Agencies | Governor
Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

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Action:
Final Exempt CH 32 Changes in Response to 2022 Board Bill
Stage: Final
8/24/22  2:07 PM
 
9VAC25-32-10 Definitions

A. The following words and terms, when used in this chapter and in VPA permits issued under this chapter, shall have the meanings defined in the State Water Control Law, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise and as follows:

"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.

"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.

"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.

"Agricultural storm water discharge" means a precipitation-related discharge of manure, litter, or process wastewater that has been applied on land areas under the control of an animal feeding operation or under the control of an animal waste end-user in accordance with a nutrient management plan approved by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation and in accordance with site specific nutrient management practices that ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter, or process wastewater.

"Agronomic rate" means, in regard to biosolids, the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.

"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge or biosolids into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.

"Animal feeding operation" means a lot or facility where the following conditions are met:

1. Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period; and

2. Crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the operation of the lot or facility.

Two or more animal feeding operations under common ownership are a single animal feeding operation for the purposes of determining the number of animals at an operation if they adjoin each other or if they use a common area or system for the disposal of wastes.

"Animal waste" means liquid, semisolid, and solid animal manure and process wastewater, compost, or sludges associated with animal feeding operations including the final treated wastes generated by a digester or other manure treatment technologies.

"Animal waste end-user" means any recipient of transferred animal waste who stores or who utilizes the waste as fertilizer, fuel, feedstock, livestock feed, or other beneficial use for an operation under his control.

"Animal waste fact sheet" means the document that details the requirements regarding utilization, storage, and management of animal waste by end-users. The fact sheet is approved by the department.

"Annual pollutant loading rate" or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Annual whole sludge application rate" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.

"Apply biosolids" or "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of biosolids.

"Beneficial use" means a use that is of benefit as a substitute for natural or commercial products and does not contribute to adverse effects on health or the environment.

"Best Management Practices (BMP)" means a schedule of activities, prohibition of practices, maintenance procedures and other management practices to prevent or reduce the pollution of state waters. BMPs include treatment requirements, operating and maintenance procedures, schedule of activities, prohibition of activities, and other management practices to control plant site runoff, spillage, leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.

"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-32-356, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this regulation. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight.

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board. However, when used outside the context of the promulgation of regulations, including regulations to establish general permits, "board" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Bulk biosolids" means biosolids that are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

"Bypass" means intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment works.

"Confined animal feeding operation," for the purposes of this regulation, has the same meaning as an "animal feeding operation."

"Confined poultry feeding operation" means any confined animal feeding operation with 200 or more animal units of poultry. This equates to 20,000 chickens or 11,000 turkeys regardless of animal age or sex.

"Controversial permit" means a water permitting action for which a public hearing has been granted pursuant to 9VAC25-32-170 and 9VAC25-32-175.

"Critical areas" and "critical waters" mean areas and waters in proximity to shellfish waters, a public water supply, or recreation or other waters where health or water quality concerns are identified by the Department of Health.

"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.

"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the sewage sludge.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality, or an authorized representative.

"Discharge" means, when used without qualification, a discharge of a pollutant.

"Discharge of a pollutant" means any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to state waters or waters of the contiguous zone or ocean other than discharge from a vessel or other floating craft when being used as a means of transportation.

"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.

"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.

"Draft VPA permit" means a document indicating the board's department's tentative decision to issue, deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate or reissue a VPA permit. A notice of intent to terminate a VPA permit and a notice of intent to deny a VPA permit are types of draft VPA permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance or termination is not a draft VPA permit.

"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids or industrial residuals and expressed in units of English tons.

"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge, biosolids, or industrial residuals after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.

"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).

"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.

"Facilities" means, in regard to biosolids, processes, equipment, storage devices and dedicated sites, located or operated separately from a treatment works, utilized for sewage sludge management including, but not limited to, handling, treatment, transport, and storage of biosolids.

"Fact sheet" means the document that details the requirements regarding utilization, storage, and management of poultry waste by poultry waste end-users and poultry waste brokers. The fact sheet is approved by the department in consultation with the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.

"Fiber crops" means crops produced primarily for the manufacture of textiles, such as flax and cotton.

"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.

"Food crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.

"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.

"General VPA permit" means a VPA permit issued by the as a regulation adopted by the board authorizing a category of pollutant management activities.

"Generator" means the owner of a sewage treatment works that produces sewage sludge and biosolids.

"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.

"Industrial residuals" means solid or semisolid industrial waste including solids, residues, and precipitates separated or created by the unit processes of a device or system used to treat industrial wastes.

"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade, or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Land application" means, in regard to sewage, biosolids, and industrial residuals, the distribution of treated wastewater, referred to as "effluent," stabilized sewage sludge, referred to as "biosolids," or industrial residuals by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing crops or vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this regulation are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge or industrial residuals in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this regulation, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.

"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback areas, where biosolids may be applied.

"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids or industrial residuals pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this regulation.

"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).

"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).

"Limitation" means any restriction imposed on quantities, rates or concentration of pollutants which are managed by pollutant management activities.

"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.

"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.

"Local ordinance" means an ordinance adopted by counties, cities, or towns in accordance with § 62.1-44.16 or 62.1-44.19:3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors commonly associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.

"Monitoring report" means forms supplied by the department for use in reporting of self-monitoring results of the permittee.

"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.

"Municipality" means a city, county, town, district association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge or biosolids management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity; or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Nonpoint source" means a source of pollution, such as a farm or forest land runoff, urban storm water runoff or mine runoff that is not collected or discharged as a point source.

"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids, any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories, or athletic and other recreational facilities.

"Operate" means the act of any person who may have an impact on either the finished water quality at a waterworks or the final effluent at a sewage treatment works, such as to (i) place into or take out of service a unit process or unit processes, (ii) make or cause adjustments in the operation of a unit process or unit processes at a treatment works, or (iii) manage sewage sludge or biosolids.

"Operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control waterworks or wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of waterworks or wastewater works.

"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.

"Overflow" means the unintentional discharge of wastes from any portion of a treatment works.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including sanitary districts, sanitation district commissions and authorities; federal agencies; any individual; any group of individuals acting individually or as a group; or any public or private institution, corporation, company, partnership, firm, or association that owns or proposes to own a sewerage system or treatment works as defined in § 62.1-44.3 of the Code of Virginia.

"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.

"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.

"Permittee" means an owner or operator who has a currently effective VPA permit issued by the board or the department or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board.

"Person who prepares biosolids" means either the person that generates biosolids during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person that derives the material from sewage sludge.

"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25°C or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25°C.

"Place sewage sludge" or "sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.

"Point source" means any discernible, defined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agricultural land.

"Pollutant" means, in regard to wastewater, any substance, radioactive material, or heat which causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, pollution. It does not mean (i) sewage from vessels; or (ii) water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil or gas production and disposed of in a well, if the well is used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes if approved by the Department of Energy unless the board department determines that such injection or disposal will result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.

"Pollutant" means, in regard to sewage sludge or biosolids, an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the board department, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.

"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids), the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare), or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).

"Pollutant management activity" means a treatment works with a potential or actual discharge to state waters, but which does not have a point source discharge to surface waters.

"Pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of any state waters or soil as will, or is likely to, create a nuisance or render such waters or soil: (i) harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare or to the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life; (ii) unsuitable despite reasonable treatment for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or (iii) unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses. Such alteration is also deemed to be pollution, if there occurs: (a) an alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological property of state waters or soil, or a discharge or a deposit of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters or soil by any owner which by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution, but which, in combination with such alteration of, or discharge, or deposit, to state waters or soil by other owners, is sufficient to cause pollution; (b) the discharge of untreated sewage by any owner into state waters or soil; or (c) the contravention of standards of air or water quality duly established by the board.

"Poultry grower" or "grower" means any person who owns or operates a confined poultry feeding operation.

"Poultry waste" means dry poultry litter and composted dead poultry.

"Poultry waste broker" or "broker" means a person who possesses or controls poultry waste that is not generated on an animal feeding operation under his operational control and transfers or hauls poultry waste to other persons. If the entity is defined as a broker they cannot be defined as a hauler for the purposes of this regulation.

"Poultry waste end-user" means any recipient of transferred poultry waste who stores or utilizes the waste as fertilizer, fuel, feedstock, livestock feed, or other beneficial end use for an operation under his control.

"Poultry waste hauler" or "hauler" means a person who provides transportation of transferred poultry waste from one entity to another and is not otherwise involved in the transfer or transaction of the waste nor responsible for determining the recipient of the waste. The responsibility of the recordkeeping and reporting remains with the entities to which the service was provided: grower, broker, and end-user.

"Primary sludge" means sewage sludge removed from primary settling tanks that is readily thickened by gravity thickeners.

"Privately owned treatment works (PVOTW)" means any sewage treatment works not publicly owned.

"Process" means a system, or an arrangement of equipment or other devices that remove from waste materials pollutants including, but not limited to, a treatment works or portions thereof.

"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, and golf courses.

"Publicly owned treatment works (POTW)" means any sewage treatment works that is owned by a state or municipality. Sewers, pipes, or other conveyances are included in this definition only if they convey wastewater to a POTW providing treatment.

"Public hearing" means a fact-finding proceeding held to afford interested persons an opportunity to submit factual data, views, and arguments to the board department.

"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.

"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.

"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC 1251 et seq.), the law, and board regulations, standards and policies.

"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied.

"Sewage" means the water-carried and non-water-carried human excrement, kitchen, laundry, shower, bath, or lavatory wastes, separately or together with such underground, surface, storm, and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments, or other places.

"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.

"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.

"Sewage sludge use or disposal" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.

"Sludge" means solids, residues, and precipitates separated from or created by the unit processes of a treatment works.

"Sludge management" means the treatment, handling, transportation, storage, use, distribution, or disposal of sewage sludge.

"Specific oxygen uptake rate" or "SOUR" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.

"State waters" means all water on the surface or under the ground wholly or partially within or bordering the state or within its jurisdiction.

"State Water Control Law (law)" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Store sewage sludge" or "storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.

"Substantial compliance" means designs and practices that do not exactly conform to the standards set forth in this chapter as contained in documents submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-32-60, but whose construction or implementation will not substantially affect health considerations or performance.

"Supernatant" means a liquid obtained from separation of suspended matter during sludge treatment or storage.

"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.

"Surface water" means:

1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate "wetlands";

3. All other waters such as inter/intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, "wetlands," sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:

a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or

c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters of the United States under this definition;

5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;

6. The territorial sea; and

7. "Wetlands" adjacent to waters, other than waters that are themselves wetlands, identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.

"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried to 103°C to 105°C.

"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307 (a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of "sludge use or disposal practices," any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405 (d) of the CWA.

"Toxicity" means the inherent potential or capacity of a material to cause adverse effects in a living organism, including acute or chronic effects to aquatic life, detrimental effects on human health, or other adverse environmental effects.

"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).

"Treat sewage sludge" or "treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.

"Treatment works" means either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature. Treatment works may include but are not limited to pumping, power, and other equipment and their appurtenances; septic tanks; and any works, including land, that are or will be (i) an integral part of the treatment process or (ii) used for ultimate disposal of residues or effluents resulting from such treatment. "Treatment works" does not include biosolids use on privately owned agricultural land.

"Twenty-five-year, 24-hour storm event" means the maximum 24-hour precipitation event with a probable recurrence interval of once in 25 years as established by the National Weather Service or appropriate regional or state rainfall probability information.

"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.

"Upset" means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology-based permit limitations because of factors beyond the permittee's reasonable control. An upset does not include noncompliance caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.

"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management.

"Variance" means a conditional approval based on a waiver of specific regulations to a specific owner relative to a specific situation under documented conditions for a specified period of time.

"Vector attraction" means the characteristic of biosolids or sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.

"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters.

"Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permit" means a document issued by the board department, pursuant to this chapter, authorizing pollutant management activities under prescribed conditions or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board in accordance with 9VAC25-32-260.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit" means a document issued by the board department pursuant to 9VAC25-31, authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board in accordance with 9VAC25-31-171.

"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.

"VPA application" means the standard form or forms approved by the board department for applying for a VPA permit.

"Waste storage facility" means a (i) waste holding pond or tank used to store manure prior to land application, (ii) lagoon or treatment facility used to digest or reduce the solids or nutrients, or (iii) structure used to store manure or waste.

"300 animal units" means 300,000 pounds of live animal weight or the following numbers and types of animals:

a. 300 slaughter and feeder cattle;

b. 200 mature dairy cattle (whether milked or dry cows);

c. 750 swine each weighing over 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds);

d. 150 horses;

e. 3,000 sheep or lambs;

f. 16,500 turkeys;

g. 30,000 laying hens or broilers.

"Water quality standards" means the narrative statements for general requirements and numeric limits for specific requirements that describe the water quality necessary to meet and maintain reasonable and beneficial uses. Such standards are established by the board under § 62.1-44.15 (3a) of the Code of Virginia.

B. Generally used technical terms not defined in subsection A of this section or the department's latest definitions of technical terms as used to implement § 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia shall be defined in accordance with "Glossary-Water and Wastewater Control Engineering" published by the American Public Health Association (APHA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF).

9VAC25-32-15 Permit Rationale

In granting a permit pursuant to this chapter, the department shall provide, in writing, a clear and concise statement of the legal basis, scientific rationale, and justification for the decision reached. When the decision of the department is to deny a permit the department shall, in consultation with legal counsel, provide a clear and concise statement explaining the reason for the denial, the scientific justification for the same, and how the department's decision is in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Copies of the decision, certified by the director, shall be mailed by certified mail to the permittee or applicant.

9VAC25-32-20 Purpose

This regulation delineates the procedures and requirements to be followed in connection with VPA permits issued by the board department or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board pursuant to the State Water Control Law.

9VAC25-32-30 Requirements and prohibitions

A. All pollutant management activities covered under a VPA permit shall maintain no point source discharge of pollutants to surface waters except in the case of a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm.

