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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

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Nonattainment New Source Review (Revision B19)
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9VAC5-80-2010. Definitions.

A. As used in this article, all words or terms not defined here shall have the meanings given them in 9VAC5-10 (General Definitions), unless otherwise required by context.

B. For the purpose of this article, 9VAC5-50-270, and any related use, the words or terms shall have the meanings given them in subsection C of this section.

C. Terms defined.

"Actual emissions" means the actual rate of emissions of a regulated NSR pollutant from an emissions unit, as determined in accordance with subdivisions a, b, and c of this definition, except that this definition shall not apply for calculating whether a significant emissions increase has occurred, or for establishing a PAL under 9VAC5-80-2144. Instead, the definitions of "projected actual emissions" and "baseline actual emissions" shall apply for those purposes.

a. In general, actual emissions as of a particular date shall equal the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit actually emitted the pollutant during a consecutive 24-month period which precedes the particular date and which is representative of normal source operation. The board will allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation. Actual emissions shall be calculated using the unit's actual operating hours, production rates, and types of materials processed, stored, or combusted during the selected time period.

b. The board may presume that the source-specific allowable emissions for the unit are equivalent to the actual emissions of the unit.

c. For any emissions unit that has not begun normal operations on the particular date, actual emissions shall equal the potential to emit of the unit on that date.

"Actuals PAL for a major stationary source" means a PAL based on the baseline actual emissions of all emissions units at the source that emit or have the potential to emit the PAL pollutant.

"Administrator" means the administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or an authorized representative.

"Allowable emissions" means the emissions rate of a stationary source calculated using the maximum rated capacity of the source (unless the source is subject to federally and state enforceable limits which restrict the operating rate, hours of operation, or both) and the most stringent of the following:

a. The applicable standards set forth in 40 CFR Parts 60, 61 and 63;

b. Any applicable implementation plan emissions limitation including those with a future compliance date; or

c. The emissions limit specified as a federally and state enforceable permit condition, including those with a future compliance date.

For the purposes of actuals PALs, "allowable emissions" shall also be calculated considering any emission limitations that are enforceable as a practical matter on the emissions unit's potential to emit.

"Applicable federal requirement" means all of, but not limited to, the following as they apply to emissions units in a source subject to this article (including requirements that have been promulgated or approved by the administrator through rulemaking at the time of permit issuance but have future-effective compliance dates):

a. Any standard or other requirement provided for in an implementation plan established pursuant to § 110 or 111(d) of the federal Clean Air Act, including any source-specific provisions such as consent agreements or orders.

b. Any limit or condition in any construction permit issued under the new source review program or in any operating permit issued pursuant to the state operating permit program.

c. Any emission standard, alternative emission standard, alternative emission limitation, equivalent emission limitation, or other requirement established pursuant to § 112 or 129 of the federal Clean Air Act as amended in 1990.

d. Any new source performance standard or other requirement established pursuant to § 111 of the federal Clean Air Act, and any emission standard or other requirement established pursuant to § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act before it was amended in 1990.

e. Any limitations and conditions or other requirement in a Virginia regulation or program that has been approved by EPA under subpart E of 40 CFR Part 63 for the purposes of implementing and enforcing § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act.

f. Any requirement concerning accident prevention under § 112(r)(7) of the federal Clean Air Act.

g. Any compliance monitoring requirements established pursuant to either § 504(b) or 114(a)(3) of the federal Clean Air Act.

h. Any standard or other requirement for consumer and commercial products under § 183(e) of the federal Clean Air Act.

i. Any standard or other requirement for tank vessels under § 183(f) of the federal Clean Air Act.

j. Any standard or other requirement in 40 CFR Part 55 to control air pollution from outer continental shelf sources.

k. Any standard or other requirement of the regulations promulgated to protect stratospheric ozone under Title VI of the federal Clean Air Act, unless the administrator has determined that such requirements need not be contained in a permit issued under this article.

l. With regard to temporary sources subject to 9VAC5-80-130, (i) any ambient air quality standard, except applicable state requirements, and (ii) requirements regarding increments or visibility as provided in Article 8 (9VAC5-80-1605 et seq.) of this part.

"Baseline actual emissions" means the rate of emissions, in tons per year, of a regulated NSR pollutant, as determined in accordance with the following:

a. For any existing electric utility steam generating unit, baseline actual emissions means the average rate, in tons per year, at which the unit actually emitted the pollutant during any consecutive 24-month period selected by the owner within the five-year period immediately preceding when the owner begins actual construction of the project. The board may allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation.

(1) The average rate shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

(2) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any noncompliant emissions that occurred while the source was operating above any emission limitation that was legally enforceable during the consecutive 24-month period.

(3) For a regulated NSR pollutant, when a project involves multiple emissions units, only one consecutive 24-month period shall be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for the emissions units being changed. A different consecutive 24-month period may be used for each regulated NSR pollutant.

(4) The average rate shall not be based on any consecutive 24-month period for which there is inadequate information for determining annual emissions, in tons per year, and for adjusting this amount if required by subdivision a (2) of this definition.

b. For an existing emissions unit other than an electric utility steam generating unit, baseline actual emissions means the average rate, in tons per year, at which the emissions unit actually emitted the pollutant during any consecutive 24-month period selected by the owner within the 10-year period immediately preceding either the date the owner begins actual construction of the project, or the date a complete permit application is received by the board for a permit required either under this section or under a plan approved by the administrator, whichever is earlier, except that the 10-year period shall not include any period earlier than November 15, 1990. The board will allow the use of a different time period upon a determination that it is more representative of normal source operation.

