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Final Text

Action:
Amendment to update terminology of CESQG to VSQG
Stage: Final
9VAC20-81-10

Part I
Definitions

9VAC20-81-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Active life" means the period of operation beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste and ending at completion of closure activities required by this chapter.

"Active portion" means that part of a facility or unit that has received or is receiving wastes and that has not been closed in accordance with this chapter.

"Agricultural waste" means all solid waste produced from farming operations.

"Airport" means, for the purpose of this chapter, a military airfield or a public-use airport open to the public without prior permission and without restrictions within the physical capacities of available facilities.

"Aquifer" means a geologic formation, group of formations, or a portion of a formation capable of yielding significant quantities of groundwater to wells or springs.

"Ash" means the fly ash or bottom ash residual waste material produced from incineration or burning of solid waste or from any fuel combustion.

"Base flood" see "Hundred-year flood."

"Bedrock" means the rock that underlies soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material at a site.

"Benchmark" means a permanent monument constructed of concrete and set in the ground surface below the frostline with identifying information clearly affixed to it. Identifying information will include the designation of the benchmark as well as the elevation and coordinates on the local or Virginia state grid system.

"Beneficial use" means a use that is of benefit as a substitute for natural or commercial products and does not contribute to adverse effects on health or environment.

"Beneficial use of CCR" means the CCR meet all of the following conditions:

1. The CCR must provide a functional benefit;

2. The CCR must substitute for the use of a virgin material, conserving natural resources that would otherwise need to be obtained through practices, such as extraction;

3. The use of the CCR must meet relevant product specifications, regulatory standards, or design standards when available, and when such standards are not available, the CCR is not used in excess quantities; and

4. When unencapsulated use of CCR involving placement on the land of 12,400 tons or more in nonroadway applications, the user must demonstrate and keep records, and provide such documentation upon request, that environmental releases to groundwater, surface water, soil, and air are comparable to or lower than those from analogous products made without CCR, or that environmental releases to groundwater, surface water, soil, and air will be at or below relevant regulatory and health-based benchmarks for human and ecological receptors during use.

"Bioremediation" means remediation of contaminated media by the manipulation of biological organisms to enhance the degradation of contaminants.

"Bird hazard" means an increase in the likelihood of bird/aircraft collisions that may cause damage to the aircraft or injury to its occupants.

"Board" means the Virginia Waste Management Board.

"Bottom ash" means ash or slag that has been discharged from the bottom of the combustion unit after combustion.

"Capacity" means the maximum permitted volume of solid waste, inclusive of daily and intermediate cover, that can be disposed in a landfill. This volume is measured in cubic yards.

"Captive industrial landfill" means an industrial landfill that is located on property owned or controlled by the generator of the waste disposed of in that landfill.

"CCR landfill" means an area of land or an excavation that receives CCR and that is not a surface impoundment, an underground injection well, a salt dome formation, a salt bed formation, an underground or surface coal mine, or a cave. For purposes of this chapter, a CCR landfill also includes sand and gravel pits and quarries that receive CCR, CCR piles, and any practice that does not meet the definition of a beneficial use of CCR.

"CCR surface impoundment" means a natural topographic depression, man-made excavation, or diked area that is designed to hold an accumulation of CCR and liquids, and the unit treats, stores, or disposes of CCR.

"Clean wood" means solid waste consisting of untreated wood pieces and particles that do not contain paint, laminate, bonding agents, or chemical preservatives or are otherwise unadulterated.

"Closed facility" means a solid waste management facility that has been properly secured in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.

"Closure" means that point in time when a permitted landfill has been capped, certified as properly closed by a professional engineer, inspected by the department, and closure notification is performed by the department in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 D.

"Coal combustion byproducts" or "CCB" means residuals, including fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas emission control waste produced by burning coal. CCB includes both CCR and other non-CCR wastes identified in this definition.

"Coal combustion residuals" or "CCR" means fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization materials generated from burning coal for the purpose of generating electricity by electric utilities and independent power producers. CCR is a specific type of CCB.

"Combustion unit" means an incinerator, waste heat recovery unit, or boiler.

"Commercial waste" means all solid waste generated by establishments engaged in business operations other than manufacturing or construction. This category includes, but is not limited to, solid waste resulting from the operation of stores, markets, office buildings, restaurants, and shopping centers.

"Compliance schedule" means a time schedule for measures to be employed on a solid waste management facility that will ultimately upgrade it to conform to this chapter.

"Compost" means a stabilized organic product produced by a controlled aerobic decomposition process in such a manner that the product can be handled, stored, or applied to the land without adversely affecting public health or the environment.

"Composting" means the manipulation of the natural process of decomposition of organic materials to increase the rate of decomposition.

"Conditionally exempt small quantity generator" means a generator of hazardous waste who has been so defined in 40 CFR 261.5, as amended. That section applies to the persons who generate in that calendar month no more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste or one kilogram of acutely hazardous waste.

"Construction" means the initiation of permanent physical change at a property with the intent of establishing a solid waste management unit. This does not include land-clearing activities, excavation for borrow purposes, activities intended for infrastructure purposes, or activities necessary to obtain Part A siting approval (i.e., advancing of exploratory borings, digging of test pits, groundwater monitoring well installation, etc.).

"Construction/demolition/debris landfill" or "CDD landfill" means a land burial facility engineered, constructed and operated to contain and isolate construction waste, demolition waste, debris waste, split tires, and white goods or combinations of the above solid wastes.

"Construction waste" means solid waste that is produced or generated during construction, remodeling, or repair of pavements, houses, commercial buildings, and other structures. Construction wastes include, but are not limited to lumber, wire, sheetrock, broken brick, shingles, glass, pipes, concrete, paving materials, and metal and plastics if the metal or plastics are a part of the materials of construction or empty containers for such materials. Paints, coatings, solvents, asbestos, any liquid, compressed gases or semi-liquids and garbage are not construction wastes.

"Contaminated soil" means, for the purposes of this chapter, a soil that, as a result of a release or human usage, has absorbed or adsorbed physical, chemical, or radiological substances at concentrations above those consistent with nearby undisturbed soil or natural earth materials.

"Container" means any portable device in which a material is stored, transported, treated, or otherwise handled and includes transport vehicles that are containers themselves (e.g., tank trucks) and containers placed on or in a transport vehicle.

"Containment structure" means a closed vessel such as a tank or cylinder.

"Convenience center" means a collection point for the temporary storage of solid waste provided for individual solid waste generators who choose to transport solid waste generated on their own premises to an established centralized point, rather than directly to a disposal facility. To be classified as a convenience center, the collection point may not receive waste from collection vehicles that have collected waste from more than one real property owner. A convenience center shall be on a system of regularly scheduled collections.

"Cover material" means compactable soil or other approved material that is used to blanket solid waste in a landfill.

"Daily disposal limit" means the amount of solid waste that is permitted to be disposed at the facility and shall be computed on the amount of waste disposed during any operating day.

"Debris waste" means wastes resulting from land-clearing operations. Debris wastes include, but are not limited to stumps, wood, brush, leaves, soil, and road spoils.

"Decomposed vegetative waste" means a stabilized organic product produced from vegetative waste by a controlled natural decay process in such a manner that the product can be handled, stored, or applied to the land without adversely affecting public health or the environment.

"Demolition waste" means that solid waste that is produced by the destruction of structures and their foundations and includes the same materials as construction wastes.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality. For purposes of submissions to the director as specified in the Waste Management Act, submissions may be made to the department.

"Discard" means to abandon, dispose of, burn, incinerate, accumulate, store, or treat before or instead of being abandoned, disposed of, burned, or incinerated.

"Discarded material" means a material that is:

1. Abandoned by being:

a. Disposed of;

b. Burned or incinerated; or

c. Accumulated, stored, or treated (but not used, reused, or reclaimed) before or in lieu of being abandoned by being disposed of, burned, or incinerated; or

2. Recycled used, reused, or reclaimed material as defined in this part.

"Disclosure statement" means a sworn statement or affirmation as required by § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia (see DEQ Form DISC-01 and 02 (Disclosure Statement)).

"Displacement" means the relative movement of any two sides of a fault measured in any direction.

"Disposal" means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of any solid waste into or on any land or water so that such solid waste or any constituent of it may enter the environment or be emitted into the air or discharged into any waters.

"Disposal unit boundary" or "DUB" means the vertical plane located at the edge of the waste disposal unit. This vertical plane extends down into the uppermost aquifer. The DUB must be positioned within or coincident to the waste management boundary.

"EPA" means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

"Exempt management facility" means a site used for activities that are conditionally exempt from management as a solid waste under this chapter. The facility remains exempt from solid waste management requirements provided it complies with the applicable conditions set forth in Parts II (9VAC20-81-20 et seq.) and IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Existing CCR landfill" means a CCR landfill that receives CCR both before and after October 19, 2015, or for which construction commenced prior to October 19, 2015, and receives CCR on or after October 19, 2015. A CCR landfill has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun prior to October 19, 2015.

"Existing CCR surface impoundment" means a CCR surface impoundment that receives CCR both before and after October 19, 2015, or for which construction commenced prior to October 19, 2015, and receives CCR on or after October 19, 2015. A CCR surface impoundment has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun prior to October 19, 2015.

"Expansion" means a horizontal expansion of the waste management boundary as identified in the Part A application. If a facility's permit was issued prior to the establishment of the Part A process, an expansion is a horizontal expansion of the disposal unit boundary.

"Facility" means solid waste management facility unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

"Facility boundary" means the boundary of the solid waste management facility. For landfills, this boundary encompasses the waste management boundary and all ancillary activities including, but not limited to scales, groundwater monitoring wells, gas monitoring probes, and maintenance facilities as identified in the facility's permit application. For facilities with a permit-by-rule (PBR) the facility boundary is the boundary of the property where the permit-by-rule activity occurs. For unpermitted solid waste management facilities, the facility boundary is the boundary of the property line where the solid waste is located.

"Facility structure" means any building, shed, or utility or drainage line on the facility.

"Fault" means a fracture or a zone of fractures in any material along which strata on one side have been displaced with respect to that on the other side.

"Floodplain" means the lowland and relatively flat areas adjoining inland and coastal waters, including low-lying areas of offshore islands where flooding occurs.

"Fly ash" means ash particulate collected from air pollution attenuation devices on combustion units.

"Food-chain crops" means crops grown for human consumption, tobacco, and crops grown for pasture and forage or feed for animals whose products are consumed by humans.

"Fossil fuel combustion products" means coal combustion byproducts as defined in this regulation, coal combustion byproducts generated at facilities with fluidized bed combustion technology, petroleum coke combustion byproducts, byproducts from the combustion of oil, byproducts from the combustion of natural gas, and byproducts from the combustion of mixtures of coal and "other fuels" (i.e., co-burning of coal with "other fuels" where coal is at least 50% of the total fuel). For purposes of this definition, "other fuels" means waste-derived fuel product, auto shredder fluff, wood wastes, coal mill rejects, peat, tall oil, tire-derived fuel, deionizer resins, and used oil.

"Free liquids" means liquids that readily separate from the solid portion of a waste under ambient temperature and pressure as determined by the Paint Filter Liquids Test, Method 9095, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Publication SW-846.

"Garbage" means readily putrescible discarded materials composed of animal, vegetable or other organic matter.

"Gas condensate" means the liquid generated as a result of gas control or recovery processes at the solid waste management facility.

"Governmental unit" means any department, institution, or commission of the Commonwealth and any public corporate instrumentality thereof, and any district, and shall include local governments.

"Ground rubber" means material processed from waste tires that is no larger than 1/4 inch in any dimension. This includes crumb rubber that is measured in mesh sizes.

"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in a zone of saturation.

"Hazardous constituent" means a constituent of solid waste found listed in Appendix VIII of 9VAC20-60-261.

"Hazardous waste" means a "hazardous waste" as described by the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60).

"Holocene" means the most recent epoch of the Quaternary period, extending from the end of the Pleistocene Epoch to the present.

"Home use" means the use of compost for growing plants that is produced and used on a privately owned residential site.

"Host agreement" means any lease, contract, agreement, or land use permit entered into or issued by the locality in which the landfill is situated that includes terms or conditions governing the operation of the landfill.

"Household hazardous waste" means any waste material derived from households (including single and multiple residences, hotels, motels, bunkhouses, ranger stations, crew quarters, campgrounds, picnic grounds, and day-use recreation areas) which, except for the fact that it is derived from a household, would otherwise be classified as a hazardous waste in accordance with 9VAC20-60.

"Household waste" means any waste material, including garbage, trash, and refuse, derived from households. Households include single and multiple residences, hotels and motels, bunkhouses, ranger stations, crew quarters, campgrounds, picnic grounds, and day-use recreation areas. Household wastes do not include sanitary waste in septic tanks (septage) that is regulated by other state agencies.

"Hundred-year flood" means a flood that has a 1.0% or greater chance of recurring in any given year or a flood of magnitude equaled or exceeded on the average only once in a hundred years on the average over a significantly long period.

"Inactive CCR surface impoundment" means a CCR surface impoundment that no longer receives CCR on or after October 19, 2015, and still contains both CCR and liquids on or after October 19, 2015.

"Incineration" means the controlled combustion of solid waste for disposal.

"Incinerator" means a facility or device designed for the treatment of solid waste by combustion.

"Industrial waste" means any solid waste generated by manufacturing or industrial process that is not a regulated hazardous waste. Such waste may include, but is not limited to, waste resulting from the following manufacturing processes: electric power generation; fertilizer/agricultural chemicals; food and related products/byproducts; inorganic chemicals; iron and steel manufacturing; leather and leather products; nonferrous metals manufacturing/foundries; organic chemicals; plastics and resins manufacturing; pulp and paper industry; rubber and miscellaneous plastic products; stone, glass, clay, and concrete products; textile manufacturing; transportation equipment; and water treatment. This term does not include mining waste or oil and gas waste.

"Industrial waste landfill" means a solid waste landfill used primarily for the disposal of a specific industrial waste or a waste that is a byproduct of a production process.

"Injection well" means, for the purposes of this chapter, a well or bore hole into which fluids are injected into selected geological horizons.

"Institutional waste" means all solid waste emanating from institutions such as, but not limited to, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, and public or private schools. It can include regulated medical waste from health care facilities and research facilities that must be managed as a regulated medical waste.

"Interim cover systems" means temporary cover systems applied to a landfill area when landfilling operations will be temporarily suspended for an extended period (typically, longer than one year). At the conclusion of the interim period, the interim cover system may be removed and landfilling operations resume or final cover is installed.