B. Except in compliance with a VPA permit, or another permit issued by the board department or a general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board, it shall be unlawful for any person to:

1. Discharge into, or adjacent to, state waters sewage, industrial wastes, other wastes, or any noxious or deleterious substances; or

2. Otherwise alter the physical, chemical or biological properties of such state waters and make them detrimental to the public health, or to animal or aquatic life, or to the use of such waters for domestic or industrial consumption, or for recreation, or for other uses.

C. Any person required to obtain a permit pursuant to this chapter who discharges or causes or allows a discharge of sewage, industrial waste, other wastes or any noxious or deleterious substance into or upon state waters in violation of subsection B of this section; or who discharges or causes or allows a discharge that may reasonably be expected to enter state waters in violation of subsection B of this section shall notify the department of the discharge immediately upon discovery of the discharge and, in any event, no later than 24 hours after the discovery. A written report of the unauthorized discharge shall be submitted by the owner, to the department, within five days of discovery of the discharge.

1. The written report shall contain:

a. A description of the nature of the discharge;

b. The cause of the discharge;

c. The date on which the discharge occurred;

d. The length of time that the discharge continued;

e. The volume of the discharge;

f. If the discharge is continuing, how long it is expected to continue;

g. If the discharge is continuing, what the expected total volume of the discharge will be; and

h. Any steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate and prevent a recurrence of the present discharge or any future discharges not authorized by the permit.

2. Discharges reportable to the department under the immediate reporting requirements of other regulations are exempted from this requirement.

D. VPA permits may be utilized to authorize pollutant management activities including, but not limited to, animal feeding operations, storage or land application of sewage, sludge, biosolids, industrial waste or other waste; or the complete reuse or recycle of wastewater. Point source discharges of pollutants to surface waters may be authorized by a VPDES permit (See 9VAC25-31, VPDES Permit Regulation).

E. No VPA permit shall be issued in the following circumstances:

1. Where the terms or conditions of the VPA permit do not comply with the applicable regulations or requirements of the law;

2. For the discharge of any radiological, chemical or biological warfare agent or high level radioactive material into state waters; or

3. For any pollutant management activity that is in conflict with any area-wide or basin-wide water quality control and waste management plan or policy established by the board pursuant to the law.

9VAC25-32-40 Exclusions

The following do not require a VPA permit:

1. The introduction of sewage, industrial waste or other pollutants into publicly owned treatment works by indirect dischargers. Plans or agreements to switch to this method of disposal in the future do not relieve dischargers of the obligation to have and comply with VPA permits until all discharges of pollutants to state waters are eliminated;

2. Any introduction of pollutants from nonpoint source agricultural or silvicultural activities, including runoff from orchards, cultivated crops, pastures, range lands, and forest lands, except that this exclusion shall not apply to concentrated confined animal feeding operations;

3. Return flows from irrigated agricultural land;

4. Land disposal activity, including biosolids use or sewage sludge disposal or onsite waste treatment, when this activity is otherwise authorized by the department;

5. Land disposal activity, including onsite waste treatment, when this activity is authorized by a Virginia Department of Health permit; and

6. Discharges authorized by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act Underground Injection Control Program (UIC), 40 CFR Part 144, and approved, in writing, by the board department.

9VAC25-32-60 Application for a VPA permit

A. Duty to apply. Any owner of a pollutant management activity who does not have an effective VPA permit, except persons covered by general VPA permits or excluded under 9VAC25-32-40, shall submit a complete application to the department in accordance with this section.

B. Time to apply.

1. Any owner proposing a new pollutant management activity shall submit an application for a VPA permit 180 days prior to the date planned for commencing erection, construction or expansion or employment of new processes at any site. There shall be no operation of said facilities prior to the issuance of a VPA permit.

2. Any owner with an existing pollutant management activity that has not been permitted shall submit an application within 60 days upon being requested to by the board department. The board department, after determining there is pollution occurring, may allow the construction of treatment works prior to permit issuance. There shall be no operation of said treatment works prior to permit issuance.

3. Owners currently managing pollutants who have effective VPA permits shall submit a new application 180 days prior to proposed facility expansions, production increases, or process modification which will:

a. Result in significantly new or substantially increased amounts of pollutants being managed or a significant change in the nature of the pollutant management activity that was not anticipated and accounted for on the application for the effective VPA permit; or

b. Violate or lead to violation of the terms and conditions of the effective VPA permit.

C. Duty to reapply. Any permittee with an effective VPA permit shall submit a new application at least 180 days before the expiration date of the effective VPA permit unless permission for a later date has been granted by the board department. Permission shall not be granted to submit an application later than the expiration date of the existing VPA permit.

D. Completeness.

1. A complete VPA permit application shall be submitted by the owner of the pollutant management activity before a VPA permit can be issued. The permit application may be submitted as a hard copy or electronically with a hard copy signature page. This item does not apply where general VPA permits are applicable.

2. The board department may require the submission of additional information after an application has been filed, and may suspend processing of any application until such time as the owner has supplied missing or deficient information and the board department considers the application complete. Further, when the owner becomes aware that he omitted one or more relevant facts from a VPA permit application, or submitted incorrect information in a VPA permit application or in any report to the department, he shall promptly submit such facts or the correct information.

3. In accordance with § 62.1-44.19:3 A of the Code of Virginia, no application for a permit or variance to authorize the storage of biosolids shall be complete unless it contains certification from the governing body of the locality in which the biosolids is to be stored that the storage site is consistent with all applicable ordinances. The governing body shall confirm or deny consistency within 30 days of receiving a request for certification. If the governing body does not so respond, the site shall be deemed consistent.

4. No application for a permit to land apply biosolids in accordance with Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter shall be complete unless it includes the written consent of the landowner to apply biosolids on his property.

5. Pursuant to § 62.1-44.15:3 of the Code of Virginia, no application for a VPA permit from a privately owned treatment works serving, or designed to serve, 50 or more residences shall be considered complete unless the applicant has provided the department with notification from the State Corporation Commission that the applicant is incorporated in the Commonwealth and is in compliance with all regulations and relevant orders of the State Corporation Commission.

E. Information requirements. All applicants for VPA permits shall provide information to the department using the most current application forms provided by the board department.

F. Application for the authorization to land apply biosolids. All persons applying to land apply biosolids must provide the information in this subsection to the department using an application form approved by the department. New applicants must submit all information available at the time of permit application. The information may be provided by referencing information previously submitted to the department. The board department may waive any requirement of this subsection if it has access to substantially identical information. The board department may also waive any requirement of this subsection that is not of material concern for a specific permit.

1. General information.

a. Legal name and address.

b. Owner contact information including:

(1) Name;

(2) Mailing address;

(3) Telephone number; and

(4) Email address.

c. A general description of the proposed activity including:

(1) Name and location of generators involved and their owners;

(2) Biosolids quality and the generator's biosolids treatment and handling processes;

(3) Generator's odor control plan, that contains at minimum:

(a) Methods used to minimize odor in producing biosolids;

(b) Methods used to identify malodorous biosolids before land application (at the generating facility);

(c) Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids if delivered to the field, prior to land application; and

(d) Methods used to abate malodor from biosolids if land applied;

(4) Means of biosolids transport or conveyance;

(5) Location and volume of storage proposed;

(6) A description of field staging methods;

(7) General location of sites proposed for application, and

(8) Methods of biosolids application proposed.

d. Written permission of landowners on the most current form approved by the board department and pertinent lease agreements as may be necessary for operation of the treatment works.

e. Methods for notification of local government and obtaining compliance with local government zoning and applicable ordinances.

f. A copy of a letter of approval of the nutrient management plan for the operation from the Department of Conservation and Recreation if required in subdivision 3 b of this subsection.

2. Design information.

a. Biosolids characterization. For each source of biosolids that the applicant proposes to land apply, the applicant must submit biosolids monitoring data for the pollutants for which limits in biosolids have been established in Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter, for the applicant's use or disposal practices on the date of permit application with the following conditions:

(1) When applying for authorization to land apply a biosolids source not previously included in a VPDES or VPA permit, the biosolids shall be sampled and analyzed for PCBs. The sample results shall be submitted with the permit application or request to add the source;

(2) The board department may require sampling for additional pollutants, as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis;

(3) Applicants must provide:

(a) Biosolids analytical data from a minimum of three samples taken within four and one-half years prior to the date of the permit application. Samples must be representative of the biosolids and should be taken at least one month apart. Existing data may be used in lieu of sampling done solely for the purpose of this application. The department may reduce the number of samples collected based on site specific conditions;

(b) The total dry tons per 365-day period of biosolids subject to this subsection that is applied to the land; and

(c) A statement that the biosolids is nonhazardous; a documentation statement for treatment and quality; and a description of how treated biosolids meets other standards in accordance with this regulation;

(4) Samples shall be collected and analyzed in accordance with analytical methods specified in 40 CFR Part 503 and 40 CFR Part 136; and

(5) The monitoring data provided must include at least the following information for each parameter:

(a) Average monthly concentration for all samples (mg/kg dry weight), based upon actual sample values;

(b) Analytical method used; and

(c) Method detection level.

b. Storage facilities. Plans and specifications for storage facilities of all biosolids to be handled, including routine and on-site storage, shall be submitted for the issuance of a certificate to construct and a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790) and shall depict the following information:

(1) Site layout on a recent 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle or other appropriate scaled map;

(2) Location of any required soil, geologic, and hydrologic test holes or borings;

(3) Location of the following field features within 0.25 miles of the site boundary (indicate on map) with the approximate distance from the site boundary:

(a) Water wells (operating or abandoned);

(b) Surface waters;

(c) Springs;

(d) Public water supplies;

(e) Sinkholes;

(f) Underground and surface mines;

(g) Mine pool (or other) surface water discharge points;

(h) Mining spoil piles and mine dumps;

(i) Quarries;

(j) Sand and gravel pits;

(k) Gas and oil wells;

(l) Diversion ditches;

(m) Occupied dwellings, including industrial and commercial establishments;

(n) Landfills and dumps;

(o) Other unlined impoundments;

(p) Septic tanks and drainfields; and

(q) Injection wells;

(4) Topographic map (10-foot contour preferred) of sufficient detail to clearly show the following information:

(a) Maximum and minimum percent slopes;

(b) Depressions on the site that may collect water;

(c) Drainage ways that may attribute to rainfall run-on to or runoff from the site; and

(d) Portions of the site (if any) that are located within the 100-year floodplain;

(5) Data and specifications for the liner proposed for seepage control;

(6) Scaled plan view and cross-sectional view of the facilities showing inside and outside slopes of all embankments and details of all appurtenances;

(7) Calculations justifying impoundment capacity; and

(8) Groundwater monitoring plans for facilities if required by the department. The groundwater monitoring plan shall include pertinent geohydrological data to justify upgradient and downgradient well location and depth.

c. Staging. Generic plans for staging of biosolids.

d. Land application sites:

(1) DEQ control number, if previously assigned, identifying each land application field. If a DEQ control number has not been assigned, provide the site identification code used by the permit applicant to report activities and the site's location;

(2) The site's latitude and longitude in decimal degrees to three decimal places and the method of determination;

(3) A legible topographic map and aerial photograph, including legend, of proposed application areas to scale as needed to depict the following features:

(a) Property boundaries;

(b) Surface water courses;

(c) Water supply wells and springs;

(d) Roadways;

(e) Rock outcrops;

(f) Slopes;

(g) Frequently flooded areas (National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) designation);

(h) Occupied dwellings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and all existing dwelling and property line setback distances;

(i) Publicly accessible properties and occupied buildings within 400 feet of the property boundaries and the associated extended setback distances; and

(j) The gross acreage of the fields where biosolids will be applied;

(4) County map or other map of sufficient detail to show general location of the site and proposed transport vehicle haul routes to be utilized from the treatment plant;

(5) County tax maps labeled with Tax Parcel ID or IDs for each farm to be included in the permit, which may include multiple fields to depict properties within 400 feet of the field boundaries;

(6) A USDA soil survey map, if available, of proposed sites for land application of biosolids;

(7) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of each site owner, if different from the applicant;

(8) The name, mailing address, and telephone number of the person who applies biosolids to the site, if different from the applicant;

(9) Whether the site is agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, as such site types are defined in 9VAC25-32-10;

(10) Description of agricultural practices including a list of proposed crops to be grown;

(11) The following information for each land application site that has been identified at the time of permit application, if the applicant intends to apply bulk biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 to the site:

(a) Whether the applicant has contacted the permitting authority in the state where the bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 will be applied, to ascertain whether bulk biosolids subject to 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 has been applied to the site on or since July 20, 1993, and if so, the name of the permitting authority and the name and phone number of a contact person at the permitting authority; and

(b) Identification of facilities other than the applicant's facility that have sent, or are sending, biosolids subject to the cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 to the site since July 20, 1993, if, based on the inquiry in subdivision 2 d (11) (a) of this subsection, bulk biosolids subject to cumulative pollutant loading rates in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3 has been applied to the site since July 20, 1993.

3. A biosolids management plan shall be provided that includes the following minimum site specific information at the time of permit application.

a. Description of operation: A comprehensive, general description of the operation as required by this section.

b. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation as required for application sites prior to board department authorization under the following conditions:

(1) Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation, as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

(2) Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

(3) Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; or

(4) Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

4. Biosolids transport.

a. General description of transport vehicles to be used.

b. Procedures for biosolids offloading at the biosolids facilities and the land application site together with spill prevention, cleanup (including vehicle cleaning); field reclamation and emergency spill notification and cleanup measures.

c. Voucher system used for documentation and recordkeeping.

5. Field operations.

a. Storage.

(1) Routine storage - supernatant handling and disposal, biosolids handling and loading of transport vehicles, equipment cleaning, freeboard maintenance, and inspections for structural integrity.

(2) On-site storage - procedures for department or board approval and implementation.

(3) Staging - procedures to be followed including either designated site locations provided in the "Design Information" or the specific site criteria for such locations including the liner or cover requirements and the time limit assigned for such use.

(4) Reestablishment of offloading and staging areas.

b. Application methodology.

(1) Description and specifications on spreader vehicles.

(2) Procedures for calibrating equipment for various biosolids contents to ensure uniform distribution and appropriate loading rates on a day-to-day basis.

