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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

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Fast-Track Action to Amend the Licensure Regulations for School ...
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8VAC20-23-40 Conditions for licensure

A. Applicants for licensure shall:

1. Be at least 18 years of age;

2. Pay the appropriate fees as determined by the Virginia Board of Education and complete the application process;

3. Have earned a baccalaureate degree, with the exception of the Technical Professional License, from a regionally accredited college or university and meet requirements for the license sought. Persons seeking initial licensure through approved programs from Virginia institutions of higher education shall only be licensed as instructional personnel if the education endorsement programs have approval by the Virginia Board of Education; individuals who have earned a degree from an institution in another country shall hold the equivalent of a regionally accredited college or university degree in the United States, as verified by a Virginia Department of Education-approved credential evaluation agency, for the required degree for the license; and

4. Possess good moral character and be free of conditions outlined in Part VII (8VAC20-23-720 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. All candidates who hold at least a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and who seek an initial Virginia teaching license shall obtain passing scores on professional teacher's assessments prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. With the exception of the career switcher program that requires assessments as prerequisites, individuals shall complete the professional teacher's assessment requirements within the three-year validity of the initial provisional license. Candidates seeking a Technical Professional License, International Educator License, School Manager License, or Pupil Personnel Services License are not required to take the professional teacher's assessments. Individuals who hold a valid out-of-state license (full credential without deficiencies) and who have completed a minimum of three years of full-time, successful teaching experience in a public or an accredited nonpublic school, kindergarten through grade 12, outside of Virginia are exempt from the professional teacher's assessment requirements. Documentation shall be submitted to verify the school's status as a public or an accredited nonpublic school.

C. All individuals seeking an initial endorsement in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, special education-general curriculum, special education-deaf and hard of hearing, special education-blindness and visual impairments, and individuals seeking an endorsement as a reading specialist shall obtain passing scores on a reading instructional assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

D. Licensure by reciprocity is set forth in 8VAC20-23-100. A school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education shall be met for all individuals who are seeking an endorsement authorizing them to serve as principals and assistant principals in the public schools. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

E. Individuals seeking initial licensure shall demonstrate proficiency in the relevant content area, communication, literacy, and other core skills for educators by achieving a qualifying score on professional assessments or meeting alternatives evaluation standards as prescribed by the board; complete study in attention deficit disorder; complete study in gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; complete study in methods of improving communication between schools and families and ways of increasing family involvement in student learning at home and at school.

F. Every person seeking initial licensure shall (i) complete awareness training, provided by the Department of Education on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the board pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia; (ii) complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines, developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services; and (iii) provide evidence of completion of certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators. The certification or training program shall (a) be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross; and (b) include hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The Virginia Board of Education shall provide a waiver for this requirement for any person with a disability whose disability prohibits such person from completing the certification or training.

G. Every person seeking initial licensure as a teacher who has not received the instruction described in subsection D of § 23.1-902 of the Code of Virginia shall receive instruction or training on positive behavior interventions and supports; crisis prevention and de-escalation; the use of physical restraint and seclusion, consistent with regulations of the Virginia Board of Education; and appropriate alternative methods to reduce and prevent the need for the use of physical restraint and seclusion.

H. The teacher of record for verified credit courses for high school graduation shall hold a Virginia license with the appropriate content endorsement.

I. Every teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education shall have an industry certification credential, as defined in 8VAC20-23-10, in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

J. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete awareness training, provided by the Virginia Department of Education, on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia.

K. Every person seeking renewal of a license as a teacher shall complete training in the instruction of students with disabilities that includes (i) differentiating instruction for students depending on their needs; (ii) understanding the role of general education teachers on individual education program teams; (iii) implementing effective models of collaborative instruction, including co-teaching; and (iv) understanding the goals and benefits of inclusive education for all students.

L. No teacher who seeks a provisional license shall be required to meet any requirement set forth in subdivision F, G, or I as a condition of such licensure, but each teacher shall complete each such requirement during the first year of provisional licensure.

L. M. Every person seeking initial licensure of a license with an endorsement as a school counselor shall complete training in the recognition of mental health disorder and behavioral distress, including depression, trauma, violence, youth suicide, and substance abuse.

