in accordance with the terms of the permit or whether additional control measures are needed;

b. The discharger to maintain for a period of three years a record summarizing the results of the inspection and a certification that the facility is in compliance with the plan and the permit, and identifying any incidents of noncompliance;

c. Such report and certification be signed in accordance with 9VAC25-31-110; and

d. Permits for stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining operations may, where annual inspections are impracticable, require certification once every three years by a Registered Professional Engineer that the facility is in compliance with the permit, or alternative requirements; and

8. Permits that do not require the submittal of monitoring result reports at least annually shall require that the permittee report all instances of noncompliance not reported under 9VAC25-31-190 L 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7 at least annually.

J. Pretreatment program for POTWs. Requirements for POTWs to:

1. Identify, in terms of character and volume of pollutants, any significant indirect dischargers into the POTW subject to pretreatment standards under § 307(b) of the CWA and Part VII (9VAC25-31-730 et seq.) of this chapter;

2. Submit a local program when required by and in accordance with Part VII of this chapter to assure compliance with pretreatment standards to the extent applicable under § 307(b) of the CWA. The local program shall be incorporated into the permit as described in Part VII of this chapter. The program shall require all indirect dischargers to the POTW to comply with the reporting requirements of Part VII of this chapter;

3. Provide a written technical evaluation of the need to revise local limits under Part VII of this chapter following permit issuance or reissuance; and

4. For POTWs that are sludge-only facilities, a requirement to develop a pretreatment program under Part VII of this chapter when the board department determines that a pretreatment program is necessary to assure compliance with Part VI of this chapter.

K. Best management practices to control or abate the discharge of pollutants when:

1. Authorized under § 304(e) of the CWA for the control of toxic pollutants and hazardous substances from ancillary industrial activities;

2. Authorized under § 402(p) of the CWA for the control of stormwater discharges;

3. Numeric effluent limitations are infeasible; or

4. The practices are reasonably necessary to achieve effluent limitations and standards or to carry out the purposes and intent of the law and the CWA.

L. Reissued permits.

1. In the case of effluent limitations established on the basis of § 402(a)(1)(B) of the CWA, a permit may not be renewed, reissued, or modified on the basis of effluent guidelines promulgated under § 304(b) of the CWA subsequent to the original issuance of such permit, to contain effluent limitations which are less stringent than the comparable effluent limitations in the previous permit. In the case of effluent limitations established on the basis of § 301(b)(1)(C) or 303(d) or (e) of the CWA, a permit may not be renewed, reissued, or modified to contain effluent limitations that are less stringent than the comparable effluent limitations in the previous permit except in compliance with § 303(d)(4) of the CWA.

2. Exceptions. A permit with respect to which subdivision 1 of this subsection applies may be renewed, reissued, or modified to contain a less stringent effluent limitation applicable to a pollutant, if:

a. Material and substantial alterations or additions to the permitted facility occurred after permit issuance which justify the application of a less stringent effluent limitation;

b. (1) Information is available that was not available at the time of permit issuance (other than revised regulations, guidance, or test methods) and that would have justified the application of a less stringent effluent limitation at the time of permit issuance; or

(2) The board department determines that technical mistakes or mistaken interpretations of law were made in issuing the permit under § 402(a)(1)(B) of the CWA;

c. A less stringent effluent limitation is necessary because of events over which the permittee has no control and for which there is no reasonably available remedy;

d. The permittee has received a permit modification under the law and § 301(c), 301(g), 301(h), 301(i), 301(k), 301(n), or 316(a) of the CWA; or

e. The permittee has installed the treatment facilities required to meet the effluent limitations in the previous permit and has properly operated and maintained the facilities but has nevertheless been unable to achieve the previous effluent limitations, in which case the limitations in the reviewed, reissued, or modified permit may reflect the level of pollutant control actually achieved (but shall not be less stringent than required by effluent guidelines in effect at the time of permit renewal, reissuance, or modification).

Subdivision 2 b of this subsection shall not apply to any revised waste load allocations or any alternative grounds for translating water quality standards into effluent limitations, except where the cumulative effect of such revised allocations results in a decrease in the amount of pollutants discharged into the concerned waters, and such revised allocations are not the result of a discharger eliminating or substantially reducing its discharge of pollutants due to complying with the requirements of the law or the CWA or for reasons otherwise unrelated to water quality.

3. In no event may a permit with respect to which subdivision 2 of this subsection applies be renewed, reissued, or modified to contain an effluent limitation that is less stringent than required by effluent guidelines in effect at the time the permit is renewed, reissued, or modified. In no event may such a permit to discharge into waters be renewed, issued, or modified to contain a less stringent effluent limitation if the implementation of such limitation would result in a violation of a Virginia water quality standard applicable to such waters.

M. For a privately owned treatment works, any conditions expressly applicable to any user, as a limited co-permittee, that may be necessary in the permit issued to the treatment works to ensure compliance with applicable requirements under this part. Alternatively, the board department may issue separate permits to the treatment works and to its users, or may require a separate permit application from any user. The board's department's decision to issue a permit with no conditions applicable to any user, to impose conditions on one or more users, to issue separate permits, or to require separate applications, and the basis for that decision, shall be stated in the fact sheet for the draft permit for the treatment works.

N. Any conditions imposed in grants made by the board department to POTWs under §§ 201 and 204 of the CWA that are reasonably necessary for the achievement of effluent limitations under § 301 of the CWA and the law.

O. Requirements governing the disposal of sewage sludge from publicly owned treatment works or any other treatment works treating domestic sewage for any use regulated by Part VI of this chapter.

P. When a permit is issued to a facility that may operate at certain times as a means of transportation over water, a condition that the discharge shall comply with any applicable regulations promulgated by the secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, that establish specifications for safe transportation, handling, carriage, and storage of pollutants.

Q. Navigation. Any conditions that the Secretary of the Army considers necessary to ensure that navigation and anchorage will not be substantially impaired in accordance with 9VAC25-31-330.

9VAC25-31-230 Calculating VPDES permit conditions

A. Permit effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, standards and prohibitions shall be established for each outfall or discharge point of the permitted facility, except as otherwise provided under 9VAC25-31-220 and subsection H of this section (limitations on internal waste streams).

B. Production-based limitations.

1. In the case of POTWs, permit effluent limitations, standards, or prohibitions shall be calculated based on design flow.

2. a. Except in the case of POTWs or as provided in subdivision 2 b of this subsection, calculation of any permit limitations, standards, or prohibitions which are based on production (or other measure of operation) shall be based not upon the designed production capacity but rather upon a reasonable measure of actual production of the facility. For new sources or new dischargers, actual production shall be estimated using projected production. The time period of the measure of production shall correspond to the time period of the calculated permit limitations; for example, monthly production shall be used to calculate average monthly discharge limitations.

b. (1) (a) The board department may include a condition establishing alternate permit limitations, standards, or prohibitions based upon anticipated increased (not to exceed maximum production capability) or decreased production levels.

(b) For the automotive manufacturing industry only, the board department may establish a condition under subdivision 2 b (1) (a) of this subsection if the applicant satisfactorily demonstrates to the board department at the time the application is submitted that its actual production, as indicated in subdivision 2 a of this subsection, is substantially below maximum production capability and that there is a reasonable potential for an increase above actual production during the duration of the permit.

(2) If the board department establishes permit conditions under subdivision 2 b (1) of this subsection:

(a) The permit shall require the permittee to notify the department at least two business days prior to a month in which the permittee expects to operate at a level higher than the lowest production level identified in the permit. The notice shall specify the anticipated level and the period during which the permittee expects to operate at the alternate level. If the notice covers more than one month, the notice shall specify the reasons for the anticipated production level increase. New notice of discharge at alternate levels is required to cover a period or production level not covered by prior notice or, if during two consecutive months otherwise covered by a notice, the production level at the permitted facility does not in fact meet the higher level designated in the notice;

(b) The permittee shall comply with the limitations, standards, or prohibitions that correspond to the lowest level of production specified in the permit, unless the permittee has notified the department under subdivision 2 b (2) (a) of this subsection, in which case the permittee shall comply with the lower of the actual level of production during each month or the level specified in the notice; and

(c) The permittee shall submit with the DMR the level of production that actually occurred during each month and the limitations, standards, or prohibitions applicable to that level of production.

C. All permit effluent limitations, standards, or prohibitions for a metal shall be expressed in terms of total recoverable metal as defined in 40 CFR Part 136 unless:

1. An applicable effluent standard or limitation has been promulgated under the CWA and specifies the limitation for the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form; or

2. In establishing permit limitations on a case-by-case basis under 40 CFR 125.3, it is necessary to express the limitation on the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form to carry out the provisions of the CWA and the law; or

3. All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form (e.g., hexavalent chromium).

D. For continuous discharges all permit effluent limitations, standards, and prohibitions, including those necessary to achieve water quality standards, shall unless impracticable be stated as:

1. Maximum daily and average monthly discharge limitations for all dischargers other than publicly owned treatment works; and

2. Average weekly and average monthly discharge limitations for POTWs.

E. Discharges which are not continuous, as defined in 9VAC25-31-10, shall be particularly described and limited, considering the following factors, as appropriate:

1. Frequency;

2. Total mass;

3. Maximum rate of discharge of pollutants during the discharge; and

4. Prohibition or limitation of specified pollutants by mass, concentration, or other appropriate measure.

F. Mass Limitations.

1. All pollutants limited in permits shall have limitations, standards or prohibitions expressed in terms of mass except:

a. For pH, temperature, radiation, or other pollutants which cannot appropriately be expressed by mass;

b. When applicable standards and limitations are expressed in terms of other units of measurement; or

c. If in establishing technology-based permit limitations on a case-by-case basis, limitations expressed in terms of mass are infeasible because the mass of the pollutant discharged cannot be related to a measure of operation (for example, discharges of TSS from certain mining operations), and permit conditions ensure that dilution will not be used as a substitute for treatment.

2. Pollutants limited in terms of mass additionally may be limited in terms of other units of measurement, and the permit shall require the permittee to comply with both limitations.

G. Pollutants in intake water.

1. Upon request of the discharger, technology-based effluent limitations or standards shall be adjusted to reflect credit for pollutants in the discharger's intake water to the extent necessary to meet the applicable technology-based limitation or standard, up to a maximum value equal to the influent value. Credit shall be granted only if:

a. The applicable effluent limitations and standards contained in the regulations incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30 specifically provide that they shall be applied on a net basis; or

b. The discharger demonstrates that the control system it proposes or uses to meet applicable technology-based limitations and standards would, if properly installed and operated, meets the limitations and standards in the absence of pollutants in the intake waters.

