In addition to words and terms defined in §§ 54.1-3300 and 54.1-3401 of the Code of Virginia, the following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:
"ACPE" means the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education.
"Acquisition" of an existing entity permitted, registered or licensed by the board means (i) the purchase or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the entity or of any corporation that owns or controls the entity; (ii) the creation of a partnership by a sole proprietor or change in partnership composition; (iii) the acquiring of 50% or more of the outstanding shares of voting stock of a corporation owning the entity or of the parent corporation of a wholly owned subsidiary owning the entity, except that this shall not apply to any corporation the voting stock of which is actively traded on any securities exchange or in any over-the-counter market; or (iv) the merger of a corporation owning the entity, or of the parent corporation of a wholly owned subsidiary owning the entity, with another business or corporation.
"Alternate delivery site" means a location authorized in 18VAC110-20-275 to receive dispensed prescriptions on behalf of and for further delivery or administration to a patient.
"Beyond-use date" means the date beyond which the integrity of a compounded, repackaged, or dispensed drug can no longer be assured and as such is deemed to be adulterated or misbranded as defined in §§ 54.1-3461 and 54.1-3462 of the Code of Virginia.
"Board" means the Virginia Board of Pharmacy.
"CE" means continuing education as required for renewal of licensure by the Board of Pharmacy.
"CEU" means a continuing education unit awarded for credit as the equivalent of 10 contact hours.
"Chart order" means a lawful order for a drug or device entered on the chart or in a medical record of a patient by a prescriber or his designated agent.
"Compliance packaging" means packaging for dispensed drugs which is comprised of a series of containers for solid oral dosage forms and which is designed to assist the user in administering or self-administering the drugs in accordance with directions for use.
"Contact hour" means the amount of credit awarded for 60 minutes of participation in and successful completion of a continuing education program.
"Correctional facility" means any prison, penitentiary, penal facility, jail, detention unit, or other facility in which persons are incarcerated by government officials.
"DEA" means the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.
transmission prescription" means any
prescription, other than an oral or written prescription or a prescription
transmitted by facsimile machine, that is electronically transmitted from a
practitioner authorized to prescribe directly to a pharmacy without
interception or intervention from a third party, or from one pharmacy to another
pharmacy a written prescription that is generated on an electronic
application in accordance with 21 CFR Part 1300 and is transmitted to a
pharmacy as an electronic data file.
"Expiration date" means that date placed on a drug package by the manufacturer or repacker beyond which the product may not be dispensed or used.
"Facsimile (FAX) prescription" means a written prescription or order which is transmitted by an electronic device over telephone lines which sends the exact image to the receiver (pharmacy) in a hard copy form.
"FDA" means the United States Food and Drug Administration.
"Floor stock" means a supply of drugs that have been distributed for the purpose of general administration by a prescriber or other authorized person pursuant to a valid order of a prescriber.
"Foreign school of pharmacy" means a school outside the United States and its territories offering a course of study in basic sciences, pharmacology, and pharmacy of at least four years in duration resulting in a degree that qualifies a person to practice pharmacy in that country.
"Forgery" means a prescription that was falsely created, falsely signed, or altered.
"FPGEC certificate" means the certificate given by the Foreign Pharmacy Equivalency Committee of NABP that certifies that the holder of such certificate has passed the Foreign Pharmacy Equivalency Examination and a credential review of foreign training to establish educational equivalency to board approved schools of pharmacy, and has passed approved examinations establishing proficiency in English.
"Generic drug name" means the nonproprietary name listed in the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) or in the USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names.
"Hospital" or "nursing home" means those facilities as defined in Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia or as defined in regulations by the Virginia Department of Health.
"Inactive license" means a license which is registered with the Commonwealth but does not entitle the licensee to practice, the holder of which is not required to submit documentation of CE necessary to hold an active license.
"Long-term care facility" means a nursing home, retirement care, mental care or other facility or institution which provides extended health care to resident patients.
"NABP" means the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy.
"Nuclear pharmacy" means a pharmacy providing radiopharmaceutical services.
"On duty" means that a pharmacist is on the premises at the address of the permitted pharmacy and is available as needed.
"Permitted physician" means a physician who is licensed pursuant to § 54.1-3304 of the Code of Virginia to dispense drugs to persons to whom or for whom pharmacy services are not reasonably available.
"Perpetual inventory" means an ongoing system for recording quantities of drugs received, dispensed or otherwise distributed by a pharmacy.
"Personal supervision" means the pharmacist must be physically present and render direct, personal control over the entire service being rendered or act being performed. Neither prior nor future instructions shall be sufficient nor, shall supervision rendered by telephone, written instructions, or by any mechanical or electronic methods be sufficient.
"Pharmacy closing" means that the permitted pharmacy ceases pharmacy services or fails to provide for continuity of pharmacy services or lawful access to patient prescription records or other required patient records for the purpose of continued pharmacy services to patients.