N. Every person seeking initial licensure or renewal of a license with an endorsement in history and social sciences shall complete instruction in African American history, which shall include (i) an understanding of African origins; (ii) the African diaspora; (iii) developments of the Black experience in North America; (iv) the institution of slavery in the United States, including historical perspectives of the enslaved; and (v) how African Americans helped shape and have been shaped by American society.

8VAC20-23-110 Requirements for renewing a license

A. The Division Superintendent, Postgraduate Professional, Collegiate Professional, Technical Professional, Pupil Personnel Services, Online Teacher, and School Manager Licenses may be renewed upon the completion of 270 professional development points within a 10-year validity period based on an individualized professional development plan that includes ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development. Individuals renewing a five-year renewable license must complete 180 professional development points. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete all renewal requirements, including professional development in a manner prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education, except that no person seeking renewal of a license shall be required to satisfy any such requirement by completing coursework and earning credit at an institution of higher education.

B. An individual seeking renewal shall submit a completed licensure application at the time a renewal request is submitted.

C. Any individual licensed and endorsed to teach (i) middle school civics or economics or (ii) high school government or history who is seeking renewal of such license is required to demonstrate knowledge of Virginia history or state and local government by completing a module or professional development course specifically related to Virginia history or state and local government that has a value of five professional development points.

D. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall provide evidence of completion of certification or training in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators. The certification or training program shall (i) be based on the current national evidence-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross, and (ii) include hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The Virginia Board of Education shall provide a waiver for this requirement for any person with a disability whose disability prohibits such person from completing the certification or training.

E. Every person seeking renewal of a license with an endorsement as a school counselor shall complete training in the recognition of mental health disorder and behavioral distress, including depression, trauma, violence, youth suicide, and substance abuse.

F. Every person seeking renewal of a license shall complete awareness training, provided by the Virginia Department of Education, on the indicators of dyslexia, as that term is defined by the Virginia Board of Education pursuant to regulations, and the evidence-based interventions and accommodations for dyslexia.

G. Every person seeking renewal or initial license shall complete a study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services.

H. Every person seeking renewal of a license with an endorsement in history and social science shall complete instruction in African American history, which shall includes (i) an understanding of African origins; (ii) the African diaspora; (iii) developments of the Black experience in North America; (iv) the institution of slavery in the United States, including historical perspectives of the enslaved; and (v) how African Americans helped shape and have been shaped by American society.

I. Every person seeking renewal of a license as a teacher shall complete training in the instruction of students with disabilities that includes (i) differentiating instruction for students depending on their needs; (ii) understanding the role of general education teachers on the individualized education program team; (iii) implementing effective models of collaborative instruction, including co-teaching; and (iv) understanding the goals and benefits of inclusive education for all students.

HJ. When provided by the state, individuals shall complete other professional development activities prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

IK. Professional development points may be accrued by the completion of professional development activities to improve and increase instructional personnel's knowledge of the academic subjects the teachers teach or the area assigned from one or more of the following eight options, in accordance with Virginia Board of Education guidelines set forth in the Virginia Licensure Renewal Manual.

1. College credit. Acceptable coursework offers content that provides new information and is offered on campus, off campus, or through extension by any regionally accredited two-year or four-year college or university. College coursework shall develop further experiences in subject content taught, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, leadership, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards and increasing student learning. No person seeking renewal of a license shall be required to complete coursework and earn credit at an institution of higher learning.

2. Professional conference. A professional conference is a workshop, institute, or seminar of four or more hours that contributes to ongoing, sustained, and high-quality professional development.

3. Curriculum development. Curriculum development is a group activity in which the license holder contributes to the improvement of the curriculum of a school, a school division, or an educational institution in the teaching area assigned. This includes the alignment of curriculum frameworks, instructional materials, and assessments to provide a system with clear expectations of what is to be taught and learned.

4. Publication of article. The article shall contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. This article shall be published in a recognized professional journal. Grant reports that present the results of educational research are acceptable provided the license holder had an active role in planning, analyzing, interpreting, demonstrating, disseminating, or evaluating the study or innovation.

5. Publication of book. Books shall be published for purchase and shall contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. The published book shall increase the field of content knowledge; provide information on planning and assessment for evaluating and providing students with feedback that encourages student progress and measures student achievement; reference instruction, safety, and learning environment; expand upon and communication and community relations working with students, parents, and members of the community to promote broad support for student learning. Points will not be awarded for self-published books.