"Karst topography" means areas where karst terrane, with its characteristic surface and subterranean features, is developed as the result of dissolution of limestone, dolomite, or other soluble rock. Characteristic physiographic features present in karst terranes include, but are not limited to, sinkholes, sinking streams, caves, large springs, and blind valleys.

"Key personnel" means the applicant itself and any person employed by the applicant in a managerial capacity, or empowered to make discretionary decisions, with respect to the solid waste or hazardous waste operations of the applicant in Virginia, but shall not include employees exclusively engaged in the physical or mechanical collection, transportation, treatment, storage, or disposal of solid or hazardous waste and such other employees as the director may designate by regulation. If the applicant has not previously conducted solid waste or hazardous waste operations in Virginia, the term also includes any officer, director, partner of the applicant, or any holder of 5.0% or more of the equity or debt of the applicant. If any holder of 5.0% or more of the equity or debt of the applicant or of any key personnel is not a natural person, the term includes all key personnel of that entity, provided that where such entity is a chartered lending institution or a reporting company under the Federal Security and Exchange Act of 1934, the term does not include key personnel of such entity. Provided further that the term means the chief executive officer of any agency of the United States or of any agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth, and all key personnel of any person, other than a natural person, that operates a landfill or other facility for the disposal, treatment, or storage of nonhazardous solid waste under contract with or for one of those governmental entities.

"Lagoon" means a body of water or surface impoundment designed to manage or treat waste water.

"Land-clearing activities" means the removal of flora from a parcel of land.

"Land-clearing debris" means vegetative waste resulting from land-clearing activities.

"Landfill" means a sanitary landfill, an industrial waste landfill, or a construction/demolition/debris landfill.

"Landfill gas" means gas generated as a byproduct of the decomposition of organic materials in a landfill. Landfill gas consists primarily of methane and carbon dioxide.

"Landfill mining" means the process of excavating solid waste from an existing landfill.

"Leachate" means a liquid that has passed through or emerged from solid waste and contains soluble, suspended, or miscible materials from such waste. Leachate and any material with which it is mixed is solid waste; except that leachate that is pumped from a collection tank for transportation to disposal in an offsite facility is regulated as septage, leachate discharged into a waste water collection system is regulated as industrial waste water and leachate that has contaminated groundwater is regulated as contaminated groundwater.

"Lead acid battery" means, for the purposes of this chapter, any wet cell battery.

"Lift" means the daily landfill layer of compacted solid waste plus the cover material.

"Liquid waste" means any waste material that is determined to contain "free liquids" as defined by this chapter.

"Lithified earth material" means all rock, including all naturally occurring and naturally formed aggregates or masses of minerals or small particles of older rock, that formed by crystallization of magma or by induration of loose sediments. This term does not include man-made materials, such as fill, concrete, and asphalt, or unconsolidated earth materials, soil, or regolith lying at or near the earth's surface.

"Litter" means, for purposes of this chapter, any solid waste that is discarded or scattered about a solid waste management facility outside the immediate working area.

"Lower explosive limit" means the lowest concentration by volume of a mixture of explosive gases in air that will propagate a flame at 25°C and at atmospheric pressure.

"Materials recovery facility" means a solid waste management facility for the collection, processing, and recovery of material such as metals from solid waste or for the production of a fuel from solid waste. This does not include the production of a waste-derived fuel product.

"Maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth material" means the maximum expected horizontal acceleration depicted on a seismic hazard map, with a 90% or greater probability that the acceleration will not be exceeded in 250 years, or the maximum expected horizontal acceleration based on a site-specific seismic risk assessment.

"Monitoring" means all methods, procedures, and techniques used to systematically analyze, inspect, and collect data on operational parameters of the facility or on the quality of air, groundwater, surface water, and soils.

"Monitoring well" means a well point below the ground surface for the purpose of obtaining periodic water samples from groundwater for quantitative and qualitative analysis.

"Mulch" means woody waste consisting of stumps, trees, limbs, branches, bark, leaves and other clean wood waste that has undergone size reduction by grinding, shredding, or chipping, and is distributed to the general public for landscaping purposes or other horticultural uses except composting as defined and regulated under this chapter.

"Municipal solid waste" means that waste that is normally composed of residential, commercial, and institutional solid waste and residues derived from combustion of these wastes.

"New CCR landfill" means a CCR landfill or lateral expansion of a CCR landfill that first receives CCR or commences construction after October 19, 2015. A new CCR landfill has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun after October 19, 2015. Overfills are also considered new CCR landfills.

"New CCR surface impoundment" means a CCR surface impoundment or lateral expansion of an existing or new CCR surface impoundment that first receives CCR or commences construction after October 19, 2015. A new CCR surface impoundment has commenced construction if the owner or operator has obtained the federal, state, and local approvals or permits necessary to begin physical construction and a continuous onsite, physical construction program had begun after October 19, 2015.

"New solid waste management facility" means a facility or a portion of a facility that was not included in a previous determination of site suitability (Part A approval).

"Nuisance" means an activity that unreasonably interferes with an individual's or the public's comfort, convenience or enjoyment such that it interferes with the rights of others by causing damage, annoyance, or inconvenience.

"Offsite" means any site that does not meet the definition of onsite as defined in this part.

"Onsite" means the same or geographically contiguous property, which may be divided by public or private right-of-way, provided the entrance and exit to the facility are controlled by the owner or the operator of the facility. Noncontiguous properties owned by the same person, but connected by a right-of-way that he controls and to which the public does not have access, are also considered onsite property.

"Open burning" means the combustion of solid waste without:

1. Control of combustion air to maintain adequate temperature for efficient combustion;

2. Containment of the combustion reaction in an enclosed device to provide sufficient residence time and mixing for complete combustion; and

3. Control of the combustion products' emission.

"Open dump" means a site on which any solid waste is placed, discharged, deposited, injected, dumped, or spilled so as to present a threat of a release of harmful substances into the environment or present a hazard to human health. Such a site is subject to the Open Dump Criteria in 9VAC20-81-45.

"Operating record" means records required to be maintained in accordance with the facility permit or this part (see 9VAC20-81-530).

"Operation" means all waste management activities at a solid waste management facility beginning with the initial receipt of solid waste for treatment, storage, disposal, or transfer and ceasing with the initiation of final closure activities at the solid waste management facility subsequent to the final receipt of waste.

"Operator" means the person responsible for the overall operation and site management of a solid waste management facility.

"Owner" means the person who owns a solid waste management facility or part of a solid waste management facility.

"PCB" means any chemical substance that is limited to the biphenyl molecule that has been chlorinated to varying degrees or any combination of substances that contain such substance (see 40 CFR 761.3, as amended).

"Perennial stream" means a well-defined channel that contains water year round during a year of normal rainfall. Generally, the water table is located above the streambed for most of the year and groundwater is the primary source for stream flow. A perennial stream exhibits the typical biological, hydrological, and physical characteristics commonly associated with the continuous conveyance of water.

"Permit" means the written permission of the director to own, operate, or construct a solid waste management facility.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation, or any other legal entity.

"Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, vessel, or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. Return flows from irrigated agriculture are not included.

"Pollutant" means any substance that causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, environmental degradation when discharged into the environment.

"Poor foundation conditions" means those areas where features exist that indicate that a natural or man-induced event may result in inadequate foundation support for the structural components of a solid waste management facility.

"Postclosure" means the requirements placed upon solid waste disposal facilities after closure to ensure environmental and public health safety for a specified number of years after closure.

"Process rate" means the maximum rate of waste acceptance that a solid waste management facility can process for treatment and storage. This rate is limited by the capabilities of equipment, personnel, and infrastructure.

"Processing" means preparation, treatment, or conversion of waste by a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about a desired end result.

"Professional engineer" means an engineer licensed to practice engineering in the Commonwealth as defined by the rules and regulations set forth by the Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, Certified Interior Designers and Landscape Architects (18VAC10-20).

"Professional geologist" means a geologist licensed to practice geology in the Commonwealth as defined by the rules and regulations set forth by the Board for Professional Soil Scientists, Wetland Professionals, and Geologists (18VAC145-40).

"Progressive cover" means cover material placed over the working face of a solid waste disposal facility advancing over the deposited waste as new wastes are added keeping the exposed area to a minimum.

"Putrescible waste" means solid waste that contains organic material capable of being decomposed by micro-organisms and cause odors.

"Qualified groundwater scientist" means a scientist or engineer who has received a baccalaureate or postgraduate degree in the natural sciences or engineering and has sufficient training and experience in groundwater hydrology and related fields as may be demonstrated by professional certifications or completion of accredited university programs that enable that individual to make sound professional judgments regarding groundwater monitoring, contaminant fate and transport, and corrective action.

"RCRA" means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 USC § 6901 et seq.), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984, and any other applicable amendments to these laws.

"Reclaimed material" means a material that is processed or reprocessed to recover a usable product or is regenerated to a usable form.

"Refuse" means all solid waste products having the character of solids rather than liquids and that are composed wholly or partially of materials such as garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, residues from clean up of spills or contamination, or other discarded materials.

"Refuse-derived fuel (RDF)" means a type of municipal solid waste produced by processing municipal solid waste through shredding and size classification. This includes all classes of refuse-derived fuel including low-density fluff refuse-derived fuel through densified refuse-derived fuel and pelletized refuse-derived fuel.

"Regulated hazardous waste" means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60), that is not excluded from those regulations as a hazardous waste.

"Regulated medical waste" means solid wastes so defined by the Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-120) as promulgated by the Virginia Waste Management Board.

"Release" means, for the purpose of this chapter, any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injection, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment solid wastes or hazardous constituents of solid wastes (including the abandonment or discarding of barrels, containers, and other closed receptacles containing solid waste). This definition does not include any release that results in exposure to persons solely within a workplace; release of source, byproduct, or special nuclear material from a nuclear incident, as those terms are defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 923); and the normal application of fertilizer. For the purpose of this chapter, release also means substantial threat of release.

"Remediation waste" means all solid waste, including all media (groundwater, surface water, soils, and sediments) and debris, that are managed for the purpose of remediating a site in accordance with 9VAC20-81-45 or Part III (9VAC20-81-100 et seq.) of this chapter or under the Voluntary Remediation Regulations (9VAC20-160) or other regulated remediation program under DEQ oversight. For a given facility, remediation wastes may originate only from within the boundary of that facility, and may include wastes managed as a result of remediation beyond the boundary of the facility. Hazardous wastes as defined in 9VAC20-60, as well as "new" or "as generated" wastes, are excluded from this definition.

"Remediation waste management unit" or "RWMU" means an area within a facility that is designated by the director for the purpose of implementing remedial activities required under this chapter or otherwise approved by the director. An RWMU shall only be used for the management of remediation wastes pursuant to implementing such remedial activities at the facility.

"Responsible official" means one of the following:

1. For a business entity, such as a corporation, association, limited liability company, or cooperative: a duly authorized representative of such business entity if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more operating facilities applying for or subject to a permit. The authority to sign documents must be assigned or delegated to such representative in accordance with procedures of the business entity;

2. For a partnership or sole proprietorship: a general partner or the proprietor, respectively; or

3. For a municipality, state, federal, or other public agency: a duly authorized representative of the locality if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more operating facilities applying for or subject to a permit. The authority to sign documents must be assigned or delegated to such representative in accordance with procedures of the locality.

"Rubbish" means combustible or slowly putrescible discarded materials that include but are not limited to trees, wood, leaves, trimmings from shrubs or trees, printed matter, plastic and paper products, grass, rags and other combustible or slowly putrescible materials not included under the term "garbage."

"Runoff" means any rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over land from any part of a solid waste management facility.

"Run-on" means any rainwater, wastewater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over land onto any part of the solid waste management facility.

"Salvage" means the authorized, controlled removal of waste materials from a solid waste management facility.

"Sanitary landfill" means an engineered land burial facility for the disposal of household waste that is so located, designed, constructed, and operated to contain and isolate the waste so that it does not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment. A sanitary landfill also may receive other types of solid wastes, such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, hazardous waste from conditionally exempt very small quantity generators, construction demolition debris, and nonhazardous industrial solid waste.

"Saturated zone" means that part of the earth's crust in which all voids are filled with water.

"Scavenging" means the unauthorized or uncontrolled removal of waste materials from a solid waste management facility.

"Scrap metal" means metal parts such as bars, rods, wire, empty containers, or metal pieces that are discarded material and can be used, reused, or reclaimed.

"Secondary containment" means an enclosure into which a container or tank is placed for the purpose of preventing discharge of wastes to the environment.

"Seismic impact zone" means an area with a 10% or greater probability that the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth material, expressed as a percentage of the earth's gravitational pull (g), will exceed 0.10g in 250 years.

"Semiannual" means an interval corresponding to approximately 180 days. For the purposes of scheduling monitoring activities, sampling within 30 days of the 180-day interval will be considered semiannual.

"Site" means all land and structures, other appurtenances, and improvements on them used for treating, storing, and disposing of solid waste. This term includes adjacent land within the facility boundary used for the utility systems such as repair, storage, shipping or processing areas, or other areas incident to the management of solid waste.

"Sludge" means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste generated from a municipal, commercial or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility exclusive of treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.

"Small landfill" means a landfill that disposed of 100 tons/day or less of solid waste during a representative period prior to October 9, 1993, and did not dispose of more than an average of 100 tons/day of solid waste each month between October 9, 1993, and April 9, 1994.

"Solid waste" means any of those materials defined as "solid waste" in 9VAC20-81-95.

"Solid waste disposal facility" means a solid waste management facility at which solid waste will remain after closure.

"Solid waste management facility" or "SWMF" means a site used for planned treating, storing, or disposing of solid waste. A facility may consist of several treatment, storage, or disposal units.

"Special wastes" means solid wastes that are difficult to handle, require special precautions because of hazardous properties, or the nature of the waste creates waste management problems in normal operations. (See Part VI (9VAC20-81-610 et seq.) of this chapter.)

"Speculatively accumulated material" means any material that is accumulated before being used, reused, or reclaimed or in anticipation of potential use, reuse, or reclamation. Materials are not being accumulated speculatively when they can be used, reused, or reclaimed, have a feasible means of use, reuse, or reclamation available and 75% of the materials accumulated are being removed from the facility annually.

"State waters" means all water, on the surface and under the ground, wholly or partially within, or bordering the Commonwealth, or within its jurisdiction.

