The following words and terms when used in this
chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly
"Abnormal screening results" means, in 12VAC5-71-210 through 12VAC5-71-250 only, all results that indicate the newborn has not passed the screening test.
"Attending physician" means the physician in charge of the infant's care.
"Board" means the State Board of Health.
"Business days" means Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., excluding federal and state holidays.
"Care Connection for Children" means a statewide network of centers of excellence for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) that provides leadership in the enhancement of specialty medical services, care coordination, medical insurance benefits evaluation and coordination, management of the CSHCN pool of funds, information and referral to CSHCN resources, family-to-family support, and training and consultation with community providers on CSHCN issues.
"Care coordination" means a process that links individuals and their families to services and resources in a coordinated effort to maximize their potential and provide them with optimal health care.
"Certified nurse midwife" means a person licensed to practice as a nurse practitioner in the Commonwealth pursuant to § 54.1-2957 of the Code of Virginia and in accordance with Part II (18VAC90-30-60 et seq.) of 18VAC90-30 and 18VAC90-30-121, subject to 18VAC90-30-160.
"Chief executive officer" means a job descriptive term used to identify the individual appointed by the governing body to act in its behalf in the overall management of the hospital. Job titles may include administrator, superintendent, director, executive director, president, vice-president, and executive vice-president.
"Child" means a person less than 18 years of age and includes a biological or an adopted child, as well as a child placed for adoption or foster care unless otherwise treated as a separate unit for the purposes of determining eligibility and charges under these regulations.
"Commissioner" means the State Health Commissioner, his duly designated officer, or agent.
"Confirmatory testing" means a test or a panel of tests performed following a screened-abnormal result to verify a diagnosis.
"Core panel conditions" means those heritable disorders and genetic diseases considered appropriate for newborn screening. The conditions in the core panel are similar in that they have (i) specific and sensitive screening tests, (iii) a sufficiently well understood natural history, and (iii) available and efficacious treatments.
"Critical congenital heart disease" or "CCHD" means a congenital heart disease that places a newborn at significant risk of disability or death if not diagnosed and treated soon after birth. The disease may include, but is not limited to, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia (with intact septum), tetralogy of fallot, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, transposition of the great arteries, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.
"CCHD screening" means the application of screening technology to detect CCHD.
"Department" means the state Department of Health.
"Dried-blood-spot specimen" means a clinical blood sample collected from an infant by heel stick method and placed directly onto specially manufactured absorbent specimen collection (filter) paper.
"Echocardiogram" means a test that uses an ultrasound to provide an image of the heart.
"Guardian" means a parent-appointed, court-appointed, or clerk-appointed guardian of the person.
"Healthcare provider" means a person who is licensed to provide health care as part of his job responsibilities and who has the authority to order newborn dried-blood-spot screening tests.
"Heritable disorders and genetic diseases" means pathological conditions (i.e., interruption, cessation or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs) that are caused by an absent or defective gene or gene product, or by a chromosomal aberration.
"Hospital" means any facility as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code of Virginia.
"Infant" means a child less than 12 months of age.
"Licensed practitioner" means a licensed health care provider who is permitted, within the scope of his practice pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 54.1-2900 et seq.) or Chapter 30 (§ 54.1-3000 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia, to provide care to a newborn.
"Low protein modified foods" means foods that are (i) specially formulated to have less than one gram of protein per serving, (ii) intended to be used under the direction of a physician for the dietary treatment of an inherited metabolic disease, (iii) not natural foods that are naturally low in protein, and (iv) prescribed as medically necessary for the therapeutic treatment of inherited metabolic diseases.
"Metabolic formula" means nutritional substances that are (i) prescribed by a health professional with appropriate prescriptive authority; (ii) specifically designed and formulated to be consumed or administered internally under the supervision of such health professional; (iii) specifically designed, processed, or formulated to be distinct in one or more nutrients that are present in natural food; and (iv) intended for the medical and nutritional management of patients with limited capacity to metabolize ordinary foodstuffs or limited capacity to metabolize certain nutrients contained in ordinary foodstuffs.
