The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"Abuse" means any act or failure to act by an employee or other person responsible for the care of an individual in a facility or program operated, licensed, or funded by the department, excluding those operated by the Virginia Department of Corrections, that was performed or was failed to be performed knowingly, recklessly, or intentionally, and that caused or might have caused physical or psychological harm, injury, or death to an individual receiving care or treatment for mental illness, developmental disabilities, or substance abuse. Examples of abuse include acts such as:
1. Rape, sexual assault, or other criminal sexual behavior;
2. Assault or battery;
3. Use of language that demeans, threatens, intimidates, or humiliates the individual;
4. Misuse or misappropriation of the individual's assets, goods, or property;
5. Use of excessive force when placing an individual in physical or mechanical restraint;
6. Use of physical or mechanical restraints on an individual that is not in compliance with federal and state laws, regulations, and policies, professional accepted standards of practice, or his individualized services plan; or
7. Use of more restrictive or intensive services or denial of services to punish an individual or that is not consistent with his individualized services plan.
"Activities of daily living" or "ADLs" means personal care activities and includes bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, grooming, hygiene, feeding, and eating. An individual's degree of independence in performing these activities is part of determining the appropriate level of care and services.
"Admission" means the process of acceptance into a service as defined by the provider's policies.
"Assertive community treatment service" or "ACT" means a self-contained interdisciplinary community-based team of medical, behavioral health, and rehabilitation professionals who use a team approach to meet the needs of an individual with severe and persistent mental illness. ACT teams:
1. Provide person-centered services addressing the breadth of an individual’s needs, helping him achieve his personal goals;
2. Serve as the primary provider of all the services that an individual receiving ACT services needs;
3. Maintain a high frequency and intensity of community-based contacts;
4. Maintain a very low individual-to-staff ratio;
5. Offer varying levels of care for all individuals receiving ACT services, and appropriately adjust service levels according to individuals’ needs over time;
6. Assist individuals in advancing towards personal goals with a focus on enhancing community integration and regaining valued roles (such as worker, family member, resident, spouse, tenant, or friend);
7. Carry out planned assertive engagement techniques including rapport-building strategies, facilitating meeting basic needs, and motivational interviewing techniques;
8. Monitor the individual’s mental status and provide needed supports in a manner consistent with the individual’s level of need and functioning;
9. Deliver all services according to a recovery-based philosophy of care; and
10. Promote self-determination, respect for the individual receiving ACT as an individual in his or her own right, and engage peers in promoting recovery and regaining meaningful roles and relationships in the community.
"Authorized representative" means a person permitted by law or 12VAC35-115 to authorize the disclosure of information or consent to treatment and services or participation in human research.
"Behavior intervention" means those principles and methods employed by a provider to help an individual receiving services to achieve a positive outcome and to address challenging behavior in a constructive and safe manner. Behavior intervention principles and methods shall be employed in accordance with the individualized services plan and written policies and procedures governing service expectations, treatment goals, safety, and security.
"Behavioral treatment plan," "functional plan," or "behavioral support plan" means any set of documented procedures that are an integral part of the individualized services plan and are developed on the basis of a systematic data collection, such as a functional assessment, for the purpose of assisting individuals to achieve the following:
1. Improved behavioral functioning and effectiveness;
2. Alleviation of symptoms of psychopathology; or
3. Reduction of challenging behaviors.
"Brain injury" means any injury to the brain that occurs after birth, but before age 65, that is acquired through traumatic or nontraumatic insults. Nontraumatic insults may include anoxia, hypoxia, aneurysm, toxic exposure, encephalopathy, surgical interventions, tumor, and stroke. Brain injury does not include hereditary, congenital, or degenerative brain disorders or injuries induced by birth trauma.
"Care," "treatment," or "support" means the individually planned therapeutic interventions that conform to current acceptable professional practice and that are intended to improve or maintain functioning of an individual receiving services delivered by a provider.
"Case management service" or "support coordination service" means services that can include assistance to individuals and their family members in accessing needed services that are responsive to the individual's needs. Case management services include identifying potential users of the service; assessing needs and planning services; linking the individual to services and supports; assisting the individual directly to locate, develop, or obtain needed services and resources; coordinating services with other providers; enhancing community integration; making collateral contacts; monitoring service delivery; discharge planning; and advocating for individuals in response to their changing needs. "Case management service" does not include assistance in which the only function is maintaining service waiting lists or periodically contacting or tracking individuals to determine potential service needs.
"Clinical experience" means providing direct services to individuals with mental illness or the provision of direct geriatric services or special education services. Experience may include supervised internships, practicums, and field experience.
"Commissioner" means the Commissioner of the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services.
"Community gero-psychiatric residential services" means 24-hour care provided to individuals with mental illness, behavioral problems, and concomitant health problems who are usually age 65 or older in a geriatric setting that is less intensive than a psychiatric hospital but more intensive than a nursing home or group home. Services include assessment and individualized services planning by an interdisciplinary services team, intense supervision, psychiatric care, behavioral treatment planning and behavior interventions, nursing, and other health related services.
"Complaint" means an allegation of a violation of this chapter or a provider's policies and procedures related to this chapter.
"Co-occurring disorders" means the presence of more than one and often several of the following disorders that are identified independently of one another and are not simply a cluster of symptoms resulting from a single disorder: mental illness, a developmental disability, substance abuse (substance use disorders), or brain injury.
"Co-occurring services" means individually planned therapeutic treatment that addresses in an integrated concurrent manner the service needs of individuals who have co-occurring disorders.
"Corrective action plan" means the provider's pledged corrective action in response to cited areas of noncompliance documented by the regulatory authority.
"Correctional facility" means a facility operated under the management and control of the Virginia Department of Corrections.
"Crisis" means a deteriorating or unstable situation often developing suddenly or rapidly that produces acute, heightened, emotional, mental, physical, medical, or behavioral distress.
"Crisis stabilization" means direct, intensive nonresidential or residential direct care and treatment to nonhospitalized individuals experiencing an acute crisis that may jeopardize their current community living situation. Crisis stabilization is intended to avert hospitalization or rehospitalization; provide normative environments with a high assurance of safety and security for crisis intervention; stabilize individuals in crisis; and mobilize the resources of the community support system, family members, and others for ongoing rehabilitation and recovery.