(1) The average rate shall include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

(2) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any noncompliant emissions that occurred while the source was operating above any emission limitation that was legally enforceable during the consecutive 24-month period.

(3) The average rate shall be adjusted downward to exclude any emissions that would have exceeded an emission limitation with which the source shall currently comply, had such source been required to comply with such limitations during the consecutive 24-month period. However, if an emission limitation is part of a maximum achievable control technology standard that the administrator proposed or promulgated under 40 CFR Part 63, the baseline actual emissions need only be adjusted if the state has taken credit for such emissions reductions in an attainment demonstration or maintenance plan consistent with the requirements of 9VAC5-80-2120 K.

(4) For a regulated NSR pollutant, when a project involves multiple emissions units, only one consecutive 24-month period shall be used to determine the baseline actual emissions for the emissions units being changed. A different consecutive 24-month period may be used for each regulated NSR pollutant.

(5) The average rate shall not be based on any consecutive 24-month period for which there is inadequate information for determining annual emissions, in tons per year, and for adjusting this amount if required by subdivisions b (2) and b (3) of this definition.

c. For a new emissions unit, the baseline actual emissions for purposes of determining the emissions increase that will result from the initial construction and operation of such unit shall equal zero; and thereafter, for all other purposes, shall equal the unit's potential to emit.

d. For a PAL for a major stationary source, the baseline actual emissions shall be calculated for existing electric utility steam generating units in accordance with the procedures contained in subdivision a of this definition, for other existing emissions units in accordance with the procedures contained in subdivision b of this definition, and for a new emissions unit in accordance with the procedures contained in subdivision c of this definition.

"Begin actual construction" means, in general, initiation of physical on-site construction activities on an emissions unit that are of a permanent nature. Such activities include, but are not limited to, installation of building supports and foundations, laying of underground pipework, and construction of permanent storage structures. With respect to a change in method of operation, this term refers to those on-site activities other than preparatory activities which mark the initiation of the change.

"Best available control technology" or "BACT" means an emissions limitation (including a visible emissions standard) based on the maximum degree of reduction for each regulated NSR pollutant that would be emitted from any proposed major stationary source or major modification that the board, on a case-by-case basis, taking into account energy, environmental, and economic impacts and other costs, determines is achievable for such source or modification through application of production processes or available methods, systems, and techniques, including fuel cleaning or treatment or innovative fuel combustion techniques for control of such pollutant. In no event shall application of best available control technology result in emissions of any pollutant that would exceed the emissions allowed by any applicable standard under 40 CFR Parts 60, 61, and 63. If the board determines that technological or economic limitations on the application of measurement methodology to a particular emissions unit would make the imposition of an emissions standard infeasible, a design, equipment, work practice, operational standard, or combination thereof, may be prescribed instead to satisfy the requirement for the application of best available control technology. Such standard shall, to the degree possible, set forth the emissions reduction achievable by implementation of such design, equipment, work practice or operation, and shall provide for compliance by means that achieve equivalent results.

"Building, structure, facility, or installation" means all of the pollutant-emitting activities that belong to the same industrial grouping, are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, and are under the control of the same person (or persons under common control) except the activities of any vessel. Pollutant-emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if they belong to the same "major group" (i.e., which have the same two-digit code) as described in the "Standard Industrial Classification Manual," as amended by the supplement (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Clean coal technology" means any technology, including technologies applied at the precombustion, combustion, or post-combustion stage, at a new or existing facility that will achieve significant reductions in air emissions of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides associated with the utilization of coal in the generation of electricity, or process steam that was not in widespread use as of November 15, 1990.

"Clean coal technology demonstration project" means a project using funds appropriated under the heading "Department of Energy-Clean Coal Technology," up to a total amount of $2.5 billion for commercial demonstration of clean coal technology, or similar projects funded through appropriations for the U.S. EPA. The federal contribution for a qualifying project shall be at least 20% of the total cost of the demonstration project.

"Commence," as applied to construction of a major stationary source or major modification, means that the owner has all necessary preconstruction approvals or permits and either has:

a. Begun, or caused to begin, a continuous program of actual on-site construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time; or

b. Entered into binding agreements or contractual obligations, which cannot be canceled or modified without substantial loss to the owner, to undertake a program of actual construction of the source, to be completed within a reasonable time.

"Complete application" means that the application contains all the information necessary for processing the application and the provisions of § 10.1-1321.1 of the Virginia Air Pollution Control Law have been met. Designating an application complete for purposes of permit processing does not preclude the board from requesting or accepting additional information.

"Construction" means any physical change in or change in the method of operation (including fabrication, erection, installation, demolition, or modification of an emissions unit) that would result in a change in actual emissions.

"Continuous emissions monitoring system" or "CEMS" means all of the equipment that may be required to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this article, to sample, condition (if applicable), analyze, and provide a record of emissions on a continuous basis.

"Continuous emissions rate monitoring system" or "CERMS" means the total equipment required for the determination and recording of the pollutant mass emissions rate (in terms of mass per unit of time).

"Continuous parameter monitoring system" or "CPMS" means all of the equipment necessary to meet the data acquisition and availability requirements of this article, to monitor process and control device operational parameters (for example, control device secondary voltages and electric currents) and other information (for example, gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations), and to record average operational parameter values on a continuous basis.