"Storage" means the holding of waste, at the end of which the waste is treated, disposed, or stored elsewhere.

"Structural fill" means an engineered fill with a projected beneficial end use, constructed using soil or fossil fuel combustion products, when done in accordance with this chapter, spread and compacted with proper equipment, and covered with a vegetated soil cap.

"Sudden event" means a one-time, single event such as a sudden collapse or a sudden, quick release of contaminants to the environment. An example would be the sudden loss of leachate from an impoundment into a surface stream caused by failure of a containment structure.

"Surface impoundment" or "impoundment" means a facility or part of a facility that is a natural topographic depression, man-made excavation, or diked area formed primarily of earthen materials (although it may be lined with man-made materials), that is designed to hold an accumulation of liquid wastes or wastes containing free liquids and that is not an injection well.

"Surface waters" means all state waters that are not groundwater as defined in § 62.1-255 of the Code of Virginia.

"SW-846" means Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods, EPA Publication SW-846, Second Edition, 1982 as amended by Update I (April, 1984), and Update II (April, 1985) and the third edition, November, 1986, as amended.

"Tank" means a stationary device, designed to contain an accumulation of liquid or semi-liquid components of solid waste that is constructed primarily of nonearthen materials that provide structural support.

"TEF" or "Toxicity Equivalency Factor" means a factor developed to account for different toxicities of structural isomers of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and to relate them to the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin.

"Terminal" means the location of transportation facilities such as classification yards, docks, airports, management offices, storage sheds, and freight or passenger stations, where solid waste that is being transported may be loaded, unloaded, transferred, or temporarily stored.

"Thermal treatment" means the treatment of solid waste in a device that uses elevated temperature as the primary means to change the chemical, physical, or biological character, or composition of the solid waste.

"Tire chip" means a material processed from waste tires that is a nominal two square inches in size, and ranges from 1/4 inch to four inches in any dimension. Tire chips contain no wire protruding more than 1/4 inch.

"Tire shred" means a material processed from waste tires that is a nominal 40 square inches in size, and ranges from four inches to 10 inches in any dimension.

"Transfer station" means any solid waste storage or collection facility at which solid waste is transferred from collection vehicles to haulage vehicles for transportation to a central solid waste management facility for disposal, incineration, or resource recovery.

"Trash" means combustible and noncombustible discarded materials and is used interchangeably with the term rubbish.

"Treatment" means, for the purpose of this chapter, any method, technique, or process, including but not limited to incineration, designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of any waste to render it more stable, safer for transport, or more amenable to use, reuse, reclamation, recovery, or disposal.

"Underground source of drinking water" means an aquifer or its portion:

1. Which contains water suitable for human consumption; or

2. In which the groundwater contains less than 10,000 mg/liter total dissolved solids.

"Unit" means a discrete area of land used for the disposal of solid waste.

"Unstable area" means a location that is susceptible to natural or human-induced events or forces capable of impairing the integrity of some or all of the landfill structural components responsible for preventing releases from a landfill. Unstable areas can include poor foundation conditions, areas susceptible to mass movements, and karst terranes.

"Uppermost aquifer" means the geologic formation nearest the natural ground surface that is an aquifer, as well as, lower aquifers that are hydraulically interconnected with this aquifer within the facility boundary.

"Used or reused material" means a material that is either:

1. Employed as an ingredient (including use as an intermediate) in a process to make a product, excepting those materials possessing distinct components that are recovered as separate end products; or

2. Employed in a particular function or application as an effective substitute for a commercial product or natural resources.

"Vector" means a living animal, insect, or other arthropod that transmits an infectious disease from one organism to another.

"Vegetative waste" means decomposable materials generated by yard and lawn care or land-clearing activities and includes, but is not limited to, leaves, grass trimmings, woody wastes such as shrub and tree prunings, bark, limbs, roots, and stumps.

"Vermicomposting" means the controlled and managed process by which live worms convert organic residues into fertile excrement.

"Vertical design capacity" means the maximum design elevation specified in the facility's permit or if none is specified in the permit, the maximum elevation based on a 3:1 slope from the waste disposal unit boundary.

"Very small quantity generator" means a generator of hazardous waste as defined in 40 CFR 260.10 as incorporated by reference in 9VAC20-60-260 that generates less than or equal to the following amounts in a calendar month: (i) 100 kilograms of nonacute hazardous waste; (ii) one kilogram of acute hazardous waste; and (iii) 100 kilograms of any residue or contaminated soil, water, or other debris resulting from the cleanup of a spill into or on any land or water of acute hazardous waste.

"VPDES" (Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) means the Virginia system for the issuance of permits pursuant to the Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31), the State Water Control Law (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq. of the Code of Virginia), and § 402 of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.).

"Washout" means carrying away of solid waste by waters of the base flood.

"Waste-derived fuel product" means a solid waste or combination of solid wastes that have been treated (altered physically, chemically, or biologically) to produce a fuel product with a minimum heating value of 5,000 BTU/lb. Solid wastes used to produce a waste-derived fuel product must have a heating value, or act as binders, and may not be added to the fuel for the purpose of disposal. Waste ingredients may not be listed or characteristic hazardous wastes. The fuel product must be stable at ambient temperature, and not degraded by exposure to the elements. This material may not be "refuse derived fuel (RDF)" as defined in 9VAC5-40-890.

"Waste management boundary" means the vertical plane located at the boundary line of the area approved in the Part A application for the disposal of solid waste and storage of leachate. This vertical plane extends down into the uppermost aquifer and is within the facility boundary.

"Waste pile" means any noncontainerized accumulation of nonflowing, solid waste that is used for treatment or storage.

"Waste tire" means a tire that has been discarded because it is no longer suitable for its original intended purpose because of wear, damage or defect. (See 9VAC20-150 for other definitions dealing with the waste tire program.)

"Wastewaters" means, for the purpose of this chapter, wastes that contain less than 1.0% by weight total organic carbon (TOC) and less than 1.0% by weight total suspended solids (TSS).

"Water pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of any state water as will or is likely to create a nuisance or render such waters:

1. Harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare, or to the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life or plants;

2. Unsuitable, with reasonable treatment, for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or

3. Unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses, provided that:

a. An alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of state waters or a discharge or deposit of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters by any owner that by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution but which in combination with such alteration or discharge or deposit to state waters by other persons is sufficient to cause pollution;

b. The discharge of untreated sewage by any person into state waters; and

c. The contribution to the degradation of water quality standards duly established by the State Water Control Board, are "pollution" for the terms and purposes of this chapter.

"Water table" means the upper surface of the zone of saturation in groundwaters in which the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

"Waters of the United States" or "waters of the U.S." means:

1. All waters that are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

2. All interstate waters, including interstate "wetlands";

3. All other waters such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mud flats, sand flats, "wetlands," sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including:

a. Any such waters that are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;

b. Any such waters from which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce;

c. Any such waters that are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;

d. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as waters of the United States under this definition;

e. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 3 a through d of this definition;

f. The territorial sea; and

g. Wetlands adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified in subdivisions 3 a through f of this definition.

"Wetlands" means those areas that are defined by the federal regulations under 33 CFR Part 328, as amended.

"White goods" means any stoves, washers, hot water heaters, and other large appliances.

"Working face" means that area within a landfill that is actively receiving solid waste for compaction and cover.

"Yard waste" means a subset of vegetative waste and means decomposable waste materials generated by yard and lawn care and includes leaves, grass trimmings, brush, wood chips, and shrub and tree trimmings. Yard waste shall not include roots or stumps that exceed 12 inches in diameter.

9VAC20-81-95

9VAC20-81-95. Identification of solid waste.

A. Wastes identified in this section are solid wastes that are subject to this chapter unless regulated pursuant to other applicable regulations issued by the department.

B. Except as otherwise provided, the definition of solid waste per 40 CFR 261.2 as incorporated by 9VAC20-60-261, as amended, is also hereby incorporated as part of this chapter. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are a part of 9VAC20-60-261, as amended, are also hereby incorporated as part of this chapter as well.

C. Except as otherwise modified or excepted by 9VAC20-60, the materials listed in the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR 261.4(a) are considered a solid waste for the purposes of this chapter. However, these materials are not regulated under the provisions of this chapter if all conditions specified therein are met. This list and all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are part of 40 CFR Part 261.4(a), as incorporated, modified or accepted by 9VAC20-60 are incorporated as part of this chapter. In addition, the following materials are not solid wastes for the purpose of this chapter:

1. Materials generated by any of the following, which are returned to the soil as fertilizers:

a. The growing and harvesting of agricultural crops.

b. The raising and husbanding of animals, including animal manures and used animal bedding.

2. Mining overburden returned to the mine site.

3. Recyclable materials used in manner constituting disposal per 9VAC20-60-266.

4. Wood wastes burned for energy recovery.

5. Materials that are:

a. Used or reused, or prepared for use or reuse, as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product, or as effective substitutes for commercial products or natural resources provided the materials are not being reclaimed or accumulated speculatively; or

b. Returned to the original process from which they are generated.

6. Materials that are beneficially used as determined by the department under this subsection. The department may consider other waste materials and uses to be beneficial in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC20-81-97.

7. The following materials and uses listed in this part are exempt from this chapter as long as they are managed so that they do not create an open dump, hazard, or public nuisance. These materials and the designated use are considered a beneficial use of waste materials:

a. Clean wood, wood chips, or bark from land clearing, logging operations, utility line clearing and maintenance operations, pulp and paper production, and wood products manufacturing, when these materials are placed in commerce for service as mulch, landscaping, animal bedding, erosion control, habitat mitigation, wetlands restoration, or bulking agent at a compost facility operated in compliance with Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter;

b. Clean wood combustion residues when used for pH adjustment in compost, liquid absorbent in compost, or as a soil amendment or fertilizer, provided the application rate of the wood ash is limited to the nutrient need of the crop grown on the land on which the wood combustion residues will be applied and provided that such application meets the requirements of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2VAC5-400 and 2VAC5-410);

c. Compost that satisfies the applicable requirements of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (2VAC5-400 and 2VAC5-410);

d. Nonhazardous, contaminated soil that has been excavated as part of a construction project and that is used as backfill for the same excavation or excavations containing similar contaminants at the same site, at concentrations at the same level or higher. Excess contaminated soil from these projects is subject to the requirements of this chapter;

e. Nonhazardous petroleum contaminated soil that has been treated to the satisfaction of the department in accordance with 9VAC20-81-660;

f. Nonhazardous petroleum contaminated soil when incorporated into asphalt pavement products;

g. Solid wastes that are approved in advance of the placement, in writing, by the department or that are specifically mentioned in the facility permit for use as alternate daily cover material or other protective materials for landfill liner or final cover system components;

h. Fossil fuel combustion products that are not CCR when used as a material in the manufacturing of another product (e.g., concrete, concrete products, lightweight aggregate, roofing materials, plastics, paint, flowable fill) or as a substitute for a product or material resource (e.g., blasting grit, roofing granules, filter cloth pre-coat for sludge dewatering, pipe bedding);

i. Tire chips and tire shred when used as a sub-base fill for road base materials or asphalt pavements when approved by the Virginia Department of Transportation or by a local governing body;

j. Tire chips, tire shred, and ground rubber used in the production of commercial products such as mats, pavement sealers, playground surfaces, brake pads, blasting mats, and other rubberized commercial products;

k. Tire chips and tire shred when used as backfill in landfill gas or leachate collection pipes, recirculation lines, and drainage material in landfill liner and cover systems, and gas interception or remediation applications;

l. Waste tires, tire chips or tire shred when burned for energy recovery or when used in pyrolysis, gasification, or similar treatment process to produce fuel;

m. Waste-derived fuel product, as defined in 9VAC20-81-10, derived from nonhazardous solid waste;

n. Uncontaminated concrete and concrete products, asphalt pavement, brick, glass, soil, and rock placed in commerce for service as a substitute for conventional aggregate; and

o. Clean, ground gypsum wallboard when used as a soil amendment or fertilizer, provided the following conditions are met:

(1) No components of the gypsum wallboard have been glued, painted, or otherwise contaminated from manufacture or use (e.g., waterproof or fireproof drywall) unless otherwise processed to remove contaminants.

(2) The gypsum wallboard shall be processed so that 95% of the gypsum wallboard is less than 1/4 inch by 1/4 inch in size, unless an alternate size is approved by the department.

(3) The gypsum wallboard shall be applied only to agricultural, silvicultural, landscaped, or mined lands or roadway construction sites that need fertilization.

(4) The application rate for the ground gypsum wallboard shall not exceed the following rates.

 

Region

Rate

 

Piedmont, Mountains, and Ridge and Valley

250 lbs/1,000 ft2

 

Coastal Plain

50 lbs/1,000 ft2

 

Note: These weights are for dry ground gypsum wallboard.

D. The following activities are conditionally exempt from this chapter provided no open dump, hazard, or public nuisance is created:

1. Composting of sewage sludge at the sewage treatment plant of generation without addition of other types of solid wastes.

2. Composting of household waste generated at a residence and composted at the site of generation.

3. Composting activities performed for educational purposes as long as no more than 100 cubic yards of materials are onsite at any time. Greater quantities will be allowed with suitable justification presented to the department. For quantities greater than 100 cubic yards, approval from the department will be required prior to composting.

4. Composting of animal carcasses onsite at the farm of generation.

5. Composting of vegetative waste or yard waste generated onsite by owners or operators of agricultural operations or owners of the real property or those authorized by the owners of the real property provided:

a. All decomposed vegetative waste and compost produced is utilized on said property;

b. No vegetative waste or other waste material generated from other sources other than said property is received;

c. All applicable standards of local ordinances that govern or concern vegetative waste handling, composting, storage or disposal are satisfied; and

d. They pose no nuisance or present no potential threat to human health or the environment.

6. Composting of yard waste by owners or operators who accept yard waste generated offsite shall be exempt from all other provisions of this chapter as applied to the composting activities provided the requirements of 9VAC20-81-397 B are met.

7. Composting of preconsumer food waste and kitchen culls generated onsite and composted in containers designed to prohibit vector attraction and prevent nuisance odor generation.

8. Vermicomposting, when used to process Category I, Category II, or Category III feedstocks in containers designed to prohibit vector attraction and prevent nuisance odor generation. If offsite feedstocks are received no more than 100 cubic yards of materials may be onsite at any one time. For quantities greater than 100 cubic yards, approval from the department will be required prior to composting.