"Day support service" means structured programs of training, assistance, and specialized supervision in the acquisition, retention, or improvement of self-help, socialization, and adaptive skills for adults with a developmental disability provided to groups or individuals in nonresidential community-based settings. Day support services may provide opportunities for peer interaction and community integration and are designed to enhance the following: self-care and hygiene, eating, toileting, task learning, community resource utilization, environmental and behavioral skills, social skills, medication management, prevocational skills, and transportation skills. The term "day support service" does not include services in which the primary function is to provide employment-related services, general educational services, or general recreational services.
"Department" means the Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services.
"Developmental disability" means a severe, chronic disability of an individual that (i) is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or a combination of mental and physical impairments other than a sole diagnosis of mental illness; (ii) is manifested before the individual reaches 22 years of age; (iii) is likely to continue indefinitely; (iv) results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the following areas of major life activity: self-care, receptive and expressive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, or economic self-sufficiency; and (v) reflects the individual's need for a combination and sequence of special interdisciplinary or generic services, individualized supports, or other forms of assistance that are of lifelong or extended duration and are individually planned and coordinated. An individual from birth to nine years of age, inclusive, who has a substantial developmental delay or specific congenital or acquired condition may be considered to have a developmental disability without meeting three or more of the criteria described in clauses (i) through (v) if the individual without services and supports has a high probability of meeting those criteria later in life.
"Developmental services" means planned, individualized, and person-centered services and supports provided to individuals with developmental disabilities for the purpose of enabling these individuals to increase their self-determination and independence, obtain employment, participate fully in all aspects of community life, advocate for themselves, and achieve their fullest potential to the greatest extent possible.
"Direct care position" means any position that includes responsibility for (i) treatment, case management, health, safety, development, or well-being of an individual receiving services or (ii) immediately supervising a person in a position with this responsibility.
"Discharge" means the process by which the individual's active involvement with a service is terminated by the provider, individual, or authorized representative.
"Discharge plan" means the written plan that establishes the criteria for an individual's discharge from a service and identifies and coordinates delivery of any services needed after discharge.
"Dispense" means to deliver a drug to an ultimate user by or pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner, including the prescribing and administering, packaging, labeling, or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for that delivery (§ 54.1-3400 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).
"Emergency service" means unscheduled and sometimes scheduled crisis intervention, stabilization, and referral assistance provided over the telephone or face-to-face, if indicated, available 24 hours a day and seven days per week. Emergency services also may include walk-ins, home visits, jail interventions, and preadmission screening activities associated with the judicial process.
"Group home or community residential service" means a congregate service providing 24-hour supervision in a community-based home having eight or fewer residents. Services include supervision, supports, counseling, and training in activities of daily living for individuals whose individualized services plan identifies the need for the specific types of services available in this setting.
"HCBS Waiver" means a Medicaid Home and Community Based Services Waiver.
"Home and noncenter based" means that a service is provided in the individual's home or other noncenter-based setting. This includes noncenter-based day support, supportive in-home, and intensive in-home services.
"Individual" or "individual receiving services" means a current direct recipient of public or private mental health, developmental, or substance abuse treatment, rehabilitation, or habilitation services and includes the terms "consumer," "patient," "resident," "recipient," or "client". When the term is used in this chapter, the requirement applies to every individual receiving licensed services from the provider.
"Individualized services plan" or "ISP" means a comprehensive and regularly updated written plan that describes the individual's needs, the measurable goals and objectives to address those needs, and strategies to reach the individual's goals. An ISP is person-centered, empowers the individual, and is designed to meet the needs and preferences of the individual. The ISP is developed through a partnership between the individual and the provider and includes an individual's treatment plan, habilitation plan, person-centered plan, or plan of care, which are all considered individualized service plans.
"Informed choice" means a decision made after considering options based on adequate and accurate information and knowledge. These options are developed through collaboration with the individual and his authorized representative, as applicable, and the provider with the intent of empowering the individual and his authorized representative to make decisions that will lead to positive service outcomes.
"Informed consent" means the voluntary written agreement of an individual, or that individual's authorized representative, to surgery, electroconvulsive treatment, use of psychotropic medications, or any other treatment or service that poses a risk of harm greater than that ordinarily encountered in daily life or for participation in human research. To be voluntary, informed consent must be given freely and without undue inducement; any element of force, fraud, deceit, or duress; or any form of constraint or coercion.
"Initial assessment" means an assessment conducted prior to or at admission to determine whether the individual meets the service's admission criteria; what the individual's immediate service, health, and safety needs are; and whether the provider has the capability and staffing to provide the needed services.
"Inpatient psychiatric service" means intensive 24-hour medical, nursing, and treatment services provided to individuals with mental illness or substance abuse (substance use disorders) in a hospital as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code of Virginia or in a special unit of such a hospital.
"Instrumental activities of daily living" or "IADLs" means meal preparation, housekeeping, laundry, and managing money. A person's degree of independence in performing these activities is part of determining appropriate level of care and services.
"Intellectual disability" means a disability originating before 18 years of age, characterized concurrently by (i) significant subaverage intellectual functioning as demonstrated by performance on a standardized measure of intellectual functioning administered in conformity with accepted professional practice that is at least two standard deviations below the mean and (ii) significant limitations in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.
"Intensive community treatment service" or "ICT" means a self-contained interdisciplinary team of at least five full-time equivalent clinical staff, a program assistant, and a full-time psychiatrist that:
1. Assumes responsibility for directly providing needed treatment, rehabilitation, and support services to identified individuals with severe and persistent mental illness, especially those who have severe symptoms that are not effectively remedied by available treatments or who because of reasons related to their mental illness resist or avoid involvement with mental health services;
2. Minimally refers individuals to outside service providers;
3. Provides services on a long-term care basis with continuity of caregivers over time;
4. Delivers 75% or more of the services outside program offices; and
5. Emphasizes outreach, relationship building, and individualization of services.
"Intensive in-home service" means family preservation interventions for children and adolescents who have or are at-risk of serious emotional disturbance, including individuals who also have a diagnosis of developmental disability. Intensive in-home service is usually time-limited and is provided typically in the residence of an individual who is at risk of being moved to out-of-home placement or who is being transitioned back home from an out-of-home placement. The service includes 24-hour per day emergency response; crisis treatment; individual and family counseling; life, parenting, and communication skills; and case management and coordination with other services.
