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Article 2
Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-543-90. Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, dual language, and middle education.

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, dual language, and middle education:

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence).

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and cognitive - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related, but not limited to, low socioeconomic status; attention deficit disorders; developmental disorders; gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; substance abuse; trauma, including child abuse, and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities; and appropriate for the level of endorsement (preK-3 or preK-6) sought shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families, (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children, (iii) ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school, (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning, and (v) English Language Development Standards (WIDA) and (vi) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, prepared by the department's Virginia Department of Education's Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educators must understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educators must understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and must demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards.

(8) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included. Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators must be included.

(9) Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Dual language preK-6 curriculum and instruction

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; dual language acquisition; theories of second language acquisition; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the preK-3 or preK-6 endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families; (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children; (iii) ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school; (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning; and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, prepared by the Virginia Department of Education's Office of Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educators shall understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educators shall understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and shall demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards.

(8) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be required.

(9) Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

c. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; effective communication with and among students, selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies, and evaluation of pupil performance.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and must be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school, and the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be included. Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid cardiopulpmonary resuscitation and the use of automatic external defibrillators shall be included.

(7) Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social, and ecological theory and practice. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and development of self-discipline. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment shall be included. The link between classroom management and students' ages must be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners shall be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growth shall be included.

c. Skills also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices; the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment; and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress must be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects, and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education (including diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, placement assessments).

5. Foundations of education and the teaching profession.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention must be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, shall be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity shall be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers shall be included.

6. Language and Literacy.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 and elementary education preK-6 language acquisition and reading and writing. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher must be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development, and the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading.

b. Dual language (English) PreK-6 - language acquisition and reading and writing.  Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher shall be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Literacy development (reading and writing):

Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of strategies for integration of content, literacy, and language development, researched-based strategies for differentiating instruction for language development; and language and cognitive support or scaffolding bases on the various strategies of the language and literacy acquisition process. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development and the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

c. Dual Language (Target Language) PreK-6 - language acquisition and bilingual literacy development.  Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher shall be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Bilingual literacy development: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of strategies for integration of content, literacy, and language development, researched-based strategies for differentiating instruction for dual language; and language and cognitive support or scaffolding bases on the various strategies of the second language acquisition process. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development and the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

d. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development and literacy in the content areas.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemic and other phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in areas of English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. The supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences with a minimum of 10 weeks of successful full-time student teaching in the endorsement area sought under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement in a public or accredited nonpublic school. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in any public school or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised student teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

8VAC20-543-275. Dual Language (English) Endorsement PreK-6.

The programs in Dual Language (English) preK-6 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies.  National standards in dual language are to be addressed in the program.

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the needed knowledge, skills, dispositions, and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer technology;

b. Understanding of current research on the brain, its role in learning, and implications for instruction;

c. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The use of appropriate methods, including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

f. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline promote self-regulation, and maintain a positive learning environment;

g. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, children who are English learners, and children with diverse cultural needs;

h. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

i. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

j. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

k. Understanding of the Virginia Standards of Learning for Computer Technology and the ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication; and

l. The ability to adapt task and interactions to maximize language development, conceptual understanding, and skill competence within each child's zone of proximal development.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English, including communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy), reading, writing, and research and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in elementary .

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the components of reading: phonemic awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading level, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Communication: speaking, listening, and media literacy. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication, such as speaking, listening, and media literacy;

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of and apply critical thinking to media messages and to facilitate students' proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate;

(d) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(e) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, choral and oral reading.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax and semantics;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text, including questioning, predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to support students to read with fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression (prosody);

(f) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(g) Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature;

(h) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(i) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression, usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling";

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to facilitate student research and related skills such as accessing information, evaluating the validity of sources, citing sources, and synthesizing information.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading, writing, and research.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-6. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and concrete materials should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions; and

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; data collection and graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; data analysis and interpretation for predictions; measures of center, spread of data, variability, range, and normal distribution.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and vertical progression of mathematical standards.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives.

