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CH 0090 12VAC5-90-80 Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome ...
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12VAC5-90-80

Part III
Reporting of Disease

12VAC5-90-80. Lists of diseases that shall be reported.

A. Reportable disease list. The board declares suspected or confirmed cases of the following named diseases, toxic effects, and conditions to be reportable by the persons enumerated in 12VAC5-90-90. Conditions identified by an asterisk (*) require immediate communication to the local health department by the most rapid means available upon suspicion or confirmation, as defined in subsection C of this section. Other conditions should be reported within three days of suspected or confirmed diagnosis, unless otherwise specified in this section.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Amebiasis

*Anthrax

Arboviral infections (e.g., CHIK, dengue, EEE, LAC, SLE, WNV, Zika)

Babesiosis

*Botulism

*Brucellosis

Campylobacteriosis

Chancroid

Chickenpox (Varicella)

Chlamydia trachomatis infection

*Cholera

*Coronavirus infection, severe

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease if <55 younger than 55 years of age

Cryptosporidiosis

Cyclosporiasis

*Diphtheria

*Disease caused by an agent that may have been used as a weapon

Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis

Escherichia coli infection, Shiga toxin-producing

Giardiasis

Gonorrhea

Granuloma inguinale

*Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

*Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B (acute and chronic)

Hepatitis C (acute and chronic)

Hepatitis, other acute viral

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

Influenza

*Influenza-associated deaths in children <18 younger than 18 years of age

Lead, reportable levels

Legionellosis

Leprosy (Hansen's disease)

Leptospirosis

Listeriosis

Lyme disease

Lymphogranuloma venereum

Malaria

*Measles (Rubeola)

*Meningococcal disease

Mumps

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)

Ophthalmia neonatorum

*Outbreaks, all (including but not limited to foodborne, healthcare-associated, occupational, toxic substance-related, and waterborne)

*Pertussis

*Plague

*Poliovirus infection, including poliomyelitis

*Psittacosis

*Q fever

*Rabies, human and animal

Rabies treatment, post-exposure

*Rubella, including congenital rubella syndrome

Salmonellosis

Shigellosis

*Smallpox (Variola)

Spotted fever rickettsiosis

Staphylococcus aureus infection, vancomycin-intermediate or vancomycin-resistant

Streptococcal disease, Group A, invasive or toxic shock

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, invasive, in children <5 younger than five years of age

Syphilis (report *primary and *secondary syphilis by rapid means)

Tetanus

Toxic substance-related illness

Trichinosis (Trichinellosis)

*Tuberculosis, active disease

Tuberculosis infection in children <4 younger than four years of age

*Tularemia

*Typhoid/Paratyphoid fever

*Unusual occurrence of disease of public health concern

*Vaccinia, disease or adverse event

*Vibrio infection

*Viral hemorrhagic fever

*Yellow fever

Yersiniosis

B. Conditions reportable by directors of laboratories. Conditions identified by an asterisk (*) require immediate communication to the local health department by the most rapid means available upon suspicion or confirmation, as defined in subsection C of this section. Other conditions should be reported within three days of suspected or confirmed diagnosis.

Amebiasis - by microscopic examination, culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Anthrax - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Arboviral infection e.g., for example, CHIK, dengue, EEE, LAC (also known as California encephalitis), SLE, WNV, Zika - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Babesiosis - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, microscopic examination, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Botulism - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or identification of neurotoxin in a clinical specimen

*Brucellosis - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Campylobacteriosis - by culture or culture-independent diagnostic test (CIDT) (i.e., antigen detection or nucleic acid detection). For CIDT, also submit all available culture results (positive or negative) associated with a positive result.

Chancroid - by culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

Chickenpox (Varicella) - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Chlamydia trachomatis infection - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection or, for lymphogranuloma venereum, serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Cholera - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Coronavirus infection, severe - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease if <55 younger than 55 years of age by histopathology in patients under the age of 55 years

Cryptosporidiosis - by microscopic examination, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

Cyclosporiasis - by microscopic examination or nucleic acid detection

*Diphtheria - by culture or histopathology

Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis - by culture, nucleic acid detection, microscopic examination, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Escherichia coli infection, Shiga toxin-producing - by culture, Shiga toxin detection (e.g., nucleic acid detection, EIA), or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Giardiasis - by microscopic examination, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

Gonorrhea - by microscopic examination of a urethral smear (males only) or endocervical smear (females only), culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection. Include available antimicrobial susceptibility findings in report.

*Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive - by culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection from a normally sterile site

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome - by antigen detection (immunohistochemistry), nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Hepatitis A - by detection of IgM antibodies

Hepatitis B (acute and chronic) - by detection of HBsAg, HBeAg, or IgM antibodies or nucleic acid detection. For any reportable hepatitis finding, submit all available results from the hepatitis panel.

Hepatitis C (acute and chronic) - by hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) positive, HCV antigen positive, or HCV RNA positive by nucleic acid test. For all hepatitis C patients, also report available results of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and all available results from the hepatitis panel.

Hepatitis, other acute viral – any finding indicative of acute infection with hepatitis D, E, or other cause of viral hepatitis. For any reportable hepatitis finding, submit all available results from the hepatitis panel.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or detection of antibody. For HIV-infected patients, report all results of CD4 and HIV viral load tests, including undetectable viral loads. For HIV-infected patients, report all HIV genetic nucleotide sequence data associated with HIV drug resistance tests by electronic submission. For children less younger than three years of age, report all tests regardless of the test findings (e.g., negative or positive).

