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Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

Action:
Conforming rules to ADA guidelines on moderate sedation
Stage: Final
18VAC60-21-10

Part I
General Provisions

18VAC60-21-10. Definitions.

A. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the meanings ascribed to them in § 54.1-2700 of the Code of Virginia:

"Board"

"Dental hygiene"

"Dental hygienist"

"Dentist"

"Dentistry"

"License"

"Maxillofacial"

"Oral and maxillofacial surgeon"

B. The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"AAOMS" means the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

"ADA" means the American Dental Association.

"Advertising" means a representation or other notice given to the public or members thereof, directly or indirectly, by a dentist on behalf of himself, his facility, his partner or associate, or any dentist affiliated with the dentist or his facility by any means or method for the purpose of inducing purchase, sale, or use of dental methods, services, treatments, operations, procedures, or products, or to promote continued or increased use of such dental methods, treatments, operations, procedures, or products.

"CODA" means the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association.

"Code" means the Code of Virginia.

"Dental assistant I" means any unlicensed person under the direction of a dentist or a dental hygienist who renders assistance for services provided to the patient as authorized under this chapter but shall not include an individual serving in purely an administrative, secretarial, or clerical capacity.

"Dental assistant II" means a person under the direction and direct supervision of a dentist who is registered by the board to perform reversible, intraoral procedures as specified in 18VAC60-21-150 and 18VAC60-21-160.

"Mobile dental facility" means a self-contained unit in which dentistry is practiced that is not confined to a single building and can be transported from one location to another.

"Nonsurgical laser" means a laser that is not capable of cutting or removing hard tissue, soft tissue, or tooth structure.

"Portable dental operation" means a nonfacility in which dental equipment used in the practice of dentistry is transported to and utilized on a temporary basis at an out-of-office location, including patients' homes, schools, nursing homes, or other institutions.

"Radiographs" means intraoral and extraoral radiographic images of hard and soft tissues used for purposes of diagnosis.

C. The following words and terms relating to supervision as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Direct supervision" means that the dentist examines the patient and records diagnostic findings prior to delegating restorative or prosthetic treatment and related services to a dental assistant II for completion the same day or at a later date. The dentist prepares the tooth or teeth to be restored and remains immediately available in the office to the dental assistant II for guidance or assistance during the delivery of treatment and related services. The dentist examines the patient to evaluate the treatment and services before the patient is dismissed.

"Direction" means the level of supervision (i.e., immediate, direct, indirect, or general) that a dentist is required to exercise with a dental hygienist, a dental assistant I, or a dental assistant II or that a dental hygienist is required to exercise with a dental assistant to direct and oversee the delivery of treatment and related services.

"General supervision" means that a dentist completes a periodic comprehensive examination of the patient and issues a written order for hygiene treatment that states the specific services to be provided by a dental hygienist during one or more subsequent appointments when the dentist may or may not be present. Issuance of the order authorizes the dental hygienist to supervise a dental assistant performing duties delegable to dental assistants I.

"Immediate supervision" means the dentist is in the operatory to supervise the administration of sedation or provision of treatment.

"Indirect supervision" means the dentist examines the patient at some point during the appointment and is continuously present in the office to advise and assist a dental hygienist or a dental assistant who is (i) delivering hygiene treatment, (ii) preparing the patient for examination or treatment by the dentist, or (iii) preparing the patient for dismissal following treatment.

"Remote supervision" means that a supervising dentist is accessible and available for communication and consultation with a dental hygienist during the delivery of dental hygiene services but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided. For the purpose of practice by a public health dental hygienist, "remote supervision" means that a public health dentist has regular, periodic communications with a public health dental hygienist regarding patient treatment, but such dentist may not have conducted an initial examination of the patients who are to be seen and treated by the dental hygienist and may not be present with the dental hygienist when dental hygiene services are being provided.

D. The following words and terms relating to sedation or anesthesia as used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Analgesia" means the diminution or elimination of pain.

"Conscious/moderate sedation" or "moderate sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness, during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"Deep sedation" means a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"Enteral" means any technique of administration in which the agent is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or oral mucosa (i.e., oral, rectal, sublingual).

"General anesthesia" means a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilator function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.

"Inhalation" means a technique of administration in which a gaseous or volatile agent, including nitrous oxide, is introduced into the pulmonary tree and whose primary effect is due to absorption through the pulmonary bed.

"Inhalation analgesia" means the inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen to produce a state of reduced sensation of pain with minimal alteration of consciousness.

"Local anesthesia" means the elimination of sensation, especially pain, in one part of the body by the topical application or regional injection of a drug.

"Minimal sedation" means a drug-induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. Although cognitive function and physical coordination may be impaired, airway reflexes, and ventilator and cardiovascular functions are unaffected. Minimal sedation includes "anxiolysis" (the diminution or elimination of anxiety through the use of pharmacological agents in a dosage that does not cause depression of consciousness) and includes "inhalation analgesia" when used in combination with any anxiolytic agent administered prior to or during a procedure.

"Moderate sedation" (see the definition of conscious/moderate sedation) means a drug-induced depression of consciousness, during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. Reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered a purposeful response. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

"Monitoring" means to observe, interpret, assess, and record appropriate physiologic functions of the body during sedative procedures and general anesthesia appropriate to the level of sedation as provided in Part VI (18VAC60-21-260 et seq.) of this chapter.

"Parenteral" means a technique of administration in which the drug bypasses the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, submucosal, subcutaneous, or intraocular).