9. Composting of sewage sludge or combinations of sewage sludge with nonhazardous solid waste provided the composting facility is permitted under the requirements of a Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) or VPDES permit.

10. Management of solid waste in appropriate containers at the site of its generation, provided that:

a. Putrescible waste is not stored more than seven days between time of collection and time of removal for disposal;

b. Nonputrescible wastes are not stored more than 90 days between time of collection and time of removal for proper management; and

c. Treatment of waste is conducted in accordance with the following:

(1) In accordance with a waste analysis plan that:

(a) Contains a detailed chemical and physical analysis of a representative sample of the waste being treated and contains all records necessary to treat the waste in accordance with the requirements of this part, including the selected testing frequency; and

(b) Is kept in the facility's onsite file and made available to the department upon request.

(2) Notification is made to the receiving waste management facility that the waste has been treated.

11. Using rocks, brick, block, dirt, broken concrete, crushed glass, porcelain, and road pavement as clean fill.

12. Storage of less than 100 waste tires at the site of generation provided that no waste tires are accepted from offsite and that the storage will not present a hazard or a nuisance.

13. Storage in piles of land-clearing debris including stumps and brush, clean wood wastes, log yard scrapings consisting of a mixture of soil and wood, cotton gin trash, peanut hulls, and similar organic wastes that do not readily decompose, are exempt from this chapter if they meet the following conditions at a minimum:

a. The wastes are managed in the following manner:

(1) They do not cause discharges of leachate, or attract vectors.

(2) They cannot be dispersed by wind and rain.

(3) Fire is prevented.

(4) They do not become putrescent.

b. Any facility storing waste materials under the provisions of this subsection shall obtain a stormwater discharge permit if they are considered a significant source under the provisions of 9VAC25-31-120 A 1 c.

c. No more than a total of 1/3 acre of waste material is stored onsite and the waste pile does not exceed 15 feet in height above base grade.

d. Siting provisions.

(1) All log yard scrapings consisting of a mixture of soil and wood, cotton gin trash, peanut hulls, and similar organic wastes that do not readily decompose are stored at the site of the industrial activity that produces them;

(2) A 50-foot fire break is maintained between the waste pile and any structure or tree line;

(3) The slope of the ground within the area of the pile and within 50 feet of the pile does not exceed 4:1;

(4) No waste material may be stored closer than 50 feet to any regularly flowing surface water body or river, floodplain, or wetland; and

(5) No stored waste materials shall extend closer than 50 feet to any property line.

e. If activities at the site cease, any waste stored at the site must be properly managed in accordance with these regulations within 90 days. The director can approve longer timeframes with appropriate justification. Justification must be provided in writing no more than 30 days after ceasing activity at the site.

f. Waste piles that do not meet these provisions are required to obtain a permit in accordance with the permitting provisions in Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter and meet all of the applicable waste pile requirements in Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter. Facilities that do not comply with the provisions of this subsection and fail to obtain a permit are subject to the provisions of 9VAC20-81-40.

14. Storage of nonhazardous solid wastes and hazardous wastes, or hazardous wastes from conditionally exempt very small quantity generators as defined in Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60) at a transportation terminal or transfer station in closed containers meeting the U.S. Department of Transportation specifications is exempt from this section and the permitting provisions of Part V (9VAC20-81-400 et seq.) of this chapter provided such wastes are removed to a permitted storage or disposal facility within 10 days from the initial receipt from the waste generator. To be eligible for this exemption, each shipment must be properly documented to show the name of the generator, the date of receipt by the transporter, and the date and location of the final destination of the shipment. The documentation shall be kept at the terminal or transfer station for at least three years after the shipment has been completed and shall be made available to the department upon request. All such activities shall comply with any local ordinances.

15. Open burning of solid wastes as provided in the following:

a. For forest management, agriculture practices, and highway construction and maintenance programs approved by the State Air Pollution Control Board.

b. For training and instruction of government and public firefighters under the supervision of the designated official and industrial in-house firefighting personnel with clearance from the local firefighting authority. Buildings that have not been demolished may be burned under the provisions of this subdivision only. Additionally, burning rubber tires, asphaltic materials, crankcase oil, impregnated wood, or other rubber-based or petroleum-based wastes is permitted when conducting bona fide firefighting instruction.

c. For the destruction of classified military documents under the supervision of the designated official.

d. For campfires or other fires using clean wood or vegetative waste that are used solely for recreational purposes, for ceremonial occasions, for outdoor preparation of food, and for warming of outdoor workers.

e. For the onsite destruction of vegetative waste located on the premises of private property, provided that no regularly scheduled collection service for such vegetative waste is available at the adjacent street or public road.

f. For the onsite destruction of household waste by homeowners or tenants, provided that no regularly scheduled collection service for such household waste is available at the adjacent street or public road.

g. For the onsite destruction of clean wood waste and debris waste resulting from property maintenance; from the development or modification of roads and highways, parking areas, railroad tracks, pipelines, power and communication lines, buildings or building areas, sanitary landfills; or from any other clearing operations.

16. Open burning of vegetative waste is allowed at a closed landfill that has not been released from postclosure care. The activity shall be included in the text of the postclosure plan and conducted in accordance with § 10.1-1410.3 of the Code of Virginia.

17. Placement of trees, brush, or other vegetation from land used for agricultural or silvicultural purposes on the same property or other property of the same landowner.

18. Using fossil fuel combustion products that are not CCR in one or more of the following applications or when handled, processed, transported, or stockpiled for the following uses:

a. As a base, sub-base or fill material under a paved road, the footprint of a structure, a paved parking lot, sidewalk, walkway or similar structure, or in the embankment of a road. In the case of roadway embankments, materials will be placed in accordance with Virginia Department of Transportation specifications, and exposed slopes not directly under the surface of the pavement must have a minimum of 18 inches of soil cover over the fossil fuel combustion products, the top six inches of which must be capable of sustaining the growth of indigenous plant species or plant species adapted to the area. The use, reuse, or reclamation of unamended coal combustion byproduct shall not be placed in an area designated as a 100-year flood plain;

b. Processed with a cementitious binder to produce a stabilized structural fill product that is spread and compacted with proper equipment for the construction of a project with a specified end use; or

c. For the extraction or recovery of materials and compounds contained within the fossil fuel combustion products.

E. The following solid wastes are exempt from this chapter provided that they are managed in accordance with the requirements promulgated by other applicable state or federal agencies:

1. Management of wastes regulated by the State Board of Health, the State Water Control Board, the Air Pollution Control Board, the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, or any other state or federal agency with such authority.

2. Drilling fluids, produced waters, and other wastes associated with the exploration, development, or production of crude oil, natural gas, or geothermal energy.

3. Solid waste from the extraction, beneficiation, and processing of ores and minerals, including coal.

4. Fossil fuel combustion products used for mine reclamation, mine subsidence, or mine refuse disposal on a mine site permitted by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy (DMME) when used in accordance with the standards.

5. Solid waste management practices that involve only the onsite placing of solid waste from mineral mining activities at the site of those activities and in compliance with a permit issued by the DMME, that do not include any municipal solid waste, are accomplished in an environmentally sound manner, and do not create an open dump, hazard or public nuisance are exempt from all requirements of this chapter.

6. Waste or byproduct derived from an industrial process that meets the definition of fertilizer, soil amendment, soil conditioner, or horticultural growing medium as defined in § 3.2-3600 of the Code of Virginia, or whose intended purpose is to neutralize soil acidity (see § 3.2-3700 of the Code of Virginia), and that is regulated under the authority of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

7. Fossil fuel combustion products bottom ash or boiler slag used as a traction control material or road surface material if the use is consistent with Virginia Department of Transportation practices. This exemption does not apply to CCR used in this manner.

8. Waste tires generated by and stored at salvage yards licensed by the Department of Motor Vehicles provided that such storage complies with requirements set forth in § 10.1-1418.2 of the Code of Virginia and such storage does not pose a hazard or nuisance.

9. Tire chips used as the drainage material in construction of septage drain fields regulated under the authority of the Virginia Department of Health.

F. The following solid wastes are exempt from this chapter provided that they are reclaimed or temporarily stored incidentally to reclamation, are not accumulated speculatively, and are managed without creating an open dump, hazard, or a public nuisance:

1. Paper and paper products;

2. Clean wood waste that is to undergo size reduction in order to produce a saleable product, such as mulch;

3. Cloth;

4. Glass;

5. Plastics;

6. Tire chips, tire shred, ground rubber; and

7. Mixtures of above materials only. Such mixtures may include scrap metals excluded from regulation in accordance with the provisions of subsection C of this section.

9VAC20-81-250

9VAC20-81-250. Groundwater monitoring program.

A. General requirements.

1. Applicability.

a. Existing landfills. Owners or operators of all existing landfills shall be in compliance with the groundwater monitoring requirements specified in this section, except as provided for in subdivision 1 c of this subsection. Owners or operators of landfills that were permitted prior to December 21, 1988, but were closed in accordance with the requirements of their permit or existing regulation prior to December 21, 1988, are not required to be in compliance with the groundwater monitoring requirements specified in this section, unless conditions are recognized that classify the landfill as an Open Dump as defined under 9VAC20-81-45.

b. New landfills. Owners or operators of new facilities shall be in compliance with the groundwater monitoring requirements specified in this section before waste can be placed in the landfill except as provided for in subdivision 1 c of this subsection.

c. No migration potential exemption. Groundwater monitoring requirements under this section may be suspended by the director if the owner or operator can demonstrate that there is no potential for migration of any Table 3.1 constituents to the uppermost aquifer during the active life and the postclosure care period of the landfill. This demonstration shall be certified by a qualified groundwater scientist and shall be based upon:

(1) Site-specific field collected measurements including sampling and analysis of physical, chemical, and biological processes affecting contaminant fate and transport; and

(2) Contaminant fate and transport predictions that maximize contaminant migration and consider impacts on human health and the environment.

2. General requirements.

a. Purpose. Owners or operators shall install, operate, and maintain a groundwater monitoring system that is capable of determining the landfill's impact on the quality of groundwater in the uppermost aquifer at the disposal unit boundary during the active life and postclosure care period of the landfill.

b. Program requirements. The groundwater monitoring program shall meet the requirements of subdivision 3 of this subsection and comply with all other applicable requirements of this section.

c. Director authority. The groundwater monitoring and reporting requirements set forth here are minimum requirements. The director may require, by modifying the permit as allowed under 9VAC20-81-600 E, any owner or operator to install, operate, and maintain a groundwater monitoring system and conduct a monitoring program that contains requirements more stringent than this chapter imposes whenever it is determined that such requirements are necessary to protect human health and the environment.

3. Groundwater monitoring system.

a. System requirements. A groundwater monitoring system shall be installed consisting of a sufficient number of monitoring wells, at appropriate locations and depths, capable of yielding sufficient quantities of groundwater for sampling and analysis purposes from the uppermost aquifer that:

(1) Represent the quality of background groundwater that has not been affected by a release from the landfill; and

(2) Represent the quality of groundwater at the disposal unit boundary. The downgradient monitoring system shall be installed at the disposal unit boundary in a manner that ensures detection of groundwater contamination in the uppermost aquifer unless a variance has been granted by the director under 9VAC20-81-740.

(3) When physical obstacles preclude installation of groundwater monitoring wells at the disposal unit boundary, the downgradient monitoring wells may be installed at the closest practicable distance hydraulically downgradient from the boundary in locations that ensure detection of groundwater contamination in the uppermost aquifer.

b. Multiunit systems. The director may approve a groundwater monitoring system that covers multiple waste disposal units instead of requiring separate groundwater monitoring systems for each unit when the landfill has several units, provided the multiunit groundwater monitoring system meets the requirement of subdivision 3 of this subsection and can be demonstrated to be equally protective of human health and the environment as individual monitoring systems. The system for each waste disposal unit would be based on the following factors:

(1) Number, spacing, and orientation of the waste disposal units;

(2) Hydrogeologic setting;

(3) Site history;

(4) Engineering design of the waste disposal units; and

(5) Type of waste accepted at the waste disposal units.

c. Well construction. All monitoring wells shall be of a size adequate for sampling and shall be cased and grouted in a manner that maintains the integrity of the monitoring well bore hole. This casing shall be screened or perforated, and packed with gravel or sand where necessary, to enable sample collection at depths where appropriate aquifer flow zones exist. The annular space above the sampling depth shall be sealed with a suitable material to prevent contamination of samples and the groundwater.

d. Boring logs. A log shall be made of each newly installed monitoring well describing the soils or rock encountered, and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units (formations) encountered. A copy of the final log(s) with appropriate maps, including at a minimum a site plan showing the location of all monitoring wells, the total depth of monitoring well, the location of the screened interval, the top and bottom of sand or gravel pack, and the top and bottom of the seal shall be sent to the department with the certification required under subdivision 3 g of this subsection.

e. Well maintenance. The monitoring wells, piezometers, and other groundwater measurement, sampling, and analytical devices shall be operated and maintained in a manner that allows them to perform to design specifications throughout the duration of the groundwater monitoring program. Nonfunctioning monitoring wells must be replaced or repaired upon recognition of damage or nonperformance. Well repair or replacement shall be coordinated with the department prior to initiating the action.

f. Network specifics. The network shall include at least one upgradient monitoring well and at least three downgradient monitoring wells. The number, spacing, and depths of monitoring wells included in a landfill's network shall be determined based on:

(1) Site-specific technical information that shall include thorough characterization by the owner or operator of:

(a) The thickness of any unsaturated geologic units or fill materials that may overlay the uppermost aquifer;

(b) The thickness and description of materials comprising the uppermost aquifer;

(c) Materials comprising the confining unit defining the lower boundary of the uppermost aquifer, including, but not limited to, thicknesses, stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivities, porosities, and effective porosities; and

(d) the calculated groundwater flow rate and direction within the uppermost aquifer including any seasonal and temporal fluctuations in groundwater flow.

(2) The lateral spacing between downgradient monitoring wells based on site-specific information supplied under subdivision 3 f (1) of this subsection.

g. Monitoring well certification. The groundwater monitoring well(s) shall, within 30 days of well(s) installation, be certified by a qualified groundwater scientist noting that all wells have been installed in accordance with the documentation submitted under subdivision 3 d of this subsection. Within 14 days of completing this certification, the owner or operator shall transmit the certification to the department.