"Electric utility steam generating unit" means any steam electric generating unit that is constructed for the purpose of supplying more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 megawatt electrical output to any utility power distribution system for sale. Any steam supplied to a steam distribution system for the purpose of providing steam to a steam-electric generator that would produce electrical energy for sale is also considered in determining the electrical energy output capacity of the affected facility.

"Emissions cap" means any limitation on the rate of emissions of any air pollutant from one or more emissions units established and identified as an emissions cap in any permit issued pursuant to the new source review program or operating permit program.

"Emissions unit" means any part of a stationary source that emits or would have the potential to emit any regulated NSR pollutant and includes an electric steam generating unit. For purposes of this article, there are two types of emissions units: (i) a new emissions unit is any emissions unit that is (or will be) newly constructed and that has existed for less than two years from the date such emissions unit first operated; and (ii) an existing emissions unit is any emissions unit that is not a new emissions unit. A replacement unit is an existing emissions unit.

"Enforceable as a practical matter" means that the permit contains emission limitations that are enforceable by the board or the department and meet the following criteria:

a. Are permanent;

b. Contain a legal obligation for the owner to adhere to the terms and conditions;

c. Do not allow a relaxation of a requirement of the implementation plan;

d. Are technically accurate and quantifiable;

e. Include averaging times or other provisions that allow at least monthly (or a shorter period if necessary to be consistent with the implementation plan) checks on compliance. This may include, but not be limited to, the following: compliance with annual limits in a rolling basis, monthly or shorter limits, and other provisions consistent with this article and other regulations of the board; and

f. Require a level of recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring sufficient to demonstrate compliance.

"Federal land manager" means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the secretary of the department with authority over such lands.

"Federally enforceable" means all limitations and conditions that are enforceable by the administrator and citizens under the federal Clean Air Act or that are enforceable under other statutes administered by the administrator. Federally enforceable limitations and conditions include, but are not limited to the following:

a. Emission standards, alternative emission standards, alternative emission limitations, and equivalent emission limitations established pursuant to § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act as amended in 1990.

b. New source performance standards established pursuant to § 111 of the federal Clean Air Act, and emission standards established pursuant to § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act before it was amended in 1990.

c. All terms and conditions (unless expressly designated as not federally enforceable) in a federal operating permit, including any provisions that limit a source's potential to emit.

d. Limitations and conditions that are part of an implementation plan established pursuant to § 110, 111(d), or 129 of the federal Clean Air Act.

e. Limitations and conditions (unless expressly designated as not federally enforceable) that are part of a federal construction permit issued under 40 CFR 52.21 or any construction permit issued under regulations approved by EPA into the implementation plan.

f. Limitations and conditions (unless expressly designated as not federally enforceable) that are part of a state operating permit where the permit and the permit program pursuant to which it was issued meet all of the following criteria:

(1) The operating permit program has been approved by the EPA into the implementation plan under § 110 of the federal Clean Air Act.

(2) The operating permit program imposes a legal obligation that operating permit holders adhere to the terms and limitations of such permits and provides that permits that do not conform to the operating permit program requirements and the requirements of EPA's underlying regulations may be deemed not "federally enforceable" by EPA.

(3) The operating permit program requires that all emission limitations, controls, and other requirements imposed by such permits will be at least as stringent as any other applicable limitations and requirements contained in the implementation plan or enforceable under the implementation plan, and that the program may not issue permits that waive, or make less stringent, any limitations or requirements contained in or issued pursuant to the implementation plan, or that are otherwise "federally enforceable."

(4) The limitations, controls, and requirements in the permit in question are permanent, quantifiable, and otherwise enforceable as a practical matter.

(5) The permit in question was issued only after adequate and timely notice and opportunity for comment by the EPA and the public.

g. Limitations and conditions in a regulation of the board or program that has been approved by EPA under subpart E of 40 CFR Part 63 for the purposes of implementing and enforcing § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act.

h. Individual consent agreements that EPA has legal authority to create.

"Federal operating permit" means a permit issued under the federal operating permit program.

"Federal operating permit program" means an operating permit system (i) for issuing terms and conditions for major stationary sources, (ii) established to implement the requirements of Title V of the federal Clean Air Act and associated regulations, and (iii) codified in Article 1 (9VAC5-80-50 et seq.), Article 2 (9VAC5-80-310 et seq.), Article 3 (9VAC5-80-360 et seq.), and Article 4 (9VAC5-80-710 et seq.) of this part.

"Fugitive emissions" means those emissions that could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening.

"Lowest achievable emissions rate" or "LAER" means for any source, the more stringent rate of emissions based on the following:

a. The most stringent emissions limitation that is contained in the implementation plan of any state for such class or category of stationary source, unless the owner of the proposed stationary source demonstrates that such limitations are not achievable; or

b. The most stringent emissions limitation that is achieved in practice by such class or category of stationary sources. This limitation, when applied to a modification, means the lowest achievable emissions rate for the new or modified emissions units within the stationary source. In no event shall the application of this term permit a proposed new or modified stationary source to emit any pollutant in excess of the amount allowable under an applicable new source standard of performance.

"Major emissions unit" means (i) any emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit 100 tons per year or more of the PAL pollutant in an attainment area; or (ii) any emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit the PAL pollutant in an amount that is equal to or greater than the major source threshold for the PAL pollutant for nonattainment areas in subdivision a (1) of the definition of "major stationary source."