"Intermediate care facility/individuals with intellectual disability" or "ICF/IID" means a facility or distinct part of a facility certified by the Virginia Department of Health as meeting the federal certification regulations for an intermediate care facility for individuals with intellectual disability and persons with related conditions and that addresses the total needs of the residents, which include physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and habilitation, providing active treatment as defined in 42 CFR 435.1010 and 42 CFR 483.440.
"Investigation" means a detailed inquiry or systematic examination of the operations of a provider or its services regarding an alleged violation of regulations or law. An investigation may be undertaken as a result of a complaint, an incident report, or other information that comes to the attention of the department.
"Licensed mental health professional" or "LMHP" means a physician, licensed clinical psychologist, licensed professional counselor, licensed clinical social worker, licensed substance abuse treatment practitioner, licensed marriage and family therapist, certified psychiatric clinical nurse specialist, licensed behavior analyst, or licensed psychiatric/mental health nurse practitioner.
"Location" means a place where services are or could be provided.
"Medically managed withdrawal services" means detoxification services to eliminate or reduce the effects of alcohol or other drugs in the individual's body.
"Mandatory outpatient treatment order" means an order issued by a court pursuant to § 37.2-817 of the Code of Virginia.
"Medical detoxification" means a service provided in a hospital or other 24-hour care facility under the supervision of medical personnel using medication to systematically eliminate or reduce effects of alcohol or other drugs in the individual's body.
"Medical evaluation" means the process of assessing an individual's health status that includes a medical history and a physical examination of an individual conducted by a licensed medical practitioner operating within the scope of his license.
"Medication" means prescribed or over-the-counter drugs or both.
"Medication administration" means the direct application of medications by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or any other means to an individual receiving services by (i) persons legally permitted to administer medications or (ii) the individual at the direction and in the presence of persons legally permitted to administer medications.
"Medication assisted treatment (Opioid treatment service)" means an intervention strategy that combines outpatient treatment with the administering or dispensing of synthetic narcotics, such as methadone or buprenorphine (suboxone), approved by the federal Food and Drug Administration for the purpose of replacing the use of and reducing the craving for opioid substances, such as heroin or other narcotic drugs.
"Medication error" means an error in administering a medication to an individual and includes when any of the following occur: (i) the wrong medication is given to an individual, (ii) the wrong individual is given the medication, (iii) the wrong dosage is given to an individual, (iv) medication is given to an individual at the wrong time or not at all, or (v) the wrong method is used to give the medication to the individual.
"Medication storage" means any area where medications are maintained by the provider, including a locked cabinet, locked room, or locked box.
"Mental Health Community Support Service" or "MCHSS" means the provision of recovery-oriented services to individuals with long-term, severe mental illness. MHCSS includes skills training and assistance in accessing and effectively utilizing services and supports that are essential to meeting the needs identified in the individualized services plan and development of environmental supports necessary to sustain active community living as independently as possible. MHCSS may be provided in any setting in which the individual's needs can be addressed, skills training applied, and recovery experienced.
“Mental health intensive outpatient service” means a structured program of skilled treatment focused on maintaining and improving functional abilities through a time-limited, interdisciplinary approach. This service is provided weekly over a period of time for individuals requiring more intensive services than an outpatient service can provide, and may include individual, family or group counseling or psychotherapy; skill development and psychoeducational activities; certified peer support services; medication management; and psychological assessment or testing.
"Mental illness" means a disorder of thought, mood, emotion, perception, or orientation that significantly impairs judgment, behavior, capacity to recognize reality, or ability to address basic life necessities and requires care and treatment for the health, safety, or recovery of the individual or for the safety of others.
"Missing" means a circumstance in which an individual is not physically present when and where he should be and his absence cannot be accounted for or explained by his supervision needs or pattern of behavior.
"Neglect" means the failure by a person, or a program or facility operated, licensed, or funded by the department, excluding those operated by the Department of Corrections, responsible for providing services to do so, including nourishment, treatment, care, goods, or services necessary to the health, safety, or welfare of an individual receiving care or treatment for mental illness, developmental disabilities, or substance abuse.
"Neurobehavioral services" means the assessment, evaluation, and treatment of cognitive, perceptual, behavioral, and other impairments caused by brain injury that affect an individual's ability to function successfully in the community.
"Outpatient service" means treatment provided to individuals on an hourly schedule, on an individual, group, or family basis, and usually in a clinic or similar facility or in another location. Outpatient services may include diagnosis and evaluation, screening and intake, counseling, psychotherapy, behavior management, psychological testing and assessment, laboratory and other ancillary services, medical services, and medication services. "Outpatient service" specifically includes:
1. Services operated by a community services board or a behavioral health authority established pursuant to Chapter 5 (§ 37.2-500 et seq.) or Chapter 6 (§ 37.2-600 et seq.) of Title 37.2 of the Code of Virginia;
2. Services contracted by a community services board or a behavioral health authority established pursuant to Chapter 5 (§ 37.2-500 et seq.) or Chapter 6 (§ 37.2-600 et seq.) of Title 37.2 of the Code of Virginia; or
3. Services that are owned, operated, or controlled by a corporation organized pursuant to the provisions of either Chapter 9 (§ 13.1-601 et seq.) or Chapter 10 (§ 13.1-801 et seq.) of Title 13.1 of the Code of Virginia.
"Partial hospitalization service" means time-limited active treatment interventions that are more intensive than outpatient services, designed to stabilize and ameliorate acute symptoms, and serve as an alternative to inpatient hospitalization or to reduce the length of a hospital stay. Partial hospitalization is focused on individuals with serious mental illness, substance abuse (substance use disorders), or co-occurring disorders at risk of hospitalization or who have been recently discharged from an inpatient setting.
