Agencies | Governor
Virginia Regulatory Town Hall

Final Text

Action:
Promulgate new regulation (Chapter 585), Repeal Chapter 580
Stage: Final

CHAPTER 580

RULES AND REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO THE SANITARY AND OPERATING REQUIREMENTS IN RETAIL FOOD STORES (REPEALED)

Part I

Definitions

2VAC5-580-10. Definitions. (Repealed.)

The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, shall have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Bulk food" means processed or unprocessed food in aggregate containers from which quantities desired by the consumer are withdrawn.

"Corrosion-resistant materials" means those materials that maintain acceptable sanitary surface characteristics under prolonged influence of the food to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and sanitizing solutions, and other conditions of the use environment.

"Easily cleanable" means that surfaces are readily accessible and made of such material and finish and so fabricated that residue can be effectively removed by normal cleaning methods.

"Employee" means the individual having supervisory or management duties, person on the payroll, family member, volunteer, person performing work under contractual agreement, or any other person working in a food store.

"Equipment" means items other than utensils used in the storage, preparation, display, and transportation of food such as stoves, ovens, hoods, slicers, grinders, mixers, scales, meat blocks, tables, food shelving, reach-in refrigerators and freezers, sinks, ice makers, and similar items used in the operation of a retail food store. This item does not include fork lift trucks or dollies.

"Food" means any raw, cooked, or processed edible substance; ice, beverage or ingredient used or intended for use, or for sale, in whole or in part for human consumption.

"Food-contact surfaces" means those surfaces of equipment and utensils with which food normally comes into contact, and those surfaces from which food may drain, drip, or splash back onto surfaces normally in contact with food.

"Food service establishment" means any place where food is prepared and intended for individual portion service, and includes the site at which individual portions are provided. The term includes any such place regardless of whether consumption is on or off the premises and regardless of whether there is a charge for the food. The terms includes delicatessens that offer prepared food in individual service portions. The term does not include private homes where food is prepared or served for individual family consumption, retail food stores, the location of food vending machines, and supply vehicles.

"Hermetically sealed container" means a container which is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processing.

"Law" includes applicable federal, state, and local statutes, ordinances, and regulations.

"Packaged" means bottled, canned, cartoned, bagged, or securely wrapped.

"Person" includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity.

"Person in charge" means the individual present in a retail food store who is the supervisor of the retail food store at the time of inspection.

"Potentially hazardous food" means any food that consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, edible crustacea, or other ingredients, including synthetic ingredients, and which is in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms. The term does not include: clean, whole, uncracked, odor-free shell eggs; foods that have pH level of 4.6 or below or a water activity (aw) value of 0.85 or less under standard conditions; food products in hermetically sealed containers processed to prevent spoilage.

"Regulatory authority" means the state and/or local enforcement authority or authorities having responsibility for enforcing this chapter.

"Retail food store" means any establishment or section of an establishment where food and food products are offered to the consumer and intended for off-premise consumption. The term includes delicatessens that offer prepared food in bulk quantities or individual portions. The term does not include establishments which handle only prepackaged, nonpotentially hazardous foods; roadside markets that offer only fresh fruits and fresh vegetables for sale; food service establishments1; or food and beverage vending machines2.

"Safe materials" means articles manufactured from or composed of materials that may not reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in their becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food. If materials are food additives or color additives as defined in §201 (s) or (t) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act3 as used they are "safe" only if they are used in conformity with regulations established pursuant to §409 or §706 of that Act. Other materials are "safe" only if, as used, they are not food additives or color additives as defined in §201 (s) or (t) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act3 and are used in conformity with all applicable regulations of the Food and Drug Administration.

"Sanitization" means effective bactericidal treatment4 by a process that provides enough accumulative heat or concentration of chemicals for enough time to reduce the bacterial count, including pathogens, to a safe level on cleaned food-contact surfaces of utensils.

"Sealed" means free of cracks or other openings that permit the entry or passage of moisture.

"Single-serve articles" means items used by the retailer or consumer such as cups, containers, lids, and packaging materials, including bags and similar articles, intended for contact with food, and designed for one-time use. The term does not include "single use" articles such as number 10 cans, aluminum pie pans, bread wrappers and similar articles into which food has been packaged by the manufacturer.

"Transportation" (transported) means movement of food within the retail food store or delivery of food from that retail food store to another place while under the control of the person in charge.

"Utensil" means any food-contact implement used in the storage, preparation, transportation, or dispensing of food.

"Warewashing" means the cleaning and sanitizing of food-contact surfaces of equipment and utensils.

1 Food Service Sanitation Manual, 1976, DHEW Pub. No. (FDA) 78-2081. This manual is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

2 The Vending of Food and Beverages, 1978, DHEW Pub. No. (FDA) 78-2091. This code is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

3 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, As Amended May 1980, HHS Pub. No. (FDA) 80-1051. This Act is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

3 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, As Amended May 1980, HHS Pub. No. (FDA) 80-1051. This Act is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

4 Procedures for the Bacteriological Examination of Food Utensils and/or Food Equipment Surfaces, Technical Information Bulletin No. 1, 1967, Public Health Service Publication No. 1631. Copies may be obtained from Food and Drug Administration, Retail Food Protection Branch, 200 "C'' Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20204.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §1.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

Part II

Food

2VAC5-580-20. Food supplies. (Repealed.)

A. General. Food shall be in sound condition and safe for human consumption. Food shall be obtained from sources that comply with the applicable laws relating to food safety. Food prepared in a home shall not be used or offered for sale.

B. Special requirements.

1. Fluid milk and milk products used or offered for sale shall comply with the Grade "A" standards as established by law. Dry milk and milk products used or offered for sale shall be made from pasteurized milk and milk products.

2. Fresh and frozen shucked shellfish (oysters, clams, or mussels) shall be received and/or repacked in nonreturnable packages identified with the name and address of the original shell stock processor, shucker-packer, or repacker, and the state certification number issued according to law. Shucked shellfish should be kept in the container in which they were received until used or sold.

Each original container of unshucked shellfish (oysters, clams, or mussels) shall be identified by an attached tag, to be retained for a period of 90 days, that states the name and address of the original shell-fish processor, the kind and quantity of shellfish, and the certification number issued by the state or foreign shellfish control agency, where applicable.

3. Only clean shell eggs meeting applicable grade standards or pasteurized liquid, frozen or dry eggs, or pasteurized dry egg products shall be used or offered for sale.

4. Only ice which has been manufactured from potable water and handled in a sanitary manner shall be used or offered for sale. Ice offered for sale shall be packaged.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §2.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-30. Food protection. (Repealed.)

A. General. At all times, including while being stored, prepared, displayed, dispensed, packaged, or transported, food shall be protected from cross-contamination between foods and from potential contamination by insects, insecticides, rodents, rodenticides, probe-type price or probe-type identification tags, unclean equipment and utensils, unnecessary handling, flooding, draining, and overhead leakage or condensation, or other agents of public health significance. The temperature of potentially hazardous foods shall be 45°F (approx. 7°C) or below or 140°F (60°C) or above, at all times, except as otherwise provided in this chapter. Hermetically sealed packages shall be handled so as to maintain product and container integrity. Food items that are spoiled or that are in damaged containers that may affect the product and those food items that have been returned to, or are being detained by, the retail food store because of spoilage, container damage, or other public health considerations, shall be segregated and held in designated areas pending proper disposition unless disposed of under the supervision of the regulatory authority.

B. Emergency occurrences. The person in charge of a retail food store that is affected by a fire, flood, extend power outage, or a similar significant occurrence that creates a reasonable probability that food in the retail food store may have been contaminated or that the temperature level of food which is in a potentially hazardous form may have caused that food to have become hazardous to health, shall take such action as is necessary to protect the public health and shall promptly notify the regulatory authority of the emergency.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §2.2, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-40. Food storage. (Repealed.)

A. General.

1. Food packaged in an immediate closed container, once the container is opened in the retail food store prior to use or retail sale, shall be kept covered. Food, whether raw or prepared, if removed from the immediate closed container in which it was originally packaged prior to use or retail sale, shall be stored in a clean, covered container, except during necessary periods of preparation. Whole and unprocessed fresh raw vegetables and fresh raw fruits shall be exempted from this requirement. Container covers shall be impervious and nonabsorbent. During periods of storage, subprimal cuts of meat shall be covered with single-service wrapping material. Primal cuts, quarters or sides of meat, or processed meats such as country hams, slab bacon, and smoked or cured sausages, may be hung uncovered on clean, sanitized hooks or placed on clean, sanitized metal racks in such a manner as to preclude contamination of any food products in storage.

2. Containers of food shall be stored a minimum of six inches (152 millimeters (mm)) above the floor or stored on dollies, skids, racks, or open-ended pallets, provided such equipment is easily movable either by hand or with the use of pallet-moving equipment that is on the premises and used. Such storage areas shall be kept clean. Cased food packaged in cans, glass, or other waterproof containers need not be elevated when the case of food is not exposed to floor moisture and the storage area is kept clean.

3. Food and containers of food shall not be stored under exposed or unprotected sewer lines, or water lines that are leaking on or which condensed water has accumulated.

4. Packaged foods shall not be stored in contact with water or undrained ice.

5. A food ingredient, such as flour, sugar, salt, baking powder, cooking oil or vinegar, that is not stored in the original package and is not readily identifiable on sight, shall be stored in a container identifying it by common name.

6. Toilet rooms and their vestibules, and garbage or mechanical rooms shall not be used for the storage of food.

B. Refrigerated/frozen storage.

1. Refrigeration units or effectively insulated units shall be provided in such number of such capacity to assure the maintenance of potentially hazardous food at required temperatures during storage. Each mechanically refrigerated unit storing potentially hazardous food shall be provided with a numerically scaled indicating thermometer, accurate to ± 3°F (approx. ± 1°C). The sensing element shall be located to measure the air temperature in the unit at a location that is representative of the air temperature in the unit. The thermometer scale shall be located to be easily readable. Recording thermometers, accurate to ± 3°F (approx. ± 1°C) may be used in lieu of indicating thermometers.

2. Potentially hazardous food requiring refrigeration after preparation shall be rapidly cooled to an internal temperature of 45°F (approx. 7°C) or below. Potentially hazardous foods of large volume or prepared in large quantities shall be rapidly cooled utilizing such methods as shallow pans, agitation, quick chilling, or water circulation external to the food container so that the cooling period shall not exceed four hours. Potentially hazardous food to be transported shall be prechilled and held at a temperature of 45°F (approx. 7°C) or below unless maintained in accordance with the hot storage requirements of this chapter.

3. Potentially hazardous frozen foods shall be kept frozen and should be stored at an air temperature of 0°F (approx. - 18°C) or below except for defrost cycles and brief periods of loading or unloading.

4. Ice used as a cooling medium for food storage shall not be used or sold for human consumption.

C. Hot storage.

1. Hot food storage units shall be provided in such number and of such capacity to assure the maintenance of potentially hazardous food at the required temperature during storage. Each hot food storage unit storing potentially hazardous food shall be provided with a numerically scaled indicating thermometer, accurate to ± 3°F (approx. ± 1°C). The sensing element shall be located to measure the air temperature in the unit at a location that is representative of the temperature in the unit. The thermometer scale shall be located to be easily readable. Recording thermometers accurate to ± 3°F (approx. ± 1°C) may be used in lieu of indicating thermometers. Where it is impractical to install thermometers on equipment such as heat lamps, calrod units, or insulated food transport carriers, a food product thermometer shall be available and used to check internal food temperature.

2. The internal temperature of potentially hazardous foods requiring hot storage shall be 140°F (60°C) or above, except during necessary periods of preparation.

Potentially hazardous food to be transported shall be held at a temperature of 140°F (60°C) or above unless maintained in accordance with the refrigerated storage requirements of this chapter.

Food storage locations are restricted to minimize risk of food contamination from other foods, equipment, routine employee activities, and environmental systems. Labeling of bulk ingredients is required to prevent confusion which could lead to inadvertent contamination of food during preparation.

Provisions covering the availability of hot and refrigerated/frozen food storage facilities, and the parameters defining the cooling period for foods in storage, are included since controlling product temperature is the best means available for controlling growth of pathogens in food. Thermometers are required in or on equipment to provide a means for monitoring air temperatures around potentially hazardous foods.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §2.3, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-50. Food preparation. (Repealed.)

A. General.

1. Food shall be prepared with a minimum of manual contact. Food shall be prepared on food-contact surfaces and with utensils which are clean and have been sanitized.

2. Each time there is a change in processing between raw beef, raw pork, raw poultry or raw seafood, or a change in processing from raw to ready-to-eat foods, each new operation shall begin with food-contact surfaces and utensils which are clean and have been sanitized. Salads and other ready-to-eat foods should be prepared in separate rooms or in areas that are separated by a barrier or open space from areas used for processing potentially hazardous raw products.