2. Credit for generic pollutants such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) or total suspended solids (TSS) should not be granted unless the permittee demonstrates that the constituents of the generic measure in the effluent are substantially similar to the constituents of the generic measure in the intake water or unless appropriate additional limits are placed on process water pollutants either at the outfall or elsewhere.

3. Credit for the level of pollutants in the intake water may be considered in setting water quality-based effluent limitations according to 9VAC25-31-220 D. Where a total maximum daily load has been established for the receiving waterbody and it is applicable to the discharge, it shall be considered when such effluent limitations are developed. The board department may consider the presence of intake pollutants when determining either that water quality-based effluent limitations are not necessary under 9VAC25-31-220 D or that any water quality-based effluent limitations justified by 9VAC25-31-220 D will be established in a manner that does not hold the permittee responsible for removing pollutants originating in its intake water.

4. Additional monitoring may be necessary to determine eligibility for any credits and compliance with permit limits.

5. Credits shall be granted only if the discharger demonstrates that the intake water is drawn from the same body of water into which the discharge is made. The board department may waive this requirement for technology-based effluent limitations, standards, and prohibitions if he finds that no environmental degradation will result.

a. An intake pollutant is considered to be from the same body of water as the discharge if the board department finds that the intake pollutant would have reached the vicinity of the outfall point in the receiving water within a reasonable period had it not been removed by the permittee. This finding may be deemed established if:

(1) The background concentration of the pollutant in the receiving water (excluding any amount of the pollutant in the facility's discharge) is similar to that in the intake water;

(2) There is direct hydrological connection between the intake and discharge points; and

(3) Water quality characteristics (e.g., temperature, pH, hardness) are similar in the intake and receiving waters.

Other site-specific factors relevant to the transport and fate of the pollutant may be considered in making this finding.

b. An intake pollutant from groundwater may be considered to be from the same body of water if the board department determines that the pollutant would have reached the vicinity of the outfall point in the receiving water within a reasonable period had it not been removed by the permittee, except that such a pollutant is not from the same body of water if the groundwater contains the pollutant partially or entirely due to human activity, such as industrial, commercial, or municipal operations, disposal actions or treatment processes.

c. For pollutants in intake water provided by a water supply system, where the raw water supply is removed from the same body of water as the discharge, the concentration of the intake pollutant shall be determined at the point where the water enters the water supplier's distribution system.

d. Where a facility discharges intake pollutants that originate in part from the same body of water and in part from a different body of water, the effluent limitation may provide for intake credits for the portion of the pollutants derived from the same body of water, provided that adequate monitoring to determine compliance can be established and is included in the permit.

6. Credits shall not be granted if the discharger contributes to the level of the pollutant in the intake water prior to the intake.

7. Credits for intake pollutants do not apply to technology-based limitations on the discharge of raw water clarifier sludge generated from the treatment of intake water.

H. Internal waste streams.

1. When permit effluent limitations or standards imposed at the point of discharge are impractical or infeasible, effluent limitations or standards for discharges of pollutants may be imposed on internal waste streams before mixing with other waste streams or cooling water streams. In those instances, the monitoring required by 9VAC25-31-220 I shall also be applied to the internal waste streams.

2. Limits on internal waste streams will be imposed only when the fact sheet sets forth the exceptional circumstances which make such limitations necessary, such as when the final discharge point is inaccessible, the wastes at the point of discharge are so diluted as to make monitoring impracticable, or the interferences among pollutants at the point of discharge would make detection or analysis impracticable.

I. Disposal of pollutants into wells, POTWs or by land application.

1. When part of a discharger's process wastewater is not being discharged into surface waters or into the contiguous zone because it is disposed into a well, into a POTW, or by land application thereby reducing the flow or level of pollutants being discharged into surface waters, applicable effluent standards and limitations for the discharge in a VPDES permit shall be adjusted to reflect the reduced raw waste resulting from such disposal. Effluent limitations and standards in the permit shall be calculated by one of the following methods:

a. If none of the waste from a particular process is discharged into surface waters, and effluent limitations guidelines provide separate allocation for wastes from that process, all allocations for the process shall be eliminated from calculation of permit effluent limitations or standards.

b. In all cases other than those described in subdivision 1 a of this subsection, effluent limitations shall be adjusted by multiplying the effluent limitation derived by applying effluent limitation guidelines to the total waste stream by the amount of wastewater flow to be treated and discharged into surface waters, and dividing the result by the total wastewater flow. Effluent limitations and standards so calculated may be further adjusted to make them more or less stringent if discharges to wells, publicly owned treatment works, or by land application change the character or treatability of the pollutants being discharged to receiving waters. This method may be algebraically expressed as:

P =

E x N

T

where P is the permit effluent limitation, E is the limitation derived by applying effluent guidelines to the total wastestream, N is the wastewater flow to be treated and discharged to surface waters, and T is the total wastewater flow.

2. Subdivision 1 of this subsection does not apply to the extent that promulgated effluent limitations guidelines:

a. Control concentrations of pollutants discharged but not mass; or

b. Specify a different specific technique for adjusting effluent limitations to account for well injection, land application, or disposal into POTWs.

3. Subdivision 1 of this subsection does not alter a discharger's obligation to meet any more stringent requirements established in the permit.

9VAC25-31-240 Duration of permits

A. VPDES permits shall be effective for a fixed term not to exceed five years.

B. Except as provided in 9VAC25-31-70, the term of a permit shall not be extended by modification beyond the maximum duration specified in this section.

C. The board department may issue any permit for a duration that is less than the full allowable term under this section.

D. A permit may be issued to expire on or after the statutory deadline set forth in §§ 301(b)(2) (A), (C), and (E) of the CWA, if the permit includes effluent limitations to meet the requirements of §§ 301(b)(2) (A), (C), (D), (E) and (F) of the CWA, whether or not applicable effluent limitations guidelines have been promulgated or approved.

E. A determination that a particular discharger falls within a given industrial category for purposes of setting a permit expiration date under subsection D of this section is not conclusive as to the discharger's inclusion in that industrial category for any other purposes, and does not prejudice any rights to challenge or change that inclusion at the time that a permit based on that determination is formulated.

9VAC25-31-250 Schedules of compliance

A. The permit may, when appropriate, specify a schedule of compliance leading to compliance with the law, the CWA, and regulations.

1. Any schedules of compliance under this section shall require compliance as soon as possible, but not later than the applicable statutory deadline under the CWA.

2. The first VPDES permit issued to a new source or a new discharger shall contain a schedule of compliance only when necessary to allow a reasonable opportunity to attain compliance with requirements issued or revised after commencement of construction but less than three years before commencement of the relevant discharge. For recommencing dischargers, a schedule of compliance shall be available only when necessary to allow a reasonable opportunity to attain compliance with requirements issued or revised less than three years before recommencement of discharge.

3. Schedules of compliance may be established in permits for existing sources which are reissued or modified to contain new or more restrictive water quality-based effluent limitations. The schedule may allow a reasonable period of time for the discharger to attain compliance with the water quality-based limitations.

4. Except as provided in subdivision B 1 b of this section, if a permit establishes a schedule of compliance which exceeds one year from the date of permit issuance, the schedule shall set forth interim requirements and the dates for their achievement.

a. The time between interim dates shall not exceed one year, except that in the case of a schedule for compliance with standards for sewage sludge use and disposal, the time between interim dates shall not exceed six months.

b. If the time necessary for completion of any interim requirement is more than one year and is not readily divisible into stages for completion, the permit shall specify interim dates for the submission of reports of progress toward completion of the interim requirements and indicate a projected completion date.

5. The permit shall be written to require that no later than 14 days following each interim date and the final date of compliance, the permittee shall notify the department in writing of its compliance or noncompliance with the interim or final requirements, or submit progress reports if subdivision 4 b of this subsection is applicable.

B. A VPDES permit applicant or permittee may cease conducting regulated activities (by terminating of direct discharge for VPDES sources) rather than continuing to operate and meet permit requirements as follows:

1. If the permittee decides to cease conducting regulated activities at a given time within the term of a permit which has already been issued:

a. The permit may be modified to contain a new or additional schedule leading to timely cessation of activities; or

b. The permittee shall cease conducting permitted activities before noncompliance with any interim or final compliance schedule requirement already specified in the permit;

2. If the decision to cease conducting regulated activities is made before issuance of a permit whose term will include the termination date, the permit shall contain a schedule leading to termination which will ensure timely compliance with applicable requirements no later than the statutory deadline;

3. If the permittee is undecided whether to cease conducting regulated activities, the board department may issue or modify a permit to contain two schedules as follows:

a. Both schedules shall contain an identical interim deadline requiring a final decision on whether to cease conducting regulated activities no later than a date which ensures sufficient time to comply with applicable requirements in a timely manner if the decision is to continue conducting regulated activities;

b. One schedule shall lead to timely compliance with applicable requirements, no later than the statutory deadline;

c. The second schedule shall lead to cessation of regulated activities by a date which will ensure timely compliance with applicable requirements no later than the statutory deadline; and

d. Each permit containing two schedules shall include a requirement that after the permittee has made a final decision under subdivision 3 a of this subsection it shall follow the schedule leading to compliance if the decision is to continue conducting regulated activities, and follow the schedule leading to termination if the decision is to cease conducting regulated activities; and

4. The applicant's or permittee's decision to cease conducting regulated activities shall be evidenced by a firm public commitment satisfactory to the board department, such as a resolution of the board of directors of a corporation.

9VAC25-31-260 Draft permits

A. Once an application is complete, the board department shall tentatively decide whether to prepare a draft permit or to deny the application.

B. If the board department tentatively decides to deny the permit application, the owner shall be advised of that decision and of the changes necessary to obtain approval. The owner may withdraw the application prior to board department action. If the application is not withdrawn or modified to obtain the tentative approval to issue, the board department shall provide public notice and opportunity for a public hearing prior to board department action on the application.

C. If the board department tentatively decides to issue a VPDES general permit, a draft general permit shall be prepared under subsection D of this section.

D. If the board department decides to prepare a draft permit, the draft permit shall contain the following information:

1. All conditions under 9VAC25-31-190 and 9VAC25-31-210;

2. All compliance schedules under 9VAC25-31-250;

3. All monitoring requirements under 9VAC25-31-220; and

4. Effluent limitations, standards, prohibitions, standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal, and conditions under 9VAC25-31-190, 9VAC25-31-200, 9VAC25-31-220, and Part VI (9VAC25-31-370 et seq.), and all variances that are to be included.