"Person-centered" means focusing on the needs and preferences of the individual; empowering and supporting the individual in defining the direction for his life; and promoting self-determination, community involvement, and recovery.
"Program of assertive community treatment service" or "PACT" means a self-contained interdisciplinary team of at least 10 full-time equivalent clinical staff, a program assistant, and a full- or part-time psychiatrist that: 1. Assumes responsibility for directly providing needed treatment, rehabilitation, and support services to identified individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses, including those who have severe symptoms that are not effectively remedied by available treatments or who because of reasons related to their mental illness resist or avoid involvement with mental health services; 2. Minimally refers individuals to outside service providers; 3. Provides services on a long-term care basis with continuity of caregivers over time; 4. Delivers 75% or more of the services outside program offices; and 5. Emphasizes outreach, relationship building, and individualization of services.
"Provider" means any person, entity, or organization, excluding an agency of the federal government by whatever name or designation, that delivers (i) services to individuals with mental illness, developmental disabilities, or substance abuse (substance use disorders) or (ii) residential services for individuals with brain injury. The person, entity, or organization shall include a hospital as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code of Virginia, community services board, behavioral health authority, private provider, and any other similar or related person, entity, or organization. It shall not include any individual practitioner who holds a license issued by a health regulatory board of the Department of Health Professions or who is exempt from licensing pursuant to §§ 54.1-2901, 54.1-3001, 54.1-3501, 54.1-3601, and 54.1-3701 of the Code of Virginia.
"Psychosocial rehabilitation service" means a program of two or more consecutive hours per day provided to groups of adults in a nonresidential setting. Individuals must demonstrate a clinical need for the service arising from a condition due to mental, behavioral, or emotional illness that results in significant functional impairments in major life activities. This service provides education to teach the individual about mental illness, substance abuse, and appropriate medication to avoid complication and relapse and opportunities to learn and use independent skills and to enhance social and interpersonal skills within a consistent program structure and environment. Psychosocial rehabilitation includes skills training, peer support, vocational rehabilitation, and community resource development oriented toward empowerment, recovery, and competency.
"Qualified developmental disability professional" or "QDDP" means a person who possesses at least one year of documented experience working directly with individuals who have a developmental disability and who possesses one of the following credentials: (i) a doctor of medicine or osteopathy licensed in Virginia, (ii) a registered nurse licensed in Virginia, (iii) a licensed occupational therapist, or (iv) completion of at least a bachelor's degree in a human services field, including sociology, social work, special education, rehabilitation counseling, or psychology.
"Qualified mental health professional" or "QMHP" means a person who by education and experience is professionally qualified and registered by the Board of Counseling in accordance with 18VAC115-80 to provide collaborative mental health services for adults or children. A QMHP shall not engage in independent or autonomous practice. A QMHP shall provide such services as an employee or independent contractor of the department or a provider licensed by the department.
"Qualified mental health professional-adult" or "QMHP-A" means a person who by education and experience is professionally qualified and registered with the Board of Counseling in accordance with 18VAC115-80 to provide collaborative mental health services for adults. A QMHP-A shall provide such services as an employee or independent contractor of the department or a provider licensed by the department. A QMHP-A may be an occupational therapist who by education and experience is professionally qualified and registered with the Board of Counseling in accordance with 18VAC115-80.
"Qualified mental health professional-child" or "QMHP-C" means a person who by education and experience is professionally qualified and registered with the Board of Counseling in accordance with 18VAC115-80 to provide collaborative mental health services for children. A QMHP-C shall provide such services as an employee or independent contractor of the department or a provider licensed by the department. A QMHP-C may be an occupational therapist who by education and experience is professionally qualified and registered with the Board of Counseling in accordance with 18VAC115-80.
"Qualified mental health professional-eligible" or "QMHP-E" means a person receiving supervised training in order to qualify as a QMHP in accordance with 18VAC115-80 and who is registered with the Board of Counseling.
"Qualified paraprofessional in mental health" or "QPPMH" means a person who must meet at least one of the following criteria: (i) registered with the United States Psychiatric Association (USPRA) as an Associate Psychiatric Rehabilitation Provider (APRP); (ii) has an associate's degree in a related field (social work, psychology, psychiatric rehabilitation, sociology, counseling, vocational rehabilitation, human services counseling) and at least one year of experience providing direct services to individuals with a diagnosis of mental illness; (iii) licensed as an occupational therapy assistant, and supervised by a licensed occupational therapist, with at least one year of experience providing direct services to individuals with a diagnosis of mental illness; or (iv) has a minimum of 90 hours classroom training and 12 weeks of experience under the direct personal supervision of a QMHP-A providing services to individuals with mental illness and at least one year of experience (including the 12 weeks of supervised experience).
"Quality improvement plan" means a detailed work plan developed by a provider that defines steps the provider will take to review the quality of services it provides and to manage initiatives to improve quality. A quality improvement plan consists of systematic and continuous actions that lead to measurable improvement in the services, supports, and health status of the individuals receiving services.
"Recovery" means a journey of healing and transformation enabling an individual with a mental illness to live a meaningful life in a community of his choice while striving to achieve his full potential. For individuals with substance abuse (substance use disorders), recovery is an incremental process leading to positive social change and a full return to biological, psychological, and social functioning. For individuals with a developmental disability, the concept of recovery does not apply in the sense that individuals with a developmental disability will need supports throughout their entire lives although these may change over time. With supports, individuals with a developmental disability are capable of living lives that are fulfilling and satisfying and that bring meaning to themselves and others whom they know.
"Referral" means the process of directing an applicant or an individual to a provider or service that is designed to provide the assistance needed.
"Residential crisis stabilization service" means (i) providing short-term, intensive treatment to nonhospitalized individuals who require multidisciplinary treatment in order to stabilize acute psychiatric symptoms and prevent admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit; (ii) providing normative environments with a high assurance of safety and security for crisis intervention; and (iii) mobilizing the resources of the community support system, family members, and others for ongoing rehabilitation and recovery.