"Metabolic supplements" means certain dietary or nutritional substances intended to be used under the direction of a physician for the nutritional management of inherited metabolic diseases.
"Midwife" means a person licensed as a nurse practitioner in the category of certified nurse midwife by the Boards of Nursing and Medicine or licensed as a midwife by the Board of Medicine.
"Newborn" means an infant who is 28 days old or less who was born in Virginia.
"Newborn nursery" means a general level, intermediate level, or specialty level newborn service as defined in 12VAC5-410-443 B 1, B 2, and B 3.
"Nurse" means a person holding a current license as a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse by the Virginia Board of Nursing or a current multistate licensure privilege to practice in Virginia as a registered nurse or licensed practical nurse.
"Parent" means a biological parent, adoptive parent, or stepparent.
"Pediatric Comprehensive Sickle Cell Clinic Network" means a statewide network of clinics that are located in major medical centers and provide comprehensive medical and support services for newborns and children living with sickle cell disease and other genetically related hemoglobinopathies.
"Physician" means a person licensed to practice medicine or osteopathic medicine in the Commonwealth pursuant to Chapter 29 (§ 54.1-2900 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia and in accordance with applicable regulations.
"Pool of funds" means funds designated for payment of direct health care services. Access to the pool is not an entitlement and is subject to availability of funds and guidelines that govern its eligibility and coverage of services. Pool of funds is a mix of federal Title V funds and state matching funds.
"Population-based" means preventive interventions and personal health services developed and available for the entire infant and child health population of the Commonwealth rather than for individuals in a one-on-one situation.
"Preterm infant" means an infant whose birth occurs by the end of the last day of the 36th week following the onset of the last menstrual period.
"Repeat specimen" means an additional newborn dried-blood-spot screening specimen submitted to the testing laboratory voluntarily or by request.
"Resident" means an individual who resides within the geographical boundaries of the Commonwealth.
"Satisfactory specimen" means a newborn dried-blood-spot screening specimen that has been determined to be acceptable for laboratory analyses by the testing laboratory.
"Screened-abnormal" means a newborn dried-blood-spot screening test result that is outside the established normal range or normal value for that test method.
"Screening technology" means pulse oximetry testing in the right hand and either foot. Screening technology shall also include alternate medically accepted tests that measure the percentage of blood oxygen saturation, follow medical guideline consensus and recommendations issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and are approved by the State Board of Health.
"Specialty level nursery" means the same as defined in 12VAC5-410-443 B 3 and as further defined as Level III by the Levels of Neonatal Care, written by the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn.
"Subspecialty level nursery" means the same as defined in 12VAC5-410-443 B 4.
"Testing laboratory" means the laboratory that has been selected by the department to perform newborn dried-blood-spot screening tests services.
"Total parenteral nutrition" or "TPN" means giving nutrients through a vein for babies who cannot be fed by mouth.
"Treatment" means appropriate management including genetic counseling, medical consultation, and pharmacological and dietary management for infants diagnosed with a disease listed in 12VAC5-71-30 D.
"Unsatisfactory specimen" means a newborn dried-blood-spot screening specimen that is inadequate for performing an accurate analysis.
"Virginia Genetics Advisory Committee" means a formal group that advises the department on issues pertaining to access to clinical genetics services across the Commonwealth and the provision of genetic awareness, quality services, and education for consumers and providers.
"Virginia Newborn Screening System" means a coordinated and comprehensive group of services, including education, screening, follow up, diagnosis, treatment and management, and program evaluation, managed by the department's Virginia Newborn Screening Program and Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program for safeguarding the health of children born in Virginia.
"Virginia Sickle Cell Awareness Program" means a statewide program for the education and screening of individuals for the disease of sickle cell anemia or the sickle cell trait and for such other genetically related hemoglobinopathies.
12VAC5-71-30. Core panel of heritable disorders and genetic diseases.
A. The Virginia Newborn Screening System, which includes the
Virginia Newborn Screening Program
and, the Virginia Early
Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, and Virginia critical congenital
heart disease screening, shall ensure that the core panel of heritable
disorders and genetic diseases for which newborn screening is conducted is
consistent with but not necessarily identical to the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services Secretary's Recommended Uniform Screening Panel.