9VAC25-31-280 Fact sheet

A. A fact sheet shall be prepared for every draft permit for a major VPDES facility or activity, for every Class I sludge management facility, for every VPDES general permit, for every VPDES draft permit that incorporates a variance or requires an explanation under subsection B 8 of this section, for every draft permit that includes a biosolids land application under 9VAC25-31-100 D 2, and for every draft permit which the board department finds is the subject of wide-spread public interest or raises major issues. The fact sheet shall briefly set forth the principal facts and the significant factual, legal, methodological and policy questions considered in preparing the draft permit. The board department shall send this fact sheet to the applicant and, on request, to any other person.

B. The fact sheet shall include, when applicable:

1. A brief description of the type of facility or activity that is the subject of the draft permit;

2. The type and quantity of wastes, fluids, or pollutants that are proposed to be or are being treated, stored, disposed of, injected, emitted, or discharged;

3. A brief summary of the basis for the draft permit conditions including references to applicable statutory or regulatory provisions;

4. Reasons why any requested variances or alternatives to required standards do or do not appear justified;

5. A description of the procedures for reaching a final decision on the draft permit including:

a. The beginning and ending dates of the comment period for the draft permit and the address where comments will be received;

b. Procedures for requesting a public hearing and the nature of that hearing; and

c. Any other procedures by which the public may participate in the final decision;

6. Name and telephone number of a person to contact for additional information;

7. Any calculations or other necessary explanation of the derivation of specific effluent limitations and conditions or standards for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal, including a citation to the applicable effluent limitation guideline, performance standard, or standard for biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal and reasons why they are applicable or an explanation of how the alternate effluent limitations were developed;

8. When the draft permit contains any of the following conditions, an explanation of the reasons why such conditions are applicable:

a. Limitations to control toxic pollutants;

b. Limitations on internal waste streams;

c. Limitations on indicator pollutants;

d. Technology-based or sewage sludge disposal limitations set on a case-by-case basis;

e. Limitations to meet the criteria for permit issuance under 9VAC25-31-50; or

f. Waivers from monitoring requirements granted under 9VAC25-31-220 A;

9. For every permit to be issued to a treatment works owned by a person other than a state or municipality, an explanation of the board's department's decision on regulation of users;

10. When appropriate, a sketch or detailed description of the location of the discharge or regulated activity described in the application; and

11. Justification of waiver of any application requirements under 9VAC25-31-100 K or Q.

9VAC25-31-290 Public notice of permit actions and public comment period

A. Scope.

1. The department shall give public notice that the following actions have occurred:

a. A draft permit has been prepared under 9VAC25-31-260 D;

b. A public hearing has been scheduled under 9VAC25-31-310; or

c. A VPDES new source determination has been made under 9VAC25-31-180.

2. No public notice is required when a request for permit modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination is denied under 9VAC25-31-370 B. Written notice of that denial shall be given to the requester and to the permittee.

3. Public notice shall not be required for submission or approval of plans and specifications or conceptual engineering reports not required to be submitted as part of the application.

4. Public notices may describe more than one permit or permit actions.

B. Timing.

1. Public notice of the preparation of a draft permit required under subsection A of this section shall allow at least 30 days for public comment.

2. Public notice of a public hearing shall be given at least 30 days before the hearing. (Public notice of the hearing may be given at the same time as public notice of the draft permit and the two notices may be combined.)

C. Methods. Public notice of activities described in subdivision A 1 of this section shall be given by the following methods:

1. By mailing, either by electronic or postal delivery, a copy of a notice to the following persons (any person otherwise entitled to receive notice under this subdivision may waive his rights to receive notice for any classes and categories of permits):

a. The applicant (except for VPDES general permits when there is no applicant);

b. Any other agency which the department knows has issued or is required to issue a VPDES, biosolids management permit;

c. Federal and state agencies with jurisdiction over fish, shellfish, and wildlife resources and over coastal zone management plans, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, State Historic Preservation Officers, including any affected states (Indian Tribes);

d. Any state agency responsible for plan development under § 208(b)(2), § 208(b)(4) or § 303(e) of the CWA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the National Marine Fisheries Service;

e. Any user identified in the permit application of a privately owned treatment works;

f. Persons on a mailing list developed by:

(1) Including those who request in writing to be on the list;

(2) Soliciting persons for area lists from participants in past permit proceedings in that area; and

(3) Notifying the public of the opportunity to be put on the mailing list through periodic publication in the public press and in such publications as EPA regional and state funded newsletters, environmental bulletins, or state law journals. (The department may update the mailing list from time to time by requesting written indication of continued interest from those listed. The department may delete from the list the name of any person who fails to respond to such a request.);

g. Any unit of local government having jurisdiction over the area where the facility is proposed to be located; and

h. Each state agency having any authority under state law with respect to the construction or operation of such facility;

2. Except for permits for concentrated animal feeding operations as defined in 9VAC25-31-10 or designated in accordance with 9VAC25-31-130 B, by publication once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the discharge. However, if the applicant so chooses for industrial minor permit actions, an abbreviated public notice shall be published in such newspaper, listing the name of the permitted facility, the type of discharge, and a link to the department's website where the full public notice consistent with subsection D of this section is posted. The cost of public notice shall be paid by the owner; and

3. Any other method reasonably calculated to give actual notice of the action in question to the persons potentially affected by it, including press releases or any other forum or medium to elicit public participation.

D. Contents.

1. All public notices issued under this part shall contain the following minimum information:

a. Name and address of the office processing the permit action for which notice is being given;

b. Name and address of the permittee or permit applicant and, if different, of the facility or activity regulated by the permit, except in the case of VPDES draft general permits;

c. A brief description of the business conducted at the facility or activity described in the permit application or the draft permit, for VPDES general permits when there is no application;

d. Name, address, and telephone number of a person from whom interested persons may obtain further information, including copies of the draft permit or draft general permit, as the case may be, statement of basis or fact sheet, and the application;

e. A brief description of the procedures for submitting comments and the time and place of any public hearing that will be held, including a statement of procedures to request a public hearing (unless a hearing has already been scheduled) and other procedures by which the public may participate in the final permit decision;

f. A general description of the location of each existing or proposed discharge point, the name of the receiving water, the biosolids use and sewage sludge disposal practice, the location of each sludge treatment works treating domestic sewage, and use or disposal sites known at the time of permit application. For draft general permits, this requirement will be satisfied by a map or description of the permit area;

g. Requirements applicable to cooling water intake structures under § 316 of the CWA, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-165; and

h. Any additional information considered necessary or proper.

2. In addition to the general public notice described in subdivision 1 of this subsection, the public notice of a public hearing under 9VAC25-31-310 shall contain the following information:

a. Reference to the date of previous public notices relating to the permit;

b. Date, time, and place of the public hearing;

c. A brief description of the nature and purpose of the public hearing, including the applicable rules and procedures; and

d. A concise statement of the issues raised by the persons requesting the public hearing.

3. Public notice of a VPDES draft permit for a discharge where a request for alternate thermal effluent limitations has been filed shall include:

a. A statement that the thermal component of the discharge is subject to effluent limitations incorporated in 9VAC25-31-30 and a brief description, including a quantitative statement, of the thermal effluent limitations proposed under §§ 301 or 306 of the CWA;

b. A statement that an alternate thermal effluent limitation request has been filed and that alternative less stringent effluent limitations may be imposed on the thermal component of the discharge under the law and § 316(a) of the CWA and a brief description, including a quantitative statement, of the alternative effluent limitations, if any, included in the request; and

c. If the applicant has filed an early screening request for a CWA § 316(a) variance, a statement that the applicant has submitted such a plan.

E. In addition to the general public notice described in subdivision D 1 of this section, all persons identified in subdivisions C 1 a, b, c, and d of this section shall be mailed, by electronic or postal delivery, a copy of the fact sheet or statement of basis, the permit application (if any) and the draft permit (if any).

F. Upon receipt of an application for the issuance of a new or modified permit other than those for agricultural production or aquacultural production activities, the department shall:

1. Notify, in writing, the locality wherein the discharge or, as applicable, the associated land application of biosolids, or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage does or is proposed to take place of, at a minimum:

a. The name of the applicant;

b. The nature of the application and proposed discharge;

c. The availability and timing of any comment period; and

d. Upon request, any other information known to, or in the possession of, the board or the department regarding the applicant not required to be held confidential by this chapter.

2. Except for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge or stabilized septage make a good faith effort to provide this same notice and information to (i) each locality and riparian property owner to a distance one-quarter mile downstream and one-quarter mile upstream or to the fall line whichever is closer on tidal waters and (ii) each locality and riparian property owner to a distance one-half mile downstream on nontidal waters. Distances shall be measured from the point, or proposed point, of discharge. If the receiving river at the point or proposed point of discharge is two miles wide or greater, the riparian property owners on the opposite shore need not be notified. Notice to property owners shall be based on names and addresses taken from local tax rolls. Such names and addresses shall be provided by the commissioners of the revenue or the tax assessor's office of the affected jurisdictions upon request by the board department.

G. Whenever the department receives an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage, or an application to reissue with the addition of sites increasing acreage by 50% or more of that authorized by the initial permit, the department shall establish a date for a public meeting to discuss technical issues relating to proposals for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage. The department shall give notice of the date, time, and place of the public meeting and a description of the proposal by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the proposal is to take place. Public notice of the scheduled meeting shall occur no fewer than seven or more than 14 days prior to the meeting. The department shall not issue the permit until the public meeting has been held and comment has been received from the local governing body or until 30 days have lapsed from the date of the public meeting.

H. Following the submission of an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage, the department shall make a good faith effort to notify or cause to be notified persons residing on property bordering the sites that contain the proposed land application fields. This notification shall be in a manner selected by the department. For the purposes of this subsection, "site" means all contiguous land under common ownership, but which may contain more than one tax parcel.

I. Following the submission of an application to add a site that is not contiguous to sites included in an existing permit authorizing the land application of biosolids:

1. The department shall notify persons residing on property bordering such site and shall receive written comments from those persons for a period of 30 days. Based upon written comments, the department shall determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the site.

2. An application for any permit amendment to increase the acreage authorized by the initial permit by 50% or more shall be considered a major modification and shall be treated as a new application for purposes of public notice and public hearings. The increase in acreage for the purpose of determining the need for the public meeting is the sum of all acreage that has been added to the permit since the last public meeting, plus that proposed to be added.

J. Before issuing any permit, if the board department finds that there are localities particularly affected by the permit, the board department shall:

1. Publish, or require the applicant to publish, a notice in a local paper of general circulation in the localities affected at least 30 days prior to the close of any public comment period. Such notice shall contain a statement of the estimated local impact of the proposed permit, which at a minimum shall include information on the specific pollutants involved and the total quantity of each which may be discharged.