3. Potentially hazardous foods that are in a form to be consumed without further cooking such as salads, sandwiches, and filled pastry products should be prepared from chilled products.

B. Raw fruits and raw vegetables. Raw fruits and raw vegetables that will be cut or combined with other ingredients or will be otherwise processed into food products by the retail food store shall be thoroughly cleaned with potable water before being used.

C. Cooking potentially hazardous foods. Potentially hazardous foods being processed within the retail food store by cooking shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature of at least 140°F (60°C), except that:

1. Poultry, poultry stuffings, stuffed meats, and stuffings containing meat, shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to at least 165°F (approx. 74°C) with no interruption of the cooking process.

2. Pork and pork products shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to at least 150°F (approx. 60°C), or, if cooked in a microwave oven, to at least 170°F (approx. 77°C).

3. When beef roasts under 10 pounds (approx. 5 kilograms (kg)) in weight are cooked in a still dry heat oven, the oven shall be preheated to and held at an air temperature of at least 350°F (approx. 177°C) throughout the process. If cooked in a convection oven, the oven shall be preheated to and held at an air temperature of at least 325°F (approx. 163°C) throughout the process.

When beef roasts of 10 pounds (approx. 5 kilograms (kg)) or over in weight are cooked in a dry heat oven, the oven shall be preheated to and held at an air temperature of at least 250°F (approx. 122°C) throughout the process.

Further, in order to meet public health requirements for the processes cited above, the following table lists the minimum internal temperature of the beef roast for the minimum time the roast needs to be held at such temperature.


            MINIMUM HOLDING TIMES FOR BEEF ROASTS           


              AT VARIOUS INTERNAL TEMPERATURES              


 -----------------------------------------------------------


 Minimum internal temperature  Minimum holding time         


 -----------------------------------------------------------


              F                         C            Minutes


             130                       54.4            121  


             131                       55.0             97  


             132                       55.6             77  


             133                       56.1             62  


             134                       56.7             47  


             135                       57.2             37  


             136                       57.8             32  


             137                       58.4             24  


             138                       58.9             19  


             139                       59.5             15  


             140                       60.0             12  


             141                       60.6             10  


             142                       61.1              8  


             143                       61.7              6  


             144                       62.2              5  


 -----------------------------------------------------------

4. Beef roasts, if cooked in a microwave oven, shall be cooked to an internal temperature of at least 145°F (approx. 63°C).

D. Bakery product fillings. Custards, cream fillings, and similar products, including synthetic fillings, shall meet the temperature requirement in 2VAC5-580-40 B 2 of this chapter following preparation and be maintained at that temperature during storage, transportation and display. Products with synthetic fillings may be excluded from this requirement if:

1. The food, including the interface between the bakery product and its filling, has a pH level of 4.6 or below or a water activity (aw) value of 0.85 or less under standard conditions; or

2. It is handled in such a manner as to preclude contamination with and the growth of pathogenic microorganisms after heat processing; or

3. Other scientific evidence is on file with the regulatory authority demonstrating that the specific product will not support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.

Bakery products with synthetic fillings, which meet the above criteria, may be labeled to state that refrigeration is not required.

E. Reheating. Potentially hazardous foods that have been cooked and then refrigerated shall be reheated rapidly to an internal temperature of 165°F (approx. 74°C) or higher before being placed in hot food storage holding units. Food warmers and other hot food holding units shall not be used for the reheating of potentially hazardous foods.

F. Food product thermometers. Metal stem-type numerically scaled indicating thermometers, accurate to ± 2°F (approx. ± 1°C) shall be provided and used to assure attainment and maintenance of proper temperature during preparations of all potentially hazardous foods.

G. Thawing potentially hazardous foods. Potentially hazardous foods shall be thawed:

1. In refrigerated units at a temperature not to exceed 45°F (approx. 7°C); or

2. Under potable running water at a temperature of 70°F (approx. 21°C) or below, with sufficient water velocity to agitate and float off loose food particles into the overflow and for a period not to exceed that reasonably required to thaw the food; or

3. In a microwave oven only when the food will be immediately transferred to conventional cooking units as part of a continuous cooking process or when the entire, uninterrupted cooking process takes place in the microwave oven; or

4. As part of the conventional cooking process.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §2.4, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-60. Food display. (Repealed.)

A. Potentially hazardous foods. Potentially hazardous foods shall be held at an internal temperature of 45°F (approx. 7°C) or below or at an internal temperature of 140°F (approx. 60°C) or higher during display, except that rare roast beef which is offered for sale hot shall be held at a temperature of at least 130°F (approx. 55°C).

B. Frozen foods. Foods intended for sale in a frozen state should be displayed at an air temperature of 0°F (approx. -18°C) or below, except for defrost cycles and brief periods of loading or unloading. Frozen foods should be displayed below or behind product food lines according to cabinet manufacturers'' specifications.

C. Food display. Food on display, other than whole, unprocessed raw fruits and unprocessed raw vegetables, shall be protected from contamination by being packaged, by display cases, by covered containers for self-service, or by similar protective equipment. All food shall be displayed above the floor in a manner that will protect the food from contamination. Hot or cold food units shall be provided to assure the maintenance of potentially hazardous food at the required temperature during display. Potentially hazardous food shall not be provided for consumer self-service.

D. Dispensing utensils. To avoid unnecessary manual contact with the food, suitable dispensing utensils and single-service articles shall be used by employees. Consumers who serve themselves bulk food shall be provided suitable dispensing utensils. Dispensing utensils shall be:

1. Stored in the food with the dispensing utensil handle extended out of the food; or

2. Stored clean and dry; or

3. Stored in running potable water.

E. Food sample demonstrations and food promotions. When food sample demonstrations and food promotions are authorized in the retail food store, the person in charge shall ensure that such activities comply with the applicable sanitation provisions of this chapter.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §2.5, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-70. Food transportation by the retail food store. (Repealed.)

Food, other than hanging primal cuts, quarters, or sides of meat, and raw fruits and raw vegetables, shall be protected from contamination by use of packaging or covered containers while being transported. All food being transported shall meet the applicable requirements of this chapter relating to food protection and food storage. Foods packaged in immediate closed containers do not need to be overwrapped or covered if the immediate closed containers have not been opened, torn, or broken.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §2.6, eff. July 9, 1986.

Part III

Personnel

2VAC5-580-80. Employee health. (Repealed.)

No employee, while infected with a disease in a communicable form that can be transmitted by foods or who is a carrier of organisms that cause such a disease or while affected with a boil, an infected wound, or an acute respiratory infection, shall work in a retail food store in any capacity in which there is a likelihood of such person contaminating food or food-contact surfaces with pathogenic organisms or transmitting disease to other persons.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §3.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-90. Personal cleanliness. (Repealed.)

Employees engaged in food preparation and warewashing operations shall thoroughly wash their hands and the exposed portions of their arms with soap or detergent and warm water before starting work; after smoking, eating or using the toilet; before and after handling raw meat, or raw poultry, or raw seafood; and as often as is necessary during work to keep them clean. Employees shall keep their fingernails trimmed and clean.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §3.2, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-100. Clothing. (Repealed.)

A. Employees shall wear clean outer clothing.

B. Employees shall use effective hair restraints where necessary to prevent the contamination of food or food-contact surfaces.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §3.3, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-110. Employee practices. (Repealed.)

A. Employees shall maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and shall conform to good hygienic practices during all working periods.

B. Employees shall consume food or use tobacco only in designated areas. Such designated areas must be located so that the eating or tobacco use of an employee does not result in contamination of food, equipment, or utensils.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §3.4, eff. July 9, 1986.

Part IV

Equipment and Utensils

2VAC5-580-120. Materials. (Repealed.)

A. General. Multi-use equipment and utensils shall be constructed and repaired with safe materials, including finishing materials; shall be corrosion resistant and shall be nonabsorbent; and shall be smooth, easily cleanable, and durable under conditions of normal use. Single-service articles shall be made from clean, sanitary, safe materials. Equipment, utensils, and single-service articles shall not impart odors, color, taste, nor contribute to the contamination of food.

B. Solder. If solder is used, it shall be composed of safe materials and be corrosion resistant.

C. Wood. Hard maple or equivalent nonabsorbent wood that meets the general requirements set forth in subsection A of 2VAC5-580-120 of this chapter, may be used for cutting blocks, cutting boards, and bakers'' tables. Wood shall not be used as a food-contact surface under other circumstances, except for contact with raw fruits, raw vegetables, and nuts in the shell.

D. Plastics and rubber materials. Safe plastic or safe rubber or safe rubber-like materials that are resistant under normal conditions of use to scratching, scoring, decomposition, crazing, chipping, and distortion, that are of sufficient weight and thickness to permit cleaning and sanitizing by normal warewashing methods, and which meet the general requirements set forth in subsection A of 2VAC5-580-120 of this chapter, are permitted for repeated use.

E. Cutting surfaces. Cutting surfaces subject to scratching or scoring must be resurfaced so as to be easily cleaned, or be discarded when these surfaces can no longer be effectively cleaned and sanitized.

F. Single-service articles. Single-service articles shall not be reused.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §4.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-130. Design and fabrication. (Repealed.)

A. General. All equipment and utensils, including plastic-ware, shall be designed and fabricated for durability under conditions of normal use and shall be resistant to denting, buckling, pitting, chipping, and crazing.

1. Food-contact surfaces shall be easily cleanable, smooth, and free of breaks, open seams, cracks, chips, pits, and similar imperfections, and free of difficult-to-clean internal corners and crevices. Cast iron may be used as a food-contact surface only if the surface is used for cooking. Threads shall be designed to facilitate cleaning; ordinary "V" type threads are prohibited in food-contact surfaces, except that in equipment such as ice makers, hot oil cooking equipment, or hot oil filtering systems, such threads shall be minimized.

2. Equipment containing bearings and gears requiring lubricants not made of safe materials shall be designed and constructed so that the lubricant cannot leak, drip, or be forced into food or onto food-contact surfaces. Equipment designed to receive lubrication of bearings and gears on or within food-contact surfaces shall be lubricated with materials meeting the requirements of 21 CFR 178.3570*.

3. Sinks and drain boards shall be sloped to drain and be self-draining.

B. Accessibility. Unless designed for in-place cleaning, food-contact surfaces shall be accessible for cleaning and inspection:

1. Without being disassembled; or

2. By disassembling without the use of tools; or

3. By easy disassembling with the use of only simple tools, such as mallets, screwdrivers, or open-end wrenches which are kept near the equipment.

C. Cleaned in place (CIP). Equipment designed and constructed for CIP shall meet requirements equivalent to those contained in §4-203 of the FDA Model Food Service Sanitation Ordinance**.

D. Food product thermometers. Indicating thermometers required for immersion into food or cooking media shall be of metal stem-type construction, numerically scaled, and accurate to ± 2°F (approx. ± 1°C).

E. Nonfood-contact surfaces. Surfaces of equipment not intended for contact with food, but which are exposed to splash or food debris, or which otherwise require frequent cleaning, shall be designed and fabricated to be smooth, washable, free of unnecessary ledges, projections, or crevices, and readily accessible for cleaning, and shall be of such material and in such repair as to be easily maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.

F. Ventilation hoods. Ventilation hoods and devices, where installed, shall be designed to prevent grease or condensation from collecting on walls and ceilings, and from dripping into food or onto food-contact surfaces. Filters or other grease extracting equipment shall be readily removable for cleaning and replacement, if not designed to be cleaned in place.

G. Maintenance of equipment and utensils. All equipment and utensils shall be maintained in good repair to comply with the requirements of this chapter.

* Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Parts 170 to 199. This volume is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

** Food Service Sanitation Manual, 1976, DHEW Pub. No. (FDA) 78-2081. This manual is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §4.2, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-140. Equipment installation and location. (Repealed.)

A. General. Equipment, including ice makers and ice storage equipment, shall not be located under exposed or unprotected sewer lines, water lines that are leaking or on which condensed water has accumulated, open stairwells, or other sources of contamination.

B. Table-mounted equipment.

1. Table-mounted equipment, shall be installed to facilitate the cleaning of the equipment and the adjacent areas.

2. Equipment that is mounted on tables or counters, unless portable, shall be sealed to the table or counter or elevated on legs to provide at least a four inch (102 mm) clearance between the table or counter, except that if no part of the table under the equipment is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from cleaning access, the clearance space shall be three inches (76 mm) or more; or if no part of the table under the equipment is more than three inches (76 mm) from cleaning access, the clearance space shall be two inches (51 mm) or more.