"Titration" means the incremental increase in drug dosage to a level that provides the optimal therapeutic effect of sedation.

"Topical oral anesthetic" means any drug, available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, or jellies, that can be used orally for the purpose of rendering the oral cavity insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness.

18VAC60-21-30

18VAC60-21-30. Posting requirements.

A. A dentist who is practicing under a firm name or who is practicing as an employee of another dentist is required by § 54.1-2720 of the Code to conspicuously display his name at the entrance of the office. The employing dentist, firm, or company must enable compliance by designating a space at the entrance of the office for the name to be displayed.

B. In accordance with § 54.1-2721 of the Code a dentist shall display his dental license where it is conspicuous and readable by patients in each dental practice setting. If a licensee practices in more than one office, a duplicate license obtained from the board may be displayed.

C. A dentist who administers, prescribes, or dispenses Schedules II through V controlled substances shall maintain a copy of his current registration with the federal Drug Enforcement Administration in a readily retrievable manner at each practice location.

D. A dentist who administers conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia in a dental office shall display his sedation or anesthesia permit issued by the board or certificate issued by AAOMS.

18VAC60-21-40

18VAC60-21-40. Required fees.

A. Application/registration fees.

1. Dental license by examination

$400

2. Dental license by credentials

$500

3. Dental restricted teaching license

$285

4. Dental faculty license

$400

5. Dental temporary resident's license

$60

6. Restricted volunteer license

$25

7. Volunteer exemption registration

$10

8. Oral maxillofacial surgeon registration

$175

9. Cosmetic procedures certification

$225

10. Mobile clinic/portable operation

$250

11. Conscious/moderate Moderate sedation permit

$100

12. Deep sedation/general anesthesia permit

$100

B. Renewal fees.

1. Dental license - active

$285

2. Dental license - inactive

$145

3. Dental temporary resident's license

$35

4. Restricted volunteer license

$15

5. Oral maxillofacial surgeon registration

$175

6. Cosmetic procedures certification

$100

7. Conscious/moderate Moderate sedation permit

$100

8. Deep sedation/general anesthesia permit

$100

C. Late fees.

1. Dental license - active

$100

2. Dental license - inactive

$50

3. Dental temporary resident's license

$15

4. Oral maxillofacial surgeon registration

$55

5. Cosmetic procedures certification

$35

6. Conscious/moderate Moderate sedation permit

$35

7. Deep sedation/general anesthesia permit

$35

D. Reinstatement fees.

1. Dental license - expired

$500

2. Dental license - suspended

$750

3. Dental license - revoked

$1000

4. Oral maxillofacial surgeon registration

$350

5. Cosmetic procedures certification

$225

E. Document fees.

1. Duplicate wall certificate

$60

2. Duplicate license

$20

3. License certification

$35

F. Other fees.

1. Returned check fee

$35

2. Practice inspection fee

$350

G. No fee will be refunded or applied for any purpose other than the purpose for which the fee is submitted.

H. For the renewal of licenses, registrations, certifications, and permits in 2018, the following fees shall be in effect:

1. Dentist - active

$142

2. Dentist - inactive

$72

3. Dental full-time faculty

$142

4. Temporary resident

$17

5. Dental restricted volunteer

$7

6. Oral/maxillofacial surgeon registration

$87

7. Cosmetic procedure certification

$50

8. [ Conscious/moderate Moderate ] sedation certification

$50

9. Deep sedation/general anesthesia

$50

10. Mobile clinic/portable operation

$75

18VAC60-21-90

18VAC60-21-90. Patient information and records.

A. A dentist shall maintain complete, legible, and accurate patient records for not less than six years from the last date of service for purposes of review by the board with the following exceptions:

1. Records of a minor child shall be maintained until the child reaches the age of 18 years or becomes emancipated, with a minimum time for record retention of six years from the last patient encounter regardless of the age of the child;

2. Records that have previously been transferred to another practitioner or health care provider or provided to the patient or his personal representative pursuant to § 54.1-2405 of the Code; or

3. Records that are required by contractual obligation or federal law may need to be maintained for a longer period of time.

B. Every patient record shall include the following:

1. Patient's name on each page in the patient record;

2. A health history taken at the initial appointment that is updated (i) when analgesia, sedation, or anesthesia is to be administered; (ii) when medically indicated; and (iii) at least annually;

3. Diagnosis and options discussed, including the risks and benefits of treatment or nontreatment and the estimated cost of treatment options;

4. Consent for treatment obtained and treatment rendered;

5. List of drugs prescribed, administered, or dispensed and the route of administration, quantity, dose, and strength;

6. Radiographs, digital images, and photographs clearly labeled with patient name, date taken, and teeth identified;

7. Notation of each treatment rendered, the date of treatment and of the dentist, dental hygienist, and dental assistant II providing service;

8. Duplicate laboratory work orders that meet the requirements of § 54.1-2719 of the Code including the address and signature of the dentist;

9. Itemized patient financial records as required by § 54.1-2404 of the Code;

10. A notation or documentation of an order required for treatment of a patient by a dental hygienist practicing under general supervision as required in 18VAC60-21-140 B; and

11. The information required for the administration of conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, and general anesthesia required in 18VAC60-21-260 D.

C. A licensee shall comply with the patient record confidentiality, release, and disclosure provisions of § 32.1-127.1:03 of the Code and shall only release patient information as authorized by law.