2. Mail, by electronic or postal delivery, the notice to the chief elected official and chief administrative officer and planning district commission for those localities.

3. Accept written comments for at least 15 days after any public hearing on the permit, unless the board votes to shorten department shortens the period.

4. For the purposes of this section, consider the term "locality particularly affected" to mean any locality that bears any identified disproportionate material water quality impact that would not be experienced by other localities.

9VAC25-31-300 Public comments and requests for public hearings

During the public comment period provided under 9VAC25-31-290, any interested person may submit written comments on the draft permit and may request a public hearing, if no public hearing has already been scheduled. A request for a public hearing shall be in writing and shall meet the requirements of § 62.1-44.15:02 B of the Code of Virginia 9VAC25-31-315. All comments shall be considered in making the final decision and shall be answered as provided in 9VAC25-31-320.

9VAC25-31-310 Public hearings

A. 1. Procedures for public hearings and for permits before the board department are those set forth in § 62.1-44.15:02 of the Code of Virginia 9VAC25-31-315.

2. Public notice of the public hearing shall be given as specified in 9VAC25-31-290 of this chapter.

3. Any public hearing convened pursuant to this section shall be held in the geographical area of the proposed discharge, or in another appropriate area. Related groups of permit applications may be considered at any such public hearing.

B. Any person may submit oral or written statements and data concerning the draft permit. Reasonable limits may be set upon the time allowed for oral statements, and the submission of statements in writing may be required. The public comment period for the draft permit shall automatically be extended to the close of any public hearing under this section. The hearing officer may also extend the comment period by so stating at the public hearing.

C. A tape recording or written transcript of the hearing shall be made available to the public.

D. Proceedings at, and the decision from, the public hearing will be governed by § 62.1-44.15:02 of the Code of Virginia the board's Procedural Rule No. 1 - Public and Formal Hearing Procedures (9VAC25-230), and the decision from the public hearing will be governed by 9VAC25-31-316.

9VAC25-31-315 Criteria for requesting and granting a public hearing on an individual permit action

A. During the public comment period on a permit action in those instances where a public hearing is not mandatory under state or federal law or regulation, interested persons may request a public hearing to contest the action or terms and conditions of the permit.

B. Requests for a public hearing shall contain the following information:

1. The name and postal mailing or email address of the requester;

2. The names and addresses of all persons for whom the requester is acting as a representative;

3. The reason for the request for a public hearing;

4. A brief, informal statement setting forth the factual nature and extent of the interest of the requester or of the persons for whom the requester is acting as representative in the application or tentative determination, including an explanation of how and to what extent such interest would be directly and adversely affected by the issuance, denial, modification, or revocation of the permit in question; and

5. Where possible, specific references to the terms and the conditions of the permit in question, together with suggested revisions and alterations to those terms, and conditions that the requester considers are needed to conform the permit to the intent and provisions of the basic laws of the State Water Control Board.

C. Upon completion of the public comment period on a permit action, the director shall review all timely requests for public hearing filed during the comment period on the permit action and, within 30 calendar days following the expiration of the time period for the submission of requests, shall grant a public hearing, unless the permittee or applicant agrees to a later date if the director finds the following:

1. That there is a significant public interest in the issuance, denial, modification, or revocation of the permit in question as evidenced by receipt of a minimum of 25 individual requests for a public hearing;

2. That the requesters raise substantial, disputed issues relevant to the issuance, denial, modification, or revocation of the permit in question; and

3. That the action requested by the interested party is not on its face inconsistent with or in violation of the basic laws of the State Water Control Board for a water permit action, a federal law, or any regulation promulgated thereunder.

D. The director of DEQ shall notify by email or postal mail at his last known address (i) each requester and (ii) the applicant or permittee of the decision to grant or deny a public hearing.

E. If the request for a public hearing is granted, the director shall:

1. Schedule the hearing at a time between 45 and 75 days after emailing or mailing of the notice of the decision to grant the public hearing.

2. Cause or require the applicant to publish notice of a public hearing to be published once in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the facility or operation that is the subject of the permit or permit application is located at least 30 days before the hearing date.

F. The public comment period shall remain open for 15 days after the close of the public hearing if required by § 62.1-44.15:01 of the Code of Virginia.

G. The director may, at the director's discretion, convene a public hearing on a permit action.

9VAC25-31-316 Controversial permits

Before rendering a final decision on a controversial permit, the department shall publish a summary of public comments received during the applicable public comment period and public hearing. After such publication, the department shall publish responses to the public comment summary and hold a public hearing to provide an opportunity for individuals who previously commented, either at a public hearing or in writing during the applicable public comment period, to respond to the department's public comment summary and response. No new information will be accepted at that time. In making its decision, the department shall consider (i) the verbal and written comments received during the comment period and the public hearing made part of the record, (ii) any commentary of the board, and (iii) the agency files.

9VAC25-31-317 Controversial permits reporting

At each regular meeting of the board, the department shall provide an overview and update regarding any controversial permits pending before the department that are relevant. Immediately after such presentation by the department, the board shall have an opportunity to respond to the department's presentation and provide commentary regarding such pending permit.

9VAC25-31-320 Response to comments

A. At the time that a final permit is issued, the board department shall issue a response to comments. This response shall:

1. Specify which provisions, if any, of the draft permit have been changed in the final permit decision, and the reasons for the change; and

2. Briefly describe and respond to all significant comments on the draft permit raised during the public comment period, or during any public hearing.

B. The response to comments shall be available to the public.

9VAC25-31-330 Conditions requested by the Corps of Engineers and other government agencies

A. If during the comment period for an VPDES draft permit, the district engineer advises the department in writing that anchorage and navigation of any of the waters of the United States would be substantially impaired by the granting of a permit, the permit shall be denied and the applicant so notified. If the District Engineer advised the department that imposing specified conditions upon the permit is necessary to avoid any substantial impairment of anchorage or navigation, then the board department shall include the specified conditions in the permit. Review or appeal of denial of a permit or of conditions specified by the district engineer shall be made through the applicable procedures of the Corps of Engineers, and may not be made through the procedures provided in this part. If the conditions are stayed by a court of competent jurisdiction or by applicable procedures of the Corps of Engineers, those conditions shall be considered stayed in the VPDES permit for the duration of that stay.

B. If during the comment period the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, or any other state or federal agency with jurisdiction over fish, wildlife, or public health advises the department in writing that the imposition of specified conditions upon the permit is necessary to avoid substantial impairment of fish, shellfish, or wildlife resources, the board department may include the specified conditions in the permit to the extent they are determined necessary to carry out the provisions of this regulation, the law and of the CWA.

C. In appropriate cases the board department may consult with one or more of the agencies referred to in this section before issuing a draft permit and may reflect their views in the statement of basis, the fact sheet, or the draft permit.

9VAC25-31-340 Decision on variances

A. The board department may grant or deny requests for variances requested pursuant to 9VAC25-31-100 L 4, subject to EPA objection. Decisions on these variances shall be made according to the criteria of 40 CFR Part 125, Subpart H.

B. The board department may deny, or forward to the regional administrator with a written concurrence, or submit to EPA without recommendation a completed request for:

1. A variance based on the economic capability of the applicant submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-31-100 L 2; or

2. A variance based on water quality related effluent limitations submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-31-100 L 3 or 9VAC25-31-100 M 2.

C. If the EPA Office Director for Wastewater Management approves the variance, the board department may prepare a draft permit incorporating the variance. Any public notice of a draft permit for which a variance or modification has been approved or denied shall identify the applicable procedures for appealing that decision.

D. The board department may deny or forward to the administrator with a written concurrence a completed request for:

1. A variance based on the presence of fundamentally different factors from those on which an effluent limitations guideline was based, made according to the criteria and standards of 40 CFR Part 125, Subpart D; or

2. A variance based upon certain water quality factors submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-31-100 L 2 or 9VAC25-31-100 M 1.

E. If the administrator approves the variance, the board department may prepare a draft permit incorporating the variance. Any public notice of a draft permit for which a variance or modification has been approved or denied shall identify the applicable procedures for appealing that decision.

9VAC25-31-350 Appeals of variances

When the board department issues a permit on which EPA has made a variance decision, separate appeals of the VPDES permit and of the EPA variance decision are possible.

9VAC25-31-370 Modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination of permits

A. Permits may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated either at the request of any interested person (including the permittee) or upon the board's department's initiative. When the department receives any information (for example, inspects the facility, receives information submitted by the permittee as required in the permit, receives a request for modification or revocation and reissuance, or conducts a review of the permit file) it may determine whether or not one or more of the causes listed in this section for modification or revocation and reissuance, or both, exist. However, permits may only be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated for the reasons specified in 9VAC25-31-390 or 9VAC25-31-410. All requests shall be in writing and shall contain facts or reasons supporting the request. If cause does not exist under these sections, the board department shall not modify, revoke and reissue or terminate the permit. If a permit modification satisfies the criteria for minor modifications, the permit may be modified without a draft permit or public review. Otherwise, a draft permit must be prepared and other procedures in Part IV (9VAC25-31-260 et seq.) followed.

B. If the board department decides the request is not justified, it shall send the requester a brief written response giving a reason for the decision. Denials of requests for modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination are not subject to public notice, comment, or public hearings.

C. 1. If the board department tentatively decides to modify or revoke and reissue a permit, it shall prepare a draft permit incorporating the proposed changes. The board department may request additional information and, in the case of a modified permit, may require the submission of an updated application. In the case of revoked and reissued permits, the board department shall require the submission of a new application.

2. In a permit modification under this section, only those conditions to be modified shall be reopened when a new draft permit is prepared. All other aspects of the existing permit shall remain in effect for the duration of the unmodified permit. When a permit is revoked and reissued under this section, the entire permit is reopened just as if the permit had expired and was being reissued and the permit is reissued for a new term. During any revocation and reissuance proceeding the permittee shall comply with all conditions of the existing permit until a new final permit is reissued.

3. Minor modifications as defined in 9VAC25-31-400 are not subject to the requirements of this section.

D. If the board department tentatively decides to terminate a permit under 9VAC25-31-410, where the permittee objects, it shall issue a notice of intent to terminate. A notice of intent to terminate is a type of draft permit which follows the same procedures as any draft permit.

9VAC25-31-380 Transfer of permits

A. Except as provided in subsection B of this section, a permit may be transferred by the permittee to a new owner or operator only if the permit has been modified or revoked and reissued, or a minor modification made, to identify the new permittee and incorporate such other requirements as may be necessary under the law and the CWA.

