Patient Care Services
12VAC5-410-230. Patient care management.
A. All patients shall be under the care of a member of the medical staff.
B. Each hospital shall have a plan that includes effective mechanisms for the periodic review and revision of patient care policies and procedures.
C. Each hospital shall establish a protocol relating to the rights and responsibilities of patients based on Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' 2000 Hospital Accreditation Standards, January 2000. The protocol shall include a process reasonably designed to inform patients of their rights and responsibilities. Patients shall be given a copy of their rights and responsibilities upon admission.
D. No medication or treatment shall be given except on the signed order of a person lawfully authorized by state statutes.
1. Hospital personnel, as designated in medical staff bylaws, rules and regulations, or hospital policies and procedures, may accept emergency telephone and other verbal orders for medication or treatment for hospital patients from physicians and other persons lawfully authorized by state statute to give patient orders.
2. As specified in the hospital's medical staff bylaws, rules and regulations, or hospital policies and procedures, emergency telephone and other verbal orders shall be signed within a reasonable period of time not to exceed 72 hours, by the person giving the order, or, when such person is not available, cosigned by another physician or other person authorized to give the order.
E. Each hospital shall have a reliable method for identification of each patient, including newborn infants.
F. Each hospital shall include in its visitation policy a provision allowing each adult patient to receive visits from any individual from whom the patient desires to receive visits, subject to other restrictions contained in the visitation policy including the patient's medical condition and the number of visitors permitted in the patient's room simultaneously.
G. Each hospital that is equipped to provide life-sustaining treatment shall develop a policy to determine the medical or ethical appropriateness of proposed medical care, which shall include:
1. A process for obtaining a second opinion regarding the medical and ethical appropriateness of proposed medical care in cases in which a physician has determined proposed care to be medically or ethically inappropriate;
2. Provisions for review of the determination that proposed medical care is medically or ethically inappropriate by an interdisciplinary medical review committee and a determination by the interdisciplinary medical review committee regarding the medical and ethical appropriateness of the proposed health care of the patient;
3. Requirements for a written explanation of the decision of the interdisciplinary medical review committee, which shall be included in the patient's medical record; and
4. Provisions to ensure the patient, the patient's agent, or the person authorized to make the patient's medical decisions in accordance with § 54.1-2986 of the Code of Virginia is informed of the patient's right to obtain the patient's medical record and the right to obtain an independent medical opinion and afforded reasonable opportunity to participate in the medical review committee meeting.
The policy shall not prevent the patient, the patient's agent, or the person authorized to make the patient's medical decisions from obtaining legal counsel to represent the patient or from seeking other legal remedies, including court review, provided that the patient, the patient's agent, person authorized to make the patient's medical decisions, or legal counsel provide written notice to the chief executive officer of the hospital within 14 days of the date of the physician's determination that proposed medical treatment is medically or ethically inappropriate as documented in the patient's medical record.
H. Each hospital shall establish a protocol requiring that, before a health care provider arranges for air medical transportation services for a patient who does not have an emergency medical condition as defined in 42 USC § 1395dd(e)(1), the hospital shall provide the patient or the patient's authorized representative with written or electronic notice that the patient (i) may have a choice of transportation by an air medical transportation provider or medically appropriate ground transportation by an emergency medical services provider and (ii) will be responsible for charges incurred for such transportation in the event that the provider is not a contracted network provider of the patient's health insurance carrier or such charges are not otherwise covered in full or in part by the patient's health insurance plan.