4. The groundwater sampling and analysis requirements for the groundwater monitoring system are as follows:

a. Quality assurance and control. The groundwater monitoring program shall include consistent field sampling and laboratory analysis procedures that are designed to ensure monitoring results that provide an accurate representation of the groundwater quality at the background and downgradient wells. At a minimum the program shall include procedures and techniques for:

(1) Sample collection;

(2) Sample preservation and shipment;

(3) Analytical procedures;

(4) Chain of custody control; and

(5) Quality assurance and quality control.

b. Analytical methods. The groundwater monitoring program shall include sampling and analytical methods that are appropriate for groundwater sampling and that accurately measure solid waste constituents in groundwater samples. Groundwater samples obtained pursuant to 9VAC20-81-250 B or C shall not be filtered prior to laboratory analysis. The sampling, analysis and quality control/quality assurance methods set forth in EPA document SW-846, as amended, shall be used. The department may require re-sampling if it believes the samples were not properly sampled or analyzed.

c. Groundwater rate and flow. Groundwater elevations at each monitoring well shall be determined immediately prior to purging each time a sample is obtained. The owner or operator shall determine the rate and direction of groundwater flow each time groundwater is sampled pursuant to subsection B or C of this section or 9VAC20-81-260. Groundwater elevations in wells that monitor the same waste disposal unit or units shall be measured within a period of time short enough to avoid temporal variations, which could preclude accurate determination of groundwater flow rate and direction.

d. Background data. The owner or operator shall establish background groundwater quality in a hydraulically upgradient or background well, or wells, for each of the monitoring parameters or constituents required in the particular groundwater monitoring program that applies to the landfill. Background groundwater quality may be established at wells that are not located hydraulically upgradient from the landfill if they meet the requirements of subdivision 4 e of this subsection.

e. Alternate well provision. A determination of background quality may be based on sampling of wells that are not upgradient from the waste disposal unit or units where:

(1) Hydrogeologic conditions do not allow the owner or operator to determine what wells are upgradient; and

(2) Sampling at these wells will provide an indication of background groundwater quality that is as representative or more representative than that provided by the upgradient wells.

f. Sampling and statistics. The number of samples collected to establish groundwater quality data shall be consistent with the appropriate statistical procedures determined pursuant to subdivision 4 g of this subsection.

g. Statistical methods. The owner or operator shall specify in the Groundwater Monitoring Plan the statistical method(s) listed in subsection D of this section that will be used in evaluating groundwater monitoring data for each monitoring constituent. The statistical test(s) chosen shall be applied separately for each groundwater constituent in each well after each individual sampling event required under subdivision B 2 or 3, C 2 or 3, or as required under 9VAC20-81-260 E 1.

h. Evaluation and response. After each sampling event required under subsection B or C of this section, the owner or operator shall determine whether or not there is a statistically significant increase over background values for each groundwater constituent required in the particular groundwater monitoring program by comparing the groundwater quality of each constituent at each monitoring well installed pursuant to subdivision 3 a of this subsection to the background value of that constituent. In determining whether a statistically significant increase has occurred, the owner or operator shall:

(1) Ensure the sampling result comparisons are made according to the statistical procedures and performance standards specified in subsection D of this section;

(2) Ensure that within 30 days of completion of sampling and laboratory analysis actions, the determination of whether there has been a statistically significant increase over background at each monitoring well has been completed; and

(3) If identified, the statistically significant increase shall be reported to the department within the notification timeframes identified in subsection B or C of this section and discussed in the quarterly or semi-annual report submission described under subdivision E 2 c of this section. Notifications qualified as being "preliminary," "suspect," "unverified," or otherwise not a final determination of a statistical exceedance will not be accepted.

i. Verification sampling. The owner or operator may at any time within the 30-day statistically significant increases determination period defined under subdivision A 4 h (2) of this section, obtain verification samples if the initial review of analytical data suggests results that might not be an accurate reflection of groundwater quality at the disposal unit boundary. Undertaking verification sampling is a voluntary action on the part of the owner or operator and shall not alter the timeframes associated with determining or reporting a statistically significant increase as otherwise defined under subdivision A 4 h (2), B 2 or 3, or C 2 or 3 of this section.

j. Data validation. The owner or operator may at any time within the 30-day statistically significant increases determination period defined under subdivision A 4 h (2) of this subsection, undertake third-party data validation of the analytical data received from the laboratory. Undertaking such validation efforts is a voluntary action on the part of the owner or operator and shall not alter the timeframes associated with determining or reporting a statistically significant increase as otherwise defined under subdivision A 4 h (2), B 2 or 3, or C 2 or 3 of this section.

5. Alternate source demonstration allowance.

a. Allowance. As a result of any statistically significant increase identified while monitoring groundwater under subdivision B 2 or 3, or C 2 or 3 of this section, or at anytime within the Corrective Action process under 9VAC20-81-260, the owner or operator has the option of submitting an Alternate Source Demonstration report, certified by a qualified groundwater scientist, demonstrating:

(1) A source other than the landfill caused the statistical exceedance;

(2) The exceedance resulted from error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation; or

(3) The exceedance resulted from a natural variation in groundwater quality.

b. Timeframes. A successful demonstration must be made within 90 days of noting a statistically significant increase. The director may approve a longer timeframe for submittal and approval of the Alternate Source Demonstration with appropriate justification.

c. Evaluation and response. Based on the information submitted in accordance with subdivision 5 a of this subsection, the director will:

(1) In the case of the successful demonstration of an error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation, allow the owner or operator to continue monitoring groundwater in accordance with the monitoring program in place at the time of the statistical exceedance.

(2) In the case of a successful demonstration of an alternate source for the release or natural variability in the aquifer matrix:

(a) Require changes in the groundwater monitoring system as needed to accurately reflect the groundwater conditions and allow the owner or operator to continue monitoring groundwater in accordance with the monitoring program in place at the time of the statistical exceedance;

(b) Require any changes to the monitoring system be completed prior to the next regularly scheduled groundwater monitoring event or within 90 days (whichever is greater); and

(c) Require any changes to the monitoring system be approved via the modification process under 9VAC20-81-600 within 90 days of the approval of the alternate source demonstration.

(3) In the case of an unsuccessful Alternate Source Demonstration, require the owner or operator to initiate the actions that would otherwise be required as a result of the statistically significant increase noted under subdivision B 2 or 3, or C 2 or 3 of this section as appropriate.

6. Establishment of groundwater protection standards.

a. Requirement. Upon recognition of a statistically significant increase over background and while monitoring in the Assessment or Phase II monitoring programs defined under subdivision B 3 or C 3 of this section, the owner or operator shall propose a groundwater protection standard for all detected Table 3.1 Column B constituents. The proposed standards shall be submitted to the department by a qualified groundwater scientist and be accompanied by relevant historical groundwater sampling data to justify the proposed concentration levels.

b. Establishment process. The groundwater protection standards shall be established in the following manner:

(1) For constituents for which a maximum contaminant level (MCL) has been promulgated under § 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR Part 141), the MCL for that constituent shall be automatically established as the groundwater protection standard upon submission of the proposed standards.

(2) If the owner or operator determines that a site-specific background concentration is greater than the MCL associated with that constituent under subdivision 6 b (1) of this subsection, the background value may be substituted for use as the groundwater protection standard in lieu of the MCL for that constituent upon receiving written department approval.

(3) For constituents for which no MCL has been promulgated, site-specific background concentration value(s) may be used upon receiving written department approval.

(4) For constituents for which no MCL has been promulgated, a risk-based alternate concentration levels may be used if approved by the director as long as:

(a) The owner or operator submits a request to the department asking for approval to use risk-based alternate concentration levels for a specific list of constituents and identifies that these constituents lack an MCL. In the request the owner or operator shall specify whether site-specific, independently calculated, risk-based alternate concentration levels will be applied, or if the facility will accept the default department-provided limits.

(b) The alternate concentration levels that may be provided as default values by the department and those independently calculated by the owner or operator are demonstrated to meet the following criteria or factors before they can be used as groundwater protection standards:

(i) Groundwater quality - The potential for adverse quality effects considering the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the landfill, its potential for migration in the aquifer; the hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land; the rate and direction of groundwater flow; the proximity and withdrawal rates of groundwater users; the current and future uses of groundwater in the area; the existing quality of groundwater, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the groundwater quality.

(ii) Human exposure - Potential for health risks caused by exposure to waste constituents released from the landfill using federal guidelines for assessing the health risks of environmental pollutants; scientifically valid studies conducted in accordance with the Toxic Substances Control Act Good Laboratory Practice Standards (40 CFR Part 792); or equivalent standards. For carcinogens, the alternate concentration levels must be set based on a lifetime cancer risk level due to continuous lifetime exposure within the 1x10-4 to 1x10-6 range. For systemic toxicants, alternate concentration levels must be demonstrated to be levels to which the human population (including sensitive subgroups) could be exposed to on a daily basis without the likelihood of appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.

(iii) Surface water - The potential adverse effect on hydraulically connected surface water quality based on the volume, physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the landfill; the hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land; the rate and direction of groundwater flow; the patterns of rainfall in the region; the proximity of the landfill to surface waters; the current and future uses of surface waters in the area and any water quality standards established for those surface waters; the existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface water quality.

(iv) Other adverse effects - Potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents; the persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects; and the potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents using factors shown in subdivision b (4) (b) (ii) of this subsection.

(5) In making any determination regarding the use of alternate concentration levels under this section, the director will:

(a) Consider any identification of underground sources of drinking water as identified by EPA under 40 CFR 144.7,

(b) Consider additional or modified monitoring requirements or control measures,

(c) Include a schedule for the periodic review of the alternate concentration levels, or

(d) Approve the alternate concentration levels as proposed or issue modified alternate concentration levels.

c. Implementation. Groundwater protection standards shall be considered established for the facility upon completion of the actions described under either subdivision A 6 b (1), (2), (3) or if necessary (4) and shall be placed in the facility Operating Record and shall be used during subsequent comparisons of groundwater sampling data consistent with the requirements of subdivision B 3 f or C 3 e of this section.

d. MCL and background revisions. After establishment of groundwater protection standards under subdivision B 6 b, if the standards are modified as a result of revisions to any MCL or department-approved background, the facility shall update its listing of groundwater protection standards and shall place the new list in the Operating Record and shall use the new values during subsequent comparisons of sampling data consistent with the requirements of subdivision B 3 f or C 3 e of this section.

e. Alternate concentration levels revisions. After establishment of groundwater protection standards under subdivision B 6 b of this section, if the department-approved alternate concentration levels change based on information released by EPA, to the extent practical, the department will issue revisions to the alternate concentration levels for facility use no more often than an annual basis. The facility shall use the alternate concentration levels listing in effect at the time the sampling event takes place when comparing the results against the groundwater protection standards under subdivision B 3 f or C 3 e of this section.

B. Monitoring for sanitary landfills.

1. Applicability.

a. Existing facilities. Except for those sanitary landfills identified in subdivision C 1 of this section, existing sanitary landfill facilities and closed facilities that have accepted waste on or after October 9, 1993, and in the case of 'small' landfills on or after April 9, 1994, shall be in compliance with the detection monitoring requirements specified in subdivision 2 of this subsection unless existing sampling data requires a move to assessment monitoring described under subdivision 3 of this subsection.

b. New facilities. Facilities placed in operation to receive waste after October 9, 1993, shall be in compliance with the detection monitoring requirements specified in subdivision 2 of this section before waste can be placed in the landfill unless existing sampling data requires a move to assessment monitoring described under subdivision 3 of this subsection.

c. Closed facilities. Unless an extension to the deadline above has been granted by the director, closed facilities that have ceased to accept any waste on or before October 9, 1993, and in the case of a "small" landfill, before April 9, 1994, may comply with the "State Monitoring Program" monitoring requirements specified in subdivision C 2 or 3 of this section.

d. Other facilities. Owners or operators of disposal facilities not subject to the federal groundwater monitoring requirements prescribed under 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258 must perform the groundwater monitoring described in subdivision C 2 or 3 of this section.

e. Proximity to wetlands. Owners or operators of sanitary landfills that accepted waste after June 30, 1999, must:

(1) Perform quarterly groundwater monitoring unless the director determines that less frequent monitoring is necessary consistent with the requirements of the special provisions regarding wetlands in § 10.1-1408.5 of the Code of Virginia.

(2) The quarterly monitoring frequency shall remain in effect until the department is notified waste is no longer being accepted at the sanitary landfill.

(3) This requirement will not limit the authority of the Waste Management Board or the director to require more frequent groundwater monitoring if required to protect human health and the environment.

(4) For purposes of this subdivision "proximity to wetlands" shall be defined as landfills that were constructed on a wetland, have a potential hydrologic connection to such a wetland in the event of an escape of liquids from the facility, or are within a mile of such a wetland.

2. Detection monitoring program.

a. Sampling requirements. All sanitary landfills shall implement detection monitoring except as otherwise provided in subdivision 1 of this subsection. The monitoring frequency for all constituents listed in Table 3.1 Column A shall be as follows:

(1) Initial sampling period.

(a) For facilities that monitor groundwater on a semi-annual basis, a minimum of four independent samples from each well (background and downgradient) shall be collected and analyzed for the Table 3.1 Column A constituents during the first semi-annual sampling period. A semi-annual period is defined under 9VAC20-81-10.

(b) For facilities that monitor groundwater on a quarterly basis as a result of subdivision 1 e of this subsection, a minimum of four samples from each well (background and downgradient) shall be collected and analyzed for the Table 3.1 Column A constituents. The samples shall be collected within the first quarterly period, using a schedule that ensures, to the greatest extent possible, an accurate calculation of background concentrations.

(2) Subsequent sampling events. At least one sample from each well (background and downgradient) shall be collected and analyzed during subsequent semi-annual or quarterly events during the active life and postclosure period. Data from subsequent background sampling events may be added to the previously calculated background data so that the facility maintains the most accurate representation of background groundwater quality with which to carry out statistical analysis required under subdivision A 4 h of this section.