D. Records shall not be withheld because the patient has an outstanding financial obligation.

E. A reasonable cost-based fee may be charged for copying patient records to include the cost of supplies and labor for copying documents, duplication of radiographs and images, and postage if mailing is requested as authorized by § 32.1-127.1:03 of the Code. The charges specified in § 8.01-413 of the Code are permitted when records are subpoenaed as evidence for purposes of civil litigation.

F. When closing, selling, or relocating a practice, the licensee shall meet the requirements of § 54.1-2405 of the Code for giving notice and providing records.

G. Records shall not be abandoned or otherwise left in the care of someone who is not licensed by the board except that, upon the death of a licensee, a trustee or executor of the estate may safeguard the records until they are transferred to a licensed dentist, are sent to the patients of record, or are destroyed.

H. Patient confidentiality must be preserved when records are destroyed.

18VAC60-21-130

18VAC60-21-130. Nondelegable duties; dentists.

Only licensed dentists shall perform the following duties:

1. Final diagnosis and treatment planning;

2. Performing surgical or cutting procedures on hard or soft tissue except a dental hygienist performing gingival curettage as provided in 18VAC60-21-140;

3. Prescribing or parenterally administering drugs or medicaments, except a dental hygienist, who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-25-100, may parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to patients 18 years of age or older;

4. Authorization of work orders for any appliance or prosthetic device or restoration that is to be inserted into a patient's mouth;

5. Operation of high speed rotary instruments in the mouth;

6. Administering and monitoring conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthetics except as provided for in § 54.1-2701 of the Code and Part VI (18VAC60-21-260 et seq.) of this chapter;

7. Condensing, contouring, or adjusting any final, fixed, or removable prosthodontic appliance or restoration in the mouth with the exception of packing and carving amalgam and placing and shaping composite resins by dental assistants II with advanced training as specified in 18VAC60-30-120;

8. Final positioning and attachment of orthodontic bonds and bands; and

9. Final adjustment and fitting of crowns and bridges in preparation for final cementation.

18VAC60-21-240

Part V
Licensure Renewal

18VAC60-21-240. License renewal and reinstatement.

A. The license or permit of any person who does not return the completed renewal form and fees by the deadline shall automatically expire and become invalid, and his practice of dentistry shall be illegal. With the exception of practice with a current, restricted volunteer license as provided in § 54.1-2712.1 of the Code practicing in Virginia with an expired license or permit may subject the licensee to disciplinary action by the board.

B. Every person holding an active or inactive license and those holding a permit to administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia shall annually, on or before March 31, renew his license or permit. Every person holding a faculty license, temporary resident's license, a restricted volunteer license, or a temporary permit shall, on or before June 30, request renewal of his license.

C. Any person who does not return the completed form and fee by the deadline required in subsection B of this section shall be required to pay an additional late fee.

D. The board shall renew a license or permit if the renewal form, renewal fee, and late fee are received within one year of the deadline required in subsection B of this section provided that no grounds exist to deny said renewal pursuant to § 54.1-2706 of the Code and Part II (18VAC60-21-50 et seq.) of this chapter.

E. Reinstatement procedures.

1. Any person whose license or permit has expired for more than one year or whose license or permit has been revoked or suspended and who wishes to reinstate such license or permit shall submit a reinstatement application and the reinstatement fee. The application must include evidence of continuing competence.

2. To evaluate continuing competence, the board shall consider (i) hours of continuing education that meet the requirements of subsection H of 18VAC60-21-250; (ii) evidence of active practice in another state or in federal service; (iii) current specialty board certification; (iv) recent passage of a clinical competency examination accepted by the board; or (v) a refresher program offered by a program accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association.

3. The executive director may reinstate such expired license or permit provided that the applicant can demonstrate continuing competence, the applicant has paid the reinstatement fee and any fines or assessments, and no grounds exist to deny said reinstatement pursuant to § 54.1-2706 of the Code and Part II (18VAC60-21-50 et seq.) of this chapter.

18VAC60-21-250

18VAC60-21-250. Requirements for continuing education.

A. A dentist shall complete a minimum of 15 hours of continuing education, which meets the requirements for content, sponsorship, and documentation set out in this section, for each annual renewal of licensure except for the first renewal following initial licensure and for any renewal of a restricted volunteer license.

1. All renewal applicants shall attest that they have read and understand and will remain current with the laws and regulations governing the practice of dentistry and dental hygiene in Virginia.

2. A dentist shall maintain current training certification in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation with hands-on airway training for health care providers or basic life support unless he is required by 18VAC60-21-290 or 18VAC60-21-300 to hold current certification in advanced life support with hands-on simulated airway and megacode training for health care providers.

3. A dentist who administers or monitors patients under general anesthesia, deep sedation, or conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall complete four hours every two years of approved continuing education directly related to administration and monitoring of such anesthesia or sedation as part of the hours required for licensure renewal.

4. Continuing education hours in excess of the number required for renewal may be transferred or credited to the next renewal year for a total of not more than 15 hours.

5. Up to two hours of the 15 hours required for annual renewal may be satisfied through delivery of dental services, without compensation, to low-income individuals receiving health services through a local health department or a free clinic organized in whole or primarily for the delivery of those services. One hour of continuing education may be credited for three hours of providing such volunteer services, as documented by the health department or free clinic.