B. The department shall review, at least biennially, national recommendations and guidelines and may propose changes to the core panel of heritable disorders and genetic diseases for which newborn dried-blood-spot screening tests are conducted.
C. The Virginia Genetics Advisory Committee may be consulted and provide advice to the commissioner on proposed changes to the core panel of heritable disorders and genetic diseases for which newborn dried-blood-spot screening tests are conducted.
D. Infants under six months of age who are born in Virginia shall be screened in accordance with the provisions set forth in this chapter for the following heritable disorders and genetic diseases, which are identified through newborn dried-blood-spot screening tests:
1. Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASA);
2. Beta-Ketothiolase deficiency (BKT);
3. Biotinidase deficiency (BIOT);
4. Carnitine uptake defect (CUD);
5. Classical galactosemia (galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency) (GALT);
6. Citrullinemia type I (CIT-I);
7. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH);
8. Cystic fibrosis (CF);
9. Glutaric acidemia type I (GA I);
10. Hb S beta-thalassemia (Hb F,S,A);
11. Hb SC-disease (Hb F,S,C);
12. Hb SS-disease (sickle cell anemia) (Hb F, S);
13. Homocystinuria (HCY);
14. Isovaleric acidemia (IVA);
15. Long chain L-3-Hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD);
16. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD);
17. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD);
18. Methylmalonic acidemia (Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency) (MUT);
19. Methylmalonic acidemia (Adenosylcobalamin synthesis deficiency) (CBL A, CBL B);
20. Multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD);
21. Phenylketonuria (PKU);
22. Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH);
23. Propionic acidemia (PROP);
24. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID);
25. Tyrosinemia type I (TYR I);
26. Trifunctional protein deficiency (TFP);
27. Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD);
28. 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaric aciduria (HMG); and
29. 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3-MCC).
E. Infants born in Virginia shall be screened for hearing loss in accordance with provisions set forth in §§ 32.1-64.1 and 32.1-64.2 of the Code of Virginia and as governed by 12VAC5-80.
F. Newborns born in Virginia shall be screened for critical congenital heart disease in accordance with provisions set forth in §§ 32.1-65.1 and 32.1-67 of the Code of Virginia and as governed by 12VAC5-71-210 through 12VAC5-71-260.
12VAC5-71-150. Responsibilities of the Care Connection for Children network.
A. The Care Connection for Children network shall provide the following services:
1. Care coordination services for residents of the Commonwealth
who are diagnosed with selected heritable disorders
diseases, or critical congenital heart disease and are referred to the
network by the Virginia Newborn Screening Program.
2. Other network services for eligible individuals in
the § 32.1-77 of the Code of Virginia and
B. The Care Connection for Children network shall provide data as needed by the department's newborn screening program.
12VAC5-71-210. Critical congenital heart disease screening protocols.
A. Hospitals shall develop protocols for critical congenital heart disease screening in accordance with this section, 12VAC5-71-220 through 12VAC5-71-260, and national recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics.
B. Hospitals shall develop protocols for the physical evaluation by licensed practitioners of newborns with abnormal screening results.
C. Hospitals shall develop protocols for the referral of newborns with abnormal screening results, if needed, after evaluation.
12VAC5-71-220. Critical congenital heart disease screening.
A. A licensed practitioner shall perform the CCHD screening.
B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section and 12VAC5-71-260, CCHD screening shall be performed on every newborn in the birth hospital between 24 and 48 hours of life, or if the newborn is discharged from the hospital before reaching 24 hours of life, the CCHD screening shall be performed as late as practical before discharge.
C. If CCHD screening is not indicated, the reason shall be documented in the newborn's medical record. The reasons include but are not limited to:
1. The newborn's current clinical evaluation has included an echocardiogram that ruled out CCHD;
2. The newborn has confirmed CCHD; or
3. The newborn is under the care of a specialty level or subspecialty level nursery.
D. Hospitals shall develop protocols for screening newborns in specialty level nurseries and subspecialty level nurseries.
12VAC5-71-230. Critical congenital heart disease screening results.