6. Mentorship. Mentoring is the process by which an experienced professional who has received mentorship training provides assistance to one or more persons for the purpose of improving their performance. Assistance may involve role modeling, direct instruction, demonstration, observation with feedback, developing of plans, and consultation to promote instructional excellence and increased student achievement. Mentoring may include the supervision of a field experience of a pre-service student teacher or an intern in an approved teacher or principal preparation program, as well as mentoring as part of the induction process for a beginning teacher or a first-year administrator. Individuals serving in this role and submitting documentation for license renewal based on the mentorship option shall receive training as a mentor prior to the assignment and at least once during the 10-year renewal cycle.

7. Educational project. Educational projects shall be planned, focused projects based on high standards of teaching and learning. Projects shall result in a written report or other tangible product. Projects shall contribute to the education profession or to the body of knowledge of the license holder's teaching area or instructional position. A project could include participation in new professional responsibilities, such as leading a school improvement initiative.

8. Professional development activity. Professional development activities shall focus on student learning and achievement, schoolwide educational improvement, leadership, subject content, teaching strategies, and use of technologies or other essential elements in teaching to high standards. Activities shall be planned, rigorous, systematic, and promote continuous inquiry and reflection. Local employing educational agencies are encouraged to design professional development activities that are conducted in school settings and linked to student learning and achievement.

JL. The 270 points may be accrued by activities drawn from one or more of the eight renewal options. Individuals renewing a five-year renewable license must complete 180 professional development points as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education. Renewal work is designed to provide licensed personnel with opportunities for professional development relative to the grade levels or teaching fields to which they are assigned or for which they seek an added endorsement. Such professional development encompasses (i) responsible remediation of any area of an individual's knowledge or skills that fails to meet the standards of competency and (ii) responsible efforts to increase the individual's knowledge of new developments in his field and to respond to new curricular demands within the individual's area of professional competence.

KM. The proposed work toward renewal in certain options shall be approved in advance by the chief executive officer or designee of the employing educational agency. Persons who are not employed by an educational agency may renew their license by submitting to the Office of Professional Licensure, Virginia Department of Education, a renewal application, fee, the individualized renewal record, and verification of the completion of all renewal requirements, including official student transcripts of coursework taken at a regionally accredited two-year or four-year college or university.

LN. Virginia school divisions and accredited nonpublic schools shall recommend renewal of licenses using the renewal point system.

8VAC20-23-390 History and social sciences

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in history and social sciences; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 51 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. History: a major in history or 18 semester hours in history (shall include coursework in American history, Virginia history, and world history, and may include African American history);

b. Political science: a major in political science or 18 semester hours in political science, which shall include coursework in American government (state and local government);

c. Geography: 9 semester hours; and

d. Economics: 6 semester hours.

3. All candidates shall have also completed instruction in African American history, either as part of the degree program or through other Department-approved alternatives, which shall include (i) an understanding of African origins; (ii) the African diaspora; (iii) developments of the Black experience in North America; (iv) the institution of slavery in the United States, including historical perspectives of the enslaved; and (v) how African Americans helped shape and have been shaped by American society.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in history, political science, geography, and economics. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a teaching license with an endorsement in history, political science, geography, or economics; and

2. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework in the additional social science area - history, political science, geography, or economics for which the add-on endorsement is sought; and

3. Completed instruction in African American history, either as part of the degree program or through other Department-approved alternatives, which shall include (i) an understanding of African origins; (ii) the African diaspora; (iii) developments of the Black experience in North America; (iv) the institution of slavery in the United States, including historical perspectives of the enslaved; and (v) how African Americans helped shape and have been shaped by American society.

8VAC20-543-20 Accreditation and administering this chapter

A. Institutions of higher education seeking approval of an education endorsement program shall be accredited by a regional accrediting agency.

B. Professional education programs in Virginia shall obtain and maintain national accreditation from the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP). Professional education programs in Virginia seeking accreditation through CAEP shall adhere to procedures and timelines established by CAEP and the CAEP/Virginia Partnership Agreement. Professional education programs shall ensure and document that programs are aligned with standards set forth in 8VAC20-543-40 through 8VAC20-543-50 and meet competencies outlined in 8VAC20-543-60 through 8VAC20-543-640.