B. To be accepted for license renewal, continuing education programs shall be directly relevant to the treatment and care of patients and shall be:

1. Clinical courses in dentistry and dental hygiene; or

2. Nonclinical subjects that relate to the skills necessary to provide dental or dental hygiene services and are supportive of clinical services (i.e., patient management, legal and ethical responsibilities, and stress management). Courses not acceptable for the purpose of this subsection include, but are not limited to, estate planning, financial planning, investments, business management, marketing, and personal health.

C. Continuing education credit may be earned for verifiable attendance at or participation in any course, to include audio and video presentations, that meets the requirements in subsection B of this section and is given by one of the following sponsors:

1. The American Dental Association and the National Dental Association, their constituent and component/branch associations, and approved continuing education providers;

2. The American Dental Hygienists' Association and the National Dental Hygienists Association, and their constituent and component/branch associations;

3. The American Dental Assisting Association and its constituent and component/branch associations;

4. The American Dental Association specialty organizations and their constituent and component/branch associations;

5. A provider accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education for Category 1 credits;

6. The Academy of General Dentistry, its constituent and component/branch associations, and approved continuing education providers;

7. A college or university that is accredited by an accrediting agency approved by the U.S. Department of Education or a hospital or health care institution accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations;

8. The American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, the American Safety and Health Institute, and the American Cancer Society;

9. A medical school accredited by the American Medical Association's Liaison Committee for Medical Education;

10. A dental, dental hygiene, or dental assisting program or advanced dental education program accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association;

11. State or federal government agencies (i.e., military dental division, Veteran's Administration, etc.);

12. The Commonwealth Dental Hygienists' Society;

13. The MCV Orthodontic Education and Research Foundation;

14. The Dental Assisting National Board and its affiliate, the Dental Auxiliary Learning and Education Foundation; or

15. A regional testing agency (i.e., Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Northeast Regional Board of Dental Examiners, Southern Regional Testing Agency, Council of Interstate Testing Agencies, or Western Regional Examining Board) when serving as an examiner.

D. The board may grant an exemption for all or part of the continuing education requirements due to circumstances beyond the control of the licensee, such as temporary disability, mandatory military service, or officially declared disasters. A written request with supporting documents must be submitted prior to renewal of the license.

E. The board may grant an extension for up to one year for completion of continuing education upon written request with an explanation to the board prior to the renewal date.

F. A licensee is required to verify compliance with the continuing education requirements in his annual license renewal. Following the renewal period, the board may conduct an audit of licensees to verify compliance. Licensees selected for audit must provide original documents certifying that they have fulfilled their continuing education requirements by the deadline date as specified by the board.

G. All licensees are required to maintain original documents verifying the date and subject of the program or activity, the sponsor, and the amount of time earned. Documentation shall be maintained for a period of four years following renewal.

H. A licensee who has allowed his license to lapse, or who has had his license suspended or revoked, shall submit evidence of completion of continuing education equal to the requirements for the number of years in which his license has not been active, not to exceed a total of 45 hours. Of the required hours, at least 15 must be earned in the most recent 12 months and the remainder within the 36 months preceding an application for reinstatement.

I. Continuing education hours required by board order shall not be used to satisfy the continuing education requirement for license renewal or reinstatement.

J. Failure to comply with continuing education requirements may subject the licensee to disciplinary action by the board.

18VAC60-21-260

Part VI
Controlled Substances, Sedation, and Anesthesia

18VAC60-21-260. General provisions.

A. Application of Part VI. This part applies to prescribing, dispensing, and administering controlled substances in dental offices, mobile dental facilities, and portable dental operations and shall not apply to administration by a dentist practicing in (i) a licensed hospital as defined in § 32.1-123 of the Code, (ii) a state-operated hospital, or (iii) a facility directly maintained or operated by the federal government.

B. Registration required. Any dentist who prescribes, administers, or dispenses Schedules II through V controlled drugs must hold a current registration with the federal Drug Enforcement Administration.

C. Patient evaluation required.

1. The decision to administer controlled drugs for dental treatment must be based on a documented evaluation of the health history and current medical condition of the patient in accordance with the Class I through V risk category classifications of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) in effect at the time of treatment. The findings of the evaluation, the ASA risk assessment class assigned, and any special considerations must be recorded in the patient's record.

2. Any level of sedation and general anesthesia may be provided for a patient who is ASA Class I and Class II.

3. A patient in ASA Class III shall only be provided minimal sedation, conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia by:

a. A dentist after he has documented a consultation with the patient's primary care physician or other medical specialist regarding potential risks and special monitoring requirements that may be necessary;

b. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon who has performed a physical evaluation and documented the findings and the ASA risk assessment category of the patient and any special monitoring requirements that may be necessary; or

c. A person licensed under Chapter 29 (§ 54.1-2900 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code who has a specialty in anesthesia.

4. Minimal sedation may only be provided for a patient who is in ASA Class IV by:

a. A dentist after he has documented a consultation with the patient's primary care physician or other medical specialist regarding potential risks and special monitoring requirements that may be necessary; or

b. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon who has performed a physical evaluation and documented the findings and the ASA risk assessment category of the patient and any special monitoring requirements that may be necessary.

5. Conscious/moderate Moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia shall not be provided in a dental office for patients in ASA Class IV and Class V.