3. Equipment is portable within the meaning of 2VAC5-580-140 B 2 of this chapter if:

a. It is small and light enough to be moved easily by one person; and

b. It has no utility connection, has a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or has a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to permit the equipment to be moved for easy cleaning; and

c. It is table-mounted, such as powered mixers, grinders, slicers, tenderizers, and similar equipment, and:

does not exceed 80 pounds (approx. 36 kilograms (kg)), or

is equipped with a mechanical means of safely tilting the unit for cleaning.

C. Floor-mounted equipment.

1. Floor-mounted equipment, unless easily movable, shall be:

a. Sealed to the floor; or

b. Elevated on legs to provide at least a six inch (152 mm) clearance between the floor and equipment, except that equipment may be elevated to provide at least a four inch (102 mm) clearance between the floor and equipment if no part of the floor under the equipment is more than six inches (152 mm) from cleaning access.

c. Display shelving units, display refrigeration units, display freezer units are exempt from the provisions of subdivisions 1 a and b of this subsection if they are installed so that the floor beneath the units can be cleaned.

2. Equipment is easily movable if:

a. It is mounted on wheels or casters; and

b. It has no utility connection, has a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or has a flexible utility line of sufficient length to permit the equipment to be moved for easy cleaning.

3. Unless sufficient space is provided for easy cleaning between, behind, and above each unit of fixed equipment, the space between it and adjoining equipment units and adjacent walls or ceilings shall be no more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) and, if exposed to seepage, the space shall be sealed.

D. Aisles and working spaces. Aisles and working spaces between units of equipment and between equipment and walls, shall be unobstructed and of sufficient width to permit employees to perform their duties readily without contamination of food or food-contact surfaces by clothing or personal contact. All easily movable storage equipment such as dollies, skids, racks, and open-ended pallets shall be positioned to provide accessibility to working areas.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §4.3, eff. July 9, 1986.

Part V

Cleaning, Sanitization, and Storage of Equipment and Utensils

2VAC5-580-150. Equipment and utensil cleaning and sanitization. (Repealed.)

A. Cleaning frequency.

1. Utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment shall be cleaned and sanitized:

a. Each time there is a change in processing between raw beef, raw pork, raw poultry or raw seafood, or a change in processing from raw to ready-to-eat foods;

b. After any interruption of operations during which time contamination may have occurred; and

c. After final use each working day.

2. Where equipment and utensils are used for the preparation of potentially hazardous foods on a continuous or production-line basis, utensils and the food-contact surfaces of equipment shall be cleaned and sanitized at intervals throughout the day on a schedule based on food temperature, type of food, and amount of food particle accumulation.

3. The food-contact surfaces of cooking devices and the cavities and door seals of microwave ovens shall be cleaned at least once each day of use, except that this shall not apply to hot oil cooking equipment and hot oil filtering systems. The food-contact surfaces of all baking equipment and pans shall be kept free of encrusted grease deposits and other accumulated soil.

4. Nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment, including transport vehicles, shall be cleaned as often as is necessary to keep the equipment free of accumulation of dust, dirt, food particles, and other debris.

B. Wiping cloths.

1. Cloths or sponges used for wiping food spills on food-contact surfaces of equipment shall be clean and rinsed frequently in one of the sanitizing solutions permitted in subdivision C 8 of this section and used for no other purpose. These cloths and sponges shall be stored in the sanitizing solution between uses.

2. Cloths or sponges used for cleaning nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment shall be clean and rinsed as specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection and used for no other purpose. These cloths and sponges shall be stored in the sanitizing solution between uses.

3. Single-service disposable towels are permitted in lieu of wiping cloths or sponges if they are discarded after each use.

C. Manual cleaning and sanitizing.

1. For manual cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and utensils, a sink with two or three compartments shall be provided and used. Sink compartments shall be large enough to accommodate the immersion of most equipment and utensils, and each compartment of the sink shall be supplied with hot and cold potable running water. Where immersion in sinks is impracticable (e.g., because equipment is too large), equipment and utensils shall be cleaned and sanitized manually or by pressure spray methods.

2. Drain boards or easily movable utensil tables of adequate size shall be provided for proper storage and handling of soiled utensils prior to cleaning and for cleaned utensils following sanitizing and shall be located so as not to interfere with proper use of the warewashing facilities.

3. Equipment and utensils shall be preflushed or prescraped and, when necessary, presoaked to remove food particles and soil.

4. The sinks shall be cleaned before use.

5. When a three-compartment sink is utilized for warewashing, the operation shall be conducted in the following sequence:

a. Equipment and utensils shall be thoroughly cleaned in the first compartment with a hot detergent solution that is kept clean and at a concentration indicated on the manufacturer''s label; and

b. Equipment and utensils shall be rinsed free of detergent and abrasives with clean water in the second compartment; and

c. Equipment and utensils shall be sanitized in the third compartment according to one of the methods included in subdivisions 8 a through e of this subsection.

6. When a two-compartment sink is utilized for warewashing, one of the following two methods shall be used:

a. Equipment and utensils shall be thoroughly cleaned in the first compartment with a hot detergent solution that is kept clean and at a concentration indicated on the manufacturer''s label; and shall be sanitized in hot water in the second compartment in accordance with subdivision 8 a of this subsection; or

b. Equipment and utensils shall be thoroughly cleaned in the first compartment with a hot detergent-sanitizer solution that is kept clean and at a concentration indicated on the manufacturer''s label; and shall be sanitized in the second compartment in hot water in accordance with subdivision 8 a of this subsection, or with a solution containing that same detergent-sanitizer in accordance with subdivisions 8 b through e of this section.

7. When pressure spray methods are utilized for cleaning and sanitizing, the equipment and utensils shall be thoroughly flushed with a detergent-sanitizer solution until the article is free of visible food particles and soil. The detergent-sanitizer shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer''s instructions and shall be of the type that does not require a potable water rinse when used according to those instructions.

8. The food-contact surfaces of all equipment and utensils shall be sanitized by:

a. Immersion for at least one-half minute in clean, hot water of a temperature of at least 170°F (approx. 77°C); or

b. Immersion for at least one minute in a clean solution containing at least 50 parts per million of available chlorine as a hypochlorite and having a temperature of at least 75°F (approx. 24°C); or

c. Immersion for at least one minute in a clean solution containing at least 12.5 parts per million of available iodine, having a pH range which the manufacturer has demonstrated to be effective and at a temperature of at least 75°F (approx. 24°C); or

d. Immersion for at least one minute in a clean solution containing 200 parts per million of a quaternary ammonium compound and having a temperature of at least 75°F (approx. 24°C). The quaternary ammonium compound used shall have been compounded by the manufacturer to assure effectiveness in waters up to 500 parts per million hardness at use concentration; or

e. Immersion in a clean solution containing any other chemical sanitizing agent allowed under 21 CFR 178.1010* that will provide the equivalent bactericidal effect of a solution containing at least 50 parts per million of available chlorine as a hypochlorite at a temperature of at least 75°F (approx. 24°C) for one minute; or

f. Treatment with steam free from materials or additives other than those specified in 21 CFR 173.310* in the case of equipment too large to sanitize by immersion, but in which steam can be confined; or

g. Rinsing, spraying, or swabbing with a chemical sanitizing solution of at least twice the strength required for that particular sanitizing solution under subdivisions 8 b, c, and e of this subsection in the case of equipment too large to sanitize by immersion.

9. When hot water is used for sanitizing, the following equipment shall be provided and used:

a. An integral heating device or fixture installed in, on or under the sanitizing compartment of the sink capable of maintaining the water at a temperature of at least 170°F (approx. 77°C); and

b. A numerically scaled indicating thermometer, accurate to ± 3°F (approx. ± 1°C) convenient to the sink for the frequent checks of water temperature; and

c. Utensil racks or baskets of such size and design to permit complete immersion of utensils and equipment in the hot water.

10. When chemicals are used for sanitization, they shall not have concentrations higher than the maximum permitted under 21 CFR 178.1010* and a test kit or other device that measures the parts per million concentration of the solution shall be provided and used.

D. Mechanical cleaning and sanitizing. Mechanical cleaning and sanitizing equipment and practices shall conform to the provisions contained in §5-104 of the Model Food Service Sanitation Ordinance**.

E. Drying. Unless used immediately after sanitization, all equipment and utensils shall be air dried. Towel drying shall not be permitted.

F. Retail food stores without equipment and utensil cleaning facilities. Retail food stores that do not have facilities for proper cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and equipment shall not prepare or package food or dispense unpackaged food other than raw fruits and raw vegetables.

* Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Parts 170 to 199. This volume is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

* Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Parts 170 to 199. This volume is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

** Food Service Sanitation Manual, 1976, DHEW Pub. No. (FDA) 78-2081. This manual is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §5.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-160. Equipment and utensil handling and storage. (Repealed.)

A. Handling. Cleaned and sanitized equipment and utensils shall be handled in a way that protects them from contamination.

B. Storage.

1. Cleaned and sanitized utensils and equipment shall be stored at least six inches (152 mm) above the floor in a clean, dry location in a way that protects them from splash, dust, and other means of contamination. The food-contact surfaces of fixed equipment shall also be protected from contamination. Equipment and utensils shall not be placed under exposed or unprotected sewer lines, or water lines that are leaking or on which condensed water has accumulated.

2. Utensils shall be air dried before being stored or shall be stored in a self-draining position.

3. Stored utensils shall be covered or inverted wherever practical.

C. Single-service articles.

1. Single-service articles shall be stored in closed cartons or containers at least six inches (152 mm) above the floor or on easily movable dollies, skids, racks, or open-ended pallets. Such storage shall protect the articles from contamination and shall not be located under exposed or unprotected sewer lines, or water lines that are leaking or on which condensed water has accumulated.

2. Single-service articles shall be handled in a manner that prevents contamination of surfaces that may come in contact with food.

D. Prohibited storage areas. Food equipment, utensils, or single-service articles shall not be stored in locker rooms, toilet rooms or their vestibules, garbage rooms, or mechanical rooms.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §5.2, eff. July 9, 1986.

Part VI

Sanitary Facilities and Controls

2VAC5-580-170. Water supply. (Repealed.)

A. General. Sufficient potable water for the needs of the retail food store shall be provided from a source constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

B. Water delivery. All potable water not provided to the retail food store directly from the source by pipe shall be delivered in a bulk water transport system and shall be transferred to a closed water system. Both of these systems shall be constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

C. Water under pressure. Water under pressure at the required temperatures shall be provided to all fixtures and equipment that use water.

D. Steam. Steam used in contact with food or food-contract surfaces shall be free from any materials or additives other than those specified in 21 CFR 173.310*.

* Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Parts 170 to 199. This volume is sold by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-180. Sewage. (Repealed.)

All sewage, including liquid waste, shall be disposed of by a public sewerage system or by a sewage disposal system constructed, maintained, and operated according to law. Nonwater carried sewage disposal facilities are prohibited, except as permitted by the regulatory authority.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.2, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-190. Plumbing. (Repealed.)

A. General. Plumbing shall be sized, installed, and maintained according to law. There shall be no cross-connection between the potable water supply and any other system containing:

1. Water of unknown or questionable origin, or

2. Contaminating or polluting substances.

B. Nonpotable water system. A nonpotable water system is permitted for air conditioning, equipment cooling, and fire protection, and shall be installed according to law. Nonpotable water shall not directly or indirectly contact food or equipment or utensils that contact food. The piping of any nonpotable water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that carries potable water.

C. Backflow. The potable water system shall be installed to preclude the possibility of backflow. Devices shall be installed to protect against backflow and backsiphonage at all fixtures and equipment where an air gap at least twice the diameter of the water system inlet is not provided between the water supply inlet and the fixture''s flood level rim. No hose shall be attached to a faucet that is not equipped with a backflow prevention device.

D. Grease traps. Grease traps, if used, shall be located to be easily accessible for cleaning.

E. Garbage grinders. Garbage grinders, if used, shall be installed and maintained according to law.

F. Drains. Except for properly trapped open sinks, there shall be no direct connection between the sewerage system and any drains originating from equipment in which food, portable equipment, or utensils are placed. When a warewashing machine is located within five feet (152 centimeters (cm)) of a trapped floor drain, the warewasher waste outlet may be connected directly on the inlet side of a properly vented floor drain trap if permitted by law.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.3, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-200. Toilet facilities. (Repealed.)

A. Toilet installation. Toilet facilities shall be installed according to law, shall be at least one and not less than the number required by law, shall be conveniently located, and shall be accessible to employees at all times.

B. Toilet design. Toilets and urinals shall be designed to be easily cleanable.

C. Toilet rooms. Toilet rooms shall be completely enclosed and shall have tight-fitting, self-closing solid doors, except for louvers that may be necessary for ventilation systems.