(3) Alternate sampling events. The director may specify an appropriate alternate frequency for repeated sampling and analysis during the active life (including closure) and the postclosure care period. The alternate frequency during the active life (including closure) and the postclosure period shall be no less than annual. The alternate frequency shall be based on consideration of the following factors:

(a) Lithology of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(b) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(c) Groundwater flow rates;

(d) Minimum distance between upgradient edge of the disposal unit boundary and downgradient monitoring well screen (minimum distance of travel); and

(e) Resource value of the aquifer.

b. Evaluation and response. If the owner or operator determines under subdivision A 4 h of this section, that there is:

(1) A statistically significant increase over background as determined by a method meeting the requirements of subsection D of this section, for one or more of the constituents listed in Table 3.1 Column A at any of the monitoring wells at the disposal unit boundary during any detection monitoring sampling event, the owner or operator shall:

(a) Within 14 days of this finding, notify the department of this fact, indicating which constituents have shown statistically significant increases over background levels; and

(b) Within 90 days, (i) establish an assessment monitoring program meeting the requirements of subdivision 3 of this subsection, or (ii) submit an Alternate Source Demonstration as specified in subdivision A 5 of this section. If, after 90 days, a successful demonstration has not been made, the owner or operator shall initiate an assessment monitoring program as otherwise required in subdivision 3 of this subsection. The 90-day Alternate Source Demonstration period may be extended by the director for good cause.

(2) No statistically significant increase over background as determined by a method meeting the requirements of subsection D of this section, for any of the constituents listed in Table 3.1 Column A at any of the monitoring wells at the disposal unit boundary during any detection monitoring sampling event; the owner or operator may remain in detection monitoring and include a discussion of the sampling results and statistical analysis in the semi-annual or quarterly report required under subdivision E 2 c of this section.

3. Assessment monitoring program. The owner or operator shall implement the assessment monitoring program whenever a statistically significant increase over background has been detected during monitoring conducted under the detection monitoring program.

a. Sampling requirements. Within 90 days of recognizing a statistically significant increase over background for one or more of the constituents listed in Table 3.1 Column A, the owner or operator shall, unless in receipt of an approval to an Alternate Source Demonstration under subdivision A 5 of this section or a director-approved extension, conduct the initial assessment monitoring sampling event for the constituents found in Table 3.1 Column B. A minimum of one sample from each well installed under subdivision A 3 a of this section shall be collected and analyzed during the initial and all subsequent annual Table 3.1 Column B sampling events.

b. Director provisions:

(1) The owner or operator may request that the director approve an appropriate subset of monitoring wells that may remain in detection monitoring defined under subdivision 2 of this subsection, based on the results of the initial, or subsequent annual Table 3.1 Column B sampling events. Monitoring wells may be considered for the subset if:

(a) They show no detections of Table 3.1 Column B constituents other than those already previously detected in detection monitoring defined under subdivision 2 of this subsection; and

(b) They display no statistically significant increases over background for any constituents on the Table 3.1 Column A list. If an increase is subsequently recognized in a well approved for the subset, the well shall no longer be considered part of the detection monitoring subset.

(2) The owner or operator may request the director delete any of the Table 3.1 Column B monitoring constituents from the assessment monitoring program if the owner or operator demonstrates that the deleted constituents are not reasonably expected to be in or derived from the waste.

(3) The director may specify an appropriate alternate frequency for repeated sampling and analysis for the full set of Table 3.1 Column B constituents required by subdivision 3 a of this subsection during the active life and postclosure care period based on the consideration of the following factors:

(a) Lithology of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(b) Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and unsaturated zone;

(c) Groundwater flow rates;

(d) Minimum distance between upgradient edge of the disposal unit boundary and downgradient monitoring well screen (minimum distance of travel);

(e) Resource value of the aquifer; and

(f) Nature (fate and transport) of any constituents detected in response to subdivision 3 f of this subsection.

c. Development of background. After obtaining the results from the initial or subsequent annual sampling events required in subdivision 3 a of this subsection, the owner or operator shall:

(1) Within 14 days, notify the department identifying the Table 3.1 Column B constituents that have been detected;

(2) Within 90 days, and on at least a semi-annual basis thereafter, resample all wells installed under subdivision A 3 a of this section, conduct analyses for all constituents in Table 3.1 Column A as well as those constituents in Column B that are detected in response to subdivision 3 a of this subsection and subsequent Table 3.1 Column B sampling events as may be required of this section, and report this data in the semi-annual or quarterly report defined under subdivision E 2 c of this section;

(3) Within 180 days of the initial sampling event, establish background concentrations for any Table 3.1 Column B constituents detected pursuant to subdivision B 3 a of this subsection. A minimum of four independent samples from each well (background and downgradient) shall be collected and analyzed to establish background for the detected constituents.

d. Establishment of groundwater protection standards. Within 30 days of establishing background under subdivision 3 c (3) of this subsection, submit proposed groundwater protection standards for all constituents detected under Assessment monitoring. The groundwater protection standards shall be approved by the director in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 6 of this section.

e. Groundwater monitoring plan. No later than 60 days after approval of the groundwater protection standards in accordance with subdivision A 6 of this section, the owner or operator shall submit an updated Groundwater Monitoring Plan that details the site monitoring well network and sampling and analysis procedures undertaken during groundwater monitoring events. The owner or operator shall additionally:

(1) No later than 30 days after the submission of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan, request a permit modification to incorporate the plan and related groundwater monitoring modules into the landfill's permit in accordance with 9VAC20-81-600. The department may waive the requirement for a permit modification if the Groundwater Monitoring Plan included in the landfill's permit reflects current site conditions in accordance with the regulations.

(2) If the 30-day timeframe specified in subdivision 3 e (1) of this subsection is exceeded, the director will modify the permit in accordance with 9VAC20-81-600 E.

f. Evaluation and response.

(1) If the concentrations of all Table 3.1 Column B constituents are shown to be at or below background values, using the statistical procedures in subsection D of this section, for two consecutive Table 3.1 Column B sampling events, the owner or operator shall notify the director of this finding in the semi-annual or quarterly monitoring report and may return to detection monitoring defined under subdivision 2 of this subsection.

(2) If the concentrations of any Table 3.1 Column B constituents are found to be above background values, but below the groundwater protection standards established under subdivision A 6 of this section using the statistical procedures in subsection D of this section, the owner or operator shall continue in assessment monitoring in accordance with this section and present the findings to the department in the semi-annual or quarterly report.

(3) If one or more Table 3.1 Column B constituents are detected at statistically significant levels above the groundwater protection standard established under subdivision A 6 of this section using the statistical procedures in subsection D of this section, the owner or operator shall:

(a) Within 14 days of this finding, notify the department identifying the Table 3.1 Column B constituents that have exceeded the groundwater protection standard. The notification will include a statement that within 90 days the owner or operator will either:

(i) Undertake characterization and assessment actions required under 9VAC20-81-260 C 1; or

(ii) Submit an Alternate Source Demonstration as specified in subdivision A 5 of this section. If a successful demonstration is made within 90 days, the owner or operator may continue monitoring in accordance with the assessment monitoring program pursuant to subdivision 3 of this subsection. If the 90-day period passes without demonstration approval, the owner or operator shall comply with the actions under 9VAC20-81-260 C within the timeframes specified unless the director has granted an extension to those timeframes.

(b) Describe the results in the semi-annual or quarterly report.

C. Monitoring for CDD, industrial, and State Monitoring Program sanitary landfills.

1. Applicability.

a. Sanitary landfills. Owners or operators of sanitary disposal facilities that have ceased to accept solid waste prior to the federally imposed deadline of October 9, 1993, or in the case of a "small landfill" before April 9, 1994, are eligible, with the director's approval, to conduct the state groundwater monitoring program described in this section in lieu of the groundwater monitoring program required under subdivision B 2 or 3 of this section.

b. CDD and industrial landfills. Owners or operators of CDD and industrial landfills not subject to the federal groundwater monitoring requirements prescribed under 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258 shall perform the groundwater monitoring described in this section.

c. Other landfills. All other landfills excluding sanitary landfills, including those that accepted hazardous waste from conditionally exempt very small quantity generators after July 1, 1998, shall perform the groundwater monitoring described in this section.

2. First determination monitoring program.

a. Sampling requirements. A first determination monitoring program shall consist of a background-establishing period followed by semi-annual sampling and analysis for the constituents shown in Table 3.1 Column A at all wells installed under subdivision A 3 a of this section. Within 14 days of each event during first determination monitoring, notify the department identifying the Table 3.1 Column A constituents that have been detected.

b. Development of background. Within 360 days of the initial first determination sampling event:

(1) Establish background concentrations for any constituents detected pursuant to subdivision 2 a of this subsection.

(a) A minimum of four independent samples from each well (background and downgradient) shall be collected and analyzed to establish background concentrations for the detected constituents using the procedures in subsection D of this section.

(b) In those cases where new wells are installed downgradient of waste disposal units that already have received waste, but these wells have not yet undergone their initial sampling event, collection of four independent samples for background development will not be required.

(2) Within 30 days of completing the background calculations required under subdivision 2 b (1) (a) of this subsection, submit a first determination report, signed by a qualified groundwater scientist, to the department which must include a summary of the background concentration data developed during the background sampling efforts as well as the statistical calculations for each constituent detected in the groundwater during the background sampling events.

c. Semi-annual sampling and analysis. Within 90 days of the last sampling event during the background-establishing period and at least semi-annually thereafter, sample each monitoring well in the compliance network for analysis of the constituents in Table 3.1 Column A.

d. Evaluation and response. Upon determination of site background under subdivision 2 b (1) (a) of this subsection, the results of all subsequent first determination monitoring events shall be assessed as follows:

(1) If no Table 3.1 Column A constituents are found to have entered the groundwater at statistically significant levels over background, the owner or operator shall:

(a) Remain in first determination monitoring; and

(b) May request the director delete any Table 3.1 Column A constituents from the semi-annual sampling list if the owner or operator demonstrates that the proposed deleted constituents are not reasonably expected to be in or derived from the waste.

(2) If the owner or operator recognizes a statistically significant increase over background for any Table 3.1 Column A constituent, within 14 days of this finding, the owner or operator shall notify the department identifying the Table 3.1 Column A constituents that have exceeded background levels. The notification will include a statement that within 90 days the owner or operator shall:

(a) Initiate a Phase II sampling program; or

(b) Submit an Alternate Source Demonstration under subdivision A 5 of this section.

(3) If a successful demonstration is made and approved within the timeframes established under subdivision A 5 of this section, the owner or operator may remain in First Determination monitoring.

(4) If a successful demonstration is not made and approved within the timeframes established under subdivision A 5 of this section, the owner or operator shall initiate Phase II monitoring in accordance with the timeframes in subdivision C 3 of this section. The director may approve a longer timeframe with appropriate justification.

3. Phase II monitoring.

a. Sampling requirements. The owner or operator shall:

(1) Within 90 days of noting the exceedance over background determined under subdivision C 2 d of this section, sample the groundwater in all monitoring wells installed under subdivision A 3 a of this section for all Table 3.1 Column B constituents;

(2) After completing the initial Phase II sampling event, continue to sample and analyze groundwater on a semi-annual basis within the Phase II monitoring program;

b. Background development. If no additional Table 3.1 Column B constituents are detected other than those previously detected under Column A, which already have established their background levels, the owner or operator shall follow the requirements under subdivision 3 c of this subsection regarding groundwater protection standard establishment while continuing to sample for the Table 3.1 Column A list on a semi-annual basis. If one or more additional Table 3.1 Column B constituents are detected during the initial Phase II sampling event:

(1) Within 360 days, establish a background value for each additional detected Table 3.1 Column B constituent.

(2) Submit a Phase II Background report within 30 days of completing the background calculations including a summary of the background concentration data for each constituent detected in the groundwater during the Table 3.1 Column B background sampling events.

(3) If any detected Table 3.1 Column B constituent is subsequently not detected for a period of two years, the owner or operator may petition the director to delete the constituent from the list of detected Table 3.1 Column B constituents that must be sampled semi-annually.

c. Establishment of groundwater protection standards. No later than:

(1) Thirty days after submitting the Phase II Background report required under the provisions of subdivision 3 b (2) of this subsection, or within 30 days of obtaining the results from the initial Table 3.1 Column B sampling event indicating no further sampling for background determination is necessary, the owner or operator shall propose a groundwater protection standard for all detected Table 3.1 constituents.

(2) The groundwater protection standard proposed shall be established in a manner consistent with the provisions in subdivision A 6 of this section.

d. Groundwater monitoring plan. No later than 60 days after establishment of groundwater protection standards in accordance with subdivision A 6 of this section, the owner or operator shall submit an updated Groundwater Monitoring Plan that details the site monitoring well network and sampling and analysis procedures undertaken during groundwater monitoring events. The department may waive the requirement for an updated plan if the Groundwater Monitoring Plan included in the landfill's permit reflects current site conditions in accordance with the regulations.

(1) No later than 30 days after the submission of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan, the owner or operator shall request a permit modification to incorporate the updated plan and related groundwater monitoring modules into the landfill's permit in accordance with 9VAC20-81-600.

(2) If the 30-day timeframe specified in subdivision 3 d (1) of this subsection is exceeded, the director will modify the permit in accordance with 9VAC20-81-600 E.

e. Evaluation and response. After each subsequent Phase II monitoring event following establishment of groundwater protection standards, the concentration of Table 3.1 Column B constituents found in the groundwater at each monitoring well installed pursuant to subdivision A 3 a of this section will be evaluated against the groundwater protection standards. The evaluation will be presented to the department in a semi-annual Phase II report. The evaluation will be as follows:

(1) If all Table 3.1 constituents are shown to be at or below background values, using the statistical procedures in subsection D of this section, for two consecutive Table 3.1 Column B sampling events, the owner or operator shall notify the director of this finding in the semi-annual report and may return to first determination monitoring;

(2) If any Table 3.1 Column B constituents are found to be above background values, but are below the established groundwater protection standard using the statistical procedures in subsection D of this section, the owner or operator shall continue semi-annual Phase II monitoring and present the findings in a semi-annual report;

(3) If one or more Table 3.1 Column B constituents are above the established groundwater protection standard using the statistical procedures in subsection D of this section, the owner or operator shall:

(a) Notify the department within 14 days of this finding. The notification will include a statement that within 90 days the owner or operator will either: (i) undertake the characterization and assessment actions required under 9VAC20-81-260 C 1; or (ii) submit an alternate source demonstration as specified in subdivision A 5 of this section. If a successful demonstration is made within 90 days, the owner or operator may continue monitoring in accordance with Phase II monitoring program. If the 90-day period is exceeded, the owner or operator shall comply with the timeframes of 9VAC20-81-260 C unless the director has granted an extension to those timeframes; and

(b) Present the findings in the semi-annual report.