D. Additional requirements for patient information and records. In addition to the record requirements in 18VAC60-21-90, when conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia is administered, the patient record shall also include:

1. Notation of the patient's American Society of Anesthesiologists classification;

2. Review of medical history and current conditions, including the patient's weight and height or, if appropriate, the body mass index;

3. Written informed consent for administration of sedation and anesthesia and for the dental procedure to be performed;

4. Preoperative vital signs;

5. A record of the name, dose, and strength of drugs and route of administration including the administration of local anesthetics with notations of the time sedation and anesthesia were administered;

6. Monitoring records of all required vital signs and physiological measures recorded every five minutes; and

7. A list of staff participating in the administration, treatment, and monitoring including name, position, and assigned duties.

E. Pediatric patients. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dentist office or treatment facility.

F. Informed written consent. Prior to administration of any level of sedation or general anesthesia, the dentist shall discuss the nature and objectives of the planned level of sedation or general anesthesia along with the risks, benefits, and alternatives and shall obtain informed, written consent from the patient or other responsible party for the administration and for the treatment to be provided. The written consent must be maintained in the patient record.

G. Level of sedation. The determinant for the application of the rules for any level of sedation or for general anesthesia shall be the degree of sedation or consciousness level of a patient that should reasonably be expected to result from the type, strength, and dosage of medication, the method of administration, and the individual characteristics of the patient as documented in the patient's record. The drugs and techniques used must carry a margin of safety wide enough to render the unintended reduction of or loss of consciousness unlikely, factoring in titration and the patient's age, weight, and ability to metabolize drugs.

H. Emergency management.

1. If a patient enters a deeper level of sedation than the dentist is qualified and prepared to provide, the dentist shall stop the dental procedure until the patient returns to and is stable at the intended level of sedation.

2. A dentist in whose office sedation or anesthesia is administered shall have written basic emergency procedures established and staff trained to carry out such procedures.

I. Ancillary personnel. Dentists who employ unlicensed, ancillary personnel to assist in the administration and monitoring of any form of minimal sedation, conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia shall maintain documentation that such personnel have:

1. Training and hold current certification in basic resuscitation techniques with hands-on airway training for health care providers, such as Basic Cardiac Life Support for Health Professionals or a clinically oriented course devoted primarily to responding to clinical emergencies offered by an approved provider of continuing education as set forth in 18VAC60-21-250 C; or

2. Current certification as a certified anesthesia assistant (CAA) by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons or the American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA).

J. Assisting in administration. A dentist, consistent with the planned level of administration (i.e., local anesthesia, minimal sedation, conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia) and appropriate to his education, training, and experience, may utilize the services of a dentist, anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, dental hygienist, dental assistant, or nurse to perform functions appropriate to such practitioner's education, training, and experience and consistent with that practitioner's respective scope of practice.

K. Patient monitoring.

1. A dentist may delegate monitoring of a patient to a dental hygienist, dental assistant, or nurse who is under his direction or to another dentist, anesthesiologist, or certified registered nurse anesthetist. The person assigned to monitor the patient shall be continuously in the presence of the patient in the office, operatory, and recovery area (i) before administration is initiated or immediately upon arrival if the patient self-administered a sedative agent, (ii) throughout the administration of drugs, (iii) throughout the treatment of the patient, and (iv) throughout recovery until the patient is discharged by the dentist.

2. The person monitoring the patient shall:

a. Have the patient's entire body in sight;

b. Be in close proximity so as to speak with the patient;

c. Converse with the patient to assess the patient's ability to respond in order to determine the patient's level of sedation;

d. Closely observe the patient for coloring, breathing, level of physical activity, facial expressions, eye movement, and bodily gestures in order to immediately recognize and bring any changes in the patient's condition to the attention of the treating dentist; and

e. Read, report, and record the patient's vital signs and physiological measures.

L. A dentist who allows the administration of general anesthesia, deep sedation, or conscious/moderate moderate sedation in his dental office is responsible for assuring that:

1. The equipment for administration and monitoring, as required in subsection B of 18VAC60-21-291 or subsection C of 18VAC60-21-301, is readily available and in good working order prior to performing dental treatment with anesthesia or sedation. The equipment shall either be maintained by the dentist in his office or provided by the anesthesia or sedation provider; and

2. The person administering the anesthesia or sedation is appropriately licensed and the staff monitoring the patient is qualified.

18VAC60-21-290

18VAC60-21-290. Requirements for a conscious/moderate moderate sedation permit.

A. After March 31, 2013, no No dentist may employ or use conscious/moderate moderate sedation in a dental office unless he has been issued a permit by the board. The requirement for a permit shall not apply to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon who maintains membership in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) and who provides the board with reports that result from the periodic office examinations required by AAOMS. Such an oral and maxillofacial surgeon shall be required to post a certificate issued by AAOMS.

B. Automatic qualification. Dentists who hold a current permit to administer deep sedation and general anesthesia may administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation.

C. To determine eligibility for a conscious/moderate moderate sedation permit, a dentist shall submit the following:

1. A completed application form indicating one of the following permits for which the applicant is qualified:

a. Conscious/moderate sedation by any method;

b. Conscious/moderate sedation by enteral administration only; or

c. Temporary conscious/moderate sedation permit (may be renewed one time);

2. The application fee as specified in 18VAC60-21-40;

3. A copy of a transcript, certification, or other documentation of training content that meets the educational and training qualifications as specified in subsection D of this section, as applicable; and

4. A copy of current certification in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) or pediatric advanced life support (PALS) as required in subsection E of this section.