(3) Procedures used to ensure that operations address the following constraints: application of biosolids to frozen ground, pasture or hay fields, crops for direct human consumption and saturated or ice-covered or snow-covered ground; establishment of setback distances; slopes; prohibited access for beef and dairy animals, and soil pH requirements; and proper site specific biosolids loading rates on a field-by-field basis.

c. Odor control plan for land applier. Include at a minimum:

(1) Methods used to identify and abate malodorous biosolids in the field prior to land application, and

(2) Methods used to abate malodorous biosolids if land applied.

6. An applicant for a permit authorizing the land application of biosolids shall provide to the department, and to each locality in which the applicant proposes to land apply biosolids, written evidence of financial responsibility. Evidence of financial responsibility shall be provided in accordance with the requirements specified under Article 6 (9VAC25-32-770 et seq.) of Part IX of this chapter.

9VAC25-32-70 Signatory requirements

Any application, report, including monitoring reports, or certifications shall be signed as follows:

1. Application.

a. For a corporation: by a responsible corporate official. For purposes of this section, a responsible corporate official means (i) a president, secretary, treasurer, or vice-president of the corporation in charge of a principal business function, or any other person who performs similar policy or decision-making functions for the corporation, or (ii) the manager of one or more manufacturing, production, or operating facilities employing more than 250 persons or having gross annual sales or expenditures exceeding $25,000,000 (in second quarter 1980 dollars), if authority to sign documents has been assigned or delegated to the manager in accordance with corporate procedures.

b. For a municipality, state, federal or other public agency by either a principal executive officer or ranking elected official. (A principal executive officer of a federal, municipal, or state agency includes the chief executive officer of the agency or head executive officer having responsibility for the overall operation of a principal geographic unit of the agency.)

c. For a partnership or sole proprietorship, by a general partner or proprietor, respectively.

2. Reports. All reports required by VPA permits and other information requested by the board department shall be signed by:

a. One of the persons described in subdivision 1 of this section; or

b. A duly authorized representative of that person. A person is a duly authorized representative only if:

(1) The authorization is made in writing by a person described in subdivision 1 of this section; and

(2) The authorization specifies either an individual or a position having responsibility for the overall operation of the regulated facility or activity, such as the position of plant manager, operator of a well or a well field, superintendent, or position of equivalent responsibility. (A duly authorized representative may thus be either a named individual or any individual occupying a named position.)

(3) If an authorization is no longer accurate because a different individual or position has responsibility for the overall operation of the facility, a new authorization must be submitted to the department prior to or together with any separate information, or applications to be signed by an authorized representative.

3. Certification. Any person signing a document under subdivision 1 or 2 of this section shall make the following certification: "I certify under penalty of law that this document and all attachments were prepared under my direction or supervision in accordance with a system designed to assure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate the information submitted. Based on my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system or those persons directly responsible for gathering the information, the information submitted is to the best of my knowledge and belief true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations."

9VAC25-32-80 Conditions applicable to all VPA permits

A. Duty to comply. The permittee shall comply with all conditions of the VPA permit. Any permit noncompliance is a violation of the law, and is grounds for enforcement action, permit termination, revocation, modification, or denial of a permit renewal application.

B. Duty to halt or reduce activity. It shall not be a defense for a permittee in an enforcement action that it would have been necessary to halt or reduce the permitted activity in order to maintain compliance with the conditions of the VPA permit.

C. Duty to mitigate. The permittee shall take all reasonable steps to minimize, correct, or prevent any pollutant management activity in violation of the VPA permit which has a reasonable likelihood of adversely affecting human health or the environment.

D. Proper operation and maintenance. The permittee shall be responsible for the proper operation and maintenance of all treatment works, systems, and controls which are installed or used to achieve compliance with permit conditions. Proper operation and maintenance includes effective plant performance, adequate funding, adequate licensed operator staffing, and adequate laboratory and process controls, including appropriate quality assurance procedures.

E. Permit action.

1. A VPA permit may be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated as set forth in this chapter.

2. If a permittee files a request for a permit modification, revocation, or termination, or files a notification of planned changes, or anticipated noncompliance, the permit terms and conditions shall remain effective until the request is acted upon by the board department. This provision shall not be used to extend the expiration date of the effective VPA permit.

3. VPA permits may be modified, revoked and reissued or terminated upon the request of the permittee or interested persons, or upon the board's department's initiative, to reflect the requirements of any changes in the statutes or regulations.

4. VPA permits continued under 9VAC25-32-130 remain effective and enforceable.

F. Inspection and entry. Upon presentation of credentials, any duly authorized agent of the board department may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances:

1. Enter upon any permittee's property, public or private, and have access to records required by the VPA permit;

2. Have access to, inspect, and copy any records that must be kept as part of VPA permit conditions;

3. Inspect any facility's equipment (including monitoring and control equipment) practices or operations regulated or required under the VPA permit; and

4. Sample or monitor any substances or parameters at any locations for the purpose of assuring VPA permit compliance or as otherwise authorized by law.

G. Duty to provide information.

1. The permittee shall furnish to the department, within a reasonable time, any information which the board department may request to determine whether cause exists for modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating the VPA permit, or to determine compliance with the VPA permit. The permittee shall also furnish to the department, upon request, copies of records required to be kept by the permittee.

2. Plans, specifications, maps, conceptual reports and other relevant information shall be submitted as requested by the board department prior to commencing construction.

H. Monitoring and records.

1. Samples and measurements taken for the purpose of monitoring shall be representative of the monitored activity.

2. The permittee shall retain records of all monitoring information, including all calibration and maintenance records and all original strip chart recordings for continuous monitoring instrumentation, copies of all reports required by the VPA permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for the VPA permit, for a period of at least three years or in the case of activities regulated under Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter, at least five years from the date of the sample, measurement, report, or application. This period may be extended by request of the board department at any time.

3. Records of monitoring information shall include:

a. The date, exact place and time of sampling or measurements;

b. The name of the individuals who performed the sampling or measurements;

c. The date or dates analyses were performed;

d. The name of the individuals who performed the analyses;

e. The analytical techniques or methods supporting the information such as observations, readings, calculations and bench data used; and

f. The results of such analyses.

4. Monitoring shall be conducted according to analytical methods promulgated pursuant to § 304(h) of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations at 40 CFR Part 136. Any other acceptable test procedure not listed in 40 CFR Part 136 shall be specified in the VPA permit.

5. Records related to biosolids data and information specified in agreements between generator, owner, agents, landowners, and farmers shall be described and maintained for a minimum period of five years or the duration of the permit or subsequent revisions if longer than five years.

I. Reporting requirements.

1. The permittee shall give prompt notice to the department of any planned changes to the design or operation of the pollutant management activity.

2. If any unusual or extraordinary discharge including a bypass or upset should occur from a treatment works and the discharge enters or could be expected to enter state waters, the owner shall promptly notify, in no case later than 24 hours, the department by telephone after the discovery of the discharge. This notification shall provide all available details of the incident, including any adverse effects on aquatic life and the known number of fish killed. The permittee shall reduce the report to writing and shall submit it to the department within five days of discovery of the discharge in accordance with subdivision 6 of this subsection. Unusual and extraordinary discharges include any discharge resulting from:

a. Unusual spillage of materials resulting directly or indirectly from processing operations;

b. Breakdown of processing or accessory equipment;

c. Failure or taking out of service of some or all of the treatment works; and

d. Flooding or other acts of nature.

3. The permittee shall give at least 10 days advance notice to the department of any planned changes to the facility or activity which may result in noncompliance.

4. Monitoring results shall be reported at the intervals specified in the applicable VPA permit.

a. Monitoring results shall be reported in a format acceptable to the board department.

b. If a permittee monitors the pollutant management activity, at a sampling location specified in the VPA permit, for any pollutant more frequently than required by the VPA permit using approved analytical methods, the permittee shall report the results of this monitoring on the monitoring report.

c. If the permittee monitors the pollutant management activity, at a sampling location specified in the VPA permit, for any pollutant that is not required to be monitored by the VPA permit, and uses approved analytical methods the permittee shall report the results with the monitoring report.

d. Calculations for all limitations which require averaging of measurements shall utilize an arithmetic mean unless otherwise specified in the VPA permit.

5. Reports of compliance or noncompliance with or any progress report on interim and final requirements contained in any compliance schedule in the VPA permit shall be submitted no later than 14 days following each scheduled date.

6. 24-hour reporting.

a. The permittee shall report any noncompliance that may adversely affect state waters or may endanger public health. An oral report must be provided to the department as soon as possible, but in no case later than 24 hours from the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. A written report shall be submitted within five days and shall contain a description of the noncompliance and its cause; the period of noncompliance including exact dates and times, and, if the noncompliance has not been corrected, how long it is expected to continue, steps planned or taken to reduce, eliminate, and prevent a recurrence of the noncompliance. The board department may waive the written report requirements on a case-by-case basis if the oral report has been received within 24 hours and no adverse impact on state waters has been reported. All other noncompliance reports which may not adversely affect state waters shall be submitted with the monitoring report. Reports shall include overflows.

b. The following shall be included as information which must be reported within 24 hours under this subdivision:

(1) Any unanticipated bypass; and

(2) Any upset which causes a discharge to surface waters.

J. Bypass.

1. A bypass of the treatment works is prohibited except as provided herein.

2. If the permittee knows in advance of the need for a bypass, he shall notify the department promptly at least 10 days prior to the bypass. After considering its adverse effects, the board department may approve an anticipated bypass if:

a. The bypass will be unavoidable to prevent loss of human life, personal injury, or severe property damage ("severe property damage" means substantial physical damage to property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to become inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural resources which can reasonably be expected to occur in the absence of a bypass. Severe property damage does not mean economic loss caused by delays in production); and

b. There are no feasible alternatives to bypass such as the use of auxiliary treatment facilities, retention of untreated waste, or maintenance during normal periods of equipment downtime. However, if bypass occurs during normal periods of equipment downtime or preventive maintenance and in the exercise of reasonable engineering judgment the permittee could have installed adequate backup equipment to prevent such bypass, this exclusion shall not apply as a defense.

3. If an unplanned bypass occurs, the permittee shall notify the department as soon as possible, but in no case later than 24 hours, and shall take steps to halt the bypass as early as possible. This notification will be a condition for defense to an enforcement action that an unplanned bypass met the conditions in subdivision 2 of this subsection and in light of the information reasonably available to the owner at the time of the bypass.

K. Upset. A permittee may claim an upset as an affirmative defense to an action brought for noncompliance. In any enforcement proceedings a permittee shall have the burden of proof to establish the occurrence of any upset. In order to establish an affirmative defense of upset, the permittee shall present properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs or other relevant evidence that shows:

1. That an upset occurred and that the cause can be identified;

2. That the permitted facility was at the time being operated efficiently and in compliance with proper operation and maintenance procedures;

3. That the 24-hour reporting requirements to the department were met; and

4. That the permittee took all reasonable steps to minimize or correct any adverse impact on state waters resulting from noncompliance with the VPA permit.

L. Signature requirements. All applications, reports, or information submitted to the department shall be signed and certified as required in 9VAC25-32-70.

M. Transfers. A VPA permit is not transferable to any person except after notice to the department according to 9VAC25-32-230. The board department may require modification or revocation and reissuance of the VPA permit to change the name of the permittee and incorporate such other requirements as may be necessary.

9VAC25-32-90 Conditions applicable to publicly or privately owned sewage treatment works

A. Publicly or privately owned sewage treatment works shall provide adequate notice to the department of any substantial change in quantity or quality of pollutants being introduced into the privately or publicly owned sewage treatment works and any anticipated impact the change may have on such treatment works.

B. When the monthly average flow influent to a POTW or PVOTW reaches 95% of the design capacity authorized by the VPA permit for each month of any consecutive three-month period, the owner shall within 30 days notify the department in writing and within 90 days submit a plan of action for ensuring continued compliance with the terms of the VPA permit.

1. The plan shall include the necessary steps and a prompt schedule of implementation for controlling any current problem, or any problem which could reasonably be anticipated, resulting from high influent flows.

2. Upon receipt of the owner's plan of action, the board department shall notify the owner whether the plan is approved or disapproved. If the plan is disapproved, such notification shall state the reasons and specify the actions necessary to obtain approval of the plan.

3. Failure to submit an adequate plan in a timely manner shall be deemed a violation of the VPA permit.

C. Nothing herein shall in any way impair the authority of the board department to take enforcement action under § 62.1-44.15, § 62.1-44.23, or § 62.1-44.32 of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-32-100 Establishing limitations and other VPA permit conditions

A. In addition to the conditions established in 9VAC25-32-80 and 9VAC25-32-90, each VPA permit shall include conditions meeting the following requirements where applicable.

1. Determination of limitations. VPA permit limitations and conditions shall be established based on the nature of the pollutant management activity in order to ensure compliance with technology-based limitations, water quality standards, the law and all regulations promulgated thereunder. These limitations and conditions may include, but are not limited to, duration of VPA permits, monitoring requirements, limitations to control toxic pollutants, best management practices and schedules of compliance.

2. Duration of VPA permits. VPA permits issued under this regulation shall have an effective date and an expiration date which will determine the life of the VPA permit. VPA permits shall be effective for a fixed term not to exceed 10 years as specified in the VPA permit. The term of the VPA permits shall not be extended by modification beyond the maximum duration. The VPA permit shall expire at the end of the term unless an application for a new VPA permit has been timely filed as required by this chapter and the board department is unable, through no fault of the permittee, to issue a new VPA permit before the expiration date of the previous VPA permit.

B. Monitoring requirements.

1. All VPA permits may specify:

a. Requirements concerning the proper use, maintenance and installation, when appropriate, of monitoring equipment or methods;

b. Required monitoring including type, intervals, and frequency sufficient to yield data which are representative of the monitored activity and including, when appropriate, continuous monitoring; and

c. Applicable reporting requirements based upon the impact of the regulated activity on water quality.

2. VPA permits may include requirements to report monitoring results with a frequency dependent on the nature and effect of the pollutant management activity.