"Residential service" means providing 24-hour support in conjunction with care and treatment or a training program in a setting other than a hospital or training center. Residential services provide a range of living arrangements from highly structured and intensively supervised to relatively independent requiring a modest amount of staff support and monitoring. Residential services include residential treatment, group homes, supervised living, residential crisis stabilization, community gero-psychiatric residential, ICF/IID, sponsored residential homes, medical and social detoxification, neurobehavioral services, and substance abuse residential treatment for women and children.
"Residential treatment service" means providing an intensive and highly structured mental health, substance abuse, or neurobehavioral service, or services for co-occurring disorders in a residential setting, other than an inpatient service.
"Respite care service" means providing for a short-term, time-limited period of care of an individual for the purpose of providing relief to the individual's family, guardian, or regular care giver. Persons providing respite care are recruited, trained, and supervised by a licensed provider. These services may be provided in a variety of settings including residential, day support, in-home, or a sponsored residential home.
"Restraint" means the use of a mechanical device, medication, physical intervention, or hands-on hold to prevent an individual receiving services from moving his body to engage in a behavior that places him or others at imminent risk. There are three kinds of restraints:
1. Mechanical restraint means the use of a mechanical device that cannot be removed by the individual to restrict the individual's freedom of movement or functioning of a limb or portion of an individual's body when that behavior places him or others at imminent risk.
2. Pharmacological restraint means the use of a medication that is administered involuntarily for the emergency control of an individual's behavior when that individual's behavior places him or others at imminent risk and the administered medication is not a standard treatment for the individual's medical or psychiatric condition.
3. Physical restraint, also referred to as manual hold, means the use of a physical intervention or hands-on hold to prevent an individual from moving his body when that individual's behavior places him or others at imminent risk.
"Restraints for behavioral purposes" means using a physical hold, medication, or a mechanical device to control behavior or involuntary restrict the freedom of movement of an individual in an instance when all of the following conditions are met: (i) there is an emergency; (ii) nonphysical interventions are not viable; and (iii) safety issues require an immediate response.
"Restraints for medical purposes" means using a physical hold, medication, or mechanical device to limit the mobility of an individual for medical, diagnostic, or surgical purposes, such as routine dental care or radiological procedures and related post-procedure care processes, when use of the restraint is not the accepted clinical practice for treating the individual's condition.
"Restraints for protective purposes" means using a mechanical device to compensate for a physical or cognitive deficit when the individual does not have the option to remove the device. The device may limit an individual's movement, for example, bed rails or a gerichair, and prevent possible harm to the individual or it may create a passive barrier, such as a helmet to protect the individual.
"Restriction" means anything that limits or prevents an individual from freely exercising his rights and privileges.
"Risk management" means an integrated system-wide program to ensure the safety of individuals, employees, visitors, and others through identification, mitigation, early detection, monitoring, evaluation, and control of risks.
"Root cause analysis" means a method of problem solving designed to identify the underlying causes of a problem. The focus of a root cause analysis is on systems, processes, and outcomes that require change to reduce the risk of harm.
"Screening" means the process or procedure for determining whether the individual meets the minimum criteria for admission.
"Seclusion" means the involuntary placement of an individual alone in an area secured by a door that is locked or held shut by a staff person, by physically blocking the door, or by any other physical means so that the individual cannot leave it.
"Serious incident" means any event or circumstance that causes or could cause harm to the health, safety, or well-being of an individual. The term "serious incident" includes death and serious injury.
"Level I serious incident" means a serious incident that occurs or originates during the provision of a service or on the premises of the provider and does not meet the definition of a Level II or Level III serious incident. Level I serious incidents do not result in significant harm to individuals, but may include events that result in minor injuries that do not require medical attention or events that have the potential to cause serious injury, even when no injury occurs. "Level II serious incident" means a serious incident that occurs or originates during the provision of a service or on the premises of the provider that results in a significant harm or threat to the health and safety of an individual that does not meet the definition of a Level III serious incident.
"Level II serious incident" includes a significant harm or threat to the health or safety of others caused by an individual. Level II serious incidents include:
1. A serious injury;
2. An individual who is or was missing;
3. An emergency room visit;
4. An unplanned psychiatric or unplanned medical hospital admission of an individual receiving services other than licensed emergency services, except that a psychiatric admission in accordance with the individual's Wellness Recovery Action Plan shall not constitute an unplanned admission for the purposes of this chapter;
5. Choking incidents that require direct physical intervention by another person;
6. Ingestion of any hazardous material; or
7. A diagnosis of:
a. A decubitus ulcer or an increase in severity of level of previously diagnosed decubitus ulcer;
b. A bowel obstruction; or
c. Aspiration pneumonia.
"Level III serious incident" means a serious incident whether or not the incident occurs while in the provision of a service or on the provider's premises and results in:
1. Any death of an individual;
2. A sexual assault of an individual; or
3. A suicide attempt by an individual admitted for services, other than licensed emergency services, that results in a hospital admission.
"Serious injury" means any injury resulting in bodily hurt, damage, harm, or loss that requires medical attention by a licensed physician, doctor of osteopathic medicine, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner.
"Service" means (i) planned individualized interventions intended to reduce or ameliorate mental illness, developmental disabilities, or substance abuse (substance use disorders) through care, treatment, training, habilitation, or other supports that are delivered by a provider to individuals with mental illness, developmental disabilities, or substance abuse (substance use disorders). Services include outpatient services, intensive in-home services, opioid treatment services, inpatient psychiatric hospitalization, community gero-psychiatric residential services, assertive community treatment and other clinical services; day support, day treatment, partial hospitalization, psychosocial rehabilitation, and habilitation services; case management services; and supportive residential, special school, halfway house, in-home services, crisis stabilization, and other residential services; and (ii) planned individualized interventions intended to reduce or ameliorate the effects of brain injury through care, treatment, or other supports provided in residential services for persons with brain injury.
"Shall" means an obligation to act is imposed.
"Shall not" means an obligation not to act is imposed.
"Skills training" means systematic skill building through curriculum-based psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral interventions. These interventions break down complex objectives for role performance into simpler components, including basic cognitive skills such as attention, to facilitate learning and competency.
"Social detoxification service" means providing nonmedical supervised care for the individual's natural process of withdrawal from use of alcohol or other drugs.