D. Education requirements for a permit to administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation. 1. Administration by any method. A dentist may be issued a conscious/moderate moderate sedation permit to administer by any method by meeting one of the following criteria:

a. 1. Completion of training for this treatment modality according to the ADA's Guidelines for Teaching the Comprehensive Pain Control of Anxiety and Pain in Dentistry Sedation to Dentists and Dental Students in effect at the time the training occurred, while enrolled in an accredited dental program or while enrolled in a post-doctoral university or teaching hospital program; or

b. 2. Completion of a continuing education course that meets the requirements of 18VAC60-21-250 and consists of (i) 60 hours of didactic instruction plus the management of at least 20 patients per participant, (ii) demonstration of competency and clinical experience in conscious/moderate moderate sedation, and (iii) management of a compromised airway. The course content shall be consistent with the ADA's Guidelines for Teaching the Comprehensive Pain Control of Anxiety and Pain in Dentistry Sedation to Dentists and Dental Students in effect at the time the training occurred.

2. Enteral administration only. A dentist may be issued a conscious/moderate sedation permit to administer only by an enteral method if he has completed a continuing education program that meets the requirements of 18VAC60-21-250 and consists of not less than 18 hours of didactic instruction plus 20 clinically oriented experiences in enteral or a combination of enteral and nitrous oxide/oxygen conscious/moderate sedation techniques. The course content shall be consistent with the ADA's Guidelines for Teaching the Comprehensive Control of Anxiety and Pain in Dentistry in effect at the time the training occurred. The certificate of completion and a detailed description of the course content must be maintained.

3. A dentist who self-certified his qualifications in anesthesia and moderate sedation prior to January 1989 may be issued a temporary conscious/moderate sedation permit to continue to administer only conscious/moderate sedation until May 7, 2015. After May 7, 2015, a dentist shall meet the requirements for and obtain a conscious/moderate sedation permit to administer by any method or by enteral administration only.

E. Additional training required. Dentists who administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall:

1. Hold current certification in advanced resuscitation techniques with hands-on simulated airway and megacode training for health care providers, such as ACLS or PALS as evidenced by a certificate of completion posted with the dental license; and

2. Have current training in the use and maintenance of the equipment required in 18VAC60-21-291.

18VAC60-21-291

18VAC60-21-291. Requirements for administration of conscious/moderate moderate sedation.

A. Delegation of administration.

1. A dentist who does not hold a permit to administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall only use the services of a qualified dentist or an anesthesiologist to administer such sedation in a dental office. In a licensed outpatient surgery center, a dentist who does not hold a permit to administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall use a qualified dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist to administer such sedation.

2. A dentist who holds a permit may administer or use the services of the following personnel to administer conscious/moderate moderate sedation:

a. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-290 D 2 to administer by an enteral method;

b. A dentist with the training required by 18VAC60-21-290 D 1 to administer by any method and who holds a moderate sedation permit;

c. b. An anesthesiologist;

d. c. A certified registered nurse anesthetist under the medical direction and indirect supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-290 D 1 and holds a moderate sedation permit; or

e. d. A registered nurse upon his direct instruction and under the immediate supervision of a dentist who meets the training requirements of 18VAC60-21-290 D 1 and holds a moderate sedation permit.

3. If minimal sedation is self-administered by or to a patient 13 years of age or older before arrival at the dental office, the dentist may only use the personnel listed in subdivision 2 of this subsection to administer local anesthesia. No sedating medication shall be prescribed for or administered to a patient 12 years of age or younger prior to his arrival at the dentist office or treatment facility.

4. Preceding the administration of conscious/moderate moderate sedation, a permitted dentist may use the services of the following personnel under indirect supervision to administer local anesthesia to anesthetize the injection or treatment site:

a. A dental hygienist with the training required by 18VAC60-25-100 C to parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to persons 18 years of age or older; or

b. A dental hygienist, dental assistant, registered nurse, or licensed practical nurse to administer Schedule VI topical oral anesthetics.

5. A dentist who delegates administration of conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall ensure that:

a. All equipment required in subsection B of this section is present, in good working order, and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover; and

b. Qualified staff is on site to monitor patients in accordance with requirements of subsection D of this section.

B. Equipment requirements. A dentist who administers conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall have available the following equipment in sizes for adults or children as appropriate for the patient being treated and shall maintain it in working order and immediately available to the areas where patients will be sedated and treated and will recover:

1. Full face mask or masks;

2. Oral and nasopharyngeal airway management adjuncts;

3. Endotracheal tubes with appropriate connectors or other appropriate airway management adjunct such as a laryngeal mask airway;

4. A laryngoscope with reserve batteries and bulbs and appropri­ately sized laryngoscope blades;

5. Pulse oximetry;

6. Blood pressure monitoring equipment;

7. Pharmacologic antagonist agents;

8. Source of delivery of oxygen under controlled positive pressure;

9. Mechanical (hand) respiratory bag;

10. Appropriate emergency drugs for patient resuscitation;

11. Electrocardiographic monitor if a patient is receiving parenteral administration of sedation or if the dentist is using titration;

12. Defibrillator;

13. Suction apparatus;

14. Temperature measuring device;

15. Throat pack;

16. Precordial or pretracheal stethoscope; and

17. An end-tidal carbon dioxide monitor (capnograph).

C. Required staffing. At a minimum, there shall be a two-person treatment team for conscious/moderate moderate sedation. The team shall include the operating dentist and a second person to monitor the patient as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 K and assist the operating dentist as provided in 18VAC60-21-260 J, both of whom shall be in the operatory with the patient throughout the dental procedure. If the second person is a dentist, an anesthesiologist, or a certified registered nurse anesthetist who administers the drugs as permitted in 18VAC60-21-291 subsection A of this section, such person may monitor the patient.