3. In addition, the following monitoring requirements may be included in the VPA permits:

a. Mass or other measurements specified in the VPA permit for each pollutant of concern;

b. The volume of waste, wastewater, biosolids, or sludge managed by the activity; and

c. Other measurements as appropriate.

C. Best Management Practices (BMPs). The VPA permit shall require the use of BMPs to control or abate pollutants where numeric limits are infeasible, and the VPA permit may include BMPs in addition to numeric limits where BMPs are necessary to achieve limitations and standards or to carry out the purpose and intent of the law.

D. Sludge disposal. The VPA permit shall include, where appropriate, specific requirements for disposal of all sludge.

E. Biosolids land application. Where, because of site-specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regarding setback distances, transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

F. Schedules of compliance. The VPA permit may specify a schedule, when appropriate, leading to compliance with the VPA permit as soon as possible. When schedules of compliance are applicable the following shall be incorporated:

1. Schedule or schedules of compliance shall require the permittee to take specific steps where necessary to achieve expeditious compliance with the VPA permit;

2. The schedule of compliance shall set forth interim time periods not more than one year apart for the submission of reports of progress toward completion of each requirement; and

3. Schedule or schedules of compliance may be modified by modification of the VPA permit for good cause beyond the control of the permittee (e.g., act of God, strike, flood, material shortage).

9VAC25-32-110 Draft VPA permit formulation

A. Upon receipt of a complete application, the board department shall make a decision to tentatively issue the VPA permit or deny the application. If a tentative decision is to issue the VPA permit then a draft VPA permit shall be prepared in advance of public notice. The following tentative determinations shall be incorporated into a draft VPA permit:

1. Conditions, limitations, standards and other requirements applicable to the VPA permit;

2. Compliance schedules where applicable; and

3. Monitoring requirements.

B. If the tentative decision is to deny the application, the board department shall advise the owner of that decision and of the requirements necessary to obtain approval. The owner may withdraw the application prior to board department action. If the application is not withdrawn or modified to contain conditions necessary for tentative approval to issue, the board department shall provide public notice and opportunity for a public hearing prior to board department action on a recommendation to deny the application.

C. This section does not apply to requests for coverage under a general VPA permit.

9VAC25-32-130 Continuation of expiring VPA permits

A. Expiring VPA permits are automatically continued pending issuance of a new VPA permit if:

1. The permittee has submitted a timely and complete application as required by this chapter, unless the board department has given permission for a later submittal, which shall not extend beyond the expiration date of the original VPA permit; and

2. The board department is unable, through no fault of the permittee, to issue a new VPA permit before the expiration date of the previous VPA permit.

B. Continued VPA permits remain effective and enforceable against the permittee.

9VAC25-32-140 Public notice of VPA permit action and public comment period

A. Draft VPA permits.

1. Every draft VPA permit shall be given public notice, paid for by the owner, by publication once a week for two successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area affected by the pollutant management activity except for animal feeding operations as defined in 9VAC25-32-10, when the modifications are to the nutrient management plan.

2. Interested persons shall have a period of at least 30 days following the date of the initial newspaper public notice to submit written comments on the tentative decision and to request a public hearing.

3. The contents of the public notice of an application for a VPA permit shall include:

a. The name and address of the applicant. If the location of the pollutant management activity differs from the address of the applicant the notice shall also state the location of the pollutant management activity including storage and land application sites;

b. A brief description of the business or activity conducted at the facility;

c. A statement of the tentative determination to issue or deny a VPA permit;

d. A brief description of the final determination procedure;

e. The address and phone number of a specific person at the state office from whom further information may be obtained; and

f. A brief description of how to submit comments and request a hearing.

B. VPA permit application.

1. Upon receipt of an application for the issuance of a new or modified permit, the department shall notify in writing the locality wherein the pollutant management activity does or is proposed to take place. This notification shall, at a minimum, include:

a. The name of the applicant;

b. The nature of the application and proposed pollutant management activity;

c. The availability and timing of any comment period; and

d. Upon request, any other information known to, or in the possession of, the board or the department regarding the application except as restricted by 9VAC25-32-150.

2. Whenever the department receives an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage, or an application to reissue with the addition of sites increasing acreage by 50% or more of that authorized in the initial permit, the department shall establish a date for a public meeting to discuss technical issues relating to proposals for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge or stabilized septage. The department shall give notice of the date, time, and place of the public meeting and a description of the proposal by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the proposal is to take place. Public notice of the scheduled meeting shall occur no fewer than seven nor more than 14 days prior to the meeting. The department shall not issue the permit until the public meeting has been held and comment has been received from the local governing body or until 30 days have lapsed from the date of the public meeting.

3. Following the submission of an application for a new permit for land application of biosolids or land disposal of treated sewage, stabilized sewage sludge, or stabilized septage, the department shall make a good faith effort to notify or cause to be notified persons residing on property bordering the sites that contain the proposed land application fields. This notification shall be in a manner selected by the department. For the purposes of this subsection, "site" means all contiguous land under common ownership, but which may contain more than one tax parcel.

4. Public notice shall not be required for submission or approval of plans and specifications or conceptual engineering reports not required to be submitted as part of the application.

C. Following the submission of an application to add a site that is not contiguous to sites included in an existing permit authorizing the land application of biosolids:

1. The department shall notify persons residing on property bordering such site and shall receive written comments from those persons for a period of 30 days. Based upon written comments, the department shall determine whether additional site-specific requirements should be included in the authorization for land application at the site.

2. An application for any permit amendment to increase the acreage authorized by the initial permit by 50% or more shall be considered a major modification and shall be treated as a new application for purposes of public notice and public hearings. The increase in acreage for the purpose of determining the need for the public meeting is the sum of all acreage that has been added to the permit since the last public meeting, plus that proposed to be added.

D. Before issuing any permit, if the board department finds that there are localities particularly affected by the permit, the board department shall:

1. Publish, or require the applicant to publish, a notice in a local paper of general circulation in the localities affected at least 30 days prior to the close of any public comment period. Such notice shall contain a statement of the estimated local impact of the proposed permit, which at a minimum shall include information on the specific pollutants involved and the total quantity of each which may be discharged; and

2. Mail, by electronic or postal delivery, the notice to the chief elected official and chief administrative officer and planning district commission for those localities.

Written comments shall be accepted by the board department for at least 15 days after any public hearing on the permit, unless the board votes to shorten department shortens the period. For the purposes of this section, the term "locality particularly affected" means any locality which bears any identified disproportionate material water quality impact which would not be experienced by other localities.

9VAC25-32-160 Conditions requested by other government agencies

If during the comment period any other state agency with jurisdiction over fish, wildlife, or public health advises the department in writing that the imposition of specified conditions upon the VPA permit is necessary to avoid substantial impairment of human health or of fish, shellfish, or wildlife resources, the board department shall consider the inclusion of the specified conditions in the VPA permit. If any conditions requested are not included in the VPA permit, the agency making the request shall be notified of the reasons for not including the conditions.

9VAC25-32-170 Public comments and hearings

A. A comment period of at least 30 days following the initial date of the newspaper public notice of the formulation of a draft VPA permit shall be provided. During this period any interested persons may submit written comments on the draft VPA permit and may request a public hearing. A request for a public hearing shall be in writing and shall state the nature of the issues to be raised pursuant to the board's Procedural Rule No. 1 (9VAC25-230-10 et seq.), or its successor 9VAC25-32-175. All comments shall be considered by the board department in preparing the final VPA permit and shall be responded to in writing.

B. The board department may hold a public hearing on any permit action. The board department shall hold a public hearing where there is a significant degree of public interest relevant to a draft VPA permit pursuant to 9VAC25-32-175. Public notice of that hearing shall be given as specified in 9VAC25-32-180. Nothing in this subsection shall relieve the board department of the requirement to hold a hearing where a hearing is required by applicable law or regulation.

C. Any hearing convened pursuant to this section will be held in the geographical area of the proposed pollutant management activity, or in another appropriate area. Related groups of VPA permit applications may be considered at any such hearing.

D. If changes are made to the VPA permit based on public comments, the permittee and all persons who commented will be notified of the changes and the reasons for the changes. No further public notice is required.

E. Any owner aggrieved by any action of the board department taken without a formal hearing, or by inaction of the board department, may demand in writing a formal hearing pursuant to § 62.1-44.25 of the Code of Virginia.

F. Proceedings at, and the decision from, the public hearing will be governed by the board's Procedural Rule No. 1 (9VAC25-230-10 et seq) or its successor and the decision from the public hearing will be governed by 9VAC25-32-176.

9VAC25-32-175 Criteria for requesting and granting a public hearing on an individual permit action

A. During the public comment period on a permit action in those instances where a public hearing is not mandatory under state or federal law or regulation, interested persons may request a public hearing to contest the action or terms and conditions of the permit.

B. Requests for a public hearing shall contain the following information:

1. The name and postal mailing or email address of the requester.

2. The names and addresses of all persons for whom the requester is acting as a representative.

3. The reason for the request for a public hearing.

4. A brief, informal statement setting forth the factual nature and extent of the interest of the requester or of the persons for whom the requester is acting as representative in the application or tentative determination, including an explanation of how and to what extent such interest would be directly and adversely affected by the issuance, denial, modification, or revocation of the permit in question, and,

5. Where possible, specific references to the terms and the conditions of the permit in question, together with suggested revisions and alterations to those terms and conditions that the requester considers are needed to conform the permit to the intent and provisions of the basic laws of the State Water Control Board.

C. Upon completion of the public comment period on a permit action, the director shall review all timely requests for public hearing filed during the comment period on the permit action, and within 30 calendar days following the expiration of the time period for the submission of requests shall grant a public hearing, unless the permittee or applicant agrees to a later date, if the director finds the following:

1. That there is a significant public interest in the issuance, denial, modification or revocation of the permit in question as evidenced by receipt of a minimum of 25 individual requests for a public hearing.

2, That the requesters raise substantial, disputed issues relevant to the issuance, denial, modification, or revocation of the permit in question, and,

3, That the action requested by the interested party is not on its face inconsistent with, or in violation of, the basic laws of the State Water Control Board for a water permit action, federal law, or any regulation promulgated thereunder.

D. The director of DEQ shall notify by email or mail at his last known address: (i) each requester and (ii) the applicant or permittee of the decision to grant or deny a public hearing.

E. If the request for a public hearing is granted, the director shall:

1. Schedule the hearing at a time between 45 and 75 days after emailing or mailing of the notice of the decision to grant the public hearing.

2. Cause, or require the applicant to publish, notice of a public hearing to be published once, in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the facility or operation that is the subject of the permit or permit application is located, at least 30 days before the hearing date.

F. The public comment period shall remain open for 15 days after the close of the public hearing if required by §62.1-44.15:01 of the Code of Virginia.

G. The director may, at his discretion, convene a public hearing on a permit action.

9VAC25-32-176 Controversial permits

Before rendering a final decision on a controversial permit, the department shall publish a summary of public comments received during the applicable public comment period and public hearing. After such publication, the department shall publish responses to the public comment summary and hold a public hearing to provide an opportunity for individuals who previously commented, either at a public hearing or in writing during the applicable public comment period, to respond to the department's public comment summary and response. No new information will be accepted at that time. In making its decision, the department shall consider: (i) the verbal and written comments received during the comment period and the public hearing made part of the record, (ii) any commentary of the board, and (iii) the agency files.

9VAC25-32-177 Controversial permits reporting

At each regular meeting of the board, the department shall provide an overview and update regarding any controversial permits pending before the department that are relevant. Immediately after such presentation by the department, the board shall have an opportunity to respond to the department's presentation and provide commentary regarding such pending permits.

9VAC25-32-190 Operator requirements

A. The permittee shall employ or contract at least one operator who holds a current wastewater license appropriate for the permitted facility, if required by the VPA permit. The license shall be issued in accordance with Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia and the regulations of the Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators (18VAC160-20-10 et seq.). Notwithstanding the foregoing requirement, unless the pollutant management activity is determined by the board department on a case-by-case basis to be a potential contributor of pollution, no licensed operator is required for wastewater treatment works:

1. That have a design hydraulic capacity equal to or less than 0.04 million gallons per day;

2. That discharge industrial waste or other waste from coal mining operations; or

3. That do not utilize biological or physical/chemical treatment.

B. In making this case-by-case determination, the following shall be considered:

1. The location of the pollutant management activity with respect to state waters;

2. The size of the pollutant management activity;

3. The quantity and nature of pollutants reaching state waters; and

4. The treatment methods used at the treatment works.

C. The permittee shall notify the department in writing whenever he is not complying, or has grounds for anticipating he will not comply, with the requirements of subsection A of this section. The notification shall include a statement of reasons and a prompt schedule for achieving compliance.

9VAC25-32-200 Modification, revocation and reissuance, and termination

A. VPA permits shall be modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated only as authorized by this section.

B. A VPA permit may be modified in whole or in part, revoked and reissued, or terminated.

C. VPA permit modifications shall not be used to extend the term of a VPA permit.

D. Modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination of VPA permit may be initiated by the board department, interested persons, or permittee under applicable provisions of this chapter.

E. An updated VPA permit application may be required in order to modify or revoke and reissue a VPA permit.

9VAC25-32-210 Causes for termination

A. The following are causes for terminating a VPA permit during its term, or for denying a VPA permit renewal application, after public notice and opportunity for a public hearing:

1. The permittee has violated any regulation of the board or order of the board department, any condition of a VPA permit, any provision of the law, or any order of a court, where such violation results in a release of harmful substances into the environment or poses a substantial threat of release of harmful substances into the environment or presents a hazard to human health or the violation is representative of a pattern of serious or repeated violations which, in the opinion of the board department, demonstrates the permittee's disregard for or inability to comply with applicable laws, regulations or requirements;

2. The permittee's failure to disclose fully all relevant material facts, or the permittee's misrepresentation of any relevant material facts in applying for a VPA permit, or in any other report or document required under the law or this chapter;

3. A determination that the permitted activity endangers human health or the environment and can only be regulated to acceptable levels by VPA permit modification or termination; or

4. There exists a material change in the basis on which the VPA permit was issued that requires either a temporary or a permanent reduction or elimination of any pollutant management activity controlled by the VPA permit necessary to protect human health or the environment.