"Sponsored residential home" means a service where providers arrange for, supervise, and provide programmatic, financial, and service support to families or persons (sponsors) providing care or treatment in their own homes for individuals receiving services.
"State board" means the State Board of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services. The board has statutory responsibility for adopting regulations that may be necessary to carry out the provisions of Title 37.2 of the Code of Virginia and other laws of the Commonwealth administered by the commissioner or the department.
"State methadone authority" means the Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services that is authorized by the federal Center for Substance Abuse Treatment to exercise the responsibility and authority for governing the treatment of opiate addiction with an opioid drug.
"Substance abuse (substance use disorders)" means the use of drugs enumerated in the Virginia Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.) without a compelling medical reason or alcohol that (i) results in psychological or physiological dependence or danger to self or others as a function of continued and compulsive use or (ii) results in mental, emotional, or physical impairment that causes socially dysfunctional or socially disordering behavior; and (iii), because of such substance abuse, requires care and treatment for the health of the individual. This care and treatment may include counseling, rehabilitation, or medical or psychiatric care.
"Substance abuse intensive outpatient service" means treatment provided in a concentrated manner for two or more consecutive hours per day to groups of individuals in a nonresidential setting. This service is provided over a period of time for individuals requiring more intensive services than an outpatient service can provide. Substance abuse intensive outpatient services include multiple group therapy sessions during the week, individual and family therapy, individual monitoring, and case management.
"Substance abuse intensive outpatient service" means structured treatment provided to individuals who require more intensive services than is normally provided in an outpatient service but do not require inpatient services. Treatment consists primarily of counseling and education about addiction-related and mental health challenges delivered a minimum of 9 to 19 hours of services per week for adults or 6 to 19 hours of services per week for children and adolescents. Within this level of care an individual's needs for psychiatric and medical services are generally addressed through consultation and referrals.
"Substance abuse residential treatment for women with children service" means a 24-hour residential service providing an intensive and highly structured substance abuse service for women with children who live in the same facility.
"Suicide attempt" means a nonfatal, self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with an intent to die as a result of the behavior regardless of whether it results in injury.
"Supervised living residential service" means the provision of significant direct supervision and community support services to individuals living in apartments or other residential settings. These services differ from supportive in-home service because the provider assumes responsibility for management of the physical environment of the residence, and staff supervision and monitoring are daily and available on a 24-hour basis. Services are provided based on the needs of the individual in areas such as food preparation, housekeeping, medication administration, personal hygiene, treatment, counseling, and budgeting.
"Supportive in-home service" (formerly supportive residential) means the provision of community support services and other structured services to assist individuals, to strengthen individual skills, and that provide environmental supports necessary to attain and sustain independent community residential living. Services include drop-in or friendly-visitor support and counseling to more intensive support, monitoring, training, in-home support, respite care, and family support services. Services are based on the needs of the individual and include training and assistance. These services normally do not involve overnight care by the provider; however, due to the flexible nature of these services, overnight care may be provided on an occasional basis.
"Systemic deficiency" means violations of regulations documented by the department that demonstrate multiple or repeat defects in the operation of one or more services.
"Therapeutic day treatment for children and adolescents" means a treatment program that serves (i) children and adolescents from birth through 17 years of age and under certain circumstances up to 21 years of age with serious emotional disturbances, substance use, or co-occurring disorders or (ii) children from birth through seven years of age who are at risk of serious emotional disturbance, in order to combine psychotherapeutic interventions with education and mental health or substance abuse treatment. Services include: evaluation; medication education and management; opportunities to learn and use daily living skills and to enhance social and interpersonal skills; and individual, group, and family counseling.
"Time out" means the involuntary removal of an individual by a staff person from a source of reinforcement to a different, open location for a specified period of time or until the problem behavior has subsided to discontinue or reduce the frequency of problematic behavior.
"Volunteer" means a person who, without financial remuneration, provides services to individuals on behalf of the provider.
A. Licenses are issued to providers who offer services to individuals who have mental illness, a developmental disability, or substance abuse (substance use disorders) or have brain injury and are receiving residential services.
B. Providers shall be licensed to provide specific services as defined in this chapter or as determined by the commissioner. These services include:
1. Assertive community treatment (ACT)
2. Case management;
2.3. Community gero-psychiatric residential; 3.4. ICF/IID; 4.5. Residential crisis stabilization; 5.6. Nonresidential crisis stabilization; 6.7. Day support; 7.8. Day treatment, includes therapeutic day treatment for children and adolescents; 8.9. Group home and community residential; 9.10. Inpatient psychiatric; 10.11. Intensive community treatment (ICT); 11.12. Intensive in-home; 12. 13. Managed withdrawal, including medical detoxification and social detoxification; 13 14. Mental health community support;
15. Mental health intensive outpatient;
14 16. Opioid treatment/medication assisted treatment; 15 17. Emergency; 16 18. Outpatient; 17 19. Partial hospitalization; 18. Program of assertive community treatment (PACT); 19 20. Psychosocial rehabilitation; 20 21. Residential treatment; 21 22. Respite care; 22 23. Sponsored residential home; 23 24. Substance abuse residential treatment for women with children; 24.25. Substance abuse intensive outpatient; 25.26. Supervised living residential; and 26.27. Supportive in-home.
C. A license addendum shall describe the services licensed, the disabilities of individuals who may be served, the specific locations where services are to be provided or administered, and the terms and conditions for each service offered by a licensed provider. For residential and inpatient services, the license identifies the number of individuals each residential location may serve at a given time.
Intensive Community Treatment and
Program of Assertive Community Treatment Services
A. Individuals must meet the following admission criteria:
1. Diagnosis of a severe and persistent mental illness, predominantly schizophrenia, other psychotic disorder, or bipolar disorder that seriously impairs functioning in the community. Individuals with a sole diagnosis of substance
addiction or abuse use disorder or mental retardation (intellectual disability) developmental disability, personality disorder, or brain injury, are not eligible for services.
2. Significant challenges to community integration without intensive community support including persistent or recurrent difficulty with one or more of the following:
a. Performing practical daily living tasks;
b. Maintaining employment at a self-sustaining level or consistently carrying out homemaker roles; or
c. Maintaining a safe living situation.