D. Statistical methods and constituent lists.

1. Acceptable test methods. The following statistical test methods may be used to evaluate groundwater monitoring data:

a. A parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons procedures to identify statistically significant evidence of contamination. The method must include estimation and testing of the contrasts between each compliance well's mean and the background mean levels for each constituent.

b. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by multiple comparisons procedures to identify statistically significant evidence of contamination. The method must include estimation and testing of the contrasts between each compliance well's median and the background median levels for each constituent.

c. A tolerance or prediction interval procedure in which an interval for each constituent is established from the distribution of the background data, and the level of each constituent in each compliance well is compared to the upper tolerance or prediction limit.

d. A control chart approach that gives control limits for each constituent.

e. Another statistical test method that meets the performance standards specified below. Based on the justification submitted to the department, the director may approve the use of an alternative test. The justification must demonstrate that the alternative method meets the performance standards in subdivision 2 of this subsection.

2. Performance standards. Any statistical method chosen by the owner or operator shall comply with the following performance standards, as appropriate:

a. The statistical method used to evaluate groundwater monitoring data shall be appropriate for the distribution of monitoring parameters or constituents. If the distribution is shown by the owner or operator to be inappropriate for a normal theory test, then the data shall be transformed or a distribution-free theory test shall be used. If the distributions for the constituents differ, more than one statistical method may be needed.

b. If an individual well comparison procedure is used to compare an individual compliance well constituent concentration with background constituent concentrations or a groundwater protection standard, the test shall be done at a Type I error level no less than 0.01 for each testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experiment-wise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05; however, the Type I error of no less than 0.01 for individual well comparisons must be maintained.

c. If a control chart approach is used to evaluate groundwater monitoring data, the specific type of control chart and its associated parameter values shall be protective of human health and the environment. The parameters shall be determined after considering the number of samples in the background data base, the data distribution, and the range of the concentration values for each constituent of concern.

d. If a tolerance interval or a predictional interval is used to evaluate groundwater monitoring data, the levels of confidence and, for tolerance intervals, the percentage of the population that the interval must contain, shall be protective of human health and the environment. These parameters shall be determined after considering the number of samples in the background data base, the data distribution, and the range of the concentration values for each constituent of concern.

e. The statistical method shall account for data below the limit of detection with one or more statistical procedures that are protective of human health and the environment. Any estimated quantitation limit (EQL) that is used in the statistical method shall be the lowest concentration level that can be reliably achieved within specified limits of precision and accuracy during routine laboratory operating conditions that are available to the landfill.

f. If necessary, the statistical method shall include procedures to control or correct for seasonal and spatial variability as well as temporal correlation in the data.

E. Recordkeeping and reporting.

1. Records pertaining to groundwater monitoring activities shall be retained at a specified location by the owner or operator throughout the active life and postclosure care period of the landfill, and shall include at a minimum:

a. All historical groundwater surface elevation data obtained from wells installed pursuant to subdivision A 3 a of this section;

b. All historical laboratory analytical results for groundwater sampling events required under the groundwater monitoring programs as described in this section;

c. All records of well installation, repair, or abandonment actions;

d. All department correspondence to the landfill; and

e. All approved variances, well subsets, wetlands, or other such director/department approvals.

2. Reporting requirements.

a. Annual report.

(1) An Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report shall be submitted by the owner or operator to the department no later than 120 days from the completion of sampling and analysis conducted under subdivision A 4 h of this section for the second semi-annual event or fourth quarterly event during each calendar year and shall by accompanied by:

(a) A signature page; and

(b) A completed QA/QC DEQ Form ARSC-01.

(2) The technical content of the annual report shall at a minimum, contain the following topical content:

(a) The landfill's name, type, permit number, current owner or operator, and location keyed to a USGS topographic map;

(b) Summary of the design type (i.e., lined versus unlined), operational history (i.e., trench fill versus area fill), and size (acres) of the landfill including key dates such as beginning and termination of waste disposal actions and dates different groundwater monitoring phases were entered;

(c) Description of the surrounding land use noting whether any adjoining land owners utilize private wells as a potable water source;

(d) A discussion of the topographic, geologic, and hydrologic setting of the landfill including a discussion on the nature of the uppermost aquifer (i.e., confined versus unconfined) and proximity to surface waters;

(e) A discussion of the monitoring wells network noting any modifications that were made to the network during the year or any nonperformance issues and a statement noting that the monitoring well network meets (or did not meet) the requirements of subdivision A 3 of this section;

(f) A listing of the groundwater sampling events undertaken during the previous calendar year;

(g) A historical table listing the detected constituents, and their concentrations identified in each well during the sampling period; and

(h) Evaluations of and appropriate responses to the groundwater elevation data; groundwater flow rate as calculated using the prior years elevation data; groundwater flow direction (as illustrated on a potentiometric surface map); and sampling and analytical data obtained during the past calendar year.

b. Semi-annual or quarterly report.

(1) After each sampling event has been completed for the 1st semi-annual or first, second and third quarterly groundwater sampling events, a semi-annual or quarterly monitoring report shall be submitted under separate cover by the owner or operator to the department no later than 120 days from the completion of sampling and analysis conducted under subdivision A 4 h of this section, unless as allowed under a director-approved extension. The report shall at a minimum contain the following items:

(a) Signature page signed by a professional geologist or qualified groundwater scientist;

(b) Landfill name and permit number;

(c) Statement noting whether or not all monitoring points within the permitted network installed to meet the requirements of subdivision A 3 a of this section were sampled as required under subdivision B 2 or 3 or C 2 or 3 during the event;

(d) Calculated rate of groundwater flow during the sampling period as required under subdivision A 4 c of this section;

(e) The groundwater flow direction as determined during the sampling period as required under subdivision A 4 c of this section presented as either plain text or graphically as a potentiometric surface map;

(f) Statement noting whether or not there were statistically significant increases over background or groundwater protection standards during the sampling period, the supporting statistical calculations, and reference to the date the director was notified of the increase pursuant to timeframes in subdivision B 2 or 3 or C 2 or 3, if applicable;

(g) Copy of the full Laboratory Analytical Report including dated signature page (laboratory manager or representative) to demonstrate compliance with the timeframes of subdivision A 4 h of this section. The department will accept the lab report in CD-ROM format.

(2) In order to reduce the reporting burden on the owner or operator and potential redundancy within the operating record, a discussion of the second semi-annual or fourth quarterly sampling event results may be presented in the Annual Report submission.

c. Other submissions. Statistically significant increase notifications, well certifications, the first determination report, alternate source demonstration, nature and extent study, assessment of corrective measures, presumptive remedy proposal, corrective action plan or monitoring plan, or other such report or notification types as may be required under 9VAC20-81-250 or 9VAC20-81-260, shall be submitted in a manner which achieves the timeframe requirements as listed in 9VAC20-81-250 or 9VAC20-81-260.

TABLE 3.1
GroundWater Solid Waste Constituent Monitoring List

Column A – Common Name1, 2

Column B – Common Name1, 2

CAS RN3

 

Acenaphthene

83-32-9

 

Acenaphthylene

208-96-8

Acetone

Acetone

67-64-1

 

Acetonitrile; Methyl cyanide

75-05-8

 

Acetophenone

98-86-2

 

2-Acetylaminofluorene; 2-AAF

53-96-3

 

Acrolein

107-02-8

Acrylonitrile

Acrylonitrile

107-13-1

 

Aldrin

309-00-2

 

Allyl chloride

107-05-1

 

4-Aminobiphenyl

92-67-1

 

Anthracene

120-12-7

Antimony

Antimony

(Total)

Arsenic

Arsenic

(Total)

Barium

Barium

(Total)

Benzene

Benzene

71-43-2

 

Benzo[a]anthracene; Benzanthracene

56-55-3

 

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

205-99-2

 

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

207-08-9

 

Benzo[ghi]perylene

191-24-2

 

Benzo[a]pyrene

50-32-8

 

Benzyl alcohol

100-51-6

Beryllium

Beryllium

(Total)

 

alpha-BHC

319-84-6

 

beta-BHC

319-85-7

 

delta-BHC

319-86-8

 

gamma-BHC; Lindane

58-89-9

 

Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane

111-91-1

 

Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether; Dichloroethyl ether

111-44-4

 

Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether; 2, 2'-Dichlorodiisopropyl ether; DCIP

108-60-1, See note 4

 

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

117-81-7

Bromochloromethane;.Chlorobromomethane

Bromochloromethane;.Chlorobromomethane

74-97-5

Bromodichloromethane;.Dibromochloromethane

Bromodichloromethane;.Dibromochloromethane

75-27-4

Bromoform; Tribromomethane

Bromoform; Tribromomethane

75-25-2

 

4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether

101-55-3

 

Butyl benzyl phthalate; Benzyl butyl phthalate

85-68-7

Cadmium

Cadmium

(Total)

Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide

75-15-0

Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride

56-23-5

 

Chlordane

Note 5

 

p-Chloroaniline

106-47-8

Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene

108-90-7

 

Chlorobenzilate

510-15-6

 

p-Chloro-m-cresol; 4-Chloro-3-methylphenol

59-50-7

Chloroethane; Ethyl chloride

Chloroethane; Ethyl chloride

75-00-3

Chloroform; Trichloromethane

Chloroform; Trichloromethane

67-66-3

 

2-Chloronaphthalene

91-58-7

 

2-Chlorophenol

95-57-8

 

4-Chlorophenyl phenyl ether

7005-72-3

 

Chloroprene

126-99-8

Chromium

Chromium

(Total)

 

Chrysene

218-01-9

Cobalt

Cobalt

(Total)

Copper

Copper

(Total)

 

m-Cresol; 3-methyphenol

108-39-4

 

o-Cresol; 2-methyphenol

95-48-7

 

p-Cresol; 4-methyphenol

106-44-5

 

Cyanide

57-12-5

 

2,4-D; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

94-75-7

 

4,4'-DDD

72-54-8

 

4,4'-DDE

72-55-9

 

4,4'-DDT

50-29-3

 

Diallate

2303-16-4

 

Dibenz[a,h]anthracene

53-70-3

 

Dibenzofuran

132-64-9

Dibromochloromethane; Chlorodibromomethane

Dibromochloromethane; Chlorodibromomethane

124-48-1

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane; DBCP

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane; DBCP

96-12-8

1,2-Dibrimoethane; Ethylene dibromide; EDB

1,2-Dibrimoethane; Ethylene dibromide; EDB

106-93-4

 

Di-n-butyl phthalate

84-74-2

o-Dichlorobenzene; 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

o-Dichlorobenzene; 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

95-50-1

 

m-Dichlorobenzene; 1,3-Dichlorobenzene

541-73-1

p-Dichlorobenzene; 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

p-Dichlorobenzene; 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

106-46-7

 

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine

91-94-2

trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene

trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene

110-57-6

 

Dichlorodifluoromethane; CFC 12;

75-71-8

1.1-Dichloroethane; Ethylidene chloride

1,1-Dichloroethane; Ethylidene chloride

75-34-3

1,2-Dichloroethane; Ethylene dichloride

1,2-Dichloroethane; Ethylene dichloride

107-06-2

1,1-Dichloroethylene; 1,1-Dichloroethene; Vinylidene chloride

1,1-Dichloroethylene; 1,1-Dichloroethene; Vinylidene chloride

75-35-4

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene; cis-1,2-Dichloroethene

cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene; cis-1,2-Dichloroethene

156-59-2

trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene; trans-1,2-Dichroroethene

156-60-5

 

2,4-Dichlorophenol

120-83-2

 

2,6-Dichlorophenol

87-65-0

1,2-Dichloropropane; Propylene dichloride

1,2-Dichloropropane; Propylene dichloride

78-87-5

 

1,3-Dichloropropane; Trimethylene dichloride

142-28-9

 

2, 2-Dichloropropane; isopropylidene chloride

594-20-7

 

1,1-Dichloropropene

563-58-6

cis-1,3-Dichloropropene

cis-1,3-Dichloropropene

10061-01-5

trans-1,3-Dichloropropene

trans-1,3-Dichloropropene

10061-02-6

 

Dieldrin

60-57-1

 

Diethyl phthalate

84-66-2

 

O,O-Diethyl O-2-pyrazinyl phosphorothioate; Thionazin

297-97-2

 

Dimethoate

60-51-5

 

p-(Dimethylamino)azobenzene

60-11-7

 

7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

57-97-6

 

3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine

119-93-7

 

2,4-Dimethylphenol; m-Xylenol

105-67-9

 

Dimethyl phthalate

131-11-3

 

m-Dinitrobenzene

99-65-0

 

4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol; 4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol

534-52-1

 

2,4-Dinitrophenol

51-28-5

 

2,4-Dinitrotoluene

121-14-2

 

2,6-Dinitrotoluene

606-20-2

 

Dinoseb; DNBP; 2-sec-Butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol

88-85-7

 

Di-n-octyl phthalate

117-84-0

 

Diphenylamine

122-39-4

 

Disulfoton

298-04-4

 

Endosulfan I

959-96-8

 

Endosulfan II

33213-65-9

 

Endosulfan sulfate

1031-07-8

 

Endrin

72-20-8

 

Endrin aldehyde

7421-93-4

Ethylbenzene

Ethylbenzene

100-41-4

 

Ethyl methacrylate

97-63-2

 

Ethylmethanesulfonate

62-50-0

 

Famphur

52-85-7

 

Fluoranthene

206-44-0

 

Fluorene

86-73-7

 

Heptachlor

76-44-8

 

Heptachlor epoxide

1024-57-3

 

Hexachlorobenzene

118-74-1

 

Hexachlorobutadiene

87-68-3

 

Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

77-47-4

 

Hexachloroethane

67-72-1

 

Hexachloropropene

1888-71-7

2-Hexanone; Methyl butyl ketone

2-Hexanone; Methyl butyl ketone

591-78-6

 

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

193-39-5

 

Isobutyl alcohol

78-83-1

 

Isodrin

465-73-6

 

Isophorone

78-59-1

 

Isosafrole

120-58-1

 

Kepone

143-50-0

Lead

Lead

(Total)

 

Mercury

(Total)

 

Methacrylonitrile

126-98-7

 

Methapyrilene

91-80-5

 

Methoxychlor

72-43-5

Methyl bromide; Bromomethane

Methyl bromide; Bromomethane

74-83-9

Methyl chloride; Chloromethane

Methyl chloride; Chloromethane

74-87-3

 

3-Methylcholanthrene

56-49-5

Methyl ethyl ketone; MEK; 2-Butanone

Methyl ethyl ketone; MEK; 2-Butanone

78-93-3

Methyl iodide; Iodomethane

Methyl iodide; Iodomethane

74-88-4

 