B. Automatic transfers. As an alternative to transfers under subsection A of this section, any VPDES permit may be automatically transferred to a new permittee if:

1. The current permittee notifies the department at least 30 days in advance of the proposed transfer date in subdivision 2 of this subsection;

2. The notice includes a written agreement between the existing and new permittees containing a specific date for transfer of permit responsibility, coverage, and liability between them;

3. The board department does not notify the existing permittee and the proposed new permittee of its intent to modify or revoke and reissue the permit. A modification under this subdivision may also be a minor modification. If this notice is not received, the transfer is effective on the date specified in the agreement mentioned in subdivision 2 of this subsection; and

4. The new owner or operator has demonstrated compliance with 9VAC25-650-70, if applicable.

9VAC25-31-390 Modification or revocation and reissuance of permits

A. Causes for modification. The following are causes for modification but not revocation and reissuance of permits except when the permittee requests or agrees.

1. There are material and substantial alterations or additions to the permitted facility or activity (including a change or changes in the permittee's sludge use or disposal practice) which occurred after permit issuance which justify the application of permit conditions that are different or absent in the existing permit.

2. The department has received new information. Permits may be modified during their terms for this cause only if the information was not available at the time of permit issuance (other than revised regulations, guidance, or test methods) and would have justified the application of different permit conditions at the time of issuance. For VPDES general permits this cause includes any information indicating that cumulative effects on the environment are unacceptable. For new source or new discharger VPDES permits this cause shall include any significant information derived from effluent testing required on the permit application after issuance of the permit.

3. The standards or regulations on which the permit was based have been changed by promulgation of amended standards or regulations or by judicial decision after the permit was issued. Permits may be modified during their terms for this cause only as follows:

a. For promulgation of amended standards or regulations, when:

(1) The permit condition requested to be modified was based on a promulgated effluent limitation guideline, EPA approved or promulgated water quality standards, or the Secondary Treatment Regulations incorporated by reference in 9VAC25-31-30; and

(2) EPA has revised, withdrawn, or modified that portion of the regulation or effluent limitation guideline on which the permit condition was based, or has approved a state action with regard to a water quality standard on which the permit condition was based; and

(3) A permittee requests modification in accordance with this chapter within 90 days after Federal Register notice of the action on which the request is based;

b. For judicial decisions, a court of competent jurisdiction has remanded and stayed EPA promulgated regulations or effluent limitation guidelines, if the remand and stay concern that portion of the regulations or guidelines on which the permit condition was based and a request is filed by the permittee in accordance with this chapter within 90 days of judicial remand; or

c. For changes based upon modified state certifications of VPDES permits.

4. The board department determines good cause exists for modification of a compliance schedule, such as an act of God, strike, flood, or materials shortage or other events over which the permittee has little or no control and for which there is no reasonably available remedy. However, in no case may a VPDES compliance schedule be modified to extend beyond an applicable CWA statutory deadline.

5. When the permittee has filed a request for a variance pursuant to 9VAC25-31-100 L or M within the time specified in this chapter.

6. When required to incorporate an applicable CWA § 307(a) toxic effluent standard or prohibition.

7. When required by the reopener conditions in a permit which are established under 9VAC25-31-220 B or C or 9VAC25-31-800 E.

8. a. Upon request of a permittee who qualifies for effluent limitations on a net basis under 9VAC25-31-230 G.

b. When a discharger is no longer eligible for net limitations as provided in 9VAC25-31-230 G 1 b.

9. As necessary under 9VAC25-31-800 E for a pretreatment program.

10. Upon failure to notify another state whose waters may be affected by a discharge.

11. When the level of discharge of any pollutant which is not limited in the permit exceeds the level which can be achieved by the technology-based treatment requirements appropriate to the permittee.

12. To establish a notification level as provided in 9VAC25-31-220 F.

13. To modify a schedule of compliance to reflect the time lost during construction of an innovative or alternative facility, in the case of a POTW which has received a grant under § 202(a)(3) of the CWA for 100% of the costs to modify or replace facilities constructed with a grant for innovative and alternative wastewater technology under § 202(a)(2) of the CWA. In no case shall the compliance schedule be modified to extend beyond an applicable CWA statutory deadline for compliance.

14. To correct technical mistakes, such as errors in calculation, or mistaken interpretations of law made in determining permit conditions.

15. When the discharger has installed the treatment technology considered by the permit writer in setting effluent limitations imposed under the law and § 402(a)(1) of the CWA and has properly operated and maintained the facilities but nevertheless has been unable to achieve those effluent limitations. In this case, the limitations in the modified permit may reflect the level of pollutant control actually achieved (but shall not be less stringent than required by a subsequently promulgated effluent limitations guideline).

B. Causes for modification or revocation and reissuance. The following are causes to modify or, alternatively, revoke and reissue a permit:

1. Cause exists for termination under 9VAC25-31-410, and the board department determines that modification or revocation and reissuance is appropriate; or

2. The department has received notification of a proposed transfer of the permit. A permit also may be modified to reflect a transfer after the effective date of an automatic transfer but will not be revoked and reissued after the effective date of the transfer except upon the request of the new permittee.

9VAC25-31-400 Minor modifications of permits

Upon the consent of the permittee, the board department may modify a permit to make the corrections or allowances for changes in the permitted activity listed in this section, without following the procedures of Part IV of this chapter. Any permit modification not processed as a minor modification under this section must be made for cause and with draft permit and public notice. Minor modifications may only:

A. Correct typographical errors;

B. Require more frequent monitoring or reporting by the permittee;

C. Change an interim compliance date in a schedule of compliance, provided the new date is not more than 120 days after the date specified in the existing permit and does not interfere with attainment of the final compliance date requirement;

D. Allow for a change in ownership or operational control of a facility where the board department determines that no other change in the permit is necessary, provided that a written agreement containing a specific date for transfer of permit responsibility, coverage, and liability between the current and new permittees has been submitted to the department;

E. 1. Change the construction schedule for a discharger which is a new source. No such change shall affect a discharger's obligation to have all pollution control equipment installed and in operation prior to discharge.

2. Delete a point source outfall when the discharge from that outfall is terminated and does not result in discharge of pollutants from other outfalls except in accordance with permit limits; or

F. Incorporate conditions of an approved POTW pretreatment program (or a modification thereto that has been approved in accordance with the procedures in this chapter) as enforceable conditions of the POTW's permits.

G. Incorporate changes to the terms of a CAFO's nutrient management plan that have been revised in accordance with the requirements of subdivision C 5 of 9VAC25-31-130.

H. Require electronic reporting requirements (to replace paper reporting requirements) including those specified in 40 CFR Part 3 and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter.

9VAC25-31-410 Termination of permits

A. The following are causes for terminating a permit during its term, or for denying a permit renewal application, after public notice and opportunity for a public hearing:

1. The permittee has violated any regulation of the board or order of the board department, any provision of the law, or any order of a court, where such violation results in a release of harmful substances into the environment or poses a substantial threat of release of harmful substances into the environment or presents a hazard to human health or the violation is representative of a pattern of serious or repeated violations which in the opinion of the board department, demonstrates the permittee's disregard for or inability to comply with applicable laws, regulations or requirements;

2. Noncompliance by the permittee with any condition of the permit;

3. The permittee's failure to disclose fully all relevant material facts, or the permittee's misrepresentation of any relevant material facts in applying for a permit, or in any other report or document required under the law or this chapter;

4. A determination that the permitted activity endangers human health or the environment and can only be regulated to acceptable levels by permit modification or termination;

5. A change in any condition that requires either a temporary or permanent reduction or elimination of any discharge or sludge use or disposal practice controlled by the permit; or

6. There exists a material change in the basis on which the permit was issued that requires either a temporary or a permanent reduction or elimination of any discharge controlled by the permit necessary to protect human health or the environment.

B. The board department shall follow the applicable procedures in this chapter in terminating any VPDES permit under this section, except that if the entire discharge is permanently terminated by elimination of the flow or by connection to a POTW or a PVOTW (but not by land application or disposal into a well), the board department may terminate the permit by notice to the permittee. Termination by notice shall be effective 30 days after notice is sent, unless the permittee objects within that time. If the permittee objects during that period, the board department shall follow the applicable procedures for termination under 9VAC25-31-370 D. Expedited permit termination procedures are not available to permittees that are subject to pending state or federal enforcement actions including citizen suits brought under state or federal law. If requesting expedited permit termination procedures, a permittee must certify that it is not subject to any pending state or federal enforcement actions including citizen suits brought under state or federal law.

C. Permittees that wish to terminate their permit must submit a notice of termination (NOT) to the department. If requesting expedited permit termination procedures, a permittee must certify in the NOT that it is not subject to any pending state or federal enforcement actions including citizen suits brought under state or federal law. As of the start date in Table 1 of 9VAC25-31-1020, all NOTs submitted in compliance with this subsection shall be submitted electronically by the permittee to the department in compliance with this subsection and 40 CFR Part 3 (including, in all cases, 40 CFR Part 3 Subpart D), 9VAC25-31-110, and Part XI (9VAC25-31-950 et seq.) of this chapter. Part XI of this chapter is not intended to undo existing requirements for electronic reporting. Prior to this date, and independent of Part XI of this chapter, the permittee may be required to report electronically if specified by a particular permit.

9VAC25-31-440 Permits and direct enforceability

A. The requirements in this part may be implemented through a permit issued to a treatment works treating domestic sewage, in accordance with this chapter. Treatment works treating domestic sewage shall submit a permit application in accordance with this chapter.

B. No person shall use biosolids or dispose of sewage sludge through any practice for which requirements are established in this part except in accordance with such requirements.

C. No person shall land apply Class B biosolids on any land in Virginia unless that land has been identified in an application to issue, reissue, or modify a permit and approved by the board department.

D. No person shall land apply, market, or distribute biosolids in Virginia unless the biosolids source has been approved by the board department.

9VAC25-31-460 Additional or more stringent requirements

A. On a case-by-case basis, the board department may impose requirements for the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge in addition to or more stringent than the requirements in this part when necessary to protect public health and the environment from any adverse effect of a pollutant in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

B. Nothing in this part precludes the authority of another state agency, any political subdivision of Virginia, or an interstate agency with respect to the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge.

C. For biosolids land application where, because of site-specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regarding setback distances, transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

9VAC25-31-485 Requirements for a person who land apply biosolids

A. No person shall land apply biosolids pursuant to a permit issued in accordance with this regulation unless an individual holding a valid certificate of competence as specified in the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation, Article 5, Certification of Land Applicators, as set forth in 9VAC25-32-690 through 9VAC25-32-760, is onsite at all times during such land application.