C. If a professional education program fails to maintain accreditation, enrolled candidates shall be permitted to complete their programs of study. Professional education programs that fail to maintain accreditation shall not admit new candidates. Candidates shall be notified of the education endorsement program's approval status.

D. Teacher candidates may complete academic degrees in the arts and sciences, or equivalent. "Education preparation program" includes four-year bachelor's degree programs in teacher education. Candidates in early/primary education (preK-3), elementary education (preK-6), middle education (6-8), and special education programs may complete a major in interdisciplinary studies or its equivalent. Candidates seeking a secondary endorsement area must have earned a major, or the equivalent, in the area sought.

E. Professional studies coursework and methodology, including field experiences, required in this chapter shall be designed for completion within an approved program.

F. Professional education programs shall ensure that candidates demonstrate proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction; complete study in child abuse recognition and intervention; and complete training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators. Candidates in education endorsement programs must demonstrate an understanding of competencies, including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning, for the content areas they plan to teach. Professional education programs shall ensure that candidates demonstrate skills needed to help preK-12 students achieve college and career performance expectations.

G. Each education preparation program graduate in a K-12 general education endorsement area is required to demonstrate proficiency in (i) differentiating instruction for students depending on their needs; (ii) understanding the role of general education teachers on the individualized education program team; (iii) implementing effective models of collaborative instruction, including co-teaching; and (iv) understanding the goals and benefits of inclusive education for all students.

GH. Standards and procedures for the review and approval of each education endorsement program shall adhere to procedures for administering the chapter as defined in this section and in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60. These procedures shall result in biennial recommendations to the Board of Education for one of the following three ratings: "approved," "approved with stipulations," or "approval denied."

HI. Education endorsement programs shall be approved under this chapter biennially based on compliance with the criteria described in 8VAC20-543-40, 8VAC20-543-50, and 8VAC20-543-60.

IJ. The Department of Education will determine the timeline and procedures for applying for education endorsement program approval.

JK. Education endorsement programs in Virginia shall address the competencies set forth in this chapter, and the curriculum for each program must be documented and submitted to the Department of Education for approval.

KL. Professional education programs shall submit to the Department of Education on behalf of each education endorsement program under consideration a biennial accountability measurement report and an annual professional education program profile to include data prescribed by the Board of Education on education endorsement programs in accordance with department procedures and timelines.

LM. The professional education program authorized administrator shall maintain copies of approved education endorsement programs and required reports.

MN. The Department of Education may conduct onsite visits to review education endorsement programs and verify data.

NO. The Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure (ABTEL) is authorized to review and make recommendations to the Board of Education on approval of Virginia education endorsement programs for school personnel. The Board of Education has final authority on education endorsement program approval.

OP. In administering this chapter, licensure requirements for Virginia are outlined in the Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (8VAC20-23). This document should be referenced for detailed information regarding requirements for Virginia licensure. An individual must meet licensure requirements set forth in the Code of Virginia.

PQ. Modifications may be made by the Superintendent of Public Instruction in the administration of this chapter. Proposed modifications shall be made in writing to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Virginia.

QR. Upon the effective date of this chapter, the Board of Education grants colleges and universities two years to align their existing approved programs with this chapter and allows only college and universities that on the effective date of this chapter are accredited by the Board of Education process four years to become accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) with the option of submitting a progress report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction to request an additional year, if needed.

8VAC20-543-80 Competencies and requirements for endorsement areas professional education programs

A. The professional education program develops, maintains, and continuously evaluates high quality education endorsement programs that are collaboratively designed and based on identified needs of the preK-12 community. Candidates in education endorsement programs shall demonstrate competence in the areas in which they plan to practice and complete professional studies requirements and applicable assessments, in addition to meeting requirements for specific licenses, pursuant to the Licensure Regulations for School Personnel (8VAC20-23). The Licensure Regulations for School Personnel set forth the required degrees from regionally accredited colleges or universities for licenses, endorsements, and prerequisite licenses or endorsements for add-on endorsements.