D. Monitoring requirements.

1. Baseline vital signs shall be taken and recorded prior to administration of any controlled drug at the facility and prior to discharge.

2. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and pulse shall be monitored continually during the administration and recorded every five minutes.

3. Monitoring of the patient under conscious/moderate moderate sedation is to begin prior to administration of sedation or, if pre-medication is self-administered by the patient, immediately upon the patient's arrival at the dental facility and shall take place continuously during the dental procedure and recovery from sedation. The person who administers the sedation or another licensed practitioner qualified to administer the same level of sedation must remain on the premises of the dental facility until the patient is evaluated and is discharged.

E. Discharge requirements.

1. The patient shall not be discharged until the responsible licensed practitioner determines that the patient's level of consciousness, oxygenation, ventilation, and circulation are satisfactory for discharge and vital signs have been taken and recorded.

2. Post-operative instructions shall be given verbally and in writing. The written instructions shall include a 24-hour emergency telephone number.

3. The patient shall be discharged with a responsible individual who has been instructed with regard to the patient's care.

F. Emergency management. The dentist shall be proficient in handling emergencies and complications related to pain control procedures, including the maintenance of respiration and circulation, immediate estab­lishment of an airway, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

18VAC60-25-40

Part II
Practice of Dental Hygiene

18VAC60-25-40. Scope of practice.

A. Pursuant to § 54.1-2722 of the Code, a licensed dental hygienist may perform services that are educational, diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventive under the direction and indirect or general supervision of a licensed dentist.

B. The following duties of a dentist shall not be delegated:

1. Final diagnosis and treatment planning;

2. Performing surgical or cutting procedures on hard or soft tissue, except as may be permitted by subdivisions C 1 and D 1 of this section;

3. Prescribing or parenterally administering drugs or medicaments, except a dental hygienist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-25-100 C may parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to patients 18 years of age or older;

4. Authorization of work orders for any appliance or prosthetic device or restoration that is to be inserted into a patient's mouth;

5. Operation of high speed rotary instruments in the mouth;

6. Administration of deep sedation or general anesthesia and conscious/moderate moderate sedation;

7. Condensing, contouring, or adjusting any final, fixed, or removable prosthodontic appliance or restoration in the mouth with the exception of packing and carving amalgam and placing and shaping composite resins by dental assistants II with advanced training as specified in 18VAC60-30-120;

8. Final positioning and attachment of orthodontic bonds and bands; and

9. Final adjustment and fitting of crowns and bridges in preparation for final cementation.

C. The following duties shall only be delegated to dental hygienists under direction and may only be performed under indirect supervision:

1. Scaling, root planing, or gingival curettage of natural and restored teeth using hand instruments, slow-speed rotary instruments, ultrasonic devices, and nonsurgical lasers with any sedation or anesthesia administered.

2. Performing an initial examination of teeth and surrounding tissues including the charting of carious lesions, periodontal pockets, or other abnormal conditions for assisting the dentist in the diagnosis.

3. Administering nitrous oxide or local anesthesia by dental hygienists qualified in accordance with the requirements of 18VAC60-25-100.

D. The following duties shall only be delegated to dental hygienists and may be performed under indirect supervision or may be delegated by written order in accordance with § 54.1-2722 D of the Code to be performed under general supervision:

1. Scaling, root planning, or gingival curettage of natural and restored teeth using hand instruments, slow-speed rotary instruments, ultrasonic devices, and nonsurgical lasers with or without topical oral anesthetics.

2. Polishing of natural and restored teeth using air polishers.

3. Performing a clinical examination of teeth and surrounding tissues including the charting of carious lesions, periodontal pockets, or other abnormal conditions for further evaluation and diagnosis by the dentist.

4. Subgingival irrigation or subgingival and gingival application of topical Schedule VI medicinal agents pursuant to § 54.1-3408 J of the Code.

5. Duties appropriate to the education and experience of the dental hygienist and the practice of the supervising dentist, with the exception of those listed as nondelegable in subsection B of this section and those restricted to indirect supervision in subsection C of this section.

E. The following duties may only be delegated under the direction and direct supervision of a dentist to a dental assistant II:

1. Performing pulp capping procedures;

2. Packing and carving of amalgam restorations;

3. Placing and shaping composite resin restorations with a slow speed handpiece;

4. Taking final impressions;

5. Use of a non-epinephrine retraction cord; and

6. Final cementation of crowns and bridges after adjustment and fitting by the dentist.

F. A dental hygienist employed by the Virginia Department of Health may provide educational and preventative dental care under remote supervision, as defined in § 54.1-2722 D of the Code, of a dentist employed by the Virginia Department of Health and in accordance with the protocol adopted by the Commissioner of Health for Dental Hygienists to Practice in an Expanded Capacity under Remote Supervision by Public Health Dentists, September 2012, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

18VAC60-25-190

18VAC60-25-190. Requirements for continuing education.

A. In order to renew an active license, a dental hygienist shall complete a minimum of 15 hours of approved continuing education. Continuing education hours in excess of the number required for renewal may be transferred or credited to the next renewal year for a total of not more than 15 hours.

1. A dental hygienist shall be required to maintain evidence of successful completion of a current hands-on course in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation for health care providers.

2. A dental hygienist who monitors patients under general anesthesia, deep sedation, or conscious/moderate moderate sedation shall complete four hours every two years of approved continuing education directly related to monitoring of such anesthesia or sedation as part of the hours required for licensure renewal.