"Pharmacy technician trainee" means a person who is currently enrolled in an approved pharmacy technician training program and is performing duties restricted to pharmacy technicians for the purpose of obtaining practical experience in accordance with § 54.1-3321 D of the Code of Virginia.
"PIC" means the pharmacist-in-charge of a permitted pharmacy.
"Practice location" means any location in which a prescriber evaluates or treats a patient.
"Prescription department" means any contiguous or noncontiguous areas used for the compounding, dispensing and storage of all Schedule II through VI drugs and devices and any Schedule I investigational drugs.
"PTCB" means the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board, co-founded by the American Pharmaceutical Association and the American Society of Health System Pharmacists, as the national organization for voluntary examination and certification of pharmacy technicians.
"Quality assurance plan" means a plan approved by the board for ongoing monitoring, measuring, evaluating, and, if necessary, improving the performance of a pharmacy function or system.
"Radiopharmaceutical" means any drug that exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei with the emission of nuclear particles or photons and includes any nonradioactive reagent kit or radionuclide generator that is intended to be used in the preparation of any such substance, but does not include drugs such as carbon-containing compounds or potassium-containing salts that include trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides. The term also includes any biological product that is labeled with a radionuclide or intended solely to be labeled with a radionuclide.
"Repackaged drug" means any drug removed from the manufacturer's original package and placed in different packaging.
"Robotic pharmacy system" means a mechanical system controlled by a computer that performs operations or activities relative to the storage, packaging, labeling, dispensing, or distribution of medications, and collects, controls, and maintains all transaction information.
"Safety closure container" means a container which meets the requirements of the federal Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 (15 USC §§ 1471-1476), i.e., in testing such containers, that 85% of a test group of 200 children of ages 41-52 months are unable to open the container in a five-minute period and that 80% fail in another five minutes after a demonstration of how to open it and that 90% of a test group of 100 adults must be able to open and close the container.
"Satellite pharmacy" means a pharmacy which is noncontiguous to the centrally permitted pharmacy of a hospital but at the location designated on the pharmacy permit.
"Special packaging" means packaging that is designed or constructed to be significantly difficult for children under five years of age to open to obtain a toxic or harmful amount of the drug contained therein within a reasonable time and not difficult for normal adults to use properly, but does not mean packaging which all such children cannot open or obtain a toxic or harmful amount within a reasonable time.
"Special use permit" means a permit issued to conduct a pharmacy of a special scope of service that varies in any way from the provisions of any board regulation.
"Storage temperature" means those specific directions stated in some monographs with respect to the temperatures at which pharmaceutical articles shall be stored, where it is considered that storage at a lower or higher temperature may produce undesirable results. The conditions are defined by the following terms:
1. "Cold" means any temperature not exceeding 8°C (46°F). A refrigerator is a cold place in which temperature is maintained thermostatically between 2° and 8°C (36° and 46°F). A freezer is a cold place in which the temperature is maintained thermostatically between -20° and -10°C (-4° and 14°F).
2. "Room temperature" means the temperature prevailing in a working area.
3. "Controlled room temperature" means a temperature maintained thermostatically that encompasses the usual and customary working environment of 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); that results in a mean kinetic temperature calculated to be not more than 25°C; and that allows for excursions between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F) that are experienced in pharmacies, hospitals, and warehouses.
4. "Warm" means any temperature between 30° and 40°C (86° and 104°F).
5. "Excessive heat" means any temperature above 40°C (104°F).
6. "Protection from freezing" means where, in addition to the risk of breakage of the container, freezing subjects a product to loss of strength or potency, or to the destructive alteration of its characteristics, the container label bears an appropriate instruction to protect the product from freezing.
7. "Cool" means any temperature between 8° and 15°C (46° and 59°F).
"Terminally ill" means a patient with a terminal condition as defined in § 54.1-2982 of the Code of Virginia.
"Unit dose container" means a container that is a single-unit container, as defined in United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary, for articles intended for administration by other than the parenteral route as a single dose, direct from the container.
"Unit dose package" means a container that contains a particular dose ordered for a patient.
"Unit dose system" means a system in which multiple drugs in unit dose packaging are dispensed in a single container, such as a medication drawer or bin, labeled only with patient name and location. Directions for administration are not provided by the pharmacy on the drug packaging or container but are obtained by the person administering directly from a prescriber's order or medication administration record.
"USP-NF" means the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary.
"Well-closed container" means a container that protects the contents from extraneous solids and from loss of the drug under the ordinary or customary conditions of handling, shipment, storage, and distribution.
18VAC110-20-250. Automated data processing records of prescriptions.