"Major modification"

a. Means any physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would result in (i) a significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant; and (ii) a significant net emissions increase of that pollutant from the source.

b. Any significant emissions increase from any emissions units or net emissions increase at a source that is considered significant for volatile organic compounds shall be considered significant for ozone.

c. A physical change in or change in the method of operation shall not include the following:

(1) Routine maintenance, repair and replacement.

(2) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by reason of an order under § 2 (a) and (b) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (or any superseding legislation) or by reason of a natural gas curtailment plan pursuant to the Federal Power Act.

(3) Use of an alternative fuel by reason of an order or rule § 125 of the federal Clean Air Act.

(4) Use of an alternative fuel at a steam generating unit to the extent that the fuel is generated from municipal solid waste.

(5) Use of an alternative fuel or raw material by a stationary source that:

(a) The source was capable of accommodating before December 21, 1976, unless such change would be prohibited under any federally and state enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976, pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or this chapter; or

(b) The source is approved to use under any permit issued under 40 CFR 52.21 or this chapter.

(6) An increase in the hours of operation or in the production rate, unless such change is prohibited under any federally and state enforceable permit condition which was established after December 21, 1976, pursuant to 40 CFR 52.21 or this chapter.

(7) Any change in ownership at a stationary source.

(8) The installation, operation, cessation, or removal of a temporary clean coal technology demonstration project, provided that the project complies with:

(a) The applicable implementation plan; and

(b) Other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standard during the project and after it is terminated.

d. This definition shall not apply with respect to a particular regulated NSR pollutant when the source is complying with the requirements under 9VAC5-80-2144 for a PAL for that pollutant. Instead, the definition for "PAL major modification" shall apply.

"Major new source review (NSR) permit" means a permit issued under the major new source review program.

"Major new source review (major NSR) program" means a preconstruction review and permit program (i) for new major stationary sources or major modifications (physical changes or changes in the method of operation), (ii) established to implement the requirements of §§ 112, 165 and 173 of the federal Clean Air Act and associated regulations, and (iii) codified in Article 7 (9VAC5-80-1400 et seq.), Article 8 (9VAC5-80-1605 et seq.) and Article 9 (9VAC5-80-2000 et seq.) of this part.

"Major stationary source"

a. Means:

(1) Any stationary source of air pollutants that emits, or has the potential to emit, (i) 100 tons per year or more of a regulated NSR pollutant, (ii) 50 tons per year or more of volatile organic compounds or nitrogen oxides in ozone nonattainment areas classified as serious in 9VAC5-20-204, (iii) 25 tons per year or more of volatile organic compounds or nitrogen oxides in ozone nonattainment areas classified as severe in 9VAC5-20-204, or (iv) 100 tons per year or more of nitrogen oxides or 50 tons per year of volatile organic compounds in the Ozone Transport Region; or

(2) Any physical change that would occur at a stationary source not qualifying under subdivision a (1) of this definition as a major stationary source if the change would constitute a major stationary source by itself.

b. A major stationary source that is major for volatile organic compounds shall be considered major for ozone.

c. The fugitive emissions of a stationary source shall not be included in determining for any of the purposes of this article whether it is a major stationary source, unless the source belongs to one of the following categories of stationary sources:

(1) Coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers).

(2) Kraft pulp mills.

(3) Portland cement plants.

(4) Primary zinc smelters.

(5) Iron and steel mills.

(6) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants.

(7) Primary copper smelters.

(8) Municipal incinerators (or combinations of them) capable of charging more than 250 tons of refuse per day.

(9) Hydrofluoric acid plants.

(10) Sulfuric acid plants.

(11) Nitric acid plants.

(12) Petroleum refineries.

(13) Lime plants.

(14) Phosphate rock processing plants.

(15) Coke oven batteries.

(16) Sulfur recovery plants.

(17) Carbon black plants (furnace process).

(18) Primary lead smelters.

(19) Fuel conversion plants.

(20) Sintering plants.

(21) Secondary metal production plants.

(22) Chemical process plants (which shall not include ethanol production facilities that produce ethanol by natural fermentation included in NAICS codes 325193 or 312140).

(23) Fossil-fuel boilers (or combination of them) totaling more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input.

(24) Petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000 barrels.

(25) Taconite ore processing plants.

(26) Glass fiber manufacturing plants.

(27) Charcoal production plants.

(28) Fossil fuel steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per hour heat input.

(29) Any other stationary source category, which, as of August 7, 1980, is being regulated under 40 CFR Part 60, 61 or 63.

"Minor new source review (NSR) permit" means a permit issued under the minor new source review program.

"Minor new source review (minor NSR) program" means a preconstruction review and permit program (i) for new stationary sources or modifications (physical changes or changes in the method of operation) that are not subject to review under the major new source review program, (ii) established to implement the requirements of §§ 110(a)(2)(C) and 112 of the federal Clean Air Act and associated regulations, and (iii) codified in Article 6 (9VAC5-80-1100 et seq.) of this part.

"Necessary preconstruction approvals or permits" means those permits required under the NSR program that are part of the applicable implementation plan.