3. High service needs indicated due to one or more of the following:
a. Residence in a state hospital or other psychiatric hospital but clinically assessed to be able to live in a more independent situation if intensive services were provided or anticipated to require extended hospitalization, if more intensive services are not available;
b. Multiple admissions to or at least one recent long-term stay (30 days or more) in a state hospital or other acute psychiatric hospital inpatient setting within the past two years; or a recent history of more than four interventions by psychiatric emergency services per year;
c. Persistent or very recurrent severe major symptoms (e.g., affective, psychotic, suicidal);
d. Co-occurring substance addiction or abuse of significant duration (e.g., greater than six months);
e. High risk or a recent history (within the past six months) of criminal justice involvement (e.g., arrest or incarceration);
f. Ongoing difficulty meeting basic survival needs or residing in substandard housing, homeless, or at imminent risk of becoming homeless; or
g. Inability to consistently participate in traditional office-based services.
B. Individuals receiving
PACT ACT or ICT services should not be discharged for failure to comply with treatment plans or other expectations of the provider, except in certain circumstances as outlined. Individuals must meet at least one of the following criteria to be discharged:
1. Change in the individual's residence to a location out of the service area;
2. Death of the individual;
3. Incarceration of the individual for a period to exceed a year or long term hospitalization (more than one year); however, the provider is expected to prioritize these individuals for
PACT ACT or ICT services upon their anticipated return to the community if the individual wishes to return to services and the service level is appropriate to his needs;
4. Choice of the individual with the provider responsible for revising the ISP to meet any concerns of the individual leading to the choice of discharge; or
5. Significant sustained recovery by the individual in all major role areas with minimal team contact and support for at least two years as determined by both the individual and ICT or
PACT ACT team.
A. Services are delivered by interdisciplinary teams.
PACT and ICT teams shall include the following positions:
Leader leader - one full-time QMHP-A with at least three years experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness. The team leader shall oversee all aspects of team operations and shall routinely provide direct services to individuals in the community.
b. Nurses -
PACT and ICT nurses shall be full-time employees or contractors with the following minimum qualifications: A registered nurse (RN) shall have one year of experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness. A licensed practical nurse (LPN) shall have three years of experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness. ICT teams shall have at least one qualified full-time nurse. PACT teams shall have at least three qualified full-time nurses at least one of whom shall be a qualified RN.
c. One full-time vocational specialist and one full-time substance abuse specialist. These staff members shall provide direct services to individuals in their area of specialty and provide leadership to other team members to also assist individuals with their self-identified employment or substance abuse recovery goals.
Peer ICT peer specialists - one or more full-time equivalent QPPMH or QMHP-A who is or has been a recipient of mental health services for severe and persistent mental illness. The peer specialist shall be a fully integrated team member who provides peer support directly to individuals and provides leadership to other team members in understanding and supporting individuals' recovery goals.
e. Program assistant - one full-time person with skills and abilities in medical records management shall operate and coordinate the management information system, maintain accounts and budget records for individual and program expenditures, and provide receptionist activities.
f. Psychiatrist - one physician who is board certified in psychiatry or who is board eligible in psychiatry and is licensed to practice medicine in Virginia. An equivalent ratio to 20 minutes (.008 FTE) of psychiatric time for each individual served must be maintained. The psychiatrist shall be a fully integrated team member who attends team meetings and actively participates in developing and implementing each individual ISP.
2. QMHP-A and mental health professional standards for ICT teams:
a. At least 80% of the clinical employees or contractors on an ICT team, not including the program assistant or psychiatrist, shall be QMHP-As qualified to provide the services described in 12VAC35-105-1410.
b. Mental health professionals - At least half of the clinical employees or contractors on an ICT team, not including the team leader or nurses and including the peer specialist if that person holds such a degree, shall hold a master's degree in a human service field.
3. Staffing capacity for ICT teams:
a. An ICT team shall have at least five full-time equivalent clinical employees or contractors.
A PACT team shall have at least 10 full-time equivalent clinical employees or contractors.
and PACT teams shall include a minimum number of employees (counting contractors but not counting the psychiatrist and program assistant) to maintain an employee to individual ratio of at least 1:10.
c. ICT teams may serve no more than 80 individuals.
PACT teams may serve no more than 120 individuals. d. A transition plan shall be required of PACT teams that will allow for "start-up" when newly forming teams are not in full compliance with the PACT model relative to staffing patterns and individuals receiving services capacity.
4. ACT teams shall have sufficient staffing composition to meet the varying needs of individuals served by the team as required by these regulations. Each ACT team shall meet the following minimum position and staffing requirements:
a. Team leader - one full time LMHP with three years of experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness; or one full time registered QMHP-A with at least three years of experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness who was employed by the provider as a team leader prior to July 1, 2020. The team leader shall oversee all aspects of team operations and shall provide direct services to individuals in the community.
b. Nurses - ACT nurses shall be full-time employees or contractors with the following minimum qualifications: A registered nurse shall have one year of experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness. A licensed practical nurse shall have three years of experience in the provision of mental health services to adults with serious mental illness.
(1) Small ACT teams shall have at least one full-time nurse, who shall be either an RN or an LPN;
(2) Medium ACT teams shall have at least one full-time RN, and at least one additional full-time nurse, who shall be an LPN or RN; and
(3) Large ACT teams shall have at least one full-time RN, and at least two additional full-time nurses who shall be LPNs or RNs.
c. Vocational specialist - one full-time vocational specialist, who shall be a registered QMHP with demonstrated expertise in vocational services through experience or education.
d. Co-occurring disorder specialist - one full-time co-occurring disorder specialist, who shall be a LMHP, registered QMHP, or certified substance abuse specialist (CSAC) with training or experience working with adults with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorder.
e. ACT Peer specialists - one or more full-time equivalent peer recovery specialists who is or has been a recipient of mental health services for severe and persistent mental illness. The peer specialist shall be a certified peer recovery specialist (CPRS), or shall become certified in the first year of employment. The peer specialist shall be a fully integrated team member who provides peer support directly to individuals and provides leadership to other team members in understanding and supporting individuals' recovery goals.