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social sciences disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to modern social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship by:

(a) Using artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in history;

(b) Using geographic skills to explain the interaction of people, places, and events to support an understanding of events in history;

(c) Using charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, and events in history;

(d) Asking appropriate questions and summarizing points to answer a question;

(e) Comparing and contrasting people, places, and events in history;

(f) Recognizing direct cause and effect relationships in history;

(g) Explaining connections across time and place;

(h) Using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;

(i) Practicing good citizenship skills and respect for rules and laws, and participating in classroom activities; and

(j) Developing fluency in content vocabulary and comprehension of verbal, written, and visual sources.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the following:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for conducting an active elementary science program including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, skills, and practices of the four core science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of preK-6 science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent course work reflecting each of the four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the skills, practices, and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-276. Dual Language (English) PreK-6 (Add-on Endorsement).

A. The Dual Language (English) preK-6 endorsement is to teach dual language (English).  Individuals who hold a valid Virginia teaching license with an elementary education endorsement may teach in dual language (English) in the corresponding grade levels noted on the license (such as Early/Primary Education preK-3 or Elementary Education preK-6).  Even though individuals holding a valid Virginia teaching license with an elementary education endorsement in the assigned dual language (English) assignment do not need the Dual Language (English) preK-6 Add-on Endorsement, the endorsement recognizes the candidate's additional preparation in Dual Language (English) preparation.

B. The program in dual language (English) preK-6 add-on endorsement shall ensure that the candidate holds a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and an active teaching license with an elementary education endorsement issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies and completed a 45-clock-hour practicum in dual language (English) from a regionally accredited college or university.  One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in dual language (English) may be accepted in lieu of the practicum.

1. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; dual language acquisition; theories of second language acquisition; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

2. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

3. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the preK-3 or preK-6 endorsement shall be included.

4. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

5. Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families; (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children; (iii) ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school; (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning; and (v) English Language Development Standards (WIDA) and (vi) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, prepared by the Virginia Department of Education's Office of Early Childhood shall be included.

6. Early childhood educators shall understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

7. Early childhood educators shall understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and shall demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards.

8. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be required.

8VAC20-543-277. Dual Language (Target Language) Endorsement PreK-6.

A. The programs in Dual Language (Target Language) preK-6 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies.  National standards in dual language are to be addressed in the program.

B. Individuals must have demonstrated proficiency in the World Language by completing a major in the Target Language; or 12 semester hours in the Target Language above the intermediate level that must include composition, literature, and conversation; or a qualifying score(s) on a foreign language assessment in the Target Language as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the needed knowledge, skills, dispositions, and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer technology;

b. Understanding of current research on the brain, its role in learning, and implications for instruction;

c. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

d. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, abilities, and achievement;

e. The use of appropriate methods, including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

f. The ability to utilize effective classroom and behavior management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline promote self-regulation, and maintain a positive learning environment;

g. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, children who are English learners, and children with diverse cultural needs;

h. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

i. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

j. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research; and

k. Understanding of the Virginia Standards of Learning for Computer Technology and the ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication; and

l. The ability to adapt task and interactions to maximize language development, conceptual understanding, and skill competence within each child's zone of proximal development.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English, including communication (speaking, listening, and media literacy), reading, writing, and research and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in elementary .

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the components of reading: phonemic awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading level, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Communication: speaking, listening, and media literacy. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching communication, such as speaking, listening, and media literacy;

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to identify the characteristics of and apply critical thinking to media messages and to facilitate students' proficiency in using various forms of media to collaborate and communicate;

(d) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(e) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, choral and oral reading.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in explicit and systematic phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax and semantics;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for both fiction and nonfiction text, including questioning, predicting, inferencing, summarizing, clarifying, evaluating, and making connections;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to support students to read with fluency, accuracy, and meaningful expression (prosody);

(f) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(g) Demonstrate the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of literature;

(h) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(i) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing and written expression, usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling";

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process: planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to facilitate student research and related skills such as accessing information, evaluating the validity of sources, citing sources, and synthesizing information.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading, writing, and research.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-6. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and concrete materials should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions; and

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; data collection and graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; data analysis and interpretation for predictions; measures of center, spread of data, variability, range, and normal distribution.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and vertical progression of mathematical standards.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives.