"Net emissions increase" means:

a. With respect to any regulated NSR pollutant emitted by a major stationary source, the amount by which the sum of the following exceeds zero:

(1) The increase in emissions from a particular physical change or change in the method of operation at a stationary source as calculated pursuant to 9VAC5-80-2000 H; and

(2) Any other increases and decreases in actual emissions at the major stationary source that are contemporaneous with the particular change and are otherwise creditable. Baseline actual emissions for calculating increases and decreases under this subdivision shall be determined as provided in the definition of "baseline actual emissions," except that subdivisions a (3) and b (4) of that definition shall not apply.

b. An increase or decrease in actual emissions is contemporaneous with the increase from the particular change only if it occurs before the date that the increase from the particular change occurs. For sources located in ozone nonattainment areas classified as serious or severe in 9VAC5-20-204, an increase or decrease in actual emissions of volatile organic compounds or nitrogen oxides is contemporaneous with the increase from the particular change only if it occurs during a period of five consecutive calendar years which includes the calendar year in which the increase from the particular change occurs.

c. An increase or decrease in actual emissions is creditable only if:

(1) It occurs between the date five years before construction on the particular change commences and the date that the increase from the particular change occurs; and

(2) The board has not relied on it in issuing a permit for the source pursuant to this article which permit is in effect when the increase in actual emissions from the particular change occurs.

d. An increase in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that the new level of actual emissions exceeds the old level.

e. A decrease in actual emissions is creditable only to the extent that:

(1) The old level of actual emissions or the old level of allowable emissions, whichever is lower, exceeds the new level of actual emissions;

(2) It is enforceable as a practical matter at and after the time that actual construction on the particular change begins;

(3) The board has not relied on it in issuing any permit pursuant to this chapter or the board has not relied on it in demonstrating attainment or reasonable further progress in the implementation plan; and

(4) It has approximately the same qualitative significance for public health and welfare as that attributed to the increase from the particular change.

f. An increase that results from a physical change at a source occurs when the emissions unit on which construction occurred becomes operational and begins to emit a particular pollutant. Any replacement unit that requires shakedown becomes operational only after a reasonable shakedown period, not to exceed 180 days.

g. Subdivision a of the definition of "actual emissions" shall not apply for determining creditable increases and decreases or after a change.

"New source performance standard" or "NSPS" means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulations on Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, as promulgated in 40 CFR Part 60 and designated in 9VAC5-50-410.

"New source review (NSR) permit" means a permit issued under the new source review program.

"New source review (NSR) program" means a preconstruction review and permit program (i) for new stationary sources or modifications (physical changes or changes in the method of operation); (ii) established to implement the requirements of §§ 110(a)(2)(C), 112 (relating to permits for hazardous air pollutants), 165 (relating to permits in prevention of significant deterioration areas), and 173 (relating to permits in nonattainment areas) of the federal Clean Air Act and associated regulations; and (iii) codified in Article 6 (9VAC5-80-1100 et seq.), Article 7 (9VAC5-80-1400 et seq.), Article 8 (9VAC5-80-1605 et seq.) and Article 9 (9VAC5-80-2000 et seq.) of this part.

"Nonattainment major new source review (NSR) program" means a preconstruction review and permit program (i) for new major stationary sources or major modifications (physical changes or changes in the method of operation), (ii) established to implement the requirements of § 173 of the federal Clean Air Act and associated regulations, and (iii) codified in Article 9 (9VAC5-80-2000 et seq.) of this part. Any permit issued under such a program is a major NSR permit.

"Nonattainment pollutant" means, within a nonattainment area, the pollutant for which such area is designated nonattainment. For ozone nonattainment areas, the nonattainment pollutants shall be volatile organic compounds (including hydrocarbons) and nitrogen oxides.

"Ozone transport region" means the area established by § 184(a) of the federal Clean Air Act or any other area established by the administrator pursuant to § 176A of the federal Clean Air Act for purposes of ozone. For the purposes of this article, the Ozone Transport Region consists of the following localities: Arlington County, Fairfax County, Loudoun County, Prince William County, Stafford County, Alexandria City, Fairfax City, Falls Church City, Manassas City, and Manassas Park City.

"Plantwide applicability limitation" or "PAL" means an emission limitation expressed in tons per year, for a pollutant at a major stationary source, that is enforceable as a practical matter and established sourcewide in accordance with 9VAC5-80-2144.

"PAL effective date" generally means the date of issuance of the PAL permit. However, the PAL effective date for an increased PAL is the date any emissions unit that is part of the PAL major modification becomes operational and begins to emit the PAL pollutant.

"PAL effective period" means the period beginning with the PAL effective date and ending 10 years later.

"PAL major modification" means, notwithstanding the definitions for "major modification" and "net emissions increase," any physical change in or change in the method of operation of the PAL source that causes it to emit the PAL pollutant at a level equal to or greater than the PAL.

"PAL permit" means the state operating permit issued by the board that establishes a PAL for a major stationary source.

"PAL pollutant" means the pollutant for which a PAL is established at a major stationary source.

"Potential to emit" means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment, and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design only if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally and state enforceable. Secondary emissions do not count in determining the potential to emit of a stationary source. For the purposes of actuals PALs, any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment, and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design only if the limitation or the effect it would have on emissions is federally enforceable or enforceable as a practical matter by the state.

"Predictive emissions monitoring system" or "PEMS" means all of the equipment necessary to monitor process and control device operational parameters (for example, control device secondary voltages and electric currents) and other information (for example, gas flow rate, O2 or CO2 concentrations), and calculate and record the mass emissions rate (for example, pounds per hour) on a continuous basis.

"Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program" means a preconstruction review and permit program (i) for new major stationary sources or major modifications (physical changes or changes in the method of operation), (ii) established to implement the requirements of § 165 of the federal Clean Air Act and associated regulations, and (iii) codified in Article 8 (9VAC5-80-1605 et seq.) of this part.