D. Toilet facility maintenance. Toilet facilities, including toilet fixtures and any related vestibules, shall be kept clean and in good repair. A supply of toilet tissue shall be provided at each toilet at all times. Easily cleanable receptables shall be provided for waste materials. Toilet rooms used by women shall have at least one covered waste receptacle.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.4, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-210. Handwashing facilities. (Repealed.)

A. Handwashing facility installation. Handwashing facilities shall be installed according to law, shall be at least one and not less than the number required by law, and shall be conveniently located to permit use by all employees in food preparation and warewashing areas. Handwashing facilities shall be accessible to employees at all times. Handwashing facilities shall also be located in or immediately adjacent to toilet rooms or their vestibules. Sinks used for food preparation or for warewashing shall not be used for washing of hands or for any other purpose.

B. Handwashing facility faucets. Each handwashing facility shall be provided with hot and cold water tempered by means of mixing valve or combination faucet. Any self-closing, slow-closing, or metering faucet used shall be designed to provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds with the need to reactivate the faucet. Steam mixing valves are prohibited at handwashing facilities.

C. Handwashing supplies. A supply of hand-cleansing soap or detergent shall be available at each handwashing facility. A supply of sanitary towels or a hand-drying device providing heated air shall be conveniently located near each handwashing facility. Common towels are prohibited. If disposable towels are used, easily cleanable waste receptacles shall be conveniently located near the handwashing facilities.

D. Handwashing facility maintenance. Handwashing facilities, soap or detergent dispensers, hand-drying devices, and all related facilities shall be kept clean and in good repair.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.5, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-220. Garbage and refuse. (Repealed.)

A. Containers.

1. Garbage and refuse shall be held in durable, easily cleanable, insect-resistant, and rodent-resistant containers that do not leak and do not absorb liquids. Plastic bags and wet strength paper bags may be used to line these containers. Such bags and durable plastic garbage and refuse containers may be used for storage inside the retail food store.

2. Containers used in food preparation and utensil washing areas shall be kept covered during nonworking hours and after they are filled.

3. Containers stored outside the establishment, including dumpsters, compactors, and compactor systems, shall be easily cleanable, shall be provided with tight-fitting lids, doors, or covers, and shall be kept covered when not in actual use. In containers designed with drains, drain plugs shall be in place at all times, except during cleaning.

4. There shall be a sufficient number of containers to hold all the garbage and refuse that accumulates.

5. Soiled containers shall be cleaned at a frequency to prevent insect and rodent attraction. Each container shall be thoroughly cleaned on the inside and outside in a way that does not contaminate food, equipment, utensils, or food preparation areas. Suitable facilities, detergent, and hot water or steam, shall be provided and used for cleaning containers. Liquid waste from compacting or cleaning operations shall be disposed of as sewage.

B. Storage.

1. Garbage and refuse on the premises shall be stored in a manner to make them inaccessible to insects and rodents. Outside storage of nonrodent-resistant plastic containers, unprotected plastic bags, wet strength paper bags, or baled units which contain garbage or refuse is prohibited. Cardboard or other packaging material not containing garbage or food wastes need not be stored in covered containers.

2. Garbage or refuse storage rooms, if used, shall be constructed of easily cleanable, nonabsorbent, washable materials, shall be kept clean, shall be insect and rodent resistant, and shall be large enough to store all the garbage and refuse containers necessitated by disposal pick-up frequency.

3. Outside storage areas or enclosures, if used, shall be kept clean and shall be large enough to store all the garbage and refuse containers necessitated by disposal pick-up frequency. Garbage and refuse containers, dumpsters, and compactor systems located outside, shall be stored on or above a smooth surface of nonabsorbent material, such as concrete or machine-laid asphalt, that is kept clean and maintained in good repair.

C. Disposal.

1. Garbage and refuse shall be disposed of often enough to prevent the development of objectionable odors and the attraction of insects and rodents.

2. Where garbage or refuse is burned on the premises, it shall be done by controlled incineration in accordance with law. Areas around incineration units shall be kept clean and orderly.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.6, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-230. Insect and rodent control. (Repealed.)

A. General. Effective measures shall be utilized to minimize the entry, presence, and propagation of rodents, flies, cockroaches, or other insects. The premises shall be maintained in a condition that prevents the harborage or feeding of insects or rodents.

B. Openings. Openings to the outside shall be effectively protected against the entry of rodents. Outside openings shall be protected against the entry of insects by tight-fitting, self-closing doors; closed windows; screening; controlled air currents; or other means. Screen doors shall be self-closing, and screens for windows, skylights, transoms, intake and exhaust air ducts, and other openings to the outside shall be tight-fitting and free of breaks. Screening material shall be not less than 16 mesh to the inch.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §6.7, eff. July 9, 1986.

Part VII

Construction and Maintenance of Physical Facilities

2VAC5-580-240. Floors. (Repealed.)

A. Floor construction.

1. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, floors and floor coverings of all food preparation, food storage, and warewashing areas, and the floors of all walk-in refrigerators, dressing rooms, locker rooms, toilet rooms and vestibules, shall be as sealed concrete, terrazzo, quarry tile, ceramic tile, durable grades of vinyl asbestos or plastic tile, or tight-fitting wood impregnated with plastic, and shall be maintained in good repair. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the use of anti-slip floor covering in areas where necessary for safety reasons.

2. Floors which are water flushed or which receive discharges of water or other fluid wastes or are in areas where pressure spray methods for cleaning are used, shall be provided with properly installed trapped drains. Such floors shall be constructed only of sealed concrete, terrazzo, quarry tile, ceramic tile, or similar materials and shall be graded to drain.

3. In all establishments, utilizing concrete, terrazzo, quarry tile, ceramic tile, or similar flooring materials, or where water flush cleaning methods are used, the junctures between walls and floors shall be coved and sealed. In all other cases, the juncture between walls and floors shall be coved so as not to present an open seam of more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm).

B. Floor carpeting. Carpeting, if used as floor covering, shall be of closely woven construction, properly installed, easily cleanable, and maintained in good repair. Carpeting shall not be used in food preparation and warewashing areas, in food storage areas, or in toilet room areas where urinals or fixtures are located.

C. Prohibited floor covering. Sawdust, wood shavings, granular salt, baked clay, diatomaceous earth, or similar materials shall not be used as floor coverings; however, these materials may be used in amounts necessary for immediate spot clean-up of spills or drippage on floors.

D. Mats and duckboards. Mats and duckboards shall be of nonabsorbent, grease resistant materials, and of such size, design, and construction to facilitate cleaning and shall be maintained in good repair.

E. Utility line installation. Exposed utility service lines and pipes shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning of the floor. In all new or extensively remodeled establishments, installation of exposed horizontal utility service lines and pipes on the floor is prohibited.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.1, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-250. Walls and ceilings. (Repealed.)

A. Maintenance. Walls and ceilings, including doors, windows, skylights, and similar closures, shall be maintained in good repair.

B. Construction. The walls, wall coverings, and ceilings of walk-in refrigeration units, food preparation areas, warewashing areas, and toilet rooms and their vestibules shall be smooth, nonabsorbent, and easily cleanable. Concrete or pumice blocks and bricks used for interior wall construction in these locations shall be finished and sealed to provide a smooth easily cleanable surface.

C. Exposed construction. Studs, joists, and rafters shall not be exposed in those areas listed in subsection B of this section. If exposed in other rooms and areas, they shall be finished to provide a cleanable surface.

D. Utility line installation. Utility service lines and pipes shall not be unnecessarily exposed on walls or ceilings in those areas listed in subsection B of this section. Exposed utility service lines and pipes shall be installed in a way that does not obstruct or prevent cleaning of the walls and ceilings.

E. Attachments. Light fixtures, vent covers, wall mounted fans, decorative materials, and similar attachments to walls and ceilings shall be easily cleanable and shall be maintained in good repair.

F. Covering material installation. Wall and ceiling covering materials shall be attached and sealed in a manner to be easily cleanable.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.2, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-260. Cleaning physical facilities. (Repealed.)

A. General. Cleaning of floors, walls, and ceilings shall be done as often as necessary, but preferably during periods when the least amount of food is exposed, such as after closing. Only dustless methods of cleaning floors, walls, and ceilings shall be used, such as vacuum cleaning, wet cleaning, treated dust mops, or the use of dust-arresting sweeping compounds with brooms. Floors, mats, duckboards, walls, ceilings, and attachments (e.g., light fixtures, vent covers, wall mounted fans, and similar equipment), and decorative materials (e.g., signs and advertising materials) shall be kept clean.

B. Service sinks. At least one service sink or curbed cleaning facility with a floor drain shall be provided and used for the cleaning of mops or similar wet floor cleaning tools and for the disposal of mop water or similar liquid wastes. Handwashing or warewashing facilities, or food preparation sinks shall not be used for this purpose.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.3, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-270. Lighting. (Repealed.)

A. General.

1. Permanently fixed artificial light sources shall be installed to provide at least 20 foot candles (215 lux) of light on all food preparation surfaces and at warewashing work levels.

2. Permanently fixed artificial light sources shall be installed to provide, at a distance of 30 inches (762 mm) from the floor;

a. At least 20 foot candles (215 lux) of light in sales areas, utensil and equipment storage areas, and in handwashing and toilet areas; and

b. At least 10 foot candles (108 lux) of light in walk-in refrigeration units, dry food storage areas, and in all other areas.

B. Protective shielding.

1. Lamps located over or within food storage, food preparation, and food display facilities, and facilities where utensils and equipment are cleaned and stored shall be shielded, coated or otherwise shatter resistant.

2. Infrared or other heat lamps shall be protected against breakage by a shield surrounding and extending beyond the bulb, leaving only the face of the bulb exposed.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.4, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-280. Ventilation. (Repealed.)

All rooms shall have sufficient ventilation to keep them free of excessive heat, steam, condensation, vapors, obnoxious odors, smoke, and fumes. Ventilation systems shall be installed and operated according to law and, when vented to the outside, shall not create a harmful or unlawful discharge. Intake and exhaust air ducts shall be maintained to prevent the entrance of dust, dirt, and other contaminating materials.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.5, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-290. Dressing rooms and locker areas. (Repealed.)

A. Dressing rooms and areas. If employees routinely change clothes within the establishment, rooms or areas shall be designated and used for that purpose. These designated rooms or areas shall not be used for food preparation, food storage, food display, warewashing, or storage of utensils and equipment.

B. Locker areas. Lockers or other suitable facilities shall be provided and used for the orderly storage of employee clothing and other belongings. Lockers or other suitable facilities may only be located in the designated dressing rooms or, in food storage rooms or areas containing only completely packaged food or packaged single-service articles.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.6, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-300. Poisonous or toxic materials. (Repealed.)

A. Materials permitted. Only those poisonous or toxic materials necessary and intended for the maintenance of the establishment, including the cleaning and sanitization of equipment and utensils, and the control of insects and rodents, shall be present in retail food stores, except those items being stored or displayed for retail sale as described in subsection E of this section.

B. Labeling materials. Containers of poisonous or toxic materials necessary for operational maintenance of the establishment shall be prominently and distinctly labeled in accordance with law. Small working containers of bulk cleaning agents shall be individually labeled for easy identification of contents.

C. Storage of materials. Poisonous or toxic materials necessary for the maintenance of the establishment consist of the following two categories:

1. Insecticides and rodenticides;

2. Detergents, sanitizers, related cleaning or drying agents, and caustics acids, polishes, and other chemicals.

Materials in each of these two categories shall be stored and located to be physically separated from each other; shall be stored in cabinets or in similar physically separated compartments or facilities used for no other purpose; and, to preclude potential contamination, shall not be stored above or intermingled with food, food equipment, utensils, or single-service articles, except that this latter requirement does not prohibit the convenient availability of detergent sanitizers, or sanitizers at warewashing facilities.

D. Use of materials.

1. Sanitizers, cleaning compounds, or other compounds intended for use on food-contact surfaces shall not be used in a way that leaves a toxic residue on such surfaces, nor in a way that constitutes a hazard to employees or other persons.

2. Poisonous or toxic materials shall not be used in a way that contaminates food, equipment, or utensils, nor in a way other than in full compliance with the manufacturer''s labeling.

E. Storage and display materials for retail sale. Poisonous or toxic materials stored or displayed for retail sale shall be separated from food and single-service articles by spacing, partitioning, or dividers. These materials shall not be stored or displayed above food or single-service articles.

F. First-aid supplies and personal medications. Retail food store employee first-aid supplies and personal medications shall be stored in a way that prevents them from contaminating food and food-contact surfaces.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.7, eff. July 9, 1986.

2VAC5-580-310. Premises. (Repealed.)

A. General.

1. Retail food stores and all parts of the property used in connection with operations of the establishment shall be reasonably free of litter and articles not essential to the operation or maintenance of the establishment.