B. When an application for a permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids is submitted to the department:

1. Permit holders shall use a DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying each land application field. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities and the site's location.

2. A written agreement shall be established between the landowner and permit applicant or permit holder to be submitted with the permit application, whereby the landowner shall consent to the application of biosolids on his property. The landowner agreement shall include:

a. A statement certifying that the landowner is the sole owner or one of multiple owners of the property or properties identified on the landowner agreements;

b. A statement certifying that no concurrent agreements are in effect for the fields to be permitted for biosolids application;

c. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee when land is sold or ownership transferred;

d. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee if any conditions change such that any component of the landowner agreement becomes invalid;

e. Permission to allow department staff on the landowner's property to conduct inspections;

f. An acknowledgement by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the regulation;

g. An acknowledgement that the landowner has received a biosolids fact sheet approved by the department; and

h. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall not remove notification signs placed by the permit holder.

3. New landowner agreements, using the most current form provided by the board department, shall be submitted to the department for proposed land application sites identified in each application for issuance or reissuance of a permit or the modification to add land to an existing permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids.

4. For permits modified in order to incorporate changes to this chapter, the permit holder shall, within 60 days of the effective date of the permit modification, advise the landowner by certified letter of the requirement to provide a new landowner agreement. The letter shall include instructions to the landowner for signing and returning the new landowner agreement and shall advise the landowner that the permit holder's receipt of such new landowner agreement is required prior to application of biosolids to the landowner's property.

5. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder.

C. The permit holder shall ensure that the landowner agreement is still valid at the time of land application.

D. Notification requirements.

1. At least 100 days prior to commencing the first land application of biosolids at a permitted site the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the chief executive officer or his designee for the local government where the site is located. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the biosolids to be applied to the site. This requirement may be satisfied by the department's notice to the local government at the time of receiving the permit application if all necessary information is included in the notice or by providing a list of all available permitted sites in the locality at least 100 days prior to commencing the application at any site on the list. If the site is located in more than one county, the notice shall be provided to all jurisdictions where the site is located.

2. At least 14 days prior to commencing land application of biosolids at a permitted site, the permit holder shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. The notice shall identify the location of the permitted site and the expected sources of the sewage sludge to be applied to the site.

3. Not more than 24 hours prior to commencing land application activities, including delivery of biosolids at a permitted site, the permittee shall notify in writing the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. This notification shall include identification of the biosolids source and shall include only sites where land application activities will commence within 24 hours or where the biosolids will be staged within 24 hours.

E. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with requirements specified in Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation.

F. Posting signs.

1. At least five business days prior to delivery of biosolids for land application on any site permitted under this regulation, the permit holder shall post signs at the site that comply with this section, are visible and legible from the public right-of-way in both directions of travel, and conform to the specifications in this subsection. The sign shall remain in place for at least five business days after land application has been completed at the site. The permit holder shall not remove the signs until at least 30 days after land application has been completed at the site.

a. A sign shall be posted at or near the intersection of the public right-of-way and the main site access road or driveway to the site used by the biosolids transport vehicles.

b. If the field is located adjacent to a public right-of-way, at least one sign shall be posted along each public road frontage beside the field to be land applied.

c. The department may grant a waiver to the requirements in this section, or require alternative posting options due to extenuating circumstances or where requirements conflict with local government ordinances and other requirements regulating the use of signs.

2. Upon the posting of signs at a land application site prior to commencing land application, the permittee shall deliver or cause to be delivered written notification to the department and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government where the site is located unless they request in writing not to receive the notice. Notification shall be delivered to the department within 24 hours of the posting of the signs. The notice shall include the following:

a. The name and telephone number of the permit holder, including the name of a representative knowledgeable of the permit;

b. Identification by tax map number and the DEQ control number for sites on which land application is to take place;

c. The name or title and telephone number of at least one individual designated by the permit holder to respond to questions and complaints related to the land application project if not the permit holder identified in subdivision a of this subdivision; and

d. The approximate dates on which land application is to begin and end at the site.

3. The sign shall be made of weather-resistant materials and shall be sturdily mounted so as to be capable of remaining in place and legible throughout the period that the sign is required at the site. Signs required by this section shall be temporary, nonilluminated, and four square feet or more in area, and only contain the following information:

a. A statement that biosolids are being land applied at the site;

b. The name of the permit holder;

c. The telephone number of an individual designated by the permit holder to respond to complaints and inquiries; and

d. Contact information for the department, including a telephone number for complaints and inquiries.

4. The permit holder shall make a good faith effort to replace or repair any sign that has been removed from a land application site or that has been damaged so as to render any of its required information illegible prior to five business days after completion of land application.

G. Biosolids management plan.

1. The permit holder shall maintain and implement a biosolids management plan, which shall consist of three components:

a. The materials, including site booklets, developed and submitted at the time of permit application or permit modification adding a site to the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-31-100 Q;

b. Nutrient management plan for each site, in accordance with 9VAC25-31-505; and

c. Operation and maintenance (O&M) manual, developed and submitted to the department within 90 days of the effective date of the permit.

2. The biosolids management plan and all of its components shall be incorporated as an enforceable part of the permit.

3. The O&M manual shall include at a minimum:

a. Equipment maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules;

b. Storage facility maintenance procedures and schedules;

c. Sampling schedules for:

(1) Required monitoring; and

(2) Operational control testing;

d. Sample collection, preservation and analysis procedures, including laboratories and methods used; and

e. Instructions for recording and reporting all monitoring activities.

4. Current VPDES permit holders who land apply biosolids may use their existing VPDES O&M plan addressing land application to satisfy the requirements of this section if the existing plan addresses all of the required minimum components identified in this section.

H. Handling of complaints.

1. Within 24 hours of receiving notification of a complaint, the permit holder shall commence investigation of the complaint and shall determine whether the complaint is substantive. The permit holder shall confirm receipt of all substantive complaints by phone, email, or facsimile to the department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government of the jurisdiction in which the complaint originates, and the owner of the treatment facility from which the biosolids originated within 24 hours after receiving the complaint.

2. For the purposes of this section, a substantive complaint shall be deemed to be any complaint alleging a violation of these regulations, state law, or local ordinance; a release of biosolids to state waters or to a public right-of-way or to any location not authorized in the permit; or failure to comply with the nutrient management plan for the land application site.

9VAC25-31-500 Definitions

In addition to the definitions given in Part I (9VAC25-31-10 et seq.) of this chapter, the following definitions apply to Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter. Where the same term is defined in both parts, the definition of Part VI of this chapter applies to the use of the term in Part VI of this chapter.

"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.

"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.

"Agronomic rate" means the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.

"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

"Annual pollutant loading rate " or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Annual whole sludge application rate" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Apply biosolids" or "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of biosolids.

"Aquifer" means a geologic formation, group of geologic formations, or a portion of a geologic formation capable of yielding groundwater to wells or springs.

"Base flood" means a flood that has a one percent chance of occurring in any given year (i.e., a flood with a magnitude equaled once in 100 years).

"Bulk biosolids" means biosolids that are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

"Class I sludge management facility" means any publicly owned treatment works (POTW) required to have an approved pretreatment program under this chapter and any treatment works treating domestic sewage classified as a Class I sludge management facility by the board department because of the potential for its biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal practice to affect public health and the environment adversely.

"Contaminate an aquifer" means to introduce a substance that causes the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in the Virginia Water Quality Standards or in 40 CFR 141.62(b) to be exceeded in groundwater or that causes the existing concentration of nitrate in groundwater to increase when the existing concentration of nitrate in the groundwater exceeds the maximum contaminant level for nitrate in the Virginia Water Quality Standards or 40 CFR 141.62(b).

"Cover" means soil or other material used to cover sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.

"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Displacement" means the relative movement of any two sides of a fault measured in any direction.

"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge or biosolids after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.

"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Fault" means a fracture or zone of fractures in any materials along which strata on one side are displaced with respect to strata on the other side.

"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

"Fiber crops" means crops such as flax and cotton.

"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.

"Final cover" means the last layer of soil or other material placed on a sewage sludge unit at closure.

"Food crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.

"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

"Holocene time" means the most recent epoch of the Quaternary period, extending from the end of the Pleistocene epoch to the present.

"Industrial wastewater" means wastewater generated in a commercial or industrial process.

"Land application" means in regard to biosolids, the distribution of biosolids by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing the crops and vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this chapter are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this chapter, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback distances, where the biosolids may be applied.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this chapter and 9VAC25-32-690 through 9VAC25-32-760.

"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).

"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

"Leachate collection system" means a system or device installed immediately above a liner that is designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to collect and remove leachate from a sewage sludge unit.

"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Lower explosive limit for methane gas" means the lowest percentage of methane gas in air, by volume that propagates a flame at 25°C and atmospheric pressure.

"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.

"Municipality" means a city, town, county, district, association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal Agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the CWA, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity, or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the CWA, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids, any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories, or athletic and other recreational facilities.

"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.

"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.

"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

"Person who prepares biosolids" means either the person who generates biosolids during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person who derives a material from sewage sludge.

"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25° Celsius or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25° Celsius.

"Place sewage sludge or sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

"Pollutant" means an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the board department, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids); the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare); or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, and golf courses.

"Qualified groundwater scientist" means an individual with a baccalaureate or post-graduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering who has sufficient training and experience in groundwater hydrology and related fields, as may be demonstrated by state registration, professional certification, or completion of accredited university programs, to make sound professional judgments regarding groundwater monitoring, pollutant fate and transport, and corrective action.

"Range land" means open land with indigenous vegetation.

"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.

"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

"Seismic impact zone" means an area that has a 10% or greater probability that the horizontal ground level acceleration of the rock in the area exceeds 0.10 gravity once in 250 years.

"Sewage sludge" means solid, semi-solid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.

"Sewage sludge unit boundary" means the outermost perimeter of an active sewage sludge unit.

"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.

"Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR)" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per unit mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

"Store or storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.

"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried at 103°C to 105°C.

"Treat or treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

"Treatment works" means either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature.

"Unstable area" means land subject to natural or human-induced forces that may damage the structural components of an active sewage sludge unit. This includes, but is not limited to, land on which the soils are subject to mass movement.

"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management.

"Vector attraction" means the characteristic of biosolids or sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.

9VAC25-31-505 Universal requirements for land application operations

A. A nutrient management plan prepared by a person who is certified as a nutrient management planner by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be developed for all application sites prior to biosolids land application.

1. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be required for application sites prior to board department authorization under specific conditions, including but not limited to:

a. Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

b. Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

c. Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; and

d. Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

e. Where conditions at the land application site change so that it meets one or more of the specific conditions identified in this section, an approved nutrient management plan shall be submitted prior to any future land application at the site.

2. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

3. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation, and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

4. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for land application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

TABLE 1

SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

Ridge and Valley

162

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used.

B. Sewage sludge shall be treated to meet standards for land application of biosolids as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter prior to delivery at the land application site. No person shall alter the composition of biosolids at a site approved for land application of biosolids under a VPDES permit. Any person who engages in the alteration of such biosolids shall be subject to the penalties provided in Article 6 (§ 62.1-44.31 et seq.) of Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The addition of lime or deodorants to biosolids that have been treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part VI (9VAC25-31-420 et seq.) of this chapter, shall not constitute alteration of the composition of biosolids. The board department may authorize public institutions of higher education to conduct scientific research on the composition of biosolids that may be applied to land.

C. Bulk biosolids meeting Class B pathogen reduction standards shall be land applied in accordance with the Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit Regulation, Article 3, Biosolids Use Standards and Practices, set forth in 9VAC25-32-490 through 9VAC25-32-580.

D. Surface incorporation may be required on cropland by the department, or the local monitor with approval of the department, to mitigate malodors, when incorporation is practicable and compatible with a soil conservation plan or contract meeting the standards and specifications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.

E. For applications where surface applied biosolids are not incorporated, the department (or the local monitor with approval of the department) may require as a site-specific permit condition, extended setback distances when necessary to protect odor sensitive receptors.

F. No person shall apply to the Department of Environmental Quality for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of sewage sludge or biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 R of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-31-510 Applicability; bulk biosolids; biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land

A. This article applies to any person who prepares biosolids that is applied to the land, to any person who applies biosolids to the land, to biosolids applied to the land, and to the land on which biosolids is applied.

B. General requirements for bulk biosolids.

1. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when bulk biosolids is applied to the land if the bulk biosolids meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

2. The board department may apply any or all of the general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 to the bulk biosolids in subdivision 1 of this subsection on a case-by-case basis after determining that the general requirements or management practices are needed to protect public health and the environment from any reasonably anticipated adverse effect that may occur from any pollutant in the bulk biosolids.

C. General requirements for bulk material derived from biosolids.

1. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when a bulk material derived from biosolids is applied to the land if the derived bulk material meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

2. The board department may apply any or all of the general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 or the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 to the bulk material in subdivision 1 of this subsection on a case-by-case basis after determining that the general requirements or management practices are needed to protect public health and the environment from any reasonably anticipated adverse effect that may occur from any pollutant in the bulk biosolids.

D. The requirements in this article do not apply when a bulk material derived from biosolids is applied to the land if the biosolids from which the bulk material is derived meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

E. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

F. The general requirements in 9VAC25-31-530 and the management practices in 9VAC25-31-550 B through F do not apply when a material derived from biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the derived material meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

G. The requirements in this article do not apply when a material derived from biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land if the biosolids from which the material is derived meets the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 1, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-31-540 B 3, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 8.

9VAC25-31-550 Management practices

A. All biosolids land application activities shall comply with the operational requirements of Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of 9VAC25-32 (Biosolids Program of the VPA Permit Regulation).

B. Bulk biosolids shall not be applied to the land if it is likely to adversely affect a threatened or endangered species listed in 9VAC25-260-320 or § 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 USC § 1533) or if the land application is likely to adversely affect its designated critical habitat.

C. Bulk biosolids shall not be applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site that is flooded, frozen, or snow-covered so that the bulk biosolids enters a wetland or other surface waters except as provided in a VPDES permit or a permit issued pursuant to § 404 of the CWA.

D. Bulk biosolids shall not be applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site that is 10 meters or less from surface waters, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

E. Bulk biosolids shall be applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site at a whole sludge application rate that is equal to or less than the agronomic rate for the bulk biosolids, unless, in the case of a reclamation site, otherwise specified by the board department.

F. Either a label shall be affixed to the bag or other container in which biosolids that is sold or given away for application to the land, or an information sheet shall be provided to the person who receives biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land. The label or information sheet shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of the person who prepared the biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land;

2. A statement that application of the biosolids to the land is prohibited except in accordance with the instructions on the label or information sheet; and

3. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause any of the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 4 of 9VAC25-31-540 to be exceeded.

9VAC25-31-570 Frequency of monitoring

A. Biosolids.

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants listed in Tables 1 through 4 of 9VAC25-31-540; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and B 2 through B 4; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 4, B 7 and B 8 shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1
FREQUENCY OF MONITORING--LAND APPLICATION

Amount of biosolids*

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency

Greater than zero but less than 290

once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

once per quarter (four times a year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

once per month (12 times per year)

*Either the amount of bulk biosolids applied to the land or the amount of biosolids prepared for sale or give-away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

2. After the biosolids has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the board department may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If either the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 C 2 or the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, each container of domestic septage applied to the land shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

9VAC25-31-620 General requirements

A. No person shall place sewage sludge on an active sewage sludge unit unless the requirements in this article are met.

B. An active sewage sludge unit located within 60 meters of a fault that has displacement in Holocene time; located in an unstable area; or located in a wetland, except as provided in a permit issued pursuant to the law and § 402 or 404 of the CWA, shall close by March 22, 1994, unless, in the case of an active sewage sludge unit located within 60 meters of a fault that has displacement in Holocene time, otherwise specified by the board department.

C. The owner/operator of an active sewage sludge unit shall submit a written closure and post closure plan to the department 180 days prior to the date that the active sewage sludge unit closes. The plan shall describe how the sewage sludge unit will be closed and, at a minimum, shall include:

1. A discussion of how the leachate collection system will be operated and maintained for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes if the sewage sludge unit has a liner and leachate collection system;

2. A description of the system used to monitor for methane gas in the air in any structures within the surface disposal site and in the air at the property line of the surface disposal site, as required in 9VAC25-31-640 J 2; and

3. A discussion of how public access to the surface disposal site will be restricted for three years after the last sewage sludge unit in the surface disposal site closes.

D. The owner of a surface disposal site shall provide written notification to the subsequent owner of the site that sewage sludge was placed on the land.

9VAC25-31-630 Pollutant limits (other than domestic septage)

A. Active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system.

1. Except as provided in subdivision A 2 and subsection B of this section, the concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of this section in sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1.
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS--ACTIVE SEWAGE SLUDGE UNIT WITHOUT A LINER AND LEACHATE COLLECTION

Pollutant Concentration

Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram*)

Arsenic

73

Chromium

600

Nickel

420

*Dry weight basis

2. Except as provided in subsection B of this section, the concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of this section in sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit whose boundary is less than 150 meters from the property line of the surface disposal site shall not exceed the concentration determined using the following procedure.

a. The actual distance from the active sewage sludge unit boundary to the property line of the surface disposal site shall be determined.

b. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 2 of this section in the sewage sludge shall not exceed the concentration in Table 2 of this section that corresponds to the actual distance in subdivision 2 a of this subsection.

TABLE 2--POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS
ACTIVE SEWAGE SLUDGE UNIT WITHOUT A LINER AND LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM THAT HAS A UNIT BOUNDARY TO PROPERTY LINE DISTANCE LESS THAN 150 METERS

Unit boundary to property line

Pollutant concentration*

Distance
(meters)

Arsenic
(mg/kg)

Chromium
(mg/kg)

Nickel
(mg/kg)

0 to less than 25

30

200

210

25 to less than 50

34

220

240

50 to less than 75

39

260

270

75 to less than 100

46

300

320

100 to less than 125

53

360

390

125 to less than 150

62

450

420

*Dry weight basis

B. Active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system - site-specific limits.

1. At the time of permit application, the owner/operator of a surface disposal site may request site-specific pollutant limits in accordance with subdivision B 2 of this section for an active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system when the existing values for site parameters specified by the board department are different from the values for those parameters used to develop the pollutant limits in Table 1 of this section and when the board department determines that site-specific pollutant limits are appropriate for the active sewage sludge unit.

2. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 1 of this section in sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit without a liner and leachate collection system shall not exceed either the concentration for the pollutant determined during a site-specific assessment, as specified by the board department, or the existing concentration of the pollutant in the sewage sludge, whichever is lower.

9VAC25-31-640 Management practices

A. Sewage sludge shall not be placed on an active sewage sludge unit if it is likely to adversely affect a threatened or endangered species listed in 9VAC25-260-320 or § 4 of the Endangered Species Act (16 USC § 1533 et seq.) or its designated critical habitat.

B. An active sewage sludge unit shall not restrict the flow of a base flood.

C. When a surface disposal site is located in a seismic impact zone, an active sewage sludge unit shall be designed to withstand the maximum recorded horizontal ground level acceleration.

D. An active sewage sludge unit shall be located 60 meters or more from a fault that has displacement in Holocene time, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

E. An active sewage sludge unit shall not be located in an unstable area.

F. An active sewage sludge unit shall not be located in a wetland, except as provided in a permit issued by the board department.

G. 1. Run-off from an active sewage sludge unit shall be collected and shall be disposed in accordance with this chapter and any other applicable requirements.

2. The run-off collection system for an active sewage sludge unit shall have the capacity to handle run-off from a 24-hour, 25-year storm event.

H. The leachate collection system for an active sewage sludge unit that has a liner and leachate collection system shall be operated and maintained during the period the sewage sludge unit is active and for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes.

I. Leachate from an active sewage sludge unit that has a liner and leachate collection system shall be collected and shall be disposed in accordance with the applicable requirements during the period the sewage sludge unit is active and for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes.

J. When a cover is placed on an active sewage sludge unit, the concentration of methane gas in air in any structure within the surface disposal site shall not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit for methane gas during the period that the sewage sludge unit is active and the concentration of methane gas in air at the property line of the surface disposal site shall not exceed the lower explosive limit for methane gas during the period that the sewage sludge unit is active.

When a final cover is placed on a sewage sludge unit at closure, the concentration of methane gas in air in any structure within the surface disposal site shall not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit for methane gas for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes and the concentration of methane gas in air at the property line of the surface disposal site shall not exceed the lower explosive limit for methane gas for three years after the sewage sludge unit closes, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

K. A food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop shall not be grown on an active sewage sludge unit unless the owner/operator of the surface disposal site demonstrates to the board department that through management practices, public health and the environment are protected from any reasonably anticipated adverse effects of pollutants in sewage sludge when crops are grown.

L. Animals shall not be grazed on an active sewage sludge unit unless the owner/operator of the surface disposal site demonstrates to the board department that through management practices, public health and the environment are protected from any reasonably anticipated adverse effects of pollutants in sewage sludge when animals are grazed.