"Project" means a physical change in or change in the method of operation of an existing major stationary source.

"Projected actual emissions" means the maximum annual rate, in tons per year, at which an existing emissions unit is projected to emit a regulated NSR pollutant in any one of the five years (12-month period) following the date the unit resumes regular operation after the project, or in any one of the 10 years following that date, if the project involves increasing the emissions unit's design capacity or its potential to emit of that regulated NSR pollutant and full utilization of the unit would result in a significant emissions increase or a significant net emissions increase at the source. In determining the projected actual emissions before beginning actual construction, the owner shall:

a. Consider all relevant information, including but not limited to, historical operational data, the company's own representations, the company's expected business activity and the company's highest projections of business activity, the company's filings with the state or federal regulatory authorities, and compliance plans under the approved plan;

b. Include fugitive emissions to the extent quantifiable, and emissions associated with startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions; and

c. Exclude, in calculating any increase in emissions that results from the particular project, that portion of the unit's emissions following the project that an existing unit could have emitted during the consecutive 24-month period used to establish the baseline actual emissions and that are also unrelated to the particular project, including any increased utilization due to product demand growth, provided such exclusion shall not reduce any calculated increases in emissions that are caused by, result from, or are related to the particular project; or

d. In lieu of using the method set out in subdivisions a, b, and c of this definition, may elect to use the emissions unit's potential to emit, in tons per year, as defined under the definition of "potential to emit."

"Public comment period" means a time during which the public shall have the opportunity to comment on the new or modified source permit application information (exclusive of confidential information), the preliminary review and analysis of the effect of the source upon the ambient air quality, and the preliminary decision of the board regarding the permit application.

"Reasonable further progress" means the annual incremental reductions in emissions of a given air pollutant (including substantial reductions in the early years following approval or promulgation of an implementation plan and regular reductions thereafter) which are sufficient in the judgment of the board to provide for attainment of the applicable ambient air quality standard within a specified nonattainment area by the attainment date prescribed in the implementation plan for such area.

"Reasonably available control technology" or "RACT" means the lowest emission limit that a particular source is capable of meeting by the application of control technology that is reasonably available, considering technological and economic feasibility.

"Regulated NSR pollutant" means any of the following:

a. Nitrogen oxides or any volatile organic compound.

b. Any pollutant for which an ambient air quality standard has been promulgated.

c. Any pollutant that is identified under this subdivision as a constituent or precursor of a general pollutant listed under subdivision a or b of this definition, provided that such constituent or precursor pollutant may only be regulated under this article as part of regulation of the general pollutant. Precursors identified for purposes of this article shall be the following:

(1) Volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides are precursors to ozone in all ozone nonattainment areas.

(2) Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and ammonia are precursors to PM2.5 in any PM2.5 nonattainment area.

(3) Nitrogen oxides are presumed to be precursors to PM2.5 in all PM2.5 nonattainment areas, unless the board determines that emissions of nitrogen oxides from sources in a specific area are not a significant contributor to that area's ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

(4) Volatile organic compounds and ammonia are presumed not to be precursors to PM2.5 in any PM2.5 nonattainment area, unless the board determines that emissions of volatile organic compounds or ammonia from sources in a specific area are a significant contributor to that area's ambient PM2.5 concentrations.

d. PM2.5 emissions and PM10 emissions shall include gaseous emissions from a source or activity that condense to form particulate matter at ambient temperatures. On or after January 1, 2011, such condensable particulate matter shall be accounted for in applicability determinations and in establishing emissions limitations for PM2.5 and PM10 in permits issued under this article. Compliance with emissions limitations for PM2.5 and PM10 issued prior to this date shall not be based on condensable particulate matter unless required by the terms and conditions of the permit. Applicability determinations made prior to this date without accounting for condensable particulate matter shall not be considered in violation of this article.

"Replacement unit" means an emissions unit for which all the following criteria are met. No creditable emission reductions shall be generated from shutting down the existing emissions unit that is replaced.

a. The emissions unit is a reconstructed unit within the meaning of 40 CFR 60.15(b)(1), or the emissions unit completely takes the place of an existing emissions unit.

b. The emissions unit is identical to or functionally equivalent to the replaced emissions unit.

c. The replacement does not alter the basic design parameters of the process unit.

d. The replaced emissions unit is permanently removed from the major stationary source, otherwise permanently disabled, or permanently barred from operation by a permit that is enforceable as a practical matter. If the replaced emissions unit is brought back into operation, it shall constitute a new emissions unit.

"Secondary emissions" means emissions that would occur as a result of the construction or operation of a major stationary source or major modification, but do not come from the major stationary source or major modification itself. For the purpose of this article, secondary emissions shall be specific, well defined, quantifiable, and affect the same general area as the stationary source or modification which causes the secondary emissions. Secondary emissions include emissions from any off-site support facility which would not be constructed or increase its emissions except as a result of the construction or operation of the major stationary source or major modification. Secondary emissions do not include any emissions that come directly from a mobile source, such as emissions from the tailpipe of a motor vehicle, from a train, or from a vessel.

"Significant" means, in reference to a net emissions increase or the potential of a source to emit any of the following pollutants, a rate of emissions that would equal or exceed any of the following rates:

a. Ozone nonattainment areas classified as serious or severe in 9VAC5-20-204.