2. The walking and driving surfaces of all exterior areas of retail food stores shall be surfaced with concrete, asphalt, or with gravel or similar material effectively treated to facilitate maintenance and minimize dust. These surfaces shall be graded to facilitate drainage.

B. Living areas. No operation of a retail food store shall be conducted in any room used as living or sleeping quarters. Retail food store operations shall be separated from any living or sleeping quarters by complete partitioning and solid, self-closing doors.

C. Laundry facilities.

1. If provided, laundry facilities in a retail food store shall be restricted to the washing and drying of linens and work clothes used in the operation. If such items are laundered on the premises, an electric or gas dryer shall be provided and used.

2. Separate rooms shall be provided for laundry facilities, except that such operations may be conducted in storage rooms containing only packaged foods or packaged single-service articles.

D. Linens and work clothes storage.

1. Clean work clothes and linens, including articles such as wiping cloths, shall be stored in a clean place and protected from contamination until used.

2. Soiled work clothes and linens, including articles such as wiping cloths, shall be kept in nonabsorbent containers or washable laundry bags until removed for laundering and shall be stored to prevent contamination of food, food equipment and utensils.

E. Cleaning equipment storage. Maintenance and cleaning tools such as brooms, mops, vacuum cleaners, and similar equipment shall be maintained in good repair and stored in a way that does not contaminate food, utensils, equipment, or linens and shall be stored in an orderly manner to facilitate the cleaning of that storage location.

F. Animals.

1. Live animals shall be excluded from within the retail food store operational areas and from immediately adjacent areas inside the store under the control of the person in charge. This exclusion does not apply to edible fish, crustacea, shellfish, or fish in aquariums.

Live or dead fish bait shall be stored separately from food or food products.

Patrol dogs accompanying security or police officers shall be permitted in offices, storage areas and outside store premises. Sentry dogs may be permitted to run loose in outside fenced areas for security reasons. Guide dogs accompanying blind persons shall be permitted in sales areas.

2. While on duty, persons employed in the food operational areas of an establishment shall not care for or handle any pets, or patrol/sentry dogs.

Statutory Authority

§§3.1-364 and 3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR115-05-11 §7.8, eff. July 9, 1986.

FORMS

Inspection Report, Form VDACS-06017.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Food Service Sanitation Manual, 1976, DHEW Pub. No. (FDA) 78-2081, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.

The Vending of Food and Beverages, 1978, DHEW Pub. No. (FDA) 78-2091, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Procedures for the Bacteriological Examination of Food Utensils and/or Food Equipment Surfaces, Technical Information Bulletin No. 1, June 1967, Public Health Service Publication No. 1631, U.S. Department of Health Education, and Welfare.

CHAPTER 585

RETAIL FOOD ESTABLISHMENT REGULATIONS

Part I

Purpose and Definitions

Article 1

Title, Intent, Scope

2VAC5-585-10. Retail food establishment regulations.

These provisions shall be known as the Retail Food Establishment Regulations hereinafter referred to as "this regulation." This regulation shall not apply to farmers selling their own farm-produced products directly to consumers for their personal use, whether such sales occur on such farmer’s farm or at a farmers’ market.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-15. Categories of requirements.

Requirements contained in this regulation are presented as being in one of three categories of importance: critical item (as defined in 2VAC5-585-40); "swing" (i.e., those that may or may not be critical depending on the circumstances); and noncritical. An asterisk (*) after a catchline (the language immediately following a section number that introduces the subject of the section) indicates that all of the provisions within that section are critical unless otherwise indicated, as follows:

1. Any provisions that are "swing" items are followed by the superscripted letter S and any provisions that are noncritical are followed by the superscripted letter N.

2. Any unmarked provisions within a section that has an asterisked catchline are critical. All provisions following a catchline that is not marked with an asterisk are noncritical.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-20. Food safety, illness prevention, and honest presentation.

The purpose of this regulation is to safeguard public health and provide to consumers food that is safe, unadulterated, and honestly presented.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-30. Statement.

This regulation establishes definitions; sets standards for management and personnel, food operations, and equipment and facilities; and provides for inspection and employee restriction.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Definitions

2VAC5-585-40. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this regulation shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Accredited program" means a food protection manager certification program that has been evaluated and listed by an accrediting agency as conforming to national standards for organizations that certify individuals. "Accredited program" refers to the certification process and is a designation based upon an independent evaluation of factors such as the sponsor''s mission; organizational structure; staff resources; revenue sources; policies; public information regarding program scope, eligibility requirements, recertification, discipline and grievance procedures; and test development and administration. "Accredited program" does not refer to training functions or educational programs.

"Additive" means either a (i) "food additive" having the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 USC §321(s) and 21 CFR Part 170 or (ii) "color additive" having the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 USC §321(t) and 21 CFR Part 70.

"Adulterated" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 USC §342.

"Approved" means acceptable to the department based on a determination of conformity with principles, practices, and generally recognized standards that protect public health.

"aw" means water activity that is a measure of the free moisture in a food, is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature, and is indicated by the symbol aw.

"Beverage" means a liquid for drinking, including water.

"Board" means the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Bottled drinking water" means water that is sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water.

"Casing" means a tubular container for sausage products made of either natural or artificial (synthetic) material.

"Certification number" means a unique combination of letters and numbers assigned by a shellfish control authority to a molluscan shellfish dealer according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.

"CIP" means cleaned in place by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and sanitize a frozen dessert machine. "CIP" does not include the cleaning of equipment such as band saws, slicers or mixers that are subjected to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system.

"CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations. Citations in this regulation to the CFR refer sequentially to the title, part, and section numbers, such as 21 CFR 178.1010 refers to Title 21, Part 178, Section 1010.

"Code of Federal Regulations" means the compilation of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government that:

1. Is published annually by the U.S. Government Printing Office; and

2. Contains FDA rules in 21 CFR, USDA rules in 7 CFR and 9 CFR,and ] EPA rules in 40 CFR, and Wildlife and Fisheries rules in 50 CFR.

"Commingle" means:

1. To combine shellstock harvested on different days or from different growing areas as identified on the tag or label; or

2. To combine shucked shellfish from containers with different container codes or different shucking dates.

"Comminuted" means reduced in size by methods including chopping, flaking, grinding, or mincing. "Comminuted" includes fish or meat products that are reduced in size and restructured or reformulated such as gefilte fish, gyros, ground beef, and sausage; and a mixture of two or more types of meat that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausages made from two or more meats.

"Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Services, his duly designated officer or his agent.

"Confirmed disease outbreak" means a foodborne disease outbreak in which laboratory analysis of appropriate specimens identifies a causative organism or chemical and epidemiological analysis implicates the food as the source of the illness.

"Consumer" means a person who is a member of the public, takes possession of food, is not functioning in the capacity of an operator of a food establishment or food processing plant, and does not offer the food for resale.

"Corrosion-resistant materials" means a material that maintains acceptable surface cleanability characteristics under prolonged influence of the food to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and sanitizing solutions, and other conditions of the use environment.

"Critical control point" means a point or procedure in a specific food system where loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk.

"Critical item" means a provision of this regulation that, if in noncompliance, is more likely than other violations to contribute to food contamination, illness, or environmental health hazard. "Critical item" is an item that is denoted in this regulation with an asterisk (*).

"Critical limit" means the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical parameter must be controlled at a critical control point to minimize the risk that the identified food safety hazard may occur.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Disclosure" means a written statement that clearly identifies the animal-derived foods that are, or can be ordered, raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens in their entirety, or items that contain an ingredient that is raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens.

"Drinking water" means water that meets the "water quality standards" requirements for bacteria and nitrates of the Virginia Waterworks Regulations (12VAC5-590). Drinking water is traditionally known as "potable water." Drinking water includes the term water except where the term used connotes that the water is not potable, such as "boiler water," "mop water," "rainwater," "wastewater," and "nondrinking" water.

"Dry storage area" means a room or area designated for the storage of packaged or containerized bulk food that is not potentially hazardous and dry goods such as single-service items.

"Easily cleanable" means a characteristic of a surface that:

1. Allows effective removal of soil by normal cleaning methods;

2. Is dependent on the material, design, construction, and installation of the surface; and

3. Varies with the likelihood of the surface''s role in introducing pathogenic or toxigenic agents or other contaminants into food based on the surface''s approved placement, purpose, and use.

"Easily cleanable" includes a tiered application of the criteria that qualify the surface as easily cleanable as specified above in this definition to different situations in which varying degrees of cleanability are required such as:

1. The appropriateness of stainless steel for a food preparation surface as opposed to the lack of need for stainless steel to be used for floors or for tables used for consumer dining; or

2. The need for a different degree of cleanability for a utilitarian attachment or accessory in the kitchen as opposed to a decorative attachment or accessory in the consumer dining area.

"Easily movable" means:

1. Portable; mounted on casters, gliders, or rollers; or provided with a mechanical means to safely tilt a unit of equipment for cleaning; and

2. Having no utility connection, a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to allow the equipment to be moved for cleaning of the equipment and adjacent area.

"Egg" means the shell egg of the domesticated chicken, turkey, duck, goose, or guinea.

"Employee" means the person in charge, person having supervisory or management duties, person on the payroll, family member, volunteer, person performing work under contractual agreement, or other person working in a food establishment.

"EPA" means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

"Equipment" means an article that is used in the operation of a food establishment. "Equipment" includes, but is not limited to, items such as a freezer, grinder, hood, ice maker, meat block, mixer, oven, reach-in refrigerator, scale, sink, slicer, stove, table, temperature measuring device for ambient air, vending machine, or warewashing machine.

"Equipment" does not include items used for handling or storing large quantities of packaged foods that are received from a supplier in a cased or overwrapped lot, such as hand trucks, forklifts, dollies, pallets, racks and skids.

"Exclude" means to prevent a person from working as a food employee or entering a food establishment except for those areas open to the general public.

"FDA" means the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

"Fish" means fresh or saltwater finfish, crustaceans, and other forms of aquatic life (including alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals; all mollusks, if such animal life is intended for human consumption; and includes any edible human food product derived in whole or in part from fish, including fish that has been processed in any manner.

"Food" means a raw, cooked, or processed edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient used or intended for use or for sale in whole or in part for human consumption.

"Foodborne disease outbreak" means the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food.

"Food-contact surface" means a surface of equipment or a utensil with which food normally comes into contact, or a surface of equipment or a utensil from which food may drain, drip, or splash into a food, or onto a surface normally in contact with food.

"Food employee" means an individual working with unpackaged food, food equipment or utensils, or food-contact surfaces.

"Food establishment," as used in this regulation, means an operation that stores, prepares, packages, serves, vends, or otherwise offers for retail sale food for human consumption (i) such as a restaurant; satellite or catered feeding location; catering operation if the operation provides food directly to a consumer or to a conveyance used to transport people; market; vending location; conveyance used to transport people; institution; or food bank and (ii) that relinquishes possession of a food to a consumer directly, or indirectly through a delivery service such as home delivery of grocery orders or restaurant take out orders, or delivery service that is provided by common carriers.

"Food establishment," as used in this regulation, includes (i) an element of the operation such as a transportation vehicle or a central preparation facility that supplies a vending location or satellite feeding location and (ii) an operation that is conducted in a mobile, stationary, temporary, or permanent facility or location, where consumption is on or off the premises.

"Food establishment," as used in this regulation, does not include:

1. An establishment that offers only prepackaged foods that are not potentially hazardous;

2. A produce stand that only offers whole, uncut fresh fruits and vegetables;

3. A food processing plant;

4. A food warehouse;

5. A kitchen in a private home;

6. A private home that receives catered or home delivered food.

"Food processing plant" means a commercial operation that manufactures, packages, labels, or stores food for human consumption and does not provide food directly to a consumer. "Food processing plant" does not include a "food establishment" as previously defined in this section.

"Game animal" means an animal, the products of which are food, that is not classified as cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine in 9 CFR Part 301, Definitions, as Poultry in 9 CFR Part 381, Poultry Products Inspection Regulations, or as fish as previously defined in this section. "Game animal" includes mammals such as reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, bison, rabbit, squirrel, opossum, raccoon, nutria, or muskrat, and nonaquatic reptiles such as land snakes. "Game animal" does not include ratites such as ostrich, emu, and rhea.

"General use pesticide" means a pesticide that is not classified by EPA for restricted use as specified in 40 CFR 152.175.

"Grade A standards" means the requirements of the United States Public Health Service/FDA "Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance" and "Grade A Condensed and Dry Milk Ordinance" with which certain fluid and dry milk and milk products comply.

"HACCP Plan" means a written document that delineates the formal procedures for following the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles developed by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.

"Hazard" means a biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.

"Hermetically sealed container" means a container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and, in the case of low acid canned foods, to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processing.