Influenza - by culture, antigen detection by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), or nucleic acid detection

Lead, reportable levels - by any detectable blood lead level in children ages 0-15 years or levels greater than or equal to 5 five μg/dL in persons older than 15 years of age

Legionellosis - by culture, antigen detection (including urinary antigen), nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Leptospirosis - by culture, microscopic examination by dark field microscopy, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Listeriosis - by culture from a normally sterile site. If associated with miscarriage or stillbirth, by culture from placental or fetal tissue

Lyme disease - by culture, antigen detection, or detection of antibody confirmed with a supplemental test

Malaria - by microscopic examination, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

*Measles (Rubeola) - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Meningococcal disease - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or antigen detection from a normally sterile site

Mumps - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Mycobacterial diseases - (See 12VAC5-90-225 B) Report any of the following:

1. Acid fast bacilli by microscopic examination;

2. Mycobacterial identification - preliminary and final identification by culture or nucleic acid detection;

3. Drug susceptibility test results for M. tuberculosis.

*Pertussis - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Plague - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Poliovirus infection - by culture

*Psittacosis - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Q fever - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, immunohistochemical methods, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Rabies, human and animal - by culture, antigen detection by direct fluorescent antibody test, nucleic acid detection, or, for humans only, serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Rubella - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Salmonellosis - by culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

Shigellosis - by culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

*Smallpox (Variola) - by culture or nucleic acid detection

Spotted fever rickettsiosis - by culture, antigen detection (including immunohistochemical staining), nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Staphylococcus aureus infection, resistant, as defined below specifically:

Vancomycin-intermediate or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection - by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of a Staphylococcus aureus isolate, with a vancomycin susceptibility result of intermediate or resistant, cultured from a clinical specimen. Include available antimicrobial susceptibility findings in report.

Streptococcal disease, Group A, invasive or toxic shock - for invasive disease, by culture from a normally sterile site; for streptococcal toxic shock, by culture from any body site

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, invasive, in children <5 younger than five years of age - by culture from a normally sterile site in a child under the age of five years

*Syphilis - by darkfield microscopy, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serology by either treponemal or nontreponemal methods

Toxic substance-related illness - by blood or urine laboratory findings above the normal range, including but not limited to heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial-type solvents and gases. When applicable and available, report speciation of metals when blood or urine levels are elevated in order to differentiate the chemical species (elemental, organic, or inorganic).

Trichinosis (Trichinellosis) - by microscopic examination of a muscle biopsy or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Tularemia - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Typhoid/Paratyphoid fever - by culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

*Vaccinia, disease or adverse event - by culture or nucleic acid detection

*Vibrio infection - isolation of any species of the family Vibrionaceae (other than toxigenic Vibrio cholera O1 or O139, which are reportable as cholera) from a clinical specimen by culture, antigen detection, or nucleic acid detection

*Viral hemorrhagic fever - by culture, antigen detection (including immunohistochemical staining), nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

*Yellow fever - by culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

Yersiniosis - by culture, nucleic acid detection, or serologic results consistent with recent infection

C. Reportable diseases requiring rapid communication. Certain of the diseases in the list of reportable diseases, because of their extremely contagious nature or their potential for greater harm, or both, require immediate identification and control. Reporting of persons confirmed or suspected of having these diseases, listed below in this subsection, shall be made immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone to the local health department. (These same diseases are also identified by an asterisk (*) in subsections A and B, where applicable, of this section.)

Anthrax

Botulism

Brucellosis

Cholera

Coronavirus infection, severe

Diphtheria

Disease caused by an agent that may have been used as a weapon

Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive

Hepatitis A

Influenza-associated deaths in children <18 younger than 18 years of age

Influenza A, novel virus

Measles (Rubeola)

Meningococcal disease

Outbreaks, all

Pertussis

Plague

Poliovirus infection, including poliomyelitis

Psittacosis

Q fever

Rabies, human and animal

Rubella, including congenital rubella syndrome

Smallpox (Variola)

Syphilis, primary and secondary

Tuberculosis, active disease

Tularemia

Typhoid/Paratyphoid fever

Unusual occurrence of disease of public health concern

Vaccinia, disease or adverse event

Vibrio infection

Viral hemorrhagic fever

Yellow fever

D. Toxic substance-related illnesses. All toxic substance-related illnesses, including pesticide and heavy metal poisoning or illness resulting from exposure to an occupational dust or fiber or radioactive substance, shall be reported.

If such illness is verified or suspected and presents an emergency or a serious threat to public health or safety, the report of such illness shall be made immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone.

E. Outbreaks. The occurrence of outbreaks or clusters of any illness which that may represent a group expression of an illness which that may be of public health concern shall be reported to the local health department immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone.

F. Unusual or ill-defined diseases or emerging or reemerging pathogens. Unusual or emerging conditions of public health concern shall be reported to the local health department immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone. In addition, the commissioner or his designee may establish surveillance systems for diseases or conditions that are not on the list of reportable diseases. Such surveillance may be established to identify cases (delineate the magnitude of the situation), to identify the mode of transmission and risk factors for the disease, and to identify and implement appropriate action to protect public health. Any person reporting information at the request of the department for special surveillance or other epidemiological studies shall be immune from liability as provided by § 32.1-38 of the Code of Virginia.

G. Neonatal abstinence syndrome. Neonatal abstinence syndrome shall be reported by physicians and directors of medical care facilities when a newborn has been diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition characterized by clinical signs of withdrawal from exposure to prescribed or illicit drugs. Reports shall be submitted within one month of diagnosis by entering the information into the online Confidential Morbidity Report portal available on the Department of Health's website at http://vdh.virginia.gov/morbidity-report.