B. In addition to causes for terminating a VPA permit specified in subsection A of this section, causes for terminating a VPA permit issued for land application, marketing and distribution of biosolids shall include:

1. Failure to comply with the conditions of the permit.

2. Violation of Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia or of any provisions of this regulation.

3. Change in ownership.

4. Abandonment of the facilities.

C. A VPA permit may be terminated without public notice and opportunity for a hearing when the termination is mutually agreed to by the permittee and the board department.

9VAC25-32-230 Transfer of VPA permits

A. Transfer by modification. Except as provided for under automatic transfer in subsection B of this section, a VPA permit shall be transferred only if the VPA permit has been modified to reflect the transfer or has been revoked and reissued to the new owner.

B. Automatic transfer. Any VPA permit shall be automatically transferred to a new owner if:

1. The current owner notifies the department 30 days in advance of the proposed transfer of the title to the facility or property;

2. The notice to the department includes a written agreement between the existing and proposed new owner containing a specific date of transfer of VPA permit responsibility, coverage and liability between them; and

3. The board department does not within the 30-day time period notify the existing owner and the proposed owner of its intent to modify or revoke and reissue the VPA permit.

9VAC25-32-240 Minor modification

A. Upon request of the permittee, or upon board department initiative with the consent of the permittee, minor modifications may be made in the VPA permit without following the public involvement procedures.

B. Minor modification may only:

1. Correct typographical errors;

2. Require reporting by the permittee at a frequency other than that required in the VPA permit;

3. Change an interim compliance date in a schedule of compliance to no more than 120 days from the original compliance date and provided it will not interfere with the final compliance date;

4. Allow for a change in name, ownership or operational control when the board department determines that no other change in the VPA permit is necessary, provided that a written agreement containing a specific date for transfer of VPA permit responsibility, coverage and liability from the current to the new permittee has been submitted to the department;

5. Delete the listing of a land application site when the pollutant management activity is terminated and does not result in an increase of pollutants which would exceed VPA permit limitations;

6. Reduce VPA permit limitations to reflect a reduction in the permitted activity when such reduction results from a shutdown of processes or pollutant generating activities or from connection of the permitted activity to a POTW;

7. Change plans and specifications where no other changes in the VPA permit are required;

8. Authorize treatment facility expansions, production increases or process modifications which will not cause a significant change in the quantity of pollutants being managed or a significant change in the nature of the pollutant management activity; or

9. Delete VPA permit limitation or monitoring requirements for specific pollutants when the activities generating these pollutants are terminated.

C. An application for any permit amendments to increase the acreage authorized by the initial permit shall not be considered a minor modification and shall require the public involvement procedures outlined in 9VAC25-32-140 C.

9VAC25-32-250 Animal feeding operations

A. All animal feeding operations shall maintain no point source discharge of pollutants to surface waters except in the case of a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm. Animal feeding operations having 300 or more animal units utilizing a liquid manure collection and storage system or having 200 or more animal units of poultry are pollutant management activities subject to the VPA permit program. Two or more animal feeding operations under common ownership are a single animal feeding operation for the purpose of determining the number of animals at an operation if they adjoin each other or if they use a common area or system for the disposal of wastes.

B. Case-by-case determination.

1. The board department may determine that any animal feeding operation that does not otherwise qualify for coverage under the VPA general permit and has not been required to obtain a VPDES permit be required to obtain an individual VPA permit upon determining that it is a potential or actual contributor of pollution to state waters. In making this determination the following factors shall be considered:

a. The size of the operation;

b. The location of the operation relative to state waters;

c. The means of conveyance of animal wastes and process waters into state waters;

d. The slope, vegetation, rainfall, and other factors affecting the likelihood or frequency of discharge of animal wastes and process waste waters into state waters;

e. The compliance history and the ability to make corrections in order to comply with the VPA general permit conditions;

f. The means of storage, treatment, or disposal of animal wastes; and

g. Other relevant factors.

2. A VPA permit application shall not be required for an animal feeding operation subject to subdivision 1 of this subsection until the board department has conducted an on-site inspection of the operation and determined that the operation shall be regulated under the VPA permit program.

9VAC25-32-260 General VPA permits

The board may issue a general VPA permit in accordance with the following:

1. Sources. A general VPA permit may be written to regulate a category of pollutant management activities that:

a. Involve the same or similar types of operations;

b. Manage the same or similar types of wastes;

c. Require the same VPA permit limitations or operating conditions;

d. Require the same or similar monitoring; and

e. In the opinion of the board, are more appropriately controlled under a general VPA permit than under individual VPA permits.

2. Administration.

a. General VPA permits will be issued, modified, revoked and reissued, or terminated pursuant to the law and the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

b. The board department may require any person operating under a general VPA permit to apply for and obtain an individual VPA permit. Interested persons may petition the board department to take action under this subdivision. Cases where an individual VPA permit may be required include the following:

(1) Where the pollutant management activity is a significant contributor of pollution;

(2) Where the owner is not in compliance with the conditions of the general VPA permit;

(3) When a water quality management plan containing requirements applicable to the pollutant management activity is approved; or

(4) When a permitted activity no longer meets the general VPA permit conditions.

c. Any owner operating under a general VPA permit may request to be excluded from the coverage of the general VPA permit by applying for an individual VPA permit.

d. When an individual VPA permit is issued to an owner the applicability of the general VPA permit to the individual permittee is automatically terminated on the effective date of the individual VPA permit.

e. When a general VPA permit is issued which applies to an owner already covered by an individual VPA permit, such owner may request exclusion from the provisions of the general VPA permit and subsequent coverage under an individual VPA permit.

f. A general VPA permit may be revoked as to an individual owner for any of the reasons set forth in 9VAC25-32-210 or subdivision 2 b of this section subject to appropriate opportunity for a hearing.

9VAC25-32-270 Control of disposal of pollutants into wells

A. No right to dispose of pollutants into wells shall exist under this regulation, except as authorized pursuant to a VPA permit issued by the board department or VPA general permit issued as a regulation adopted by the board.

B. Whenever an applicant for a VPA permit proposes to dispose of pollutants into a well or wells, the proposed disposal shall be prohibited, or specific terms and conditions shall be included in the VPA permit which shall control the proposed disposal in order to prevent the pollution of and protect all beneficial uses of state waters, protect the public health and welfare, and require compliance with all applicable water quality standards.

9VAC25-32-280 Enforcement

A. The board department may enforce the provisions of this regulation by:

1. Issuing directives in accordance with the law;

2. Issuing special orders in accordance with the law;

3. Issuing emergency special orders in accordance with the law;

4. Seeking injunction, mandamus or other appropriate remedy as authorized by the law;

5. Seeking civil penalties under the law;

6. Seeking remedies under the law or under other laws including the common law.

B. The board department encourages citizen participation in all its activities, including enforcement. In particular:

1. The board department will investigate citizen complaints and provide written response to all signed, written complaints from citizens concerning matters within the board's department's purview;

2. The board department will not oppose intervention in any civil enforcement action when such intervention is authorized by statute or Supreme Court rule, or in any administrative enforcement action when authorized by the board's Procedural Rule; and

3. At least 30 days prior to the final settlement of any civil enforcement action or the issuance of any consent special order, the board department will publish public notice of such settlement or order in a newspaper of general circulation in the county, city or town in which the pollutant management activity is located, and in the Virginia Register of Regulations. This notice will identify the owner, specify the enforcement action to be taken and specify where a copy of the settlement or order can be obtained. Appeals will be public noticed in accordance with Procedural Rule No. 1 (9VAC25-230-10 et seq.). A consent special order is a special order issued without a public hearing and with the written consent of the affected owner. For the purpose of this chapter, an emergency special order is not a consent special order. The board department shall consider all comments received during the comment period before taking final action.

C. When a VPA permit is amended solely to reflect a new owner, and the previous owner had been issued a consent special order that at the time of VPA permit amendment was still in full force and effect, a consent special order issued to the new owner does not have to go to public notice provided that:

1. The VPA permit amendment does not have to go to public notice, and

2. The terms of the new consent order are the same as issued to the previous owner.

D. Notwithstanding subdivision 3 of this subsection, a special order may be issued by agreement at a board meeting the department without further notice when a public hearing has been scheduled to issue a special order, to the affected owner, whether or not the public hearing is actually held.

9VAC25-32-290 Delegation of authority.  (Repealed.)

The director may perform any act of the board provided under this regulation, except as limited by ยง 62.1-44.14 of the Code of Virginia.

9VAC25-32-305 Permits

A. No owner shall cause or allow any land application, marketing, or distribution of biosolids except in compliance with a permit issued by the board department that authorizes these activities.

B. A separate biosolids use permit shall be issued for each political jurisdiction (county or city) where land application is proposed.

C. No person shall land apply Class B biosolids on any land in Virginia unless that land has been identified in an application to issue, reissue or modify a permit and approved by the board department.

D. No person shall land apply, market, or distribute biosolids in Virginia unless the biosolids source has been approved by the board department.

9VAC25-32-315 Additional and more stringent requirements

A. On a case-by-case basis, the board department may impose requirements for the use of biosolids or the disposal of sewage sludge in addition to or more stringent than the requirements in this part when necessary to protect human health and the environment from any adverse effect of a pollutant in the biosolids or sewage sludge.

B. Nothing in this part precludes the authority of another state agency, political subdivision of Virginia, or an interstate agency with respect to the use of biosolids or disposal of sewage sludge.

C. For biosolids land application where, because of site specific conditions, including soil type, identified during the permit application review process, the department determines that special requirements are necessary to protect the environment or the health, safety, or welfare of persons residing in the vicinity of a proposed land application site, the department may incorporate in the permit at the time it is issued reasonable special conditions regarding setback distances, transportation routes, slope, material source, methods of handling and application, and time of day restrictions exceeding those required by this regulation. The permit applicant shall have at least 14 days in which to review and respond to the proposed conditions.

9VAC25-32-330 Variances

A. The board department may grant a variance to a procedural, design, or operational regulation by following the appropriate procedures set forth in this section.

B. Requirements for a variance. The board department may grant a variance if it finds that the hardship imposed outweighs the benefits that may be received by the public and that the granting of such variance does not subject the public to unreasonable health risks or environmental pollution.

C. Application for a variance. Any owner may apply in writing for a variance. The application shall be submitted to the appropriate regional office for evaluation. The application shall include:

1. A citation of the regulation from which a variance is requested.

2. The nature and duration of variance requested.

3. A statement of the hardship to the owner and the anticipated impacts to the public health and welfare if a variance were granted.

4. Suggested conditions that might be imposed on the granting of a variance that would limit its detrimental impact on public health and welfare.

5. Other information, if any, believed to be pertinent by the applicant.

6. Such other information as may be required to make the determination in accordance with subsection B of this section.

D. Consideration of a variance.

1. The board department shall act on any variance request submitted pursuant to this subsection within 90 days of receipt of request.

2. In the board's department's consideration of whether a biosolids use variance should be granted, the board department shall consider such factors as the following:

a. The effect that such a variance would have on the adequate operation of the biosolids use facility, including public nuisance concerns;

b. The cost and other economic considerations imposed by this requirement; and

c. The effect that such a variance would have on the protection of the public health or the environment.

E. Disposition of a variance request.

1. The board department may grant the variance request and if the board department proposes to deny the variance it shall provide the owner an opportunity to an informal proceeding as provided in § 2.2-4019 of the Code of Virginia. Following this opportunity for an informal proceeding the board department may reject any application for a variance by sending a rejection notice to the applicant. The rejection notice shall be in writing and shall state the reasons for the rejection. A rejection notice constitutes a case decision.

2. If the board department proposes to grant a variance request submitted pursuant to this regulation, the applicant shall be notified in writing of this decision. Such notice shall identify the variance, the biosolids use facility involved, and shall specify the period of time for which the variance will be effective. Such notice shall provide that the variance will be terminated when the biosolids use facility comes into compliance with the applicable regulation and may be terminated upon a finding by the board department that the biosolids use facility has failed to comply with any requirements or schedules issued in conjunction with the variance. The effective date of the variance shall be 15 days following its issuance.

F. Posting of variances. All variances granted for the design or operation of biosolids use facility are nontransferable. Any requirements of the variance shall become part of the permit for biosolids use subsequently granted by the board department.

9VAC25-32-350 Procedures for obtaining a certificate to construct and certificate to operate

No owner shall cause or allow the construction, expansion, modification, or operation of facilities necessary for biosolids treatment or storage except in compliance with a certificate to construct (CTC) and a certificate to operate (CTO) issued by the board department in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790).

9VAC25-32-358 Frequency of monitoring

A. Biosolids.

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants listed in Tables 1 through 5 of 9VAC25-32-356; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and B 2 through B 4; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 4, B 7, and B 8 shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1
FREQUENCY OF MONITORING – LAND APPLICATION

Amount of biosolids(1)

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency(2)

Greater than zero but less than 290

Once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

Once per quarter (four times per year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

Once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

Once per month (12 times per year

Note(1): Either the amount of bulk biosolids applied to the land or the amount of biosolids received by a person who prepares biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

Note(2): Sampling shall be conducted at approximately equal intervals at the listed frequencies. Biosolids programs that store biosolids and land apply only during discrete events throughout the year shall schedule sampling events to coincide with application periods. The department may require increased monitoring frequencies, if necessary, to adequately define any significant variability in biosolids quality.

2. After the biosolids has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the board department may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 12 are met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, each container of domestic septage applied to the land shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

9VAC25-32-400 Additional monitoring

A. The department may require that additional site specific monitoring be performed by the holder of the permit for any biosolids land application practice regardless of frequency of application or size of the application area. Such requirements may occur in situations in which groundwater contamination, surface runoff, soil toxicity, health hazards or nuisance conditions are identified as an existing problem or potential problem as a result of biosolids use operations. Additional monitoring may include, but is not limited to, groundwater, surface water, crop, and soil monitoring.