B. All educator preparation programs must ensure that graduates of candidates in general education teacher preparation programs for kindergarten through twelfth grade, demonstrate proficiency in (i) differentiating instruction for students depending on their needs; (ii) understanding the role of general education teachers on the individualized education program team; (iii) implementing effective models of collaborative instruction, including co-teaching; and (iv) understanding the goals and benefits of inclusive education for all students.

BC. All education endorsement programs in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, middle education 6-8, and history and social sciences must include local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

CD. Candidates in education endorsement programs demonstrate an understanding of competencies, including the core concepts and facts of the disciplines and the Virginia Standards of Learning, for the content areas in which they plan to teach where required.

DE. Candidates in early/primary education preK-3, elementary education preK-6, and special education complete a minimum of six semester hours of reading coursework as outlined in the reading competencies.

EF. Candidates seeking an early/primary education preK-3 or an elementary education preK-6 endorsement must complete a minimum of 12 semester hours each in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, and science addressing competencies set forth in this chapter or complete the following:

1. English: complete six semester hours in English and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary English prescribed by the Board of Education.

2. History and social sciences: complete six semester hours in history and social sciences, complete a methods of teaching elementary history and social sciences course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary history and social sciences prescribed by the Board of Education.

3. Mathematics: complete six semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods of teaching elementary mathematics course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary mathematics prescribed by the Board of Education.

4. Science: complete six semester hours in laboratory sciences in two science disciplines, complete a methods of teaching elementary science course, and pass a rigorous assessment in elementary science prescribed by the Board of Education.

FG. Candidates seeking a middle education endorsement must have an area of concentration in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, or science with 21 semester hours in the concentration area.

H. Candidates seeking an endorsement in history and social sciences must complete instruction in African American history, which shall include (i) an understanding of African origins; (ii) the African diaspora; (iii) developments of the Black experience in North America; (iv) the institution of slavery in the United States, including historical perspectives of the enslaved; and (v) how African Americans helped shape and have been shaped by American society.

8VAC20-543-340 History and social sciences

The program in history and social sciences shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined by the Virginia History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching history and the social sciences, including in:

a. United States history.

(1) The evolution of the American constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices from the philosophical origins in the Enlightenment through the debates of the colonial period to the present; the American Revolution, including ideas and principles preserved in significant Virginia and United States historical documents as required by § 22.1-201 of the Code of Virginia (the Declaration of American Independence; the general principles of the Constitution of the United States; the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom; the charters of The Virginia Company of April 10, 1606, May 23, 1609, and March 12, 1612; and the Virginia Declaration of Rights); Articles of Confederation; and historical challenges to the American political system;

(2) The influence of religious traditions on American heritage and contemporary American society;

(3) The influence of immigration on American political, social, cultural, and economic life;

(4) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era;

(5) The social, political, and economic transformations in American life during the 20th century;

(6) The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, and cultural diversity and national unity; and

(7) The difference between a democracy and a republic and other types of economic and political systems; and.

(8) The history, culture, contributions, and agency of African Americans including (i) an understanding of African origins; (ii) the African diaspora; (iii) developments of the Black experience in North America; (iv) the institution of slavery in the United States, including historical perspectives of the enslaved; and (v) how African Americans helped shape and have been shaped by American society.

b. World history

(1) The political, philosophical, and cultural legacies of ancient American, Asian, African, and European civilizations;

(2) The origins, ideas, and institutions of Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Confucianism and Taoism, and Shinto, Buddhist, and Islamic religious traditions;

(3) Medieval society, institutions, and civilizations; feudalism; and the evolution of representative government;

(4) The social, political, cultural, and economic innovations of selected civilizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas;

(5) The ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation, European exploration, and the origins of capitalism and colonization;

(6) The cultural ideas of the Enlightenment and the intellectual and political revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries;

(7) The sources, results, and influences of the American, French, and Latin American revolutions;

(8) The social and economic consequences of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on politics, culture, and the lives of everyday people;

(9) The influence of global ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries;

(10) The origins, effects, aftermath, and significance of the two world wars, the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, and the post-Cold War era; and

(11) The development of globalization and the growing interdependence and inter-relationship among countries and cultures in the world.

c. Civics, government, and economics.