"Highly susceptible population" means persons who are more likely than other people in the general population to experience foodborne disease because they are (i) immunocompromised; preschool age children, or older adults; and (ii) obtaining food at a facility that provides services such as custodial care, health care, or assisted living, such as a child or adult day care center, kidney dialysis center, hospital or nursing home, or nutritional or socialization services such as a senior center.

"Imminent health hazard" means a significant threat or danger to health that is considered to exist when there is evidence sufficient to show that a product, practice, circumstance, or event creates a situation that requires immediate correction or cessation of operation to prevent injury based on the number of potential injuries, and the nature, severity, and duration of the anticipated injury.

"Injected" means tenderizing a meat with deep penetration or injecting the meat such as with juices that may be referred to as "injecting," "pinning," or "stitch pumping." During injection infectious or toxigenic microorganisms may be introduced from its surface to its interior.

"Juice," when used in the context of food safety, means the aqueous liquid expressed or extracted from one or more fruits or vegetables, purées of the edible portions of one or more fruits or vegetables, or any concentrate of such liquid or purée. Juice includes juice as a whole beverage, an ingredient of a beverage and a purée as an ingredient of a beverage.

"Kitchenware" means food preparation and storage utensils.

"Law" means applicable local, state, and federal statutes, regulations, and ordinances.

"Linens" means fabric items such as cloth hampers, cloth napkins, table cloths, wiping cloths, and work garments, including cloth gloves.

"Meat" means the flesh of animals used as food including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except fish, poultry, and wild game animals as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 3 and 4.

"mg/L" means milligrams per liter, which is the metric equivalent of parts per million (ppm).

"Molluscan shellfish" means any edible species of fresh or frozen oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops or edible portions thereof, except when the scallop product consists only of the shucked adductor muscle.

"Operator" means the entity that is legally responsible for the operation of the food establishment such as the owner, the owner’s agent, or other person.

"Packaged" means bottled, canned, cartoned, securely bagged, or securely packaged in a food establishment or a food processing plant. "Packaged" does not include a wrapper, carry-out box, or other nondurable container used to containerize food with the purpose of facilitating food protection during service and receipt of the food by the consumer.

"Person" means an association, a corporation, individual, partnership, other legal entity, government, or governmental subdivision or agency.

"Person in charge" means the individual present at a food establishment who is responsible for the operation at the time of inspection.

"Personal care items" means items or substances that may be poisonous, toxic, or a source of contamination and are used to maintain or enhance a person''s health, hygiene, or appearance. Personal care items include items such as medicines; first aid supplies; and other items such as cosmetics, and toiletries such as toothpaste and mouthwash.

"pH" means the symbol for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, which is a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

"Physical facilities" means the structure and interior surfaces of a food establishment including accessories such as soap and towel dispensers and attachments such as light fixtures and heating or air conditioning system vents.

"Plumbing fixture" means a receptacle or device that is permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the premises and demands a supply of water from the system or discharges used water, waste materials, or sewage directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises.

"Plumbing system" means the water supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; sanitary and storm sewers and building drains, including their respective connections, devices, and appurtenances within the premises; and water-treating equipment.

"Poisonous or toxic materials" means substances that are not intended for ingestion and are included in four categories:

1. Cleaners and sanitizers, which include cleaning and sanitizing agents and agents such as caustics, acids, drying agents, polishes, and other chemicals;

2. Pesticides, which include substances such as insecticides and rodenticides;

3. Substances necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment such as nonfood grade lubricants, paints, and personal care items that may be deleterious to health; and

4. Substances that are not necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment and are on the premises for retail sale, such as petroleum products and paints.

"Potentially hazardous food" means a food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting:

1. The rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms;

2. The growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum; or

3. In raw shell eggs, the growth of Salmonella enteritidis.

"Potentially hazardous food" includes an animal food (a food of animal origin) that is raw or heat-treated; a food of plant origin that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts; cut melons; and garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not acidified or otherwise modified at a food processing plant in a way that results in mixtures that do not support growth as specified above in this definition.

"Potentially hazardous food" does not include:

1. An air-cooled hard-boiled egg with shell intact or a shell egg that is not hard-boiled, but has been treated to destroy all viable Salmonellae;

2. A food with an aw value of 0.85 or less;

3. A food with a pH level of 4.6 or below when measured at 75°F (24°C);

4. A food in an unopened hermetically sealed container that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of nonrefrigerated storage and distribution;

5. A food for which laboratory evidence demonstrates that the rapid and progressive growth of infectious and toxigenic microorganisms or the growth of Salmonella enteritidis in eggs or Clostridium botulinum cannot occur, such as a food that has an aw and a pH that are above the levels specified in this definition and that may contain a preservative, other barrier to the growth of microorganisms, or a combination of barriers that inhibit the growth of microorganisms; or

6. A food that does not support the growth of microorganisms as specified above in this definition even though the food may contain an infectious or toxigenic microorganism or chemical or physical contaminant at a level sufficient to cause illness.

"Poultry" means any domesticated bird (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, or guineas), whether live or dead, as defined in 9 CFR Part 381, Poultry Products Inspection Regulations, and any migratory waterfowl, game bird, or squab such as pheasant, partridge, quail, grouse, or guineas, or pigeon or squab, whether live or dead, as defined in 9 CFR Part 362, Voluntary Poultry Inspection Regulations. "Poultry" does not include ratites.

"Premises" means the physical facility, its contents, and the contiguous land or property under the control of the operator or person in charge.

"Primal cut" means a basic major cut into which carcasses and sides of meat are separated, such as a beef round, pork loin, lamb flank or veal breast.

"Public water system" has the meaning stated in 40 CFR Part 141, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

"Ready-to-eat food" means food that:

1. (i) Is in a form that is edible without additional preparation to achieve food safety, as specified under subsections A through C of 2VAC5-585-700 or 2VAC5-585-710 or 2VAC5-585-730; (ii) is a raw or partially cooked animal food and the consumer is advised as specified under subdivisions D 1 and D 2 of 2VAC5-585-700; or (iii) is prepared in accordance with a variance that is granted as specified under subdivisions D 1 and D 3 of 2VAC5-585-700; and

2. May receive additional preparation for palatability or aesthetic, epicurean, gastronomic, or culinary purposes.

"Ready-to-eat food" includes:

1. Raw animal food that is cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 or 2VAC5-585-710, or frozen as specified under 2VAC5-585-730;

2. Raw fruits and vegetables that are washed as specified under 2VAC5-585-510;

3. Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding, as specified under 2VAC5-585-720;

4. All potentially hazardous food that is cooked to the temperature and time required for the specific food under Article 4 (2VAC5-585-700 et seq.) of Part III of this regulation and cooled as specified in 2VAC5-585-800;

5. Plant food for which further washing, cooking, or other processing is not required for food safety, and from which rinds, peels, husks, or shells, if naturally present, are removed;

6. Substances derived from plants such as spices, seasonings, and sugar;

7. A bakery item such as bread, cakes, pies, fillings, or icing for which further cooking is not required for food safety;

8. The following products that are produced in accordance with USDA guidelines and that have received a lethality treatment for pathogens:  dry, fermented sausages, such as dry salami or pepperoni; salt-cured meat and poultry products, such as prosciutto ham, country cured ham, and Parma ham; and dried meat and poultry products, such as jerky or beef sticks; and

9. Food manufactured according to 21 CFR Part 113, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers.

"Reduced oxygen packaging" means (i) the reduction of the amount of oxygen in a package by removing oxygen; displacing oxygen and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen content to a level below that normally found in the surrounding, 21% oxygen atmosphere and (ii) a process as specified in clause (i) of this definition that involves a food for which Clostridium botulinum is identified as a microbiological hazard in the final packaged form.

"Reduced oxygen packaging" includes:

1. Vacuum packaging, in which air is removed from a package of food and the package is hermetically sealed so that a vacuum remains inside the package, such as sous vide;

2. Modified atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that its composition is different from air but the atmosphere may change over time due to the permeability of the packaging material or the respiration of the food. Modified atmosphere packaging includes reduction in the proportion of oxygen, total replacement of oxygen, or an increase in the proportion of other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen; and

3. Controlled atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that until the package is opened, its composition is different from air, and continuous control of that atmosphere is maintained, such as by using oxygen scavengers or a combination of total replacement of oxygen, nonrespiring food, and impermeable packaging material.

"Refuse" means solid waste not carried by water through the sewage system.

"Regulatory authority" means local, state, or federal enforcement body or their authorized representative having jurisdiction over the food establishment.

"Reminder" means a written statement concerning the health risk of consuming animal foods raw, undercooked, or without being processed to eliminate pathogens.

"Restrict" means to limit the activities of a food employee so that there is no risk of transmitting a disease that is transmissible through food and the food employee does not work with exposed food, clean equipment, utensils, linens, and unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.

"Restricted egg" means any check, dirty egg, incubator reject, inedible, leaker, or loss as defined in 9 CFR Part 590.

"Restricted use pesticide" means a pesticide product that contains the active ingredients specified in 40 CFR 152.175 (pesticides classified for restricted use) and that is limited to use by or under the direct supervision of a certified applicator.

"Risk" means the likelihood that an adverse health effect will occur within a population as a result of a hazard in a food.

"Safe material" means an article manufactured from or composed of materials that may not reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in their becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food; an additive that is used as specified in §409 or 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 USC §§348 and 376); or other materials that are not additives and that are used in conformity with applicable regulations of the Food and Drug Administration.

"Sanitization" means the application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned food contact surfaces that, when evaluated for efficacy, yield a reduction of five logs, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of representative disease microorganisms of public health importance.

"Sealed" means free of cracks or other openings that permit the entry or passage of moisture.

"Service animal" means an animal such as a guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individually trained to provide assistance to an individual with a disability.

"Servicing area" means an operating base location to which a mobile food establishment or transportation vehicle returns regularly for such things as vehicle and equipment cleaning, discharging liquid or solid wastes, refilling water tanks and ice bins, and boarding food.

"Sewage" means liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.

"Shellfish control authority" means a state, federal, foreign, tribal, or other government entity legally responsible for administering a program that includes certification of molluscan shellfish harvesters and dealers for interstate commerce.

"Shellstock" means raw, in-shell molluscan shellfish.

"Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli" means any E. coli capable of producing Shiga toxins (also called verocytotoxins or "Shiga-like" toxins). This includes, but is not limited to, E. coli reported as serotype O157:H7, O157:NM, and O157:H-.

"Shucked shellfish" means molluscan shellfish that have one or both shells removed.

"Single-service articles" means tableware, carry-out utensils, and other items such as bags, containers, placemats, stirrers, straws, toothpicks, and wrappers that are designed and constructed for one time, one person use after which they are intended for discard.

"Single-use articles" means utensils and bulk food containers designed and constructed to be used once and discarded. Single-use articles includes items such as wax paper, butcher paper, plastic wrap, formed aluminum food containers, jars, plastic tubs or buckets, bread wrappers, pickle barrels, ketchup bottles, and number 10 cans that do not meet the materials, durability, strength and cleanability specifications under 2VAC5-585-960, 2VAC5-585-1080, and 2VAC5-585-1100 for multiuse utensils.

"Slacking" means the process of moderating the temperature of a food such as allowing a food to gradually increase from a temperature of -10°F (-23°C) to 25°F (-4°C) in preparation for deep-fat frying or to facilitate even heat penetration during the cooking of previously block-frozen food such as spinach.

"Smooth" means a food-contact surface having a surface free of pits and inclusions with a cleanability equal to or exceeding that of (100 grit) number three stainless steel; a nonfood-contact surface of equipment having a surface equal to that of commercial grade hot-rolled steel free of visible scale; and a floor, wall, or ceiling having an even or level surface with no roughness or projections that render it difficult to clean.

"Table-mounted equipment" means equipment that is not easily movable and is designed to be mounted off the floor on a table, counter, or shelf.

"Tableware" means eating, drinking, and serving utensils for table use such as flatware including forks, knives, and spoons; hollowware including bowls, cups, serving dishes, and tumblers; and plates.

"Temperature measuring device" means a thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of food, air, or water.

"Temporary food establishment" means a food establishment that operates for a period of no more than 14 consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration.

"USDA" means the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

"Utensil" means a food-contact implement or container used in the storage, preparation, transportation, dispensing, sale, or service of food, such as kitchenware or tableware that is multiuse, single service, or single use; gloves used in contact with food; temperature sensing probes of food temperature measuring devices; and probe-type price or identification tags used in contact with food.

"Variance" means a written document issued by the department that authorizes a modification or waiver of one or more requirements of this chapter if, in the opinion of the department, a health hazard or nuisance will not result from the modification or waiver.