A. Recording results.
1. All CCHD screening results shall be recorded in the newborn's medical record.
2. All CCHD screening results shall be entered into the electronic birth certificate system with the following information:
a. CCHD screening completed, CCHD pass or fail, and pulse oximetry values; or
b. Not screened pursuant to 12VAC5-71-220 C.
B. Abnormal screening results.
1. Abnormal screening results shall be reported by the authorized health care provider who conducted the screening to the attending physician or his designee.
2. A newborn shall be evaluated by an attending physician or his designee according to the timeframes within the hospital protocol developed in accordance with 12VAC5-71-210.
3. A newborn shall not be discharged from care until:
a. A cause for the abnormal screening result has been determined and a plan is in place for immediate evaluation at another medical facility; or
b. An echocardiogram has been performed and read, and an appropriate clinical plan has been developed.
4. Any diagnosis arising from abnormal screening results shall be entered into the electronic birth certificate system.
5. The attending physician or his designee shall provide notification of abnormal results and any diagnoses to the newborn's parent or guardian and to the primary care provider in charge of the newborn's care after the newborn leaves the hospital.
12VAC5-71-240. Referral for care coordination.
A. For any person diagnosed under 12VAC5-71-210 through 12VAC5-71-250, the chief administrative officer of every hospital, as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code of Virginia, shall make or cause to be made a report to the commissioner in accordance with § 32.1-69.1 of the Code of Virginia.
B. Upon receiving the notification described in subsection A of this section, the Newborn Screening Program at the Virginia Department of Health shall refer the newborn's parent or guardian to the Care Connection for Children network for care coordination services.
12VAC5-71-250. Congenital heart disease screening records.
A. The screening of newborns pursuant to this chapter is a population-based public health surveillance program as defined by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-191; 110 Stat. 2033).
B. Upon request, a hospital shall make available to the Virginia Congenital Anomalies Reporting and Education System (VaCARES):
1. Medical records;
2. Records of laboratory tests; and
3. Any other information that VaCARES considers necessary to:
a. Determine final outcomes of abnormal CCHD screening results; or
b. Evaluate CCHD screening activities in the Commonwealth, including performance of follow-up evaluations and diagnostic tests, initiation of treatment when necessary, and surveillance of the accuracy and efficacy of the screening.
C. Information that the Virginia Department of Health receives under this section is confidential and may only be used or disclosed:
1. For research and collective statistical purposes pursuant to § 32.1-67.1 of the Code of Virginia;
2. For state or federally mandated statistical reports;
3. To ensure that the information received by the Virginia Department of Health is accurate and reliable; or
4. For reporting to the Virginia Congenital Anomalies Reporting and Education System pursuant to § 32.1-69.1 of the Code of Virginia and 12VAC5-191-280. The Newborn Screening Program shall refer the newborn's parent or guardian to the Care Connection for Children network for care coordination services.
D. The hospital administrator shall ensure that CCHD screening is included in the perinatal quality assurance program and provide the results of the quality improvement program to the Virginia Department of Health upon request.
12VAC5-71-260. Parent or guardian refusal for screening.
A. In the instance of parent or guardian refusal of the CCHD screening based on religious practices or tenets, the parent or guardian refusal shall be documented on a refusal form provided by the Virginia Department of Health and made a part of the newborn's medical record.
B. The administrator of the hospital shall ensure that the Newborn Screening Program at the Virginia Department of Health is notified in writing of the parent or guardian refusal within five days of the newborn's birth.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (12VAC5-71)
12VAC5-191-260. Scope and content of the Virginia Newborn Screening System.
A. The Virginia Newborn Screening System consists of
three components: (i) Virginia Newborn Screening Services and,
(ii) Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, and (iii)
Virginia critical congenital heart disease screening.
B. Virginia Newborn Screening Services.
1. Mission. The Virginia Newborn Screening Services prevents
retardation intellectual disability, permanent disability, or death
through early identification and treatment of infants who are
affected by selected inherited disorders.