(1) The essential characteristics of governments;

(2) The importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good;

(3) The rights and responsibilities of American citizenship;

(4) The nature and purposes of constitutions and alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments;

(5) American political culture;

(6) Principles of the American constitutional republic;

(7) The idea of federalism and states' rights;

(8) The structures, functions, and powers of local and state government;

(9) Importance of citizen participation in the political process in local and state government;

(10) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia;

(11) The structures, functions, and powers of the national government;

(12) The role of the United States government in foreign policy and national security;

(13) The structure and role of the local, state, and federal judiciary;

(14) The structure and function of the United States market economy as compared with other economies;

(15) Knowledge of the impact of the government role in the economy and individual economic and political freedoms;

(16) Knowledge of economic systems in the areas of productivity and key economic indicators;

(17) The analysis of global economic trends; and

(18) Knowledge of international organizations, both political and economic, such as the United Nations, International Court in the Hague, and the International Monetary Fund.

d. Geography.

(1) Relationship between human activity and the physical environment, the ways in which geography governs human activity, and the effects of human activity on geographic features;

(2) Use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(3) Physical and human characteristics of places;

(4) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth;

(5) Characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations;

(6) Patterns and networks of economic interdependence;

(7) Processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement;

(8) How the forces of conflict and cooperation influence the division and control of the earth's surface;

(9) Changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources;

(10) Applying geography to interpret the past and the present and to plan for the future; and

(11) Impact of geospatial technologies on the study of geography, physical and human.

2. Understanding of history and social sciences to appreciate the significance of:

a. Diverse cultures and shared humanity;

b. How things happen, how they change, and how human intervention matters;

c. The interplay of change and continuity;

d. How people in other times and places have struggled with fundamental questions of truth, justice, and personal responsibility;

e. The importance of individuals and groups who have made a difference in history and the significance of personal character to the future of society;

f. The relationship among history, geography, civics, and economics;

g. The difference between fact and conjecture, evidence and assertion, and the importance of framing useful questions;

h. How ideas have real consequences; and

i. The importance of primary documents and the potential problems with second-hand accounts.

3. Understanding of the use of the content and processes of history and social sciences instruction, including:

a. Fluency in historical thinking and geographic analysis skills;

b. Skill in debate, discussion, and persuasive writing;

c. The ability to organize key social science content into meaningful units of instruction based on historical thinking skills;

d. The ability to provide instruction using a variety of instructional techniques;

e. The ability to evaluate primary and secondary instructional resources, instruction, and student achievement;

f. The ability to incorporate appropriate technologies into social science instruction; and

g. The development of digital literacy skills while recognizing the influence of the media.

4. Understanding of the content, processes, and skills of one of the social sciences disciplines at a level equivalent to an undergraduate major, along with proficient understanding of supporting disciplines to ensure:

a. The ability to teach the processes and organizing concepts of social science;

b. An understanding of the significance of the social sciences; and

c. Student achievement in the social sciences.

5. Understanding of and proficiency in grammar, usage, and mechanics and their integration in writing and communications.

6. Understanding of and proficiency in pedagogy to incorporate writing as an instructional and assessment tool for candidates to generate, gather, plan, organize, and present ideas in writing to communicate for a variety of purposes.

7. Skills necessary to teach research including use of primary and secondary sources, ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

8VAC20-543-570 Administration and supervision preK-12

A. The program in administration and supervision preK-12 shall ensure that the candidate has completed three years of successful, full-time experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in an instructional personnel position that requires licensure in Virginia and demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Knowledge, understanding, and application of planning, assessment, and instructional leadership that builds collective professional capacity, including;

a. Principles of student motivation, growth, and development as a foundation for age-appropriate and grade-appropriate curriculum, instruction, and assessment;

b. Collaborative leadership in gathering and analyzing data to identify needs to develop and implement a school improvement plan that results in increased student learning;

c. Planning, implementation, and refinement of standards-based curriculum aligned with instruction and assessment;

d. Collaborative planning and implementation of a variety of assessment techniques, including examination of student work, that yield individual, class, grade level, and school level data as a foundation for identifying existing competencies and targeting areas in need of further attention;

e. Incorporation of differentiated and effective instruction that responds to individual learner needs including appropriate response to cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity;

f. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements, and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities; comprehension of (i) key special education laws and regulations, (ii) individualized education program development; (iii) the roles and responsibilities of special education teachers, and (iv) appropriate behavior management practices;

g. Collaboratively working with parents and school personnel to ensure that students with disabilities are included as a valued part of the school community, and that they receive effective and appropriately intensive instruction to assist them in meeting the standards set for all students, as well as individual goals outlined in their individualized education plans (IEPs);

h. Integration of technology in curriculum and instruction to enhance learner understanding;

i. Identification, analysis, and resolution of problems using effective problem-solving techniques; and

j. Development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of excellence linked to mission and core beliefs that promote continuous improvement consistent with the goals of the school division.