"Vending machine" means a self-service device that, upon insertion of a coin, paper currency, token, card, or key, or by optional manual operation, dispenses unit servings of food in bulk or in packages without the necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation.

"Vending machine location" means the room, enclosure, space, or area where one or more vending machines are installed and operated and includes the storage and servicing areas on the premises that are used in conjunction with the vending machines.

"Warewashing" means the cleaning and sanitizing of food-contact surfaces of equipment and utensils.

"Whole-muscle, intact beef" means whole muscle beef that is not injected, mechanically tenderized, reconstructed, or scored and marinated, from which beef steaks may be cut.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part II

Management and Personnel

Article 1

Supervision

2VAC5-585-50. Assignment of responsibility.*

The operator shall be the person in charge or shall designate a person in charge and shall ensure that a person in charge is present at the food establishment during all hours of operation.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-60. Demonstration.*

Based on the risks of foodborne illness inherent to the food operation, during inspections and upon request the person in charge shall demonstrate to the department knowledge of foodborne disease prevention, application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles, and the requirements of this regulation. The person in charge shall demonstrate this knowledge by:

1. Complying with this regulation by having no violations during the current inspection;

2. Being a certified food protection manager who has shown proficiency of required information through passing a test that is part of an accredited program; or

3. Responding correctly to the inspector''s questions as they relate to the specific food operation. The areas of knowledge include:

a. Describing the relationship between the prevention of foodborne disease and the personal hygiene of a food employee;

b. Explaining the responsibility of the person in charge for preventing the transmission of foodborne disease by a food employee who has a disease or medical condition that may cause foodborne disease;

c. Describing the symptoms associated with the diseases that are transmissible through food;

d. Explaining the significance of the relationship between maintaining the time and temperature of potentially hazardous food and the prevention of foodborne illness;

e. Explaining the hazards involved in the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and fish;

f. Stating the required food temperatures and times for safe cooking of potentially hazardous food including meat, poultry, eggs, and fish;

g. Stating the required temperatures and times for the safe refrigerated storage, hot holding, cooling, and reheating of potentially hazardous food;

h. Describing the relationship between the prevention of foodborne illness and the management and control of the following:

(1) Cross contamination;

(2) Hand contact with ready-to-eat foods;

(3) Handwashing; and

(4) Maintaining the food establishment in a clean condition and in good repair;

i. Explaining the relationship between food safety and providing equipment that is:

(1) Sufficient in number and capacity; and

(2) Properly designed, constructed, located, installed, operated, maintained, and cleaned;

j. Explaining correct procedures for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment;

k. Identifying the source of water used and measures taken to ensure that it remains protected from contamination such as providing protection from backflow and precluding the creation of cross connections;

l. Identifying poisonous or toxic materials in the food establishment and the procedures necessary to ensure that they are safely stored, dispensed, used, and disposed of according to law;

m. Identifying critical control points in the operation from purchasing through sale or service that when not controlled may contribute to the transmission of foodborne illness and explaining steps taken to ensure that the points are controlled in accordance with the requirements of this regulation;

n. Explaining the details of how the person in charge and food employees comply with the HACCP plan if a plan is required by the law, this regulation, or an agreement between the department and the establishment; and

o. Explaining the responsibilities, rights, and authorities assigned by this regulation to the:

(1) Food employee;

(2) Person in charge; and

(3) Department.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-70. Person in charge.

The person in charge shall ensure that:

1. Food establishment operations are not conducted in a private home or in a room used as living or sleeping quarters as specified under 2VAC5-585-2990;

2. Persons unnecessary to the food establishment operation are not allowed in the food preparation, food storage, or warewashing areas, except that brief visits and tours may be authorized by the person in charge if steps are taken to ensure that exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles are protected from contamination;

3. Employees and other persons such as delivery and maintenance persons and pesticide applicators entering the food preparation, food storage, and warewashing areas comply with this regulation;

4. Employees are effectively cleaning their hands, by routinely monitoring the employees'' handwashing;

5. Employees are visibly observing foods as they are received to determine that they are from approved sources, delivered at the required temperatures, protected from contamination, unadulterated, and accurately presented, by routinely monitoring the employees'' observations and periodically evaluating foods upon their receipt;

6. Employees are properly cooking potentially hazardous food, being particularly careful in cooking those foods known to cause severe foodborne illness and death, such as eggs and comminuted meats, through daily oversight of the employees'' routine monitoring of the cooking temperatures using appropriate temperature measuring devices properly scaled and calibrated as specified under 2VAC5-585-1180 and 2VAC5-585-1730 B;

7. Employees are using proper methods to rapidly cool potentially hazardous foods that are not held hot or are not for consumption within four hours, through daily oversight of the employees'' routine monitoring of food temperatures during cooling;

8. Consumers who order raw or partially cooked ready-to-eat foods of animal origin are informed as specified under 2VAC5-585-930 that the food is not cooked sufficiently to ensure its safety;

9. Employees are properly sanitizing cleaned multiuse equipment and utensils before they are reused, through routine monitoring of solution temperature and exposure time for hot water sanitizing, and chemical concentration, pH, temperature, and exposure time for chemical sanitizing;

10. Consumers are notified that clean tableware is to be used when they return to self-service areas such as salad bars and buffets as specified under 2VAC5-585-590;

11. Except when otherwise approved as specified in 2VAC5-585-450 B, employees are preventing cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food with bare hands by properly using suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves, or dispensing equipment; and

12. Employees are properly trained in food safety as it relates to their assigned duties.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Employee Health

2VAC5-585-80. Responsibility of the person in charge to require reporting by food employees and applicants.*

The person in charge shall require food employee applicants to whom a conditional offer of employment is made and food employees to report to the person in charge, information about their health and activities as they relate to diseases that are transmissible through food. A food employee or applicant shall report the information in a manner that allows the person in charge to prevent the likelihood of foodborne disease transmission, including the date of onset of jaundice or of an illness specified in subdivision 3 of this section, if the food employee or applicant:

1. Is diagnosed with an illness due to:

a. Salmonella typhi;

b. Shigella spp.;

c. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; or

d. Hepatitis A virus;

2. Has a symptom caused by illness, infection, or other source that is:

a. Associated with an acute gastrointestinal illness such as:

(1) Diarrhea;

(2) Fever;

(3) Vomiting;

(4) Jaundice; or

(5) Sore throat with fever; or

b. A lesion containing pus such as a boil or infected wound that is open or draining and is:

(1) On the hands or wrists, unless an impermeable cover such as a finger cot or stall protects the lesion and a single-use glove is worn over the impermeable cover;

(2) On exposed portions of the arms, unless the lesion is protected by an impermeable cover; or

(3) On other parts of the body, unless the lesion is covered by a dry, durable, tight-fitting bandage;

3. Had a past illness from:

a. S. typhi within the past three months;

b. Shigella spp. within the past month;

c. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, within the past month; or

d. Hepatitis A virus;

4. Meets one or more of the following high-risk conditions:

a. Is suspected of causing, or being exposed to, a confirmed disease outbreak caused by S. typhi, Shigella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, or hepatitis A virus including an outbreak at an event such as a family meal, church supper, or festival because the food employee or applicant:

(1) Prepared food implicated in the outbreak;

(2) Consumed food implicated in the outbreak; or

(3) Consumed food at the event prepared by a person who is infected or ill with the infectious agent that caused the outbreak or who is suspected of being a shedder of the infectious agent;

b. Lives in the same household as a person who is diagnosed with a disease caused by S. typhi, Shigella spp., Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, or hepatitis A virus; or

c. Lives in the same household as a person who attends or works in a setting where there is a confirmed disease outbreak caused by S. typhi, Shigella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, or hepatitis A virus.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-90. Exclusions and restrictions.*

A. The person in charge shall exclude a food employee from a food establishment if the food employee is diagnosed with an infectious agent specified in subdivision 1 of 2VAC5-585-80.

B. Except as specified under subsection C or D of this section, the person in charge shall restrict a food employee from working with exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles in a food establishment if the food employee is:

1. Suffering from a symptom specified under subdivision 2 a (1), (2), (3) or (5) of 2VAC5-585-80; or

2. Not experiencing a symptom of acute gastroenteritis specified in subdivision 2 a of 2VAC5-585-80, but has a stool that yields a specimen culture that is positive for S. typhi, Shigella spp., or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

C. If the population served is a highly susceptible population, the person in charge shall exclude a food employee who:

1. Is experiencing a symptom of acute gastrointestinal illness specified under subdivisions 2 a (1), (2), (3) or (5) of 2VAC5-585-80 and meets a high-risk condition specified in subdivision 4 of 2VAC5-585-80;

2. Is not experiencing a symptom of acute gastroenteritis specified in subdivision 2 a of 2VAC5-585-80, but has a stool that yields a specimen culture that is positive for S. typhi, Shigella spp., or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli;

3. Had a past illness from S. typhi within the last three months; or

4. Had a past illness from Shigella spp. or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli within the last month.

D. For a food employee who is jaundiced:

1. If the onset of jaundice occurred within the last seven calendar days, the person in charge shall exclude the food employee from the food establishment; or

2. If the onset of jaundice occurred more than seven calendar days before, the person in charge shall:

a. Exclude the food employee from a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population; or

b. Restrict the food employee from activities specified in subsection B of this section, if the food establishment does not serve a highly susceptible population.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-100. Removal of exclusions and restrictions.

A. The person in charge may remove an exclusion specified under 2VAC5-585-90 A if:

1. The person in charge obtains approval from the department; and

2. The person excluded as specified under 2VAC5-585-90 A provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a physician licensed to practice medicine or, if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner or physician assistant, that specifies that the excluded person may work in an unrestricted capacity in a food establishment, including an establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, because the person is free of the infectious agent of concern as specified in 2VAC5-585-4070.

B. The person in charge may remove a restriction specified under:

1. Subdivision B 1 of 2VAC5-585-90 if the restricted person:

a. Is free of the symptoms specified under subdivision 2 a (1), (2), (3), (5), or 2 b of 2VAC5-585-80 and no foodborne illness occurs that may have been caused by the restricted person;

b. Is suspected of causing foodborne illness but:

(1) Is free of the symptoms specified under subdivision 2 a (1), (2), (3), (5), or 2 b of 2VAC5-585-80; and

(2) Provides written medical documentation from a physician licensed to practice medicine or, if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner or physician assistant, stating that the restricted person is free of the infectious agent that is suspected of causing the person''s symptoms or causing foodborne illness, as specified in 2VAC5-585-4070; or

c. Provides written medical documentation from a physician licensed to practice medicine or, if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner or physician assistant, stating that the symptoms experienced result from a chronic noninfectious condition such as Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, or ulcerative colitis; or

2. Subdivision B 2 of 2VAC5-585-90 if the restricted person provides written medical documentation from a physician, licensed to practice medicine, or, if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner or physician assistant, according to the criteria specified in 2VAC5-585-4070 that indicates the stools are free of Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, whichever is the infectious agent of concern.

C. The person in charge may remove an exclusion specified under 2VAC5-585-90 C if the excluded person provides written medical documentation from a physician licensed to practice medicine or, if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner or physician assistant:

1. That specifies that the person is free of the infectious agent of concern as specified in 2VAC5-585-4070; or

2. If the person is excluded under 2VAC5-585-90 C 1, that the symptoms experienced result from a chronic noninfectious condition such as Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, or ulcerative colitis.

D. The person in charge may remove an exclusion specified under 2VAC5-585-90 D 1 and 2VAC5-585-90 D 2 a and a restriction specified under 2VAC5-585-90 D 2 b if:

1. No foodborne illness occurs that may have been caused by the excluded or restricted person and the person provides written medical documentation from a physician licensed to practice medicine stating that the person is free of hepatitis A virus as specified in subdivision 4 a of 2VAC5-585-4070; or

2. The excluded or restricted person is suspected of causing foodborne illness and complies with subdivisions 4 a and 4 b of 2VAC5-585-4070.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-110. Responsibility of a food employee or an applicant to report to the person in charge.*

A food employee or a person who applies for a job as a food employee shall:

1. In a manner specified under 2VAC5-585-80, report to the person in charge the information specified under subdivisions 1 through 4 of 2VAC5-585-80; and

2. Comply with exclusions and restrictions that are specified under subsections A through D of 2VAC5-585-90.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-120. Reporting by the person in charge.*

The person in charge shall notify the department that a food employee is diagnosed with an illness due to Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, or hepatitis A virus.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

Personal Cleanliness

2VAC5-585-130. Clean condition of hands and arms.*

Food employees shall keep their hands and exposed portions of their arms clean.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-140. Cleaning procedure of hands and arms.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms (or surrogate prosthetic devices for hands or arms) for at least 20 seconds, using a cleaning compound in a lavatory that is equipped as specified under 2VAC5-585-2190.

