A. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings ascribed to them in § 54.1-2700 of the Code of Virginia:
"Digital scan technician"
"Digital work order"
"Oral and maxillofacial surgeon"
B. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"AAOMS" means the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
"ADA" means the American Dental Association.
"Advertising" means a representation or other notice given to the public or members thereof, directly or indirectly, by a dentist on behalf of himself, his facility, his partner or associate, or any dentist affiliated with the dentist or his facility by any means or method for the purpose of inducing purchase, sale, or use of dental methods, services, treatments, operations, procedures, or products, or to promote continued or increased use of such dental methods, treatments, operations, procedures, or products.
"CODA" means the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association.
"Code" means the Code of Virginia.
"Dental assistant I" means any unlicensed person under the direction of a dentist or a dental hygienist who renders assistance for services provided to the patient as authorized under this chapter but shall not include an individual serving in purely an administrative, secretarial, or clerical capacity.
"Dental assistant II" means a person under the direction and direct supervision of a dentist who is registered by the board to perform reversible, intraoral procedures as specified in 18VAC60-21-150 and 18VAC60-21-160.
"Mobile dental facility" means a self-contained unit in which dentistry is practiced that is not confined to a single building and can be transported from one location to another.
"Nonsurgical laser" means a laser that is not capable of cutting or removing hard tissue, soft tissue, or tooth structure.
"Portable dental operation" means a nonfacility in which dental equipment used in the practice of dentistry is transported to and utilized on a temporary basis at an out-of-office location, including patients' homes, schools, nursing homes, or other institutions.
"Radiographs" means intraoral and extraoral radiographic images of hard and soft tissues used for purposes of diagnosis.
C. The following words and terms relating to supervision as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"Direct supervision" means that the dentist examines the patient and records diagnostic findings prior to delegating restorative or prosthetic treatment and related services to a dental assistant II for completion the same day or at a later date. The dentist prepares the tooth or teeth to be restored and remains immediately available in the office to the dental assistant II for guidance or assistance during the delivery of treatment and related services. The dentist examines the patient to evaluate the treatment and services before the patient is dismissed.
"Direction" means the level of supervision (i.e., immediate, direct, indirect, or general) that a dentist is required to exercise with a dental hygienist, a dental assistant I, a dental assistant II, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist or the level of supervision that a dental hygienist is required to exercise with a dental assistant to direct and oversee the delivery of treatment and related services. For the purpose of a Digital Scan Technician, "direction" means the written or electronic instructions provided by a dentist to a digital scan technician in the form of a work order for a digital scan of a patient and the dentist's specified availability to consult with a digital scan technician while the scan is taken.
"General supervision" means that a dentist completes a periodic comprehensive examination of the patient and issues a written order for hygiene treatment that states the specific services to be provided by a dental hygienist during one or more subsequent appointments when the dentist may or may not be present. Issuance of the order authorizes the dental hygienist to supervise a dental assistant performing duties delegable to dental assistants I.
"Immediate supervision" means the dentist is in the operatory to supervise the administration of sedation or provision of treatment.
"Indirect supervision" means the dentist examines the patient at some point during the appointment and is continuously present in the office to advise and assist a dental hygienist , a dental assistant, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist who is (i) delivering hygiene treatment, (ii) preparing the patient for examination or treatment by the dentist, (iii) preparing the patient for dismissal following treatment, or (iv) administering topical local anesthetic, sedation, or anesthesia as authorized by law or regulation.
"Remote supervision" means that a supervising dentist is accessible and available for communication and consultation with a dental hygienist during the delivery of dental hygiene services but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided. For the purpose of practice by a public health dental hygienist, "remote supervision" means that a public health dentist has regular, periodic communications with a public health dental hygienist regarding patient treatment, but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided. For the purpose of supervision of a digital scan technician, remote supervision means that a directing dentist is accessible and available for communication and consultation in the practice of teledentistry.
D. The following words and terms relating to sedation or anesthesia as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"Analgesia" means the diminution or elimination of pain.
"Continual" or "continually" means repeated regularly and frequently in a steady succession.
"Continuous" or "continuously" means prolonged without any interruption at any time.
"Deep sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.
"General anesthesia" means a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilator function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.
"Inhalation" means a technique of administration in which a gaseous or volatile agent, including nitrous oxide, is introduced into the pulmonary tree and whose primary effect is due to absorption through the pulmonary bed.
"Inhalation analgesia" means the inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen to produce a state of reduced sensation of pain with minimal alteration of consciousness.
"Local anesthesia" means the elimination of sensation, especially pain, in one part of the body by the topical application or regional injection of a drug.
"Minimal sedation" means a drug-induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. Although cognitive function and physical coordination may be impaired, airway reflexes, and ventilator and cardiovascular functions are unaffected. Minimal sedation includes the diminution or elimination of anxiety through the use of pharmacological agents in a dosage that does not cause depression of consciousness and includes "inhalation analgesia" when used in combination with any such sedating agent administered prior to or during a procedure.
"Moderate sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness, during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.
"Monitoring" means to observe, interpret, assess, and record appropriate physiologic functions of the body during sedative procedures and general anesthesia appropriate to the level of sedation as provided in Part VII (18VAC60-21-260 et seq.) of this chapter.
"Parenteral" means a technique of administration in which the drug bypasses the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, submucosal, subcutaneous, or intraocular).
"Provide" means, in the context of regulations for moderate sedation or deep sedation/general anesthesia, to supply, give, or issue sedating medications. A dentist who does not hold the applicable permit cannot be the provider of moderate sedation or deep sedation/general anesthesia.
"Titration" means the incremental increase in drug dosage to a level that provides the optimal therapeutic effect of sedation.
"Topical oral anesthetic" means any drug, available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, or jellies, that can be used orally for the purpose of rendering the oral cavity insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness.
A. A dentist who delegates the taking of a digital scan by a digital scan technician shall ensure that the technician has a certificate of completion from a training program approved by the board that includes:
1. Training in prepping the patient, taking and evaluating the quality of a digital scan, safety protocols, and dental terminology given by a sponsor approved for continuing education as set forth in 18VAC60-21-250(C); and
2. In-office training by the manufacturer on the proper operation of the digital scanner that includes orientation to the process and protocols for taking and evaluating digital scans for fabrication of a restoration or an appliance.
B. The dentist who directs a digital scan technician to take digital scans shall establish:
1. Written or electronic protocols for the practice of teledentistry in compliance with § 54.1-2711(B) and (C) of the Code of Virginia;
2. Written or electronic protocols and procedures for the performance of digital scans by digital scan technicians in compliance with § 54.1-2708.5(B) of the Code of Virginia; and
3. A written or electronic work order for a digital scan that includes required components of a dental work order.
C. The dentist who directs a digital scan technician to take digital scans shall be:
1. Licensed by the board to practice dentistry in the Commonwealth;
2. Accessible and available for communication and consultation with the digital scan technician at all times during the patient interaction; and
3. Ultimately responsible for communicating with the patient or the patient's representative the specific treatment the patient will receive, which aspects of treatment will be delegated to qualified personnel, and the direction required for such treatment, in accordance with this chapter and the Code of Virginia.
D. The directing dentist shall make available to the board any requested:
1. Protocols and procedures as specified in subsection B of this section;
2. Evidence that the digital scan technician has complied with the training requirements of subsection A of this section; and
3. Written or electronic work orders used for digital scans.