 

POLLUTANT

EMISSIONS RATE

 

Carbon Monoxide

100 tons per year (tpy)

 

Nitrogen Oxides

25 tpy

 

Sulfur Dioxide

40 tpy

 

PM10

15 tpy

 

PM2.5

10 tpy of direct PM2.5 emissions;
40 tpy of sulfur dioxide emissions;
40 tpy of nitrogen oxide emissions or 40 tpy of volatile organic compound emissions, to the extent that any such pollutant is defined as a precursor for PM2.5 in unless demonstrated not to be a PM2.5 precursor under the definition of "regulated NSR pollutant"

 

Ozone

25 tpy of volatile organic compounds

 

Lead

0.6 tpy

b. Other nonattainment areas.

 

POLLUTANT

EMISSIONS RATE

 

Carbon Monoxide

100 tons per year (tpy)

 

Nitrogen Oxides

40 tpy

 

Sulfur Dioxide

40 tpy

 

PM10

15 tpy

 

PM2.5

10 tpy of direct PM2.5 emissions;
40 tpy of sulfur dioxide emissions;
40 tpy of nitrogen oxide emissions or 40 tpy of volatile organic compound emissions, to the extent that any such pollutant is defined as a precursor for PM2.5 in unless demonstrated not to be a PM2.5 precursor under the definition of "regulated NSR pollutant"

 

Ozone

40 tpy of volatile organic compounds

 

Lead

0.6 tpy

"Significant emissions increase" means, for a regulated NSR pollutant, an increase in emissions that is significant for that pollutant.

"Significant emissions unit" means an emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit a PAL pollutant in an amount that is equal to or greater than the significant level for that PAL pollutant, but less than the amount that would qualify the unit as a major emissions unit.

"Small emissions unit" means an emissions unit that emits or has the potential to emit the PAL pollutant in an amount less than the significant level for that PAL pollutant.

"State enforceable" means all limitations and conditions that are enforceable as a practical matter, including any regulation of the board, those requirements developed pursuant to 9VAC5-170-160, requirements within any applicable order or variance, and any permit requirements established pursuant to this chapter.

"State operating permit" means a permit issued under the state operating permit program.

"State operating permit program" means an operating permit program (i) for issuing limitations and conditions for stationary sources, (ii) promulgated to meet the EPA's minimum criteria for federal enforceability, including adequate notice and opportunity for the EPA and public comment prior to issuance of the final permit, and practicable enforceability, and (iii) codified in Article 5 (9VAC5-80-800 et seq.) of this part.

"Stationary source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation that emits or may emit a regulated NSR pollutant.

"Synthetic minor" means a stationary source whose potential to emit is constrained by state-enforceable and federally enforceable limits, so as to place that stationary source below the threshold at which it would be subject to permit or other requirements governing major stationary sources in regulations of the board or in the federal Clean Air Act.

"Temporary clean coal technology demonstration project" means a clean coal technology demonstration project that is operated for a period of five years or less, and that complies with the applicable implementation plan and other requirements necessary to attain and maintain the national ambient air quality standards during the project and after it is terminated.

9VAC5-80-2120. Offsets.

A. Owners shall comply with the offset requirements of this article by obtaining emission reductions from the same source or other sources in the same nonattainment area, except that for ozone precursor pollutants the board may allow the owner to obtain such emission reductions in another nonattainment area if (i) the other area has an equal or higher nonattainment classification than the area in which the source is located and (ii) emissions from such other area contribute to a violation of the ambient air quality standard in the nonattainment area in which the source is located. By the time a new or modified source begins operation, such emission reductions shall (i) be in effect, (ii) be state and federally enforceable and (iii) assure that the total tonnage of increased emissions of the air pollutant from the new or modified source shall be offset by an equal or greater reduction, as applicable, in the actual emissions of such air pollutant from the same or other sources in the nonattainment area.

B. The (i) ratio of total emission reductions of volatile organic compounds to total increased emissions of volatile organic compounds or (ii) the ratio of total emission reductions of nitrogen oxides to total increased emissions of nitrogen oxides in ozone nonattainment areas designated in 9VAC5-20-204 shall be at least the following:

1. Nonattainment areas classified as marginal

1.1 to one.

2. Nonattainment areas classified as moderate

1.15 to one.

3. Nonattainment areas classified as serious

1.2 to one.

4. Nonattainment areas classified as severe

1.3 to one.

5. Nonattainment areas with any other classification or no classification

1 to one.

The ratio of total actual emissions reductions of the nonattainment pollutant to the emissions increase shall be at least 1 to one unless an alternative ratio is provided above for the applicable nonattainment area designated in 9VAC5-20-204.

C. Emission reductions otherwise required by these regulations shall not be creditable as emissions reductions for purposes of any such offset requirement. Incidental emission reductions which are not otherwise required by these regulations shall be creditable as emission reductions for such purposes if such emission reductions meet the requirements of subsection A of this section.

D. The board will allow an owner to offset by alternative or innovative means emission increases from rocket engine and motor firing, and cleaning related to such firing, at an existing or modified major source that tests rocket engines or motors under the following conditions:

1. Any modification proposed is solely for the purpose of expanding the testing of rocket engines or motors at an existing source that is permitted to test such engines on November 15, 1990.

2. The source demonstrates to the satisfaction of the board that it has used all reasonable means to obtain and utilize offsets, as determined on an annual basis, for the emissions increases beyond allowable levels, that all available offsets are being used, and that sufficient offsets are not available to the source.