B. The board department may require the owner or operator of any facility or operation to install, use, and maintain monitoring equipment for internal testing of biosolids quality, to identify and determine the causes of operational problems, and to determine the necessary corrective actions to correct such problems. If this testing is required, test results shall be recorded, compiled, and reported to the department.

C. Additional operational control information may be required on an individual basis by the department.

D. The department may require biosolids to be tested for certain toxic organic compounds prior to agricultural use. If performed and validated, these test results shall be utilized to evaluate the maximum allowable annual loading rate for the tested biosolids. If analytical test results verify that biosolids contains levels of organic chemicals exceeding concentration limits incorporated in federal regulations or standards, appropriate restrictions shall be imposed for agricultural use of those biosolids.

E. Additional parameters may be required for screening purposes such as aluminum (mg/kg), water soluble boron (mg/kg), calcium (mg/kg), manganese (mg/kg), sulfates (mg/kg), and those pollutants for which removal credits are granted.

F. Microbiological testing may be necessary to document the sludge treatment classification (9VAC25-32-675). Microbiological standards shall be verified by the log mean of the analytical results from testing of seven or more samples of the sludge source. Sampling events shall be separated by an appropriate period of time so as to be representative of the random and cyclic variations in sewage characteristics.

9VAC25-32-410 Biosolids management plan

A. The permit holder shall maintain and implement a Biosolids Management Plan that shall consist of three components:

1. The materials, including site booklets, developed and submitted at the time of permit application or permit modification adding a farm to the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-60 F;

2. Nutrient management plan developed for each site, prior to biosolids application; and

3. Operations and maintenance (O&M) manual, developed and submitted to the department within 90 days of the effective date of the permit.

B. The biosolids management plan and all of its components shall be incorporated as an enforceable part of the permit.

C. Nutrient management plan:

1. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be required for application sites prior to board department authorization under specific conditions, including but not limited to:

a. Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

b. Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

c. Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; and

d. Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

2. Where conditions at the land application site change so that it meets one or more of the specific conditions identified in subdivisions 1 a through d of this subsection, an approved nutrient management plan shall be submitted prior to any future land application at the site.

3. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

4. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

5. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

TABLE 1

SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

Ridge and Valley

162

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used.

D. The O&M manual shall include at a minimum:

1. Equipment maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules;

2. Storage facility maintenance procedures and schedules;

3. Sampling schedules for:

a. Required monitoring; and

b. Operational control testing;

4. Sample collection, preservation, and analysis procedures, including laboratories and methods used; and

5. Instructions for recording and reporting of all monitoring activities.

9VAC25-32-470 Crop monitoring and reporting

Vegetation monitoring may be required by the board department upon recommendation of the department once every three years on sites with frequent applications of biosolids applied at or greater than agronomic rates and when 400 pounds per acre or more of available phosphorus has been applied to the soil. Analyses of plant tissue should be conducted at the proper growth stage as recommended by either the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation or Virginia Cooperative Extension Service. Routine analyses include nitrate-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc. Analysis for additional parameters may be necessary as determined on a case-by-case basis. Results shall be reported annually to the department.

9VAC25-32-480 Groundwater monitoring and reporting

A. Monitoring wells may be required by the board department for land treatment sites, sludge lagoons, biosolids land application sites, or biosolids storage facilities to monitor groundwater quality.

B. If groundwater monitoring is required, a groundwater monitoring plan shall be submitted to the department for approval that includes at a minimum:

1. Geologic and hydrologic conditions at the site;

2. Monitoring well design, placement, and construction;

3. Sampling frequency;

4. Sampling procedures, including quality assurance and quality control; and

5. Collection of background samples.

9VAC25-32-490 Compliance with biosolids use practices of this chapter

Article 3
Biosolids Use Standards and Practices

Guidelines set forth in 9VAC25-32-515 through 9VAC25-32-580 of this regulation specify minimum standards for biosolids use for land application, marketing and distribution, including biosolids quality and site specific management practices. Compliance with this chapter will not be required for facilities not including land application, distribution, or marketing, which have received the approval of the Commissioner of the State Department of Health and the State Water Control Board and for which operation has commenced as of January 1, 2008. Such operation of facilities is deemed to be commenced upon issuance of a certificate to operate in accordance with the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790). However, the board department may impose standards and requirements that are more stringent than those contained in this regulation according to the provisions of 9VAC25-32-100 E, 9VAC25-32-315, and 9VAC25-32-560 B 3. Conformance to local land use zoning and planning should be resolved between the local government and the facility owner or permit holder. Applications submitted for facilities must demonstrate that the facility and biosolids use management practices will adequately safeguard public health and will comply with the certificate and permit requirements, as appropriate. Submissions that are in substantial compliance with this regulation and comply with any additional requirements as noted above will be approved. Justification for biosolids use proposals may be required for those portions of the submitted proposal that differ from these criteria. The owner or owner's agent shall identify and justify noncompliance with specific standards or "shall" criteria that the department identifies, or the applicant, in his judgment, believes to be substantial in nature. The department may request changes in designs that are not in substantial compliance with this regulation and that are not adequately justified by the applicant. The fact that significant work was accomplished on a specific permit application prior to adoption of this regulation shall be a consideration when evaluating applications.

9VAC25-32-530 Land acquisition

A. When an application to permit land application of biosolids is submitted to the department, the permit applicant shall ensure the continued availability of the land and protection from improper concurrent use during the utilization period.

B. Land acquisition requirements.

1. Permit holders shall use a unique control number assigned by the department as an identifier for fields permitted for land application.

2. A written agreement shall be established between the landowner and permit applicant or permit holder to be submitted with the permit application, whereby the landowner shall consent to apply biosolids on his property. The landowner agreement shall include:

a. A statement certifying that the landowner is the sole owner or one of multiple owners of the property or properties identified on the landowner agreement;

b. A statement certifying that no concurrent agreements are in effect for the fields to be permitted for biosolids application;

c. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee when land is sold or ownership transferred;

d. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall notify the permittee if any conditions change such that any component of the landowner agreement becomes invalid;

e. Permission to allow department staff on the landowner's property to conduct inspections;

f. An acknowledgement by the landowner of any site restrictions identified in the regulation;

g. An acknowledgement that the landowner has received a biosolids fact sheet approved by the department; and

h. An acknowledgement that the landowner shall not remove notification signs placed by the permit holder.

3. New landowner agreements using the most current form provided by the board department shall be submitted to the department for proposed land application sites identified in each application for issuance or reissuance of a permit or the modification to add land to an existing permit that authorizes the land application of biosolids.

4. For permits modified in order to incorporate changes to this regulation, the permit holder shall, within 60 days of the effective date of the permit modification, advise the landowner by certified letter of the requirement to provide a new landowner agreement. The letter shall include instructions to the landowner for signing and returning the new landowner agreement, and shall advise the landowner that the permit holder's receipt of such new landowner agreement is required prior to application of biosolids to the landowner's property.

5. The responsibility for obtaining and maintaining the agreements lies with the permit holder. The written agreement shall be submitted to the department with the permit application.

9VAC25-32-540 Transport

A. Transport routes should follow primary highways, shall avoid residential areas when possible, and shall comply with all Virginia Department of Transportation requirements and standards. Transport vehicles shall be sufficiently sealed to prevent leakage and spillage of biosolids. For biosolids with a solids content of less than 15%, totally closed watertight transport vehicles with rigid tops shall be provided to prevent spillage unless adequate justification is provided to demonstrate that such controls are unnecessary. The board department may also require certain dewatered biosolids exceeding 15% solids content to be handled as liquid biosolids. The minimum information for biosolids transport that shall be supplied in the biosolids management plan is listed in 9VAC25-32-60 F.

B. The permit holder shall be responsible for the prompt cleanup and removal of biosolids spilled during transport. The operations manual shall include a plan for the prevention of spills during transport and for the cleanup and removal of spills. The permit holder shall ensure that its personnel, subcontractors or the drivers of vehicles transporting biosolids for land application shall be properly trained in procedures for spill removal and cleanup.

C. The permit holder shall take appropriate steps to prevent drag-out and track-out of dirt and debris or biosolids from land application sites onto public roads. Where material is transported onto a paved or public road surface, the road surface shall be cleaned thoroughly as soon as practicable, but no later than the end of each day.

D. The permit holder shall promptly report offsite spills to the department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government and the owner of the facility generating the biosolids. The report shall be made verbally as soon as possible, but no later than 24 hours after the discovery of the spill. After business hours notification may be provided by voicemail, facsimile or email.

E. A written report, which shall include a description of measures taken in response to the spill, shall be submitted by the permit holder to the department, the chief executive officer or designee for the local government, and the owner of the facility generating the biosolids within five working days of the spill. The report may be sent by first class mail, facsimile or email, or it may be hand delivered.

9VAC25-32-550 Storage facilities

A. No person shall apply to the department for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 R of the Code of Virginia.

B. Two types of storage may be integrated into a complete biosolids management plan:

1. On-site storage, or

2. Routine storage. Only routine storage facilities shall be considered a facility under this regulation.

C. All on-site storage and routine storage facilities shall comply with the requirements of this section by 12 months from the effective date of this regulation.

D. On-site storage. On-site storage is the short-term storage of biosolids on a constructed surface within a site approved for land application at a location preapproved by the department. These stored biosolids shall be applied only to sites under the operational control of the same owner or operator of the site where the on-site storage is located. Requirements for on-site storage include the following:

1. The certified land applier shall notify the department within the same working day whenever it is necessary to implement on-site storage. Notification shall include the source or sources, location, and amounts;

2. A surface shall be constructed with sufficient strength to support operational equipment and with a maximum permeability of 10-7 cm/sec;

3. Storage shall be limited to the amount of biosolids specified in the nutrient management plan to be applied at sites under the operational control of the same owner or operator of the site where the on-site storage is located;

4. If malodors related to the stored biosolids are verified by the department at any occupied dwelling on surrounding property, the problem must be corrected within 48 hours. If the problem is not corrected within 48 hours, the biosolids must be removed from the storage site;

5. All biosolids stored on the on-site storage pad shall be land applied by the 45th day from the first day of on-site storage;

6. Biosolids storage shall be located to provide minimum visibility from adjacent properties;

7. Best management practices shall be utilized as appropriate to prevent contact with storm water run on or runoff;

8. Stored biosolids are to be inspected by the certified land applier at least every seven days and after precipitation events of 0.1 inches or greater to ensure that runoff controls are in good working order. Observed excessive slumping, erosion, or movement of biosolids is to be corrected within 24 hours. Any ponding or malodor at the storage site is to be corrected. The certified land applier shall maintain documentation of inspections of stored biosolids;

9. The department may prohibit or require additional restrictions for on-site storage in areas of Karst topography and environmentally sensitive sites; and

10. Storage of biosolids shall be managed so as to prevent adverse impacts to water quality or public health.

E. Routine storage. Routine storage is the long-term storage of biosolids at a facility not located at the site of the wastewater treatment plant, preapproved by the department and constructed specifically for the storage of biosolids to be applied at any permitted site. Routine storage facilities shall be provided for all land application projects if no alternative means of management is available during nonapplication periods. No person shall apply to the department for a permit, a variance, or a permit modification authorizing storage of biosolids without first complying with all requirements adopted pursuant to § 62.1-44.19:3 A 5 of the Code of Virginia. Plans and specifications for any surface storage facilities (pits, ponds, lagoons) or aboveground facilities (tanks, pads) shall be submitted as part of the minimum information requirements. The minimum information requirements include:

1. Location.

a. The facility shall be located at an elevation that is not subject to, or is otherwise protected against, inundation produced by the 100-year flood/wave action as defined by U.S. Geological Survey or equivalent information.

b. Storage facilities should be located to provide minimum visibility.

c. All storage facilities located offsite of property owned by the generator shall be provided with a minimum 750-feet setback area. The length of the setback area considered will be the distance measured from the perimeter of the storage facility. Residential uses, high-density human activities and activities involving food preparation are prohibited within the setback area. The board department may reduce the setback requirements based on site-specific factors, such as facility size, topography, prevailing wind direction, and the inclusion of an effective windbreak in the overall design.

2. Design capacity.

a. The design capacity for storage of liquid biosolids shall be sufficient to store a minimum volume equivalent to 60 days or more average production of biosolids and the incidental wastewater generated by operation of the treatment works plus sufficient capacity necessary for: (i) the 25 year-24 hour design storm (incident rainfall and any runoff as may be present); (ii) net precipitation excess during the storage period; and (iii) an additional one foot freeboard from the maximum water level (attributed to the sum of the above factors) to the top berm elevation. Storage capacity of less than that specified above will be considered on a case-by-case basis only if sufficient justification warrants such a reduction.

b. If alternative methods of management cannot be adequately verified, contractors shall provide for a minimum of 30 days of in-state routine storage capacity for the average quantity of biosolids transported into Virginia from out-of-state treatment works generating at least a Class B biosolids.

3. Facility design.

a. All drawings and specifications shall be submitted in accordance with 9VAC25-790-160.

b. The biosolids shall be stored on an engineered surface with a maximum permeability of 10-7 cm/sec and of sufficient strength to support operational equipment.

c. Storage facilities designed to hold dewatered biosolids shall be constructed with a cover to prevent contact with precipitation.

d. Existing facilities permitted as routine storage facilities and designed to contain liquid biosolids may be used to store dewatered biosolids. The supernatant shall be managed as liquid biosolids in accordance with 9VAC25-32-550 E 5 d. Freeboard shall be maintained in accordance with 9VAC25-32-550 E 5 c. The department may require additional monitoring prior to land application.

e. Storage facilities shall be of uniform shape (round, square, rectangular) with no narrow or elongated portions.

f. The facilities shall also be designed to permit access of equipment necessary for loading and unloading biosolids, and shall be designed with receiving facilities to allow for even distribution of biosolids into the facility.

g. The design shall also provide for truck cleaning facilities.

4. Monitoring. All biosolids storage facilities shall be monitored in accordance with the requirements of this regulation. Plans and specifications shall be provided for such a monitoring program in accordance with the minimum information specified in 9VAC25-32-60 F and 9VAC25-32-410.