2. Knowledge, understanding, and application of leadership and organizations, including;

a. The change process of systems, organizations, and individuals using appropriate and effective adult learning models;

b. Aligning organizational practice, division mission, and core beliefs for developing and implementing strategic plans;

c. Information sources and processing, including data collection and data analysis strategies;

d. Using data as a part of ongoing program evaluation to inform and lead change;

e. Developing a change management strategy for improved student outcomes;

f. Developing distributed leadership strategies to create personalized learning environments for diverse schools; and

g. Effective two-way communication skills including consensus building, negotiation, and mediation skills.

3. Knowledge, understanding, and application of management and leadership skills that achieve effective and efficient organizational operations and sustain an instructional program conducive to student academic progress, including;

a. Alignment of curriculum and instruction and assessment of the educational program to achieve high academic success at the school and division or district level;

b. Principles and issues of supervising and leading others to ensure a working and learning climate that is safe, secure, and respectful of a diverse school community;

c. Management decisions that ensure successful teaching and learning including human resources management and development, theories of motivation, change in school culture, innovation and creativity, conflict resolution, adult learning, and professional development models;

d. Knowledge, understanding, and application of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers and the Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Principals;

e. Principles and issues related to fiscal operations of school management;

f. Principles and issues related to school facilities and use of space and time for supporting high-quality school instruction and student learning;

g. Legal issues impacting school operations and management;

h. Technologies that support management functions; and

i. Application of data-driven decision-making to initiate and continue improvement in school and classroom practices and student achievement.

4. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the conditions and dynamics impacting a diverse school community, including:

a. Emerging issues and trends within school and community relations;

b. Working collaboratively with staff, families, and community members to secure resources and to support the success of a diverse population;

c. Developing appropriate public relations and public engagement strategies and processes for building and sustaining positive relationships with families, caregivers, and community partners; and

d. Integration of technology to support communication efforts.

5. Knowledge, understanding, and application of the purpose of education and the role of professionalism in advancing educational goals, including:

a. Philosophy of education that reflects commitment to principles of honesty, fairness, caring, and equity in day-to-day professional behavior;

b. Integration of high quality, content rich, job-embedded professional learning that respects the contribution of all faculty and staff members in building a diverse professional learning community;

c. Reflective understanding of potential moral and legal consequences of decision-making in the school setting;

d. Intentional and purposeful effort to model professional, moral, and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity in all interactions; and

e. Intentional and purposeful effort to model continuous professional learning and to work collegially and collaboratively with all members of the school community to support the school's goals and enhance its collective capacity.

6. Knowledge, understanding, and application of basic leadership theories and influences that impact schools including:

a. Concepts of leadership including systems theory, change theory, learning organizations, and current leadership theory;

b. Ability to identify and respond to internal and external forces and influences on a school;

c. Ability to identify and apply the processes of educational policy development at the state, local, and school level; and

d. Ability to identify and demonstrate ways to influence educational policy development at the state, local, and school level.

B. Complete a deliberately structured and supervised internship that is focused on student academic progress for all students and

1. Provides significant experiences within a school environment for candidates to synthesize and apply the content knowledge and develop professional skills through school-based leadership experiences;

2. Shall occur in a public or accredited nonpublic school;

3. Provides exposure to five different multiple sites, including elementary, middle, high, central office, and agency with diverse student populations; and

4. Documents a minimum of 320 clock hours of administration and supervision internship, of which at least 120 clock hours are embedded as experiential field-based opportunities experienced during coursework.

C. Satisfy the requirements for the school leaders licensure assessment prescribed by the Board of Education. Individuals seeking an initial administration and supervision endorsement who are interested in serving as central office instructional personnel are not required to take and pass the school leaders assessment prescribed by the Board of Education.