A. An automated data processing system may be used for the storage and retrieval of original and refill dispensing information for prescriptions instead of manual record keeping requirements, subject to the following conditions:
hard copy prescription shall be placed on file as
set forth in 18VAC110-20-240 B with the following provisions:
a. In lieu of a hard copy file for Schedule VI prescriptions, an electronic image of a prescription may be maintained in an electronic database provided it preserves and provides an exact image of the prescription that is clearly legible and made available within 48 hours of a request by a person authorized by law to have access to prescription information. Storing electronic images of prescriptions for Schedule II-V controlled substances instead of the hard copy shall only be authorized if such storage is allowed by federal law.
b. If the pharmacy system's automated data processing system
fields are automatically populated by an electronic
the automated record shall constitute the prescription and a hard copy or
electronic image is not required.
Storing electronic images of prescriptions for Schedule
II-V controlled substances instead of the hard copy shall only be authorized if
such storage is allowed by federal law. For Schedule II-V controlled
substances, electronic prescriptions shall be maintained in accordance with
federal law and regulation.
2. Any computerized system shall provide retrieval (via computer monitor display or printout) of original prescription information for those prescriptions which are currently authorized for dispensing.
3. Any computerized system shall also provide retrieval via computer monitor display or printout of the dispensing history for prescriptions dispensed during the past two years.
4. Documentation of the fact that the information entered into the computer each time a pharmacist fills a prescription for a drug is correct shall be provided by the individual pharmacist who makes use of such system. If a printout is maintained of each day's prescription dispensing data, the printout shall be verified, dated and signed by the individual pharmacist who dispensed the prescription. The individual pharmacist shall verify that the data indicated is correct and then sign the document in the same manner as his name appears on his pharmacist license (e.g., J. H. Smith or John H. Smith).
If a bound log book or separate file is maintained rather than a printout, each individual pharmacist involved in dispensing shall sign a statement each day in the log, in the manner previously described, attesting to the fact that the dispensing information entered into the computer that day has been reviewed by him and is correct as shown.
B. Printout of dispensing data requirements. Any computerized system shall have the capability of producing a printout of any dispensing data which the user pharmacy is responsible for maintaining under the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq. of the Code of Virginia) and such printout shall be provided within 48 hours of a request of an authorized agent.
18VAC110-20-285. Electronic transmission of prescriptions from prescriber to pharmacy.
A. Unless otherwise prohibited by law,
electronic prescription may be transmitted by electronic means from
the prescriber or an authorized agent as defined in § 54.1-3408.01 C of the
Code of Virginia for transmission of oral prescriptions directly to the
dispensing pharmacy. For electronic transmission Electronic
prescriptions of Schedule II-V prescriptions, transmissions controlled
substances shall comply with any security or other requirements of federal
law. All electronic transmissions prescriptions shall also comply
with all security requirements of state law related to privacy of protected
In addition to all other information required to be
included on a prescription, an electronically transmitted prescription shall
include the telephone number of the prescriber, the full name of the
prescriber's agent if other than the prescriber transmitting, and date of
transmission. C. A pharmacy receiving an electronic transmission
prescription shall maintain such prescription record in accordance with
18VAC110-20-250 A. D. C. An electronically transmitted electronic
prescription shall be transmitted only to the pharmacy of the patient's choice.
18VAC110-20-290. Dispensing of Schedule II drugs.
A. A prescription for a Schedule II drug shall be dispensed in good faith but in no case shall it be dispensed more than six months after the date on which the prescription was issued.
B. A prescription for a Schedule II drug shall not be refilled except as authorized under the conditions for partial dispensing as set forth in 18VAC110-20-310.
C. In case of an emergency situation, a pharmacist may dispense a drug listed in Schedule II upon receiving oral authorization of a prescribing practitioner, provided that:
1. The quantity prescribed and dispensed is limited to the amount adequate to treat the patient during the emergency period;
2. The prescription shall be immediately reduced to writing by the pharmacist and shall contain all information required in § 54.1-3410 of the Drug Control Act, except for the signature of the prescribing practitioner;
3. If the pharmacist does not know the practitioner, he shall make a reasonable effort to determine that the oral authorization came from a practitioner using his phone number as listed in the telephone directory or other good-faith efforts to ensure his identity; and
4. Within seven days after authorizing an emergency oral
prescription, the prescribing practitioner shall cause a written prescription
for the emergency quantity prescribed to be delivered to the dispensing
pharmacist. In addition to conforming to the requirements of § 54.1-3410 of the
Drug Control Act, the prescription shall have written on its face
"Authorization for Emergency Dispensing" and the date of the oral
order. The written prescription may be delivered to the pharmacist in person
by mail, but if delivered, by mail , it must be postmarked
within the seven-day period, or transmitted as an electronic prescription in
accordance with federal law and regulation to include annotation of the
electronic prescription with the original authorization and date of the oral
order. Upon receipt, the dispensing pharmacist shall attach this the
paper prescription to the oral emergency prescription which had earlier
been reduced to writing. The pharmacist shall notify the nearest office of the
Drug Enforcement Administration and the board if the prescribing practitioner
fails to deliver a written prescription to him. Failure of the pharmacist to do
so shall void the authority conferred by this subdivision to dispense without a
written prescription of a prescribing practitioner.