5. Operation.

a. Only biosolids suitable for land application (Class A or B biosolids) shall be placed into permitted routine storage facilities.

b. Storage of biosolids located offsite or remote from the wastewater treatment works during the summer months shall be avoided whenever possible so that the routine storage facility remains as empty as possible during the summer months.

c. Storage facilities shall be operated in a manner such that sufficient freeboard is provided to ensure that the maximum anticipated high water elevation due to any and all design storm inputs is not less than one foot below the top berm elevation.

d. Complete plans for supernatant disposal shall be provided in accordance with 9VAC25-32-60 F. Plans for supernatant disposal may include transport to the sewage treatment works, mixing with the biosolids for land application or land application separately. However, separate land application of supernatant will be regulated as liquid biosolids; additional testing, monitoring and treatment (disinfection) may be required.

e. The facility site shall be fenced to a minimum height of five feet; gates and locks shall be provided to control access. The fence shall be posted with signs identifying the facility. The fence shall not be constructed closer than 10 feet to the outside edge of the facility or appurtenances, to allow adequate accessibility.

f. If malodors related to the stored biosolids are verified by the department at any occupied dwelling on surrounding property, the malodor must be corrected within 48 hours.

6. Closure. An appropriate plan of closure or abandonment shall be developed by the permittee when the facility ceases to be utilized and approved by the board department. Such plans may also be reviewed by the Department of Health.

7. Recordkeeping. A manifest system shall be developed, implemented and maintained and be available for inspection during operations as part of the overall daily recordkeeping for the project (9VAC25-32-60 F).

9VAC25-32-560 Biosolids utilization methods

A. Requirements applicable to land application of biosolids.

1. All biosolids application rates, application times and other site management operations shall be restricted as specified in the biosolids management plan. The biosolids management plan shall include a nutrient management plan as required by 9VAC25-32-410 and prepared by a certified nutrient management planner as stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

2. Biosolids shall be treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter prior to delivery at the land application site. No person shall alter the composition of biosolids at a site approved for land application of biosolids under a Virginia Pollution Abatement Permit. Any person who engages in the alteration of such biosolids shall be subject to the penalties provided in Article 6 (§ 62.1-44.31 et seq.) of Chapter 3.1 of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia. The addition of lime or deodorants to biosolids that have been treated to meet standards for land application as required by Part IX (9VAC25-32-303 et seq.) of this chapter shall not constitute alteration of the composition of biosolids. The board department may authorize public institutions of higher education to conduct scientific research on the composition of biosolids that may be applied to land.

B. Agricultural use. Agricultural use of biosolids is the land application of biosolids to cropland or pasture land to obtain agronomic benefits as a plant nutrient source and soil conditioner.

1. Biosolids treatment. As a minimum, biosolids that are applied to the land or incorporated into the soil shall be treated by a Class II pathogen treatment process and shall be treated or managed to provide an acceptable level of vector attraction reduction.

2. Site soils.

a. Depth to bedrock or restrictive layers shall be a minimum of 18 inches.

b. Biosolids application shall not be made during times when the seasonal high water table of the soil is within 18 inches of the ground surface. If Natural Resources Conservation Service soil survey information regarding depth of seasonal water table is not available, the water table depth shall be determined by soil characteristics or water table observations. If the soil survey or such evidence indicates that the seasonal water table can be less than 18 inches below the average ground surface, soil borings shall be conducted within seven days prior to land application operations during periods of high water table for the soil series present to verify the actual water table depth. The use of soil borings and water table depth verification may be required for such sites from November to May (during seasonal high water table elevations) of each year depending on soil type. Constructed channels (agricultural drainage ditches) may be utilized to remove surface water and lower the water table as necessary for crop production and site management.

c. The pH of the biosolids and soil mixture shall be 6.0 or greater at the time of each biosolids application if the biosolids cadmium concentration is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg. The soil pH must be properly tested and recorded prior to land application operations during which a pH change of one-half unit or more may occur within the zone of incorporation (i.e., use of biosolids containing lime or other alkaline additives at 10% or more of dry solid weight).

d. When soil test pH is less than 5.5 S.U., the land shall be supplemented with lime at the recommended agronomic rate prior to or during biosolids application if the biosolids to be land applied have not been alkaline stabilized.

e. When soil test potassium levels are less than 38 parts per million (Mehlich I analytical procedure or equivalent), the land shall be supplemented with potash at the recommended agronomic rate prior to or during biosolids application.

3. Management practices.

a. Site specific application rates shall not exceed the rates established in the nutrient management plan nor result in exceedance of the cumulative trace element loading rates specified in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 3.

b. Agricultural use of stabilized septage shall be in accordance with the same requirements as biosolids.

c. Infequent application. If biosolids are applied to a field only once in a three-year period, biosolids may be applied such that the total crop needs for nitrogen is not exceeded during a one-year crop rotation period including the production and harvesting of two crops in succession within a consecutive 12-month growing season. The infrequent application rate may be restricted (i) down to 10% of the maximum cumulative loading rate (9VAC25-32-356 Table 3) for cadmium and lead or (ii) to account for all sources of nutrients applied to the site, including existing residuals.

d. Operations.

(1) Field management. The application rate of all application equipment shall be routinely measured as described in a biosolids management plan. Liquid biosolids shall not be applied at rates exceeding 14,000 gallons per acre, per application. Sufficient drying times shall be allowed between subsequent applications. Application vehicles shall be suitable for use on agricultural land. Pasture and hay fields shall be grazed or clipped to a height of approximately six inches prior to biosolids application. Biosolids shall be applied such that uniform application is achieved. If application methods do not result in a uniform distribution of biosolids, additional operational methods shall be employed following application such as dragging with a pasture harrow, followed by clipping if required, to achieve a uniform distribution of the applied biosolids.

(2) Surface incorporation may be required on cropland by the department, or the local monitor with approval of the department, to mitigate malodors when incorporation is practicable and compatible with a soil conservation plan or contract meeting the standards and specifications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.

(3) Slopes above 15%. Biosolids shall not be applied to site slopes exceeding 15%. This restriction may be waived by the department for the establishment and maintenance of perennial vegetation or based on site specific criteria and BMPs in place in the field.

(4) Biosolids application timing and slope restrictions shall conform to criteria contained in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

(5) Snow. Biosolids may only be applied to snow-covered ground if the snow cover does not exceed one inch and the snow and biosolids are incorporated within 24 hours of application. If snow melts during biosolids application, incorporation is not necessary.

e. Setback distances.

(1) Setback distances. The land application of biosolids shall not occur within the following minimum setback distance requirements (Table 1 of this section):

TABLE 1

MINIMUM SETBACK DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS

Adjacent Feature

Minimum Setback Distance (Feet) to Land Application Area

Occupied dwelling

2001,2,3

Odor sensitive receptors (without injection or same day incorporation)

4003

Odor sensitive receptors (with injection or same day incorporation)

200

Property lines

1002,4

Property lines of publicly accessible sites5

200

Water supply wells or springs

100

Public water supply reservoirs

400

All segments of streams and tributaries designated as a Public Water Supply under the Water Quality Standards

100

Surface waters without a vegetated buffer

100

Surface waters with a 35-foot vegetated buffer

35

Agricultural drainage ditches

10

All improved roadways

10

Rock outcrops

25

Open sinkholes

100

Limestone rock outcrops and closed sinkholes6

50

1The setback distance to occupied dwellings may be reduced or waived upon written consent of the occupant and landowner of the dwelling.

2The department shall grant to any landowner or resident in the vicinity of a biosolids land application site an extended setback of up to 200 feet from their property line and up to 400 feet from their occupied dwelling upon request from their physician based on medical reasons. In order for an extended setback request to be granted, the request must be submitted to the department in writing on a form provided by the department. A request must be received by the department no later than 48 hours before land application commences on the field affected by the extended setback, and communicated to the permittee no later than 24 hours before land application commences on the field affected by the extended setback. The department may extend a setback distance within 48 hours of land application if requested by the Virginia Department of Health in connection with the landowner or resident's physician.

3Setback distances may be extended beyond 400 feet where an evaluation by the Virginia Department of Health determines that a setback in excess of 400 feet is necessary to prevent specific and immediate injury to the health of an individual.

4The setback distance to property lines may be reduced or waived upon written consent of the landowner.

5Publicly accessible sites are open to the general public and routinely accommodate pedestrians and include, but are not limited to, schools, churches, hospitals, parks, nature trails, businesses open to the public, and sidewalks. Temporary structures, public roads or similar thoroughfares are not considered publicly accessible.

6A closed sinkhole does not have an open conduit to groundwater. The setback from a closed sinkhole may be reduced or waived by the department upon evaluation by a professional soil scientist.

(2) In cases where more than one setback distance is involved, the most restrictive distance governs.

(3) Waivers. Waivers from adjacent property residents and landowners may only be used to reduce setback distances from occupied dwellings and property lines.

(4) Extended setback distances. The department may increase setback requirements based on site specific features, such as agricultural drainage features and site slopes.

f. Voluntary extensions of setback distances. If a permit holder negotiates a voluntary agreement with a landowner or resident to extend setback distances or add other more restrictive criteria than required by this regulation, the permit holder shall document the agreement in writing and provide the agreement to the department. Voluntary setback increases or other management criteria will not become an enforceable part of the land application permit unless the permit holder modifies the biosolids management plan to include the additional restriction.

g. Extension of setback distances with phosphorus index. If the application rate included in a nutrient management plan for a biosolids land application site is dependent upon an extended setback distance calculated using the phosphorus index, the phosphorus index calculations shall be included in the nutrient management plan. The extended setback distance shall be an enforceable part of the permit.

C. Forestland (Silviculture). Silvicultural use includes application of biosolids to timber and fiber production land, as well as federal and state forests. The forestland may be recently cleared and planted, young plantations (two-year-old to five-year-old trees), or established forest stands.

1. Biosolids standards. Refer to the standards of this article.

2. Site suitability.

a. Site suitability requirements shall conform to the requirements contained in subdivision B 2 of this section.

b. Notwithstanding the requirements of subdivision B 2 of this section the soil pH shall be managed at the natural soil pH for the types of trees proposed for growth.

c. Notwithstanding the requirements of subdivision B 2 of this section the soil test potassium level is not required to be at a minimum level at the time of biosolids application.

3. Management practices.

a. Application rates. Biosolids application rates shall be in accordance with the biosolids management plan. The biosolids management plan shall include information provided by the Virginia Department of Forestry.

b. Operations.

(1) Field management.

(a) High pressure spray shall not be utilized if public activity is occurring within 1,500 feet downwind of the application site. Public access to the site shall be controlled following application in accordance with Article 3 (9VAC25-32-490 et seq.) of this part.

(b) Biosolids application vehicles shall have adequate ground clearance to be suitable for silvicultural field use.

(c) Application scheduling included in the biosolids management plan shall take into account rainfall and periods of freezing conditions.

(d) Monitoring requirements shall be site specific and may include groundwater, surface water or soils, for frequent application sites.

(2) Setbacks. Setbacks shall conform to those for agricultural utilization. Refer to Table 1 of this section.

D. Reclamation of disturbed land.

1. Biosolids standards. Refer to the standards of this article.

2. Site suitability. Site suitability requirements shall conform to the requirements contained in subdivision B 2 of this section. Exceptions may be considered on a case-by-case basis.

3. Management practices.

a. Application rates. The biosolids application rates shall be established in the biosolids management plan in consultation with the Virginia Department of Energy, the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, and the Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The nutrient management plan shall be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to permit issuance where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates.

b. Vegetation selection. The land shall be seeded with grass and legumes even when reforested. The biosolids management plan shall include information on the seeding mixture and a detailed seeding schedule.

c. Operations.

(1) The soil pH shall be maintained at 6.0 or above if the cadmium level in the biosolids applied is at or above 21 mg/kg. during the first year after the initial application. Soil samples should be analyzed by a qualified laboratory. The application rate shall be limited by the most restrictive cumulative trace element loading (9VAC25-32-356 Table 3).

(2) Surface material shall be turned or worked prior to the surface application of liquid biosolids.

(3) Unless the applied biosolids are determined to be Class A or have been documented as subjected to Class I treatment, crops intended for direct human consumption shall not be grown for a period of three years following the date of the last biosolids application. No animals whose products are intended for human consumption may graze the site or obtain feed from the site for a period of six months following the date of the last biosolids application.

9VAC25-32-570 Distribution and marketing

A. Exceptional quality. Distribution or marketing provides for the sale or distribution of exceptional quality biosolids or mixtures of exceptional quality biosolids with other materials such that the mixture achieves the Class A pathogen control, vector attraction reduction and pollutant control standards. Distribution or marketing of Class A biosolids that have been mixed with inert materials may be approved on a case-by-case basis. Use of such mixtures for agricultural purposes shall be evaluated through proper testing or research programs designed to assess the suitability of the material for such use. Exceptional quality biosolids marketed as fertilizers or soil conditioners must meet the following conditions:

1. The biosolids product must be registered with the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in accordance with the provisions of § 3.2-3607 of the Code of Virginia.

2. The biosolids product must be processed to meet Class A pathogen requirements as specified in 9VAC25-32-675 A.

3. The biosolids product must meet one of the vector attraction reduction requirements as specified in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

4. The biosolids product must meet the ceiling concentrations specified in 9VAC25-32-356 - Table 2.

5. The biosolids product must meet the pollutant concentrations specified in 9VAC25-32-356 - Table 4.

6. Additional parameters may be required for screening purposes such as organic chemicals, aluminum (mg/kg), water soluble boron (mg/kg), calcium (mg/kg), chlorides (mg/l), manganese (mg/kg), sulfur (mg/kg), and those pollutants for which removal credits are granted.

B. Bulk distribution. Exceptional quality biosolids may be distributed and marketed in either bulk amounts (unpacked) or as a bagged product. The following requirements shall apply to distribution and marketing of biosolids products:

1. Any permit holder who distributes or markets exceptional quality biosolids shall comply with the reporting requirements of §§ 3.2-3609 and 3.2-3610 of the Code of Virginia. The records shall be maintained for five years and made available to the department upon request.