3. The source has obtained a written finding from the U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration or other appropriate federal agency, that the testing of rocket motors or engines at the facility is required for a program essential to the national security.

4. The owner will comply with an alternative measure, imposed by the board, designed to offset any emission increases beyond permitted levels not directly offset by the source. In lieu of imposing any alternative offset measures, the board may impose an emissions fee to be paid to the board which shall be an amount no greater than 1.5 times the average cost of stationary source control measures adopted in that nonattainment area during the previous three years. The board will utilize the fees in a manner that maximizes the emissions reductions in that nonattainment area.

E. For sources subject to the provisions of this article, the baseline for determining credit for emissions reduction is the emissions limit under the applicable implementation plan in effect at the time the application to construct is filed, except that the offset baseline shall be the actual emissions of the source from which offset credit is obtained where:

1. The demonstration of reasonable further progress and attainment of ambient air quality standards is based upon the actual emissions of sources located within a designated nonattainment area; or

2. The applicable implementation plan does not contain an emissions limitation for that source or source category.

F. Where the emissions limit under the applicable implementation plan allows greater emissions than the potential to emit of the source, emissions offset credit will be allowed only for control below this potential.

G. For an existing fuel combustion source, credit shall be based on the allowable emissions under the applicable implementation plan for the type of fuel being burned at the time the application to construct is filed. If the owner of the existing source commits to switch to a cleaner fuel at some future date, emissions offset credit based on the allowable (or actual) emissions for the fuels involved is not acceptable, unless the permit is conditioned to require the use of a specified alternative control measure which would achieve the same degree of emissions reduction should the source switch back to a dirtier fuel at some later date. The board will ensure that adequate long-term supplies of the new fuel are available before granting emissions offset credit for fuel switches.

H. Emissions reductions achieved by shutting down an existing source or curtailing production or operating hours below baseline levels may be generally credited if such reductions are permanent, quantifiable, and federally and state enforceable. In addition, the shutdown or curtailment is creditable only if it occurred on or after January 1, 1991.

I. No emissions credit may be allowed for replacing one volatile organic compound with another of lesser reactivity.

J. Where this article does not adequately address a particular issue, the provisions of Appendix S to 40 CFR Part 51 shall be followed to the extent that they do not conflict with this section. The provisions of Appendix S to 40 CFR Parts 51 apply only to the extent that they are incorporated by reference in 9VAC5-20-21.

K. Credit for an emissions reduction can be claimed to the extent that the board has not relied on it in issuing any permit under this chapter or has not relied on it in demonstrating attainment or reasonable further progress.

L. The total tonnage of increased emissions, in tons per year, resulting from a major modification that shall be offset in accordance with § 173 of the federal Clean Air Act shall be determined by summing the difference between the allowable emissions after the modification and the actual emissions before the modification for each emissions unit.

M. In meeting the emissions offset requirements of this section, the emissions offsets obtained shall be for the same regulated NSR pollutant unless interprecursor offsetting is permitted for a particular pollutant as specified in this subsection.

1. The offset requirements in this section for direct PM2.5 emissions or emissions of precursors of PM2.5 may be satisfied by offsetting reductions in direct PM2.5 emissions or emissions of any PM2.5 precursor identified under subdivision c of the definition of "regulated NSR pollutant" if such offsets comply with the interprecursor trading hierarchy and ratio established in accordance with subsections N through P of this section for a particular nonattainment area. The board may allow the offset requirement of this section for direct PM2.5 emissions or precursors of PM2.5 to be satisfied by offsetting reductions in direct PM2.5 emissions or emissions of any PM2.5 precursor using a ratio approved by the board for the nonattainment area after public review and comment as provided in subsections N and O of this section.

2. The offset requirements of this section for emissions of the ozone precursors NOX and VOC may be satisfied, where appropriate, by offsetting reductions in of actual emissions of either of those precursors, if the requirements for such offsets under subdivision 3 of this subsection and all other requirements for such offsets are also satisfied.

3. For any case-specific permit ratio for ozone proposed by a permit applicant to be used for a particular permit, the following information shall be submitted to the board to support approval of the ratio:

a. The description of the air quality model or models used to propose a case-specific ratio; and

b. The proposed ratio for the precursor substitution and accompanying calculations; and

c. A modeling demonstration showing that such ratios as applied to the proposed project and credit source will provide an equivalent or greater air quality benefit with respect to ground level concentrations in the ozone nonattainment area than an offset of the emitted precursor would achieve.

N. The board may allow the offset requirement in subsection M of this section for direct PM2.5 emissions or precursors of PM2.5 to be satisfied by offsetting reductions in direct PM2.5 emissions or emissions of any PM2.5 precursor using a ratio approved by the board for the nonattainment area after public review and comment as provided in subsections O and P of this section. Prior to making a final determination on the interpollutant trading ratios for a nonattainment area, the board shall submit the interpollutant trading ratios and supporting information to the EPA Regional Office for approval.

O. Prior to the decision of the board, the offsetting ratio will be subject to a public comment period of at least 30 days. The board will notify the public, by notice on the department web page "Public Notices for Air Regulations," of the opportunity for public comment on the offsetting ratio and supporting information as available for public inspection under the provisions of subsection P subsection O of this section. The notification shall be published at least 30 days prior to the close of the public comment period.

P. O. Information on the offsetting ratio and supporting information, as well as the preliminary determination of the board, shall be available for public inspection during the entire public comment period on the department web page "Public Notices for Air Regulations."