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social sciences disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to modern social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and social sciences and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship by:

(a) Using artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in history;

(b) Using geographic skills to explain the interaction of people, places, and events to support an understanding of events in history;

(c) Using charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, and events in history;

(d) Asking appropriate questions and summarizing points to answer a question;

(e) Comparing and contrasting people, places, and events in history;

(f) Recognizing direct cause and effect relationships in history;

(g) Explaining connections across time and place;

(h) Using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;

(i) Practicing good citizenship skills and respect for rules and laws, and participating in classroom activities; and

(j) Developing fluency in content vocabulary and comprehension of verbal, written, and visual sources.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the elementary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the following:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and constructing explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for conducting an active elementary science program including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, skills, and practices of the four core science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of preK-6 science as defined by the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent course work reflecting each of the four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the skills, practices, and crosscutting concepts common to the natural and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

8VAC20-543-278. Dual Language (Target Language) PreK-6 (Add-on Endorsement).

A. The Dual Language (Target Language) preK-6 add-on endorsement is to teach dual language in a World Language other than English.  The target language will be noted on the endorsement.

B. The program in dual language (Target Language) preK-6 add-on endorsement shall ensure that the candidate holds a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and an active teaching license with an endorsement in a Target Language issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies and completed a 45-clock-hour practicum in dual language (Target Language) from a regionally accredited college or university.  One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public school or accredited nonpublic school in dual language (Target Language) may be accepted in lieu of the practicum.

1. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; dual language acquisition; theories of second language acquisition; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

2. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

3. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the preK-3 or preK-6 endorsement shall be included.

4. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

5. Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families; (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children; (iii) ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school; (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning; and (v) English Language Development Standards (WIDA) and (vi) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards, prepared by the Virginia Department of Education's Office of Early Childhood shall be included.

6. Early childhood educators shall understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

7. Early childhood educators shall understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and shall demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds, or their successor standards.

8. Demonstrated proficiency in the use of educational technology for instruction shall be required, and

C. The candidate must complete the following:

Passed the rigorous elementary education assessment prescribed by the Board of Education or completed the following coursework:

a. Mathematics-9 semester hours in mathematics that must include methods of teaching elementary mathematics;

b. Laboratory sciences (in two science disciplines)-9 semester hours that must include methods of teaching elementary science;

c. History and Social Sciences:  United States history-3 semester hours; geography, economics, or United States or comparative government-3 semester hours; and methods of teaching elementary history and social sciences-3 semester hours

8VAC20-543-279. Economics and Personal Finance (Add-on Endorsement).

The program in Economics and Personal Finance shall ensure that the candidate holds an active license (Collegiate Professional License, Postgraduate Professional License, or a Provisional License leading to a Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional License) with a teaching endorsement or endorsements issued by the Virginia Board of Education and has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Understanding and demonstration of the required knowledge, skills, and processes to support learners in achievement of the Economics and Personal Finance Virginia Standards of Learning, including:

a. integration of economic concepts and structures, including how consumers, businesses and governments face scarcity of resources and make trade-offs and incur opportunity costs;

b. role of producers and consumers in a market economy including response to incentives, the role of entrepreneurs and how costs and revenues affect profit and supply;

c. the price system;

d. factors that affect income;

e. nation's economic goals, including full employment, stable prices, and economic growth;

f. nation's financial system;

g. monetary and fiscal policy;

h. role of government in a market economy;

i. global economy including trade and comparative advantage;

j. consumer skills;

k. planning for living and leisure expenses;

l. banking transactions;

m. credit and loan functions;

n. role of insurance in risk management;

o. income earning, taxes, and reporting;

p. personal financial planning;

q. investment and savings planning;

r. financing postsecondary education (including the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); and

2. Understanding and knowledge of teaching in an online or blended learning environment.