3. Up to two hours of the 15 hours required for annual renewal may be satisfied through delivery of dental hygiene services, without compensation, to low-income individuals receiving health services through a local health department or a free clinic organized in whole or primarily for the delivery of those services. One hour of continuing education may be credited for three hours of providing such volunteer services, as documented by the health department or free clinic.

B. An approved continuing education program shall be relevant to the treatment and care of patients and shall be:

1. Clinical courses in dental or dental hygiene practice; or

2. Nonclinical subjects that relate to the skills necessary to provide dental hygiene services and are supportive of clinical services (i.e., patient management, legal and ethical responsibilities, risk management, and recordkeeping). Courses not acceptable for the purpose of this subsection include estate planning, financial planning, investments, and personal health.

C. Continuing education credit may be earned for verifiable attendance at or participation in any course, to include audio and video presentations, that meets the requirements in subdivision B 1 of this section and is given by one of the following sponsors:

1. The American Dental Association and the National Dental Association and their constituent and component/branch associations;

2. The American Dental Hygienists' Association and the National Dental Hygienists Association and their constituent and component/branch associations;

3. The American Dental Assisting Association and its constituent and component/branch associations;

4. The American Dental Association specialty organizations and their constituent and component/branch associations;

5. A provider accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education for Category 1 credits;

6. The Academy of General Dentistry and its constituent and component/branch associations;

7. Community colleges with an accredited dental hygiene program if offered under the auspices of the dental hygienist program;

8. A college or university that is accredited by an accrediting agency approved by the U.S. Department of Education or a hospital or health care institution accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations;

9. The American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, the American Safety and Health Institute, and the American Cancer Society;

10. A medical school accredited by the American Medical Association's Liaison Committee for Medical Education or a dental school or dental specialty residency program accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association;

11. State or federal government agencies (i.e., military dental division, Veteran's Administration, etc.);

12. The Commonwealth Dental Hygienists' Society;

13. The MCV Orthodontic Education and Research Foundation;

14. The Dental Assisting National Board and its affiliate, the Dental Auxiliary Learning and Education Foundation;

15. The American Academy of Dental Hygiene, its constituent and component/branch associations; or

16. A regional testing agency (i.e., Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Northeast Regional Board of Dental Examiners, Southern Regional Testing Agency, Council of Interstate Testing Agencies, or Western Regional Examining Board) when serving as an examiner.

D. Verification of compliance.

1. All licensees are required to verify compliance with continuing education requirements at the time of annual license renewal.

2. Following the renewal period, the board may conduct an audit of licensees to verify compliance.

3. Licensees selected for audit shall provide original documents certifying that they have fulfilled their continuing education requirements by the deadline date as specified by the board.

4. Licensees are required to maintain original documents verifying the date and the subject of the program or activity, the sponsor, and the amount of time earned. Documentation shall be maintained for a period of four years following renewal.

5. Failure to comply with continuing education requirements may subject the licensee to disciplinary action by the board.

E. Exemptions.

1. A licensee is exempt from completing continuing education requirements and considered in compliance on the first renewal date following the licensee's initial licensure.

2. The board may grant an exemption for all or part of the continuing education requirements due to circumstances beyond the control of the licensee, such as temporary disability, mandatory military service, or officially declared disasters. A written request with supporting documents must be submitted at least 30 days prior to the deadline for renewal.

F. The board may grant an extension for up to one year for completion of continuing education upon written request with an explanation to the board prior to the renewal date.

G. Continuing education hours required by board order shall not be used to satisfy the continuing education requirement for license renewal or reinstatement.

H. In order to practice under remote supervision in accordance with subsection F of § 54.1-2722 of the Code of Virginia, a dental hygienist shall complete a continuing education course of no less than two hours in duration that is offered by an accredited dental education program or a sponsor listed in subsection C of this section and that includes the following course content:

1. Intent and definitions of remote supervision;

2. Review of dental hygiene scope of practice and delegation of services;

3. Administration of controlled substances;

4. Patient records, documentation, and risk management;

5. Remote supervision laws for dental hygienists and dentists;

6. Written practice protocols; and

7. Settings allowed for remote supervision.

18VAC60-30-50

18VAC60-30-50. Nondelegable duties; dentists.

Only licensed dentists shall perform the following duties:

1. Final diagnosis and treatment planning;

2. Performing surgical or cutting procedures on hard or soft tissue except a dental hygienist performing gingival curettage as provided in 18VAC60-21-140;

3. Prescribing or parenterally administering drugs or medicaments, except a dental hygienist who meets the requirements of 18VAC60-25-100 may parenterally administer Schedule VI local anesthesia to patients 18 years of age or older;

4. Authorization of work orders for any appliance or prosthetic device or restoration that is to be inserted into a patient's mouth;

5. Operation of high speed rotary instruments in the mouth;

6. Administering and monitoring conscious/moderate moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthetics except as provided for in § 54.1-2701 of the Code and subsections J and K of 18VAC60-21-260;

7. Condensing, contouring, or adjusting any final, fixed, or removable prosthodontic appliance or restoration in the mouth with the exception of packing and carving amalgam and placing and shaping composite resins by dental assistants II with advanced training as specified in 18VAC60-30-120;

8. Final positioning and attachment of orthodontic bonds and bands; and

9. Final adjustment and fitting of crowns and bridges in preparation for final cementation.