f. Program assistant - one full-time person with skills and abilities in medical records management shall operate and coordinate the management information system, maintain accounts and budget records for individual and program expenditures, and perform administrative support activities.
g. Psychiatric care provider - one physician who is board certified in psychiatry or who is board eligible in psychiatry and is licensed to practice medicine in Virginia, or a psychiatric nurse practitioner practicing within the scope of practice as defined in 18VAC90-30-120. An equivalent ratio of 16 hours of psychiatric time per 50 individuals served must be maintained. The psychiatric care provider shall be a fully integrated team member who attends team meetings and actively participates in developing and implementing each individual ISP.
h. Generalist clinical staff - additional clinical staff with the knowledge, skill, and ability required, based on the population and age of individuals being served, to carry out rehabilitation and support functions, at least 50 percent of whom shall be LMHPs, QMHP-As, QMHP-Es, or QPPMHs.
(1) Small ACT teams shall have at least one generalist clinical staff;
(2) Medium ACT teams shall have at least two generalist clinical staff; and
(3) Large ACT teams shall have at least three generalist clinical staff.
5. Staff to individual ratios for ACT Teams:
a. Small ACT teams shall maintain a caseload of no more than 50 individuals and shall maintain at least one staff member per eight individuals, in addition to a psychiatric care provider and a program assistant.
b. Medium ACT teams shall maintain a caseload of no more than 74 individuals and shall maintain at least one staff member per nine individuals, in addition to a psychiatric care provider and a program assistant.
c. Large ACT teams shall maintain a caseload of no more than 120 individuals and shall maintain at least one staff member per nine individuals, in addition to a psychiatric care provider and a program assistant.
B. ICT and
PACT ACT teams shall meet daily Monday through Friday or at least four days per week to review and plan routine services and to address or prevent emergency and crisis situations.
C. ICT teams shall operate a minimum of eight hours per day, five days per week and shall provide services on a case-by-case basis in the evenings and on weekends.
PACT ACT teams shall be available to individuals 24 hours per day and shall operate a minimum of 12 hours each weekday and eight hours each weekend day and each holiday.
D. The ICT or
PACT ACT team shall make crisis services directly available 24 hours a day but may arrange coverage through another crisis services provider if the team coordinates with the crisis services provider daily.
PACT ACT team shall operate an after-hours on-call system and shall be available to individuals by telephone or in person have 24-hour responsibility for directly responding to psychiatric crises, including meeting the following criteria:
1. The team shall be available to individuals in crisis 24 hours per day, seven days per week, including in person when needed as determined by the team;
2. The team shall be the first-line crisis evaluator and responder for individuals served by the team; and
3. The team shall have access to the practical, individualized crisis plans developed to help them address crises for each individual receiving services.
A. The ICT and
PACT ACT team shall have thesufficient capacity to provide multiple contacts per week to individuals experiencing severe symptoms or significant problems in daily living , for an.The team shall provide a minimum aggregate average of three contacts per individual per week. A minimum aggregate average of two hours per individual per week shall be face to face.
B. Each individual receiving ICT or
PACT ACT services shall be seen face-to-face by an employee or contractor ; or the employee or contractor should attempt to make contact as specified in the ISP. individual's ISP. Providers shall document all attempts to make contact and if contact is not made, the reasons why contact was not made.
A. ICT teams and
PACT ACT teams shall conduct daily organizational meetings Monday through Friday at a regularly scheduled time to review the status of all individuals and the outcome of the most recent employee or contractor contact, assign daily and weekly tasks to employees and contractors, revise treatment plans as needed, plan for emergency and crisis situations, and to add service contacts that are identified as needed.
B. A daily log that provides a roster of individuals served in the ICT or
PACT ACT services program and documentation of services provided and contacts made with them shall be maintained and utilized in the daily team meeting. There shall also be at least a weekly individual progress note documenting services provided in accordance with the ISP or attempts to engage the individual in services. Providers ICT and ACT shall document that the following services are provided consistent with the individual's assessment and ISP.
1. Ongoing assessment to ascertain the needs, strengths, and preferences of the individual;
2. Case management;
4. Support for wellness self-management, including the development and implementation of individual recovery plans, symptom assessment, and recovery education;
5. Psychopharmacological treatment, administration, and monitoring;
Substance abuse assessment and treatment for individuals with a co-occurring diagnosis of mental illness and substance abuse Co-occurring diagnosis substance use disorder services that are non-confrontational, trauma informed, person-centered, consider interactions of mental illness and substance use, and have goals determined by the individual;
Individual supportive therapy Empirically supported interventions and psychotherapy;
Skills training in activities of daily living, social skills, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time Psychiatric rehabilitation, which may include skill-building, coaching, and access to necessary resources to help individuals with personal care, safety skills, money management, grocery shopping, cooking, food safety and storage, purchasing and caring for clothing, household maintenance and cleaning skills, social skills, and use of transportation and other community resources;
Supportive in-home services; 10. Work-related services to help find and maintain employment; that follow evidence-based Supported Employment principles, such as direct assistance with job development, locating preferred jobs, assisting the individual through the application process, and communicating with employers; 11 10. Support for resuming education; 12 11. Support, education, consultation, and skill-teaching to family members, and significant others, and broader natural support systems, which shall be directed exclusively to the well-being and benefit of the individual; 13 12. Collaboration with families and assistance to individuals with children;
13. Assistance in obtaining and maintaining safe, decent, and affordable housing that follows the individual's preferences in level of independence and location, consistent with an evidence-based supportive housing model;
14. Direct support to help individuals
secure and maintain decent, affordable housing that is integrated into the broader community and to obtain legal and advocacy services, financial support, money-management services, medical and dental services, transportation, and natural supports in the community; and
15. Mobile crisis assessment, interventions to prevent or resolve potential crises, and admission to and discharge from psychiatric hospitals
16. Assistance in developing and maintaining natural supports and social relationships;
17. Medication education, assistance, and support; and
18. Peer support services, such as coaching, mentoring, assistance with self-advocacy and self-direction, and modeling recovery practices.