2. Bulk quantities of exceptional quality biosolids shall be land applied in accordance with a nutrient management plan prepared by a certified nutrient management planner as stipulated in regulations promulgated pursuant to § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia, except under the following conditions:

a. The percent solids of the biosolids is equal to or greater than 90% based on moisture content and total solids, or

b. A blended product derived from biosolids is utilized for a purpose other than land application at agricultural operations.

3. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the plan to the farm operator of the site and the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

C. Approval of biosolids sources. Only exceptional quality biosolids produced from a sludge processing facility approved by the board department can be distributed and marketed.

D. Information furnished to all users. Labeling requirements shall be addressed in a biosolids management plan. Either a label shall be affixed to the bag or other container in which exceptional quality biosolids is sold or given away for application to the land, or an information sheet shall be provided to the person who receives exceptional quality biosolids. The label or information sheet shall contain the following information:

1. The name and address of the person who prepared the exceptional quality biosolids;

2. A statement that application of the exceptional quality biosolids to the land is prohibited except in accordance with the instructions on the label or information sheet;

3. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause any of the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 5 of 9VAC25-32-356 to be exceeded; and

4. Information required in accordance with regulations promulgated under § 3.2-3601 of the Code of Virginia and with the labeling provisions of § 3.2-3611 of the Code of Virginia.

E. Recordkeeping.

1. The person who prepares exceptional quality biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 4 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the biosolids;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met.

2. The person who derives the material that meets the criteria of exceptional quality biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 4 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the material;

b. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

c. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met; and

d. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met.

3. If the requirements in 9VAC25-32-356 B 4 b are met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, the person who prepares the biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

a. The annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates in Table 5 of 9VAC25-32-356 to be exceeded;

b. The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 5 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the biosolids;

c. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-570 E and F, the Class A pathogen requirement in 9VAC25-32-675 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

d. A description of how the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met; and

e. A description of how one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met.

F. An annual report shall be submitted to the department that includes the following information:

1. Total amount in dry tons of exceptional quality biosolids distributed in a bag or other container per year;

2. Total amount in dry tons of exceptional quality biosolids distributed in bulk; and

3. Total amount in dry tons of exceptional quality biosolids distributed from each approved source.

9VAC25-32-675 Pathogens

A. Biosolids - Class A.

1. The requirement in subdivision 2 of this subsection and the requirements in either subdivision 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of this subsection shall be met for biosolids to be classified as Class A biosolids with respect to pathogens.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in subdivisions 3 through 8 of this subsection shall be met either prior to meeting or at the same time the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685, except the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 6 through B 8, are met.

3. Class A - Alternative 1.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2, the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4, the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

b. The temperature of the sewage sludge that is used as biosolids or disposed shall be maintained at a specific value for a period of time.

(1) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher, the time period shall be 20 minutes or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1), except when small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid.

EQUATION (1)

D = 131,700,000/100.1400t

D = time in days

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

(2) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is 7.0% or higher and small particles of sewage sludge are heated by either warmed gases or an immiscible liquid, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be 50°C or higher; the time period shall be 15 seconds or longer; and the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1).

(3) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0% and the time period is at least 15 seconds, but less than 30 minutes, the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (1).

(4) When the percent solids of the sewage sludge is less than 7.0%, the temperature of the sewage sludge is 50°C or higher; and the time period is 30 minutes or longer; the temperature and time period shall be determined using equation (2).

EQUATION (2)

D = 50,070,000/100.1400t

D = time in days

t = temperature in degrees Celsius

4. Class A - Alternative 2.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

b. The pH and temperature of the sewage sludge that is used as biosolids or disposed shall be maintained at specific values for a period of time.

(1) The pH of the sewage sludge that is used as biosolids or disposed shall be raised to above 12 and shall remain above 12 for 72 hours;

(2) The temperature of the sewage sludge shall be above 52°C for 12 hours or longer during the period that the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12; and

(3) At the end of the 72-hour period during which the pH of the sewage sludge is above 12, the sewage sludge shall be air dried to achieve a percent solids in the sewage sludge greater than 50%.

5. Class A - Alternative 3.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section; and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

b. The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains enteric viruses.

(1) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge;

(2) When the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the density of enteric viruses in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the biosolids that meets the enteric virus density requirement are documented; and

(3) After the enteric virus reduction in subdivision 5 b (2) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the biosolids continues to be Class A with respect to enteric viruses when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 b (2) of this subsection.

c. The sewage sludge shall be analyzed prior to pathogen treatment to determine whether the sewage sludge contains viable helminth ova.

(1) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova until the next monitoring episode for the sewage sludge.

(2) When the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge prior to pathogen treatment is equal to or greater than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis), the sewage sludge is Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge after pathogen treatment is less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) and when the values or ranges of values for the operating parameters for the pathogen treatment process that produces the sewage sludge that meets the viable helminth ova density requirement are documented.

(3) After the viable helminth ova reduction in subdivision 5 c (2) of this subsection is demonstrated for the pathogen treatment process, the sewage sludge continues to be Class A with respect to viable helminth ova when the values for the pathogen treatment process operating parameters are consistent with the values or ranges of values documented in subdivision 5 c (2) of this subsection.

6. Class A - Alternative 4.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section; and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

b. The density of enteric viruses in the biosolids shall be less than one Plaque-forming Unit per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section; and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

c. The density of viable helminth ova in the sewage sludge shall be less than one per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section, and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

7. Class A - Alternative 5.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section; and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

b. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to further reduce pathogens described in subsection E of this section.

8. Class A - Alternative 6.

a. Either the density of fecal coliform in the biosolids shall be less than 1,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis), or the density of Salmonella sp. bacteria in the biosolids shall be less than three Most Probable Number per four grams of total solids (dry weight basis) at the time the biosolids is used or disposed; at the time the biosolids is prepared for sale or giveaway in a bag or other container for application to the land; or at the time the biosolids or material derived from biosolids is prepared to meet the ceiling concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 2; the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4; the Class A pathogen requirements in subsection A of this section; and one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8.

b. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to further reduce pathogens, as determined by the board department.

B. Biosolids - Class B.

1. Minimum requirements for Class B biosolids.

a. The requirements in either subdivisions 2, 3, or 4 of this subsection shall be met for a sewage sludge to be classified as Class B biosolids with respect to pathogens.

b. The site restrictions in subdivision B 5 of this section shall be met when biosolids that meets the Class B pathogen requirements in subdivision 2, 3, or 4 of this subsection is applied to the land.

2. Class B - Alternative 1.

a. Seven representative samples of the biosolids that is used or disposed shall be collected.

b. The geometric mean of the density of fecal coliform in the samples collected in subdivision 2 a of this subsection shall be less than either 2,000,000 Most Probable Number per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) or 2,000,000 Colony Forming Units per gram of total solids (dry weight basis).

3. Class B - Alternative 2. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in one of the processes to significantly reduce pathogens described in subsection D of this section.

4. Class B - Alternative 3. Biosolids that is used or disposed shall be treated in a process that is equivalent to a process to significantly reduce pathogens, as determined by the board department.

5. Site restrictions.

a. Food crops with harvested parts that touch the biosolids/soil mixture and are totally above the land surface shall not be harvested for 14 months after application of biosolids.

b. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 20 months after application of biosolids when the biosolids remains on the land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation into the soil.

c. Food crops with harvested parts below the surface of the land shall not be harvested for 38 months after application of biosolids when the biosolids remains on the land surface for less than four months prior to incorporation into the soil.

d. Food crops, feed crops, and fiber crops shall not be harvested for 30 days after application of biosolids.

e. Animals shall not be grazed on the land for 30 days after application of biosolids (60 days for lactating dairy livestock).

f. Turf grown on land where biosolids is applied shall not be harvested for one year after application of the biosolids when the harvested turf is placed on either land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn, unless otherwise specified by the board department.

g. Public access to land with a high potential for public exposure shall be restricted for one year after application of biosolids.

h. Public access to land with a low potential for public exposure shall be restricted for 30 days after application of biosolids.

TABLE 1
TIME RESTRICTIONS FOLLOWING COMPLETION OF BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION ASSOCIATED WITH CLASS B PATHOGEN REDUCTION

Type of Application

Surface(1)

Incorporated(2)

Control of access for high potential for public contact(3)

12 months

12 months

Time lapse required before above ground food crops with harvested parts that touch the biosolids/soil mixture can be harvested

14 months

14 months

Time lapse before food crops with harvested parts below the land surface can be harvested

20 months

38 months

Harvesting food crops, feed crops and fiber crops

1 month

1 month

Grazing and feeding harvested crops to animals whose products are consumed by humans(4)

1 month

1 month

Grazing of farm animals whose products are not consumed by humans

1 month

1 month

Harvesting turf for placement on land with a high potential for public exposure or a lawn(5)

12 months

12 month

Notes:

(1)Remains on land surface for four months or longer prior to incorporation.

(2)Remains on land surface for less than four months prior to incorporation.

(3)Public access to agricultural sites and other sites with a low potential for direct contact with the ground surface shall be controlled for 30 days.

(4)The restriction for lactating dairy cows is 60 days.

(5)This time restriction must be met unless otherwise specified by the department.

C. Domestic septage. The site restrictions in subdivision B 5 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. Processes to significantly reduce pathogens (PSRP).

1. Aerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 40 days at 20°C and 60 days at 15°C.

2. Air drying. Sewage sludge is dried on sand beds or on paved or unpaved basins. The sewage sludge dries for a minimum of three months. During two of the three months, the ambient average daily temperature is above 0°C.

3. Anaerobic digestion. Sewage sludge is treated in the absence of air for a specific mean cell residence time at a specific temperature. Values for the mean cell residence time and temperature shall be between 15 days at 35°C to 55°C and 60 days at 20°C.

4. Composting. Using either the within-vessel, static aerated pile, or windrow composting methods, the temperature of the sewage sludge is raised to 40°C or higher and remains at 40°C or higher for five days. For four hours during the five days, the temperature in the compost pile exceeds 55°C.

5. Lime stabilization. Sufficient lime is added to the sewage sludge to raise the pH of the sewage sludge to 12 after two hours of contact.

E. Processes to further reduce pathogens (PFRP).

1. Composting. Using either the within-vessel composting method or the static aerated pile composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for three days. Using the windrow composting method, the temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 55°C or higher for 15 days or longer. During the period when the compost is maintained at 55°C or higher, there shall be a minimum of five turnings of the windrow.

2. Heat drying. Sewage sludge is dried by direct or indirect contact with hot gases to reduce the moisture content of the sewage sludge to 10.0% or lower. Either the temperature of the sewage sludge particles exceeds 80°C or the wet bulb temperature of the gas in contact with the sewage sludge as the sewage sludge leaves the dryer exceeds 80°C.

3. Heat treatment. Liquid sewage sludge is heated to a temperature of 180°C or higher for 30 minutes.

4. Thermophilic aerobic digestion. Liquid sewage sludge is agitated with air or oxygen to maintain aerobic conditions and the mean cell residence time of the sewage sludge is 10 days at 55°C to 60°C.

5. Beta ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with beta rays from an accelerator at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

6. Gamma ray irradiation. Sewage sludge is irradiated with gamma rays from certain isotopes, such as Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137, at dosages of at least 1.0 megarad at room temperature (ca. 20°C).

7. Pasteurization. The temperature of the sewage sludge is maintained at 70°C or higher for 30 minutes or longer.

9VAC25-32-685 Vector attraction reduction

A. Conditions under which vector attraction reductions are required:

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 10 of this section shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site;

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden;

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 8 of this section shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land;

4. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 1 through B 11 of this section shall be met when sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit;

5. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivision B 9, B 10, or B 12 of this section shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site; and

6. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in subdivisions B 9 through B 12 shall be met when domestic septage is placed on an active sewage sludge unit.

B. Vector attraction reduction options:

1. The mass of volatile solids in the sewage sludge shall be reduced by a minimum of 38%, calculated according to the method in 9VAC25-32-450 F 8.

2. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this subsection cannot be met for an anaerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge anaerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 40 additional days at a temperature between 30°C and 37°C. When at the end of the 40 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 17%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

3. When the 38% volatile solids reduction requirement in subdivision 1 of this section cannot be met for an aerobically digested sewage sludge, vector attraction reduction can be demonstrated by digesting a portion of the previously digested sewage sludge that has a percent solids of 2.0% or less aerobically in the laboratory in a bench-scale unit for 30 additional days at 20°C. When at the end of the 30 days, the volatile solids in the sewage sludge at the beginning of that period is reduced by less than 15%, vector attraction reduction is achieved.

4. The specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for sewage sludge treated in an aerobic process shall be equal to or less than 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids (dry weight basis) at a temperature of 20°C.

5. Sewage sludge shall be treated in an aerobic process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 40°C and the average temperature of the sewage sludge shall be higher than 45°C.

6. The pH of sewage sludge shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for two hours and then at 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours.

7. The percent solids of sewage sludge that does not contain unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 75% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

8. The percent solids of sewage sludge that contains unstabilized solids generated in a primary wastewater treatment process shall be equal to or greater than 90% based on the moisture content and total solids prior to mixing with other materials.

9. Sewage sludge injection requirements:

a. Sewage sludge shall be injected below the surface of the land.

b. No significant amount of the sewage sludge shall be present on the land surface within one hour after the sewage sludge is injected.

c. When the sewage sludge that is injected below the surface of the land is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be injected below the land surface within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

10. Sewage sludge incorporation requirements:

a. Sewage sludge applied to the land surface or placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be incorporated into the soil within six hours after application to or placement on the land unless otherwise specified by the board department.

b. When the sewage sludge that is incorporated into the soil is Class A with respect to pathogens, the sewage sludge shall be applied to or placed on the land within eight hours after being discharged from the pathogen treatment process.

11. Sewage sludge placed on an active sewage sludge unit shall be covered with soil or other material at the end of each operating day.

12. The pH of domestic septage shall be raised to 12 or higher by alkaline addition and, without the addition of more alkaline material, shall remain at 12 or higher for 30 minutes.