M. Public access to a surface disposal site shall be restricted for the period that the surface disposal site contains an active sewage sludge unit and for three years after the last active sewage sludge unit in the surface disposal site closes.

N. Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall not contaminate an aquifer. Results of a groundwater monitoring program developed by a qualified groundwater scientist or a certification by a qualified groundwater scientist shall be used to demonstrate that sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit does not contaminate an aquifer.

9VAC25-31-660 Frequency of monitoring

A. Sewage sludge (other than domestic septage).

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants in Tables 1 and 2 of 9VAC25-31-630; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A and in 9VAC25-31-710 B 2; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 1 through B 4, B 7 and B 8 for sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1

FREQUENCY OF MONITORING--SURFACE DISPOSAL

Amount of sewage sludge*

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency

Greater than zero but less than 290

once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

once per quarter (four times per year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

once per month (12 times per year)

*Amount of sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit (dry weight basis).

2. After the sewage sludge has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the board department may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-31-710 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 12 are met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit, each container of domestic septage shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

C. Air. Air in structures within a surface disposal site and at the property line of the surface disposal site shall be monitored continuously for methane gas during the period that the surface disposal site contains an active sewage sludge unit on which the sewage sludge is covered and for three years after a sewage sludge unit closes when a final cover is placed on the sewage sludge.

9VAC25-31-710 Pathogens

A. Biosolids - Class A.

1. The requirement in subdivision 2 of this subsection and the requirements in either subdivisions 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of this subsection shall be met for a biosolids to be classified Class A with respect to pathogens.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in subdivisions 3 through 8 of this subsection shall be met either prior to meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-31-720 B 6 through B 8, are met.

3. Class A - Alternative 1.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. The temperature of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be maintained at a specific value for a period of time.

(1) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1), except when small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.

EQUATION (1)

D = 131,700,000/100.1400t

D = time in days

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

(2) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher and small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1).

(3) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0% and the time period is at least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1).

(4) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0%; the temperature of the sewage sludge is 50°C or higher; and the time period is 30 minutes or longer, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2).

EQUATION (2)

D = 50,070,000/100.1400t

D = time in days

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

4. Class A - Alternative 2.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. (1) The pH of the sewage sludge that is used or disposed shall be raised to above 12 and shall remain above 12 for 72 hours.

(2) The temperature of the sewage sludge shall be above 52°C for 12 hours or longer during the period that the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12.

(3) At the end of the 72-hour period during which the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12, the sewage sludge shall be air dried to achieve a percent solids in the sewage sludge greater than 50%.

5. Class A - Alternative 3.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. (1) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains enteric viruses.

(2) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(3) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the enteric virus density requirement are documented.

(4) After the enteric virus reduction in subdivision 5 b (3) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 b (3) of this subsection.

c. (1) The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains viable helminth ova.

(2) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(3) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the viable helminth ova density requirement are documented.

(4) After the viable helminth ova reduction in subdivision 5 c (3) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 c (3) of this subsection.

6. Class A - Alternative 4.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. The density of enteric viruses in the biosolids shall be less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

c. The density of viable helminth ova in the biosolids shall be less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F unless otherwise specified by the board department.

7. Class A - Alternative 5.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to further reduce pathogens described in subsection E of this section.

8. Class A - Alternative 6.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella, sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or give away in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the requirements in 9VAC25-31-510 B, C, E, or F.

b. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to further reduce pathogens, as determined by the board department.

B. Biosolids - Class B.

1. The requirements in either subdivision 3, 4, or 5 of this subsection shall be met for a biosolids to be classified Class B with respect to pathogens.

2. The site restrictions in subdivision 6 of this subsection shall be met when biosolids that meets the Class B pathogen requirements in subdivision 3, 4, or 5 of this subsection is applied to the land.

3. Class B - Alternative 1.

a. Seven representative samples of the biosolids that is used or disposed shall be collected.

b. The geometric mean of the density of fecal coliform in the samples collected in subdivision 3 a of this subsection shall be less than either 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) or 2,000,000 Colony Forming Units per gram of total solids (dry weight basis).

4. Class B - Alternative 2. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to significantly reduce pathogens described in subsection D of this section.

5. Class B - Alternative 3. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to significantly reduce pathogens, as determined by the board department.

6. Site restrictions.

a. Food crops with harvested parts that touch the biosolids/soil mixture and are totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months after application of biosolids.

b. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months after application of biosolids when the biosolids remains on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

c. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 38 months after application of biosolids when the biosolids remains on the land surface for less than four months prior to incorporation into the soil.

d. Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of biosolids.

e. Animals shall not be grazed on the land for 30 days after application of biosolids.

f. Turf grown on land where biosolids is applied shall not be harvested for one year after application of the biosolids when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

g. Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure shall be restricted for one year after application of biosolids.

h. Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure shall be restricted for 30 days after application of biosolids.

C. Domestic septage: The site restrictions in subdivision B 6 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. Processes to significantly reduce pathogens (PSRP).

1. Aerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 40 days at 20°C and 60 days at 15°C.

2. Air drying. Sewage sludge is dried on sand beds or on paved or unpaved basins. The sewage sludge dries for a minimum of three months. During two of the three months, the ambient average daily temperature is above 0°C.

3. Anaerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is treated in the absence of air for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 15 days at 35°C to 55°C and 60 days at 20°C.

4. Composting. Using either the within-vessel, static aerated pile, or windrow composting methods, the temperature of the sewage sludge is raised to 40°C or higher and remains at 40°C or higher for five days. For four hours during the five days, the temperature in the compost pile exceeds 55°C.

5. Lime stabilization. Sufficient lime is added to the sewage sludge to raise the pH of the sewage sludge to 12 after two hours of contact.

E. Processes to further reduce pathogens (PFRP).

1. Composting. Using either the within-vessel composting method or the static aerated pile composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for three days. Using the windrow composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for 15 days or longer. During the period when the compost is maintained at 55°C or higher, there shall be a minimum of five turnings of the windrow.

2. Heat drying. Sewage sludge is dried by direct or indirect contact with hot gases to reduce the moisture content of the sewage sludge to 10.0% or lower. Either the temperature of the sewage sludge particles exceeds 80°C or the wet bulb temperature of the gas in contact with the sewage sludge as the sewage sludge leaves the dryer exceeds 80°C.

3. Heat treatment. Liquid sewage sludge is heated to a temperature of 180°C or higher for 30 minutes.

4. Thermophilic aerobic digestion. Liquid sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions and the mean cell residence time of the sewage sludge is 10 days at 55°C to 60°C.

5. Beta ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with beta rays from an accelerator at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

6. Gamma ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with gamma rays from certain isotopes, such as Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137, at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

7. Pasteurization. The temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 70°C or higher for 30 minutes or longer.

9VAC25-31-720 Vector attraction reduction

A. Vector attraction reduction requirements:

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 10 of this section shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

4. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 11 of this section shall be met when sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

5. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivision B 9, B 10, or B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 9 through B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

B. Vector attraction reduction options:

1. The mass of volatile solids in the sewage sludge shall be reduced by a minimum of 38%, calculated according to the method in 9VAC25-31-490 B 8.

2. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this subsection cannot be met for an anaerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge anaerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 40 additional days at a temperature between 30°C and 37°C. When at the end of the 40 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 17%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

3. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this section cannot be met for an aerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge that has a percent solids of 2.0% or less aerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 30 additional days at 20°C. When at the end of the 30 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 15%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

4. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for sewage sludge treated in an aerobic process shall be equal to or less than 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20°C.

5. Sewage sludge shall be treated in an aerobic process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 40°C and the average temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 45°C.

6. The pH of sewage sludge shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for two hours and then at 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours.

7. The percent solids of sewage sludge that does not contain unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 75% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

8. The percent solids of sewage sludge that contains unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 90% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

9. Sewage sludge injection requirements:

a. Sewage sludge shall be injected below the surface of the land.

b. No significant amount of the sewage sludge shall be present on the land surface within one hour after the sewage sludge is injected.

c. When the sewage sludge that is injected below the surface of the land is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be injected below the land surface within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

10. Sewage sludge incorporation requirements:

a. Sewage sludge applied to the land surface or placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or placement on the land, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

b. When sewage sludge that is incorporated into the soil is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be applied to or placed on the land within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

11. Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be covered with soil or other material at the end of each operating day.

12. The pH of domestic septage shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes.

9VAC25-31-910 Enforcement

A. The board department may enforce the provisions of this chapter by:

1. Issuing directives in accordance with the law;

2. Issuing special orders in accordance with the law;

3. Issuing emergency special orders in accordance with the law;

4. Seeking injunction, mandamus or other appropriate remedy as authorized by the law;

5. Seeking civil penalties under the law; or

6. Seeking remedies under the law, the CWA or under other laws including the common law.

B. The board department encourages citizen participation in all its activities, including enforcement. In particular:

1. The board department will investigate citizen complaints and provide written response to all signed, written complaints from citizens concerning matters within the board's department's purview;

2. The board department will not oppose intervention in any civil enforcement action when such intervention is authorized by statute or Supreme Court rule; or in any administrative enforcement action when authorized by the board's procedural rule; and

3. At least 30 days prior to the final settlement of any civil enforcement action or the issuance of any consent special order, the board department will publish public notice of such settlement or order in a newspaper of general circulation in the county, city or town in which the discharge is located, and in The Virginia Register of Regulations. This notice will identify the owner, specify the enforcement action to be taken and specify where a copy of the settlement or order can be obtained. Appeals of the enforcement action will be public noticed in accordance with Procedural Rule No. 1 (9VAC25-230-10 et seq.). A consent special order is a special order issued without a public hearing and with the written consent of the affected owner. For the purpose of this chapter, an emergency special order is not a consent special order. The board department shall consider all comments received during the comment period before taking final action.

C. When a permit is amended solely to reflect a new owner, and the previous owner had been issued a consent special order that, at the time of permit amendment was still in full force and effect, a consent special order issued to the new owner does not have to go to public notice provided that:

a. The permit amendment does not have to go to public notice; and

b. The terms of the new consent order are the same as issued to the previous owner.

D. Notwithstanding subdivision B 3 of this subsection, a special order may be issued by agreement at a board meeting the department without further notice when a public hearing has been scheduled to issue a special order to the affected owner, whether or not the public hearing is actually held.

9VAC25-31-920 Delegation of authority.  (Repealed.)

The director may perform any act of the board provided under this chapter, except as limited by § 62.1-44.14 of the Code of Virginia. Until March 23, 2000, the director shall have no authority to approve all or portions of permits either in the first instance, as modified or reissued, or on appeal; until that time, such authority is delegated to the deputy director or his designee.