2. Scope of services. The Virginia Newborn Screening Services
provides a coordinated and comprehensive system of services to assure that all
infants receive a screening test after birth for selected inherited metabolic,
endocrine, and hematological disorders as defined in Regulations Governing
Virginia Newborn Screening and Treatment Program Services,
These population-based, direct, and enabling services are provided through:
a. Biochemical dried bloodspot screening tests.
b. Follow up of abnormal results.
d. Education to health professionals and families.
e. Expert consultation on abnormal results, diagnostic testing, and medical and dietary management for health professionals.
Medical and dietary management is provided for the diagnosed cases and includes assistance in accessing specialty medical services and referral to Care Connection for Children.
The screening and management for specified diseases are
governed by Regulations Governing
the Virginia Newborn Screening and
Treatment Program Services, 12VAC5-70 12VAC5-71.
3. Criteria to receive Virginia Newborn Screening Services. All infants born in the Commonwealth are eligible for the screening test for selected inherited disorders.
4. Goal. The Title V national performance measures, as required
by the federal Government Performance and Results Act
(GPRA-Pub. L. (Public
Law 103-62), are used to establish the program goals. The following goal
shall change as needed to be consistent with the Title V national performance
All infants will receive appropriate newborn bloodspot screening, follow up testing, and referral to services.
C. Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program.
1. Mission. The Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program promotes early detection of and intervention for infants with congenital hearing loss to maximize linguistic and communicative competence and literacy development.
2. Scope of services. The Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program provides services to assure that all infants receive a hearing screening after birth, that infants needing further testing are referred to appropriate facilities, that families have the information that they need to make decisions for their children, and that infants and young children diagnosed with a hearing loss receive appropriate and timely intervention services. These population-based and enabling services are provided through:
a. Technical assistance and education to new parents.
b. Collaboration with physicians and primary care providers.
c. Technical assistance and education to birthing facilities and those persons performing home births.
d. Collaboration with audiologists.
e. Education to health professionals and general public.
Once diagnosed, the infants are referred to early intervention services. The screening and management for hearing loss are governed by the regulation, Regulations for Administration of the Virginia Hearing Impairment Identification and Monitoring System, 12VAC5-80.
3. Criteria to receive services from the Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program.
a. All infants born in the Commonwealth are eligible for the hearing screening.
b. All infants who are residents of the Commonwealth and their families are eligible for the Virginia Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program.
4. Goals. The Title V national performance measures, as
required by the federal Government Performance and Results Act
(Public Law 103-62), are used to establish the program goals. The
following goals shall change as needed to be consistent with the Title V
national performance measures:
All infants will receive screening for hearing loss no later than one month of age, achieve identification of congenital hearing loss by three months of age, and enroll in appropriate intervention by six months of age.
D. Virginia critical congenital heart disease screening.
1. Mission. Virginia critical congenital heart disease screening promotes early detection of and intervention for newborns with critical congenital heart disease to maximize positive health outcomes and help prevent disability and death early in life.
2. Scope of services. Newborns receive a critical congenital heart disease screening 24 to 48 hours after birth in a hospital with a newborn nursery, as provided in §§ 32.1-67 and 32.1-69.1 of the Code of Virginia and the regulations governing critical congenital heart disease screening (12VAC5-71-210 through 12VAC5-71-260). These population-based, direct, and enabling services are provided through:
a. Critical congenital heart disease screening tests using pulse oximetry or other screening technology as defined in 12VAC5-71-10;
b. Hospital reporting of test results pursuant to § 32.1-69.1 of the Code of Virginia and 12VAC5-191-280; and
c. Follow-up, referral processes, and services, as appropriate, through Care Connection for Children.
3. The screening and management for newborn critical congenital heart disease are governed by the regulations governing critical congenital heart disease screening (12VAC5-71-210 through 12VAC5-71-260).
4. Criteria to receive critical congenital heart disease screening. Except as specified in 12VAC5-71-220 C and 12VAC5-71-260, all newborns born in the Commonwealth in a hospital with a newborn nursery shall receive the screening test for critical congenital heart disease 24 to 48 hours after birth using pulse oximetry or other screening technology.
5. Goal. Except as specified in 12VAC5-71-220 C and 12VAC5-71-260, all newborns born in the Commonwealth in a hospital with a newborn nursery shall receive appropriate critical congenital heart disease screening 24 to 48 hours after birth.