Methyl methacrylate

80-62-6

 

Methyl methanesulfonate

66-27-3

 

2-Methylnaphthalene

91-57-6

 

Methyl parathion; Parathion methyl methyl

298-00-0

4-Methyl-2-pentanone; Methyl isobutyl ketone

4-Methyl-2-pentanone; Methyl isobutyl ketone

108-10-1

Methylene bromide; Dibromomethane

Methylene bromide; Dibromomethane

74-95-3

Methylene chloride; Dichloromethane

Methylene chloride; Dichloromethane

75-09-2

 

Naphthalene

91-20-3

 

1,4-Naphthoquinone

130-15-4

 

1- Naphthylamine

134-32-7

 

2-Napthylamine

91-59-8

Nickel

Nickel

(Total)

 

o-Nitroaniline; 2-Nitroaniline

88-74-4

 

m-Nitroaniline; 3-Nitroaniline

99-09-2

 

p-Nitroaniline; 4-Nitroaniline

100-01-6

 

Nitrobenzene

98-95-3

 

o-Nitrophenol; 2-Nitrophenol

88-75-5

 

p-Nitrophenol; 4-Nitrophenol

100-02-7

 

N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine

924-16-3

 

N-Nitrosodiethylamine

55-18-5

 

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

62-75-9

 

N-Nitrosodiphenylamine

86-30-6

 

N-Nitrosodipropylamine; N-Nitroso-N-dipropylamine; Di-n-propylnitrosamine

621-64-7

 

N-Nitrosomethylethalamine

10595-95-6

 

N-Nitrosopiperidine

100-75-4

 

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine

930-55-2

 

5-Nitro-o-toluidine

99-55-8

 

Parathion

56-38-2

 

Pentachlorobenzene

608-93-5

 

Pentachloronitrobenzene

82-68-8

 

Pentachlorophenol

87-86-5

 

Phenacetin

62-44-2

 

Phenanthrene

85-01-8

 

Phenol

108-95-2

 

p-Phenylenediamine

106-50-3

 

Phorate

298-02-2

 

Polychlorinated biphenyls; PCBS; Aroclors

Note 6

 

Pronamide

23950-58-5

 

Propionitrile; Ethyl cyanide

107-12-0

 

Pyrene

129-00-0

 

Safrole

94-59-7

Selenium

Selenium

(Total)

Silver

Silver

(Total)

 

Silvex; 2,4,5-TP

93-72-1

Styrene

Styrene

100-42-5

 

Sulfide

18496-25-8

 

2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

93-76-5

 

1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

95-94-3

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

630-20-6

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

79-34-5

Tetrachloroethylene; Tetrachloroethene; Perchloroethylene

Tetrachloroethylene; Tetrachloroethene; Perchloroethylene

127-18-4

 

2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

58-90-2

Thallium

Thallium

(Total)

 

Tin

(Total)

Toluene

Toluene

108-88-3

 

o-Toluidine

95-53-4

 

Toxaphene

Note 7

 

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

120-82-1

1,1,1-Trichloroethane; Methychloroform

1,1,1-Trichloroethane; Methychloroform

71-55-6

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

79-00-5

Trichloroethylene; Trichloroethene ethene

Trichloroethylene; Trichloroethene ethane

79-01-6

Trichlorofluoromethane; CFC-11

Trichlorofluoromethane; CFC-11

75-69-4

 

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

95-95-4

 

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

88-06-2

1,2,3-Trichloropropane

1,2,3-Trichloropropane

96-18-4

 

O,O,O-Triethyl phosphorothioate

126-68-1

 

sym-Trinitrobenzene

99-35-4

Vanadium

Vanadium

(Total)

Vinyl acetate

Vinyl acetate

108-05-4

Vinyl chloride; Chloroethene

Vinyl chloride; Chloroethene

75-01-4

Xylene(total)

Xylene(total)

Note 8

Zinc

Zinc

(Total)

NOTES:

1Common names are those widely used in government regulations, scientific publications, and commerce; synonyms exist for many chemicals.

2The corresponding Chemical Abstracts Service Index name as used in the 9th Collective Index, may be found in Appendix II of 40 CFR 258.

3Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number. Where "Total" is entered, all species in the groundwater that contains this element are included.

4This substance is often called Bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, the name Chemical Abstracts Service applies to its noncommercial isomer, Propane, 2.2'-oxybis2-chloro (CAS RN 39638-32-9).

5Chlordane: This entry includes alpha-chlordane (CAS RN 5103-71-9), beta-chlordane (CAS RN 5103-74-2), gamma-chlordane (CAS RN 5566-34-7), and constituents of chlordane (CAS RN 57-74-9 and CAS RN 12739-03-6).

6Polychlorinated biphenyls (CAS RN 1336-36-3); this category contains congener chemicals, including constituents of Aroclor 1016 (CAS RN 12674-11-2), Aroclor 1221 (CAS RN 11104-28-2), Aroclor 1232 (CAS RN 11141-16-5), Aroclor 1242 (CAS RN 53469-21-9), Aroclor 1248 (CAS RN 12672-29-6), Aroclor 1254 (CAS RN 11097-69-1), and Arclor 1260 (CAS RN 11096-82-5).

7Toxaphene: This entry includes congener chemicals contained in technical toxaphene (CAS RN 8001-35-2), i.e., chlorinated camphene.

8Xylene (total): This entry includes o-xylene (CAS RN 96-47-6), m-xylene (CAS RN 108-38-3), p-xylene (CAS RN 106-42-3), and unspecified xylenes (dimethylbenzenes) (CAS RN 1330-20-7).

9VAC20-130-10

9VAC20-130-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Agricultural waste" means all solid waste produced from farming operations.

"Board" means the Virginia Waste Management Board.

"Commercial waste" means all solid waste generated by establishments engaged in business operations other than manufacturing or construction. This category includes, but is not limited to, solid waste resulting from the operation of stores, markets, office buildings, restaurants and shopping centers.

"Compost" means a stabilized organic product produced by composting in such a manner that the product can be handled, stored, and/or applied to the land.

"Composting" means the manipulation of the natural process of decomposition of organic materials to increase the rate of decomposition.

"Construction waste" means solid waste that is produced or generated during construction, remodeling, or repair of pavements, houses, commercial buildings, and other structures. Construction wastes include, but are not limited to, lumber, wire, sheetrock, broken brick, shingles, glass, pipes, concrete, paving materials, and metal and plastics if the metal or plastics are a part of the materials of construction or empty containers for such materials. Paints, coatings, solvents, asbestos-containing material, any liquid, compressed gases, or semi-liquids and garbage are not construction wastes.

"Debris waste" means solid waste resulting from land clearing operations. Debris wastes include, but are not limited to, stumps, wood, brush, leaves, soil, and road spoils.

"Demolition waste" means solid waste produced by the destruction of structures and their foundations and includes the same materials as construction wastes.

"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or his designee. For purposes of submissions to the director as specified in the Waste Management Act, submissions may be made to the department.

"Disposal" means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any solid waste into or on any land or water so that such solid waste or any constituent of it may enter the environment or be emitted into the air or discharged into any waters.

"Facility" means solid waste management facility unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

"Hazardous waste" means a "hazardous waste" as defined by the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulation, 9VAC20-60.

"Incineration" means the controlled combustion of solid waste for disposal.

"Industrial waste" means any solid waste generated by manufacturing or industrial process that is not a regulated hazardous waste. Such waste may include, but is not limited to, waste resulting from the following manufacturing processes: electric power generation; fertilizer/agricultural chemicals; food and related products/byproducts; inorganic chemicals; iron and steel manufacturing; leather and leather products; nonferrous metals manufacturing/foundries; organic chemicals; plastics and resins manufacturing; pulp and paper industry; rubber and miscellaneous plastic products; stone, glass, clay, and concrete products; textile manufacturing; transportation equipment; and water treatment. This term does not include mining waste or oil and gas waste.

"Institutional waste" means all solid waste emanating from institutions such as, but not limited to, hospitals, nursing homes, orphanages, and public or private schools. It can include regulated medical waste from health care facilities and research facilities that must be managed as a regulated medical waste.

"Integrated waste management plan" means a governmental plan that considers all elements of waste management during generation, collection, transportation, treatment, storage, disposal, and litter control and selects the appropriate methods of providing necessary control and services for effective and efficient management of all wastes. An "integrated waste management plan" must provide for source reduction, reuse and recycling within the jurisdiction and the proper funding and management of waste management programs.

"Jurisdiction" means a local governing body; city, county or town; or any independent entity, such as a federal or state agency, which join with local governing bodies to develop a waste management plan.

"Landfill" means a sanitary landfill, an industrial waste landfill, or a construction/demolition/debris landfill (as these terms are defined in the Solid Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-81).

"Litter" means all waste material disposable packages or containers, but not including the wastes of the primary processes of mining, logging, farming, or manufacturing.

"Market" or "markets" means interim or end destinations for the recyclable materials, including a materials recovery facility (MRF).

"Market conditions" means business and system related issues used to determine if materials can be targeted, collected, and delivered to an interim or end market in an efficient manner. Issues may include, but are not limited to: the cost of collection, storage and preparation or both; the cost of transportation; accessible volumes of materials targeted for recycling; market value of materials targeted for collection/recycling; and distance to viable markets.

"Materials recovery facility (MRF)" means, for the purpose of this regulation, a facility for the collection, processing and marketing of recyclable materials including, but not limited to: metal, paper, plastics, and glass.

"Mulch" means woody waste consisting of stumps, trees, limbs, branches, bark, leaves and other clean wood waste that has undergone size reduction by grinding, shredding, or chipping, and is distributed to the general public for landscaping purposes or other horticultural uses, except composting as defined and regulated under the Solid Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-81).

"Municipal solid waste" means waste that is normally composed of residential, commercial, and institutional solid waste and residues derived from the combustion of these wastes.

"Permit" means the written permission of the director to own, operate or construct a solid waste management facility.

"Person" means an individual, corporation, partnership, association, a governmental body, a municipal corporation or any other legal entity.

"Principal recyclable materials (PRMs)" means paper, metal, plastic, glass, commingled yard waste, wood, textiles, tires, used oil, used oil filters, used antifreeze, batteries, electronics, or material as may be approved by the director. Commingled materials refers to single stream collections of recyclables where sorting is done at a materials recovery facility.

"Recycling" means the process of separating a given waste material from the waste stream and processing it so that it may be used again as a raw material for a product, which may or may not be similar to the original product. For the purpose of this chapter, recycling shall not include processes that only involve size reduction.

"Recycling residue" means the (i) nonmetallic substances, including but not limited to plastic, rubber, and insulation, which remain after a shredder has separated for purposes of recycling the ferrous and nonferrous metal from a motor vehicle, appliance or other discarded metallic item and (ii) organic waste remaining after removal of metals, glass, plastics and paper that are to be recycled as part of a resource recovery process for municipal solid waste resulting in the production of a refuse derived fuel.

"Regional boundary" means the boundary defining an area of land that will be a unit for the purpose of developing a waste management plan, and is established in accordance with 9VAC20-130-180 through 9VAC20-130-220.

"Regulated medical waste" means solid wastes so defined by the Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-120) as promulgated by the Virginia Waste Management Board.

"Residential waste" means any waste material, including garbage, trash and refuse, derived from households. Households include single and multiple residences, hotels and motels, bunkhouses, ranger stations, crew quarters, campgrounds, picnic grounds and day-use recreation areas. Residential wastes do not include sanitary waste in septic tanks (septage), that is regulated by other state agencies.

"Resource recovery system" means a solid waste management system that provides for collection, separation, recycling and recovery of energy or solid wastes, including disposal of nonrecoverable waste residues.

"Reuse" means the process of separating a given solid waste material from the waste stream and using it, without processing or changing its form, other than size reduction, for the same or another end use.

"Sanitary landfill" means an engineered land burial facility for the disposal of household waste, which is so located, designed, constructed and operated to contain and isolate the waste so that it does not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment. A sanitary landfill also may receive other types of solid wastes, such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, hazardous waste from conditionally exempt very small quantity generators, construction demolition debris, and nonhazardous industrial solid waste.

"Site" means all land and structures, other appurtenances, and improvements on them used for treating, storing, and disposing of solid waste. This term includes adjacent land within the facility boundary used for the utility systems such as repair, storage, shipping or processing areas, or other areas incident to the management of solid waste. (Note: This term includes all sites whether they are planned and managed facilities or open dumps.)

"Sludge" means any solid, semisolid or liquid waste generated from a public, municipal, commercial or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility.

"Solid waste" means any of those materials defined as "solid waste" in the Solid Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-81).

"Solid waste planning unit" means each region or locality that submits a solid waste management plan.

"Solid waste management facility ("SWMF")" means a site used for planned treating, storing, or disposing of solid waste. A facility may consist of several treatment, storage, or disposal units.

"Source reduction" means any action that reduces or eliminates the generation of waste at the source, usually within a process. Source reduction measures include process modifications, feedstock substitutions, improvements in feedstock purity, improvements in housekeeping and management practices, increases in the efficiency of machinery, and recycling within a process. Source reduction minimizes the material that must be managed by waste disposal or nondisposal options by creating less waste. "Source reduction" is also called "waste prevention," "waste minimization," or "waste reduction."

"Source separation" means separation of recyclable materials by the waste generator of materials that are collected for use, reuse, reclamation, or recycling.

"Tons" means 2,000 pounds.

"Transfer station" means any solid waste storage or collection facility at which solid waste is transferred from collection vehicles to haulage vehicles for transportation to a central solid waste management facility for disposal, incineration or resource recovery.

"Vegetative waste" means decomposable materials generated by yard and lawn care or land-clearing activities and includes, but is not limited to, leaves, grass trimmings, and woody wastes such as shrub and tree prunings, bark, limbs, roots, and stumps. For more detail see the Solid Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-81).

"Waste exchange" means any system to identify sources of wastes with potential for use reuse, recycling or reclamation and to facilitate its acquisition by persons who reuse, recycle or reclaim it, with a provision for maintaining confidentiality of trade secrets.

"White goods" means any stoves, washers, hot water heaters or other large appliances. For the purposes of this chapter, this definition also includes, but is not limited to, such Freon-containing appliances as refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, and dehumidifiers.

"Yard waste" means decomposable waste materials generated by yard and lawn care and includes leaves, grass trimmings, brush, wood chips, and shrub and tree trimmings. Yard waste shall not include roots or stumps that exceed six inches in diameter.