B. Food employees shall use the following cleaning procedure:

1. Vigorous friction on the surfaces of the lathered fingers, finger tips, areas between the fingers, hands and arms (or by vigorously rubbing the surrogate prosthetic devices for hands or arms) for at least 10 to 15 seconds, followed by;

2. Thorough rinsing under clean, running warm water; and

3. Immediately follow the cleaning procedure with thorough drying of cleaned hands and arms (or surrogate prosthetic devices) using a method as specified under 2VAC5-585-3030.

C. Food employees shall pay particular attention to the areas underneath the fingernails during the cleaning procedure.

D. If approved and capable of removing the types of soils encountered in the food operations involved, an automatic handwashing facility may be used by food employees to clean their hands.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-150. (Reserved.)

2VAC5-585-160. When to wash.*

Food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms as specified under 2VAC5-585-140 immediately before engaging in food preparation including working with exposed food, clean equipment and utensils, and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles and:

1. After touching bare human body parts or hair other than clean hands and clean, exposed portions of arms;

2. After using the toilet room;

3. After caring for or handling support animals as allowed under 2VAC5-585-250 B;

4. Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-220 B, after coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief or disposable tissue, using tobacco, eating, or drinking;

5. After handling soiled equipment or utensils;

6. During food preparation, as often as necessary to remove soil and contamination and to prevent cross contamination when changing tasks;

7. When switching between working with raw foods and working with ready-to-eat foods;

8. Before donning gloves for working with food;

9. Prior to donning single-use gloves if gloves are used; and

10. After engaging in other activities that contaminate the hands.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-170. Where to wash.

Food employees shall clean their hands in a hand washing lavatory or approved automatic hand washing facility and may not clean their hands in a sink used for food preparation or warewashing, or in a service sink or a curbed cleaning facility used for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-180. Hand sanitizers.

A. A hand sanitizer and a chemical hand sanitizing solution used as a hand dip shall:

1. Comply with one of the following:

a. Be an approved drug that is listed in the FDA publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations as an approved drug based on safety and effectiveness; or

b. Have active antimicrobial ingredients that are listed in the FDA monograph for OTC Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products, 59 FR 31402 (June 17, 1994) as an antiseptic handwash; and

2. Consist of components that are:

a. Listed for such use in contact with food in 21 CFR Part 178, Indirect Food Additives:  Adjuvants, Production Aids, and Sanitizers; or

b. Exempt from regulation as food additives under 21 CFR 170.39, Threshold of Regulation for Substances Used in Food-Contact Articles; or

c. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for the intended use in contact with food within the meaning of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA); or

d. Permitted for such use by an effective Food Contact Substance Notification as defined by paragraph 409(h) of the FFDCA and listed in FDA''s Inventory of Effective Premarket Notifications for Food Contact Substances; and

3. Be applied only to hands that are cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-140.

B. If a hand sanitizer or a chemical hand sanitizing solution used as a hand dip does not meet the criteria specified under subdivision A 2 of this section, use shall be:

1. Followed by thorough hand rinsing in clean water before hand contact with food or by the use of gloves; or

2. Limited to situations that involve no direct contact with food by the bare hands.

C. A chemical hand sanitizing solution used as a hand dip shall be maintained clean and at a strength equivalent to 100 ppm (mg/l) chlorine or above.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-190. Maintenance of fingernails.

Food employees shall keep their fingernails trimmed, filed, and maintained so the edges and surfaces are cleanable and not rough. Unless wearing intact gloves in good repair, a food employee may not wear fingernail polish or artificial nails when working with exposed food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-200. Prohibition of jewelry.

While preparing food, food employees may not wear jewelry including medical information jewelry on their arms and hands. This section does not apply to a plain ring such as a wedding band.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-210. Clean condition of outer clothing.

Food employees shall wear clean outer clothing to prevent contamination of food equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 4

Hygienic Practices

2VAC5-585-220. Eating, drinking, or using tobacco.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an employee shall eat, drink, or use any form of tobacco only in designated areas where the contamination of exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; unwrapped single-service and single-use articles; or other items needing protection cannot result.

B. A food employee may drink from a closed beverage container with a straw if the container is handled to prevent contamination of:

1. The employee''s hands;

2. The container; and

3. Exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-230. Discharges from the eyes, nose, and mouth.*

Food employees experiencing persistent sneezing, coughing, or a runny nose that causes discharges from the eyes, nose, or mouth may not work with exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; or unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-240. Effectiveness of hair restraints.

A. Except as provided in subsection B of this section, food employees shall wear hair restraints, such as hats, hair coverings or nets, beard restraints, and clothing that covers body hair, that are designed and worn to effectively keep their hair from contacting exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

B. This section does not apply to food employees such as counter staff who only serve beverages and wrapped or packaged foods, hostesses, and wait staff if they present a minimal risk of contaminating exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-250. Handling of animals prohibited.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, food employees may not care for or handle animals that may be present such as patrol dogs, support animals, or pets that are allowed in subdivisions B 2 through B 5 of 2VAC5-585-3310.

B. Food employees with support animals may handle or care for their support animals and food employees may handle or care for fish in aquariums or molluscan shellfish or crustacea in display tanks if they wash their hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-140 and subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-160.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part III

Food

Article 1

Characteristics

2VAC5-585-260. Safe, unadulterated, and honestly presented.*

Food shall be safe, unadulterated, and, as specified under 2VAC5-585-890, honestly presented.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Sources, Specifications, and Original Containers and Records

2VAC5-585-270. Compliance with food law.*

A. Food shall be obtained from sources that comply with law.

B. Food prepared in a private home may not be used or offered for human consumption in a food establishment unless the home kitchen is inspected by the responsible regulatory authority.

C. Packaged food shall be labeled as specified in law, including 21 CFR Part 101, Food Labeling; 9 CFR Part 317, Labeling, Marking Devices, and Containers; and 9 CFR Part 381, Subpart N, Labeling and Containers; and as specified under 2VAC5-585-400 and 2VAC5-585-410.

D. Fish, other than molluscan shellfish, that are intended for consumption in their raw form and allowed as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 D 1 may be offered for sale or service if they are obtained from a supplier that freezes the fish as specified under 2VAC5-585-730, or frozen on the premises as specified under 2VAC5-585-730, and records are retained as specified under 2VAC5-585-740.

E. Whole-muscle, intact beef steaks that are intended for consumption in an undercooked form without a consumer advisory as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 C shall be:

1. Obtained from a food processing plant that, upon request by the purchaser, packages the steaks and labels them to indicate that they meet the definition of whole-muscle, intact beef; or

2. Deemed acceptable by the department based on other evidence, such as written buyer specifications or invoices, that indicates that the steaks meet the definition of whole-muscle, intact beef; and

3. If individually cut in a food establishment:

a. Cut from whole-muscle, intact beef that is labeled by a food processing plant as specified in subdivision 1 or identified as specified in subdivision 2 of this subsection;

b. Prepared so they remain intact; and

c. If packaged for undercooking in a food establishment, labeled to indicate that they meet the definition of whole-muscle, intact beef.

F. Meat and poultry that are not a ready-to-eat food and are in a packaged form when offered for sale or otherwise offered for consumption shall be labeled to include safe handling instructions as specified in law, including 9 CFR 317.2(l) and 9 CFR 381.125(b).

G. Shell eggs that have not been specifically treated to destroy all viable Salmonellae shall be labeled to include safe handling instructions as specified in law, including 21 CFR 101.17(h).

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-280. Food in a hermetically sealed container.*

Food in a hermetically sealed container shall be obtained from a food processing plant that is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over the plant.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-290. Fluid milk and milk products.*

Fluid milk and milk products shall be obtained from sources that comply with Grade A standards as specified in law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-295. Juice treated.

Pre-packaged juice shall:

1. Be obtained from a processor with a HACCP system as specified in 21 CFR Part 120;

2. Be obtained pasteurized or otherwise treated to attain a 5-log reduction of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance as specified in 21 CFR 120.24; or

3. Bear a warning label as specified in 21 CFR 101.17(g).

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-300. Fish.*

A. Fish that are received for sale or service shall be:

1. Commercially and legally caught or harvested; or

2. Approved for sale or service by a regulatory authority.

B. Molluscan shellfish that are recreationally caught may not be received for sale or service.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-310. Molluscan shellfish.*

A. Molluscan shellfish shall be obtained from sources according to law and the requirements specified in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations, Part II, Sanitation of the Harvesting, Processing and Distribution of Shellfish, 1995 Revision.

B. Molluscan shellfish received in interstate commerce shall be from sources that are listed in the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-320. Wild mushrooms.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, mushroom species picked in the wild shall be obtained from sources where each mushroom is individually inspected and found to be safe by an approved mushroom identification expert.

B. This section does not apply to:

1. Cultivated wild mushroom species that are grown, harvested, and processed in an operation that is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over the operation; or

2. Wild mushroom species if they are in packaged form and are the product of a food processing plant that is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over the plant.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-330. Game animals.*

A. If game animals are received for sale or service they shall be:

1. Commercially raised for food and:

a. Raised, slaughtered, and processed under a voluntary inspection program that is conducted by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction; or

b. Under a routine inspection program conducted by a regulatory agency other than the agency that has animal health jurisdiction; and

c. Raised, slaughtered, and processed according to:

(1) Laws governing meat and poultry as determined by the agency; and

(2) Requirements that are developed by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program with consideration of factors such as the need for antemortem and postmortem examination by an approved veterinarian or veterinarian''s designee;

2. Under a voluntary inspection program administered by the USDA for game animals such as exotic animals including animals (reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, or bison) that are "inspected and approved" in accordance with 9 CFR Part 352, Exotic Animals; Voluntary Inspection, or rabbits that are "inspected and certified" in accordance with 9 CFR Part 354, Voluntary Inspection of Rabbits and Edible Products Thereof;

3. As allowed by law, for wild game animals that are live-caught:

a. Under a routine inspection program conducted by a regulatory agency such as the agency that has animal health jurisdiction;

b. Slaughtered and processed according to:

(1) Laws governing meat and poultry as determined by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program; and

(2) Requirements that are developed by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program with consideration of factors such as the need for antemortem and postmortem examination by an approved veterinarian or veterinarian’s designee; or

4. As allowed by law for field-dressed wild game animals under a routine inspection program that ensures the animals:

a. Receive a postmortem examination by an approved veterinarian or veterinarian''s designee, or are field-dressed and transported according to requirements specified by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program; and

b. Are processed according to laws governing meat and poultry as determined by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program.

B. A game animal may not be received for sale or service if it is a species of wildlife that is listed in 50 CFR Part 17, Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-340. Temperature.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, refrigerated, potentially hazardous food shall be at a temperature of 41°F (5°C) or below when received.

B. If a temperature other than 41°F (5°C) for a potentially hazardous food is specified in law governing its distribution, such as laws governing milk, molluscan shellfish, and shell eggs, the food may be received at the specified temperature.

C. Raw shell eggs shall be received in refrigerated equipment that maintains an ambient air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or less.

D. Potentially hazardous food that is cooked to a temperature and for a time specified under 2VAC5-585-700 through 2VAC5-585-720 and received hot shall be at a temperature of 135°F (57°C) or above.

E. A food that is labeled frozen and shipped frozen by a food processing plant shall be received frozen.

F. Upon receipt, potentially hazardous food shall be free of evidence of previous temperature abuse.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-350. Additives.*

Food may not contain unapproved food additives or additives that exceed amounts allowed in 21 CFR Parts 170-180 relating to food additives; generally recognized as safe or prior sanctioned substances that exceed amounts allowed in 21 CFR Parts 181-186; substances that exceed amounts specified in 9 CFR, Subpart C, 424.21(b), Approval of Substances for Use in the Preparation of Products; or pesticide residues that exceed provisions specified in 40 CFR Part 185, Tolerances for Pesticides in Food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-360. Shell eggs.*

Shell eggs shall be received clean and sound and may not exceed the restricted egg tolerances for U.S. Consumer Grade B as specified in 7 CFR Part 56, Regulations Governing the Grading of Shell Eggs and U.S. Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs, and 7 CFR Part 59, Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs and Egg Products.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-370. Eggs and milk products, pasteurized.*

A. Liquid, frozen, and dry eggs and egg products shall be obtained pasteurized.

B. Fluid and dry milk and milk products complying with Grade A standards as specified in law shall be obtained pasteurized.

C. Frozen milk products, such as ice cream, shall be obtained pasteurized in accordance with 21 CFR Part 135, Frozen Desserts.

D. Cheese shall be obtained pasteurized unless alternative procedures to pasteurization are provided for in the Code of Federal Regulations, such as 21 CFR Part 133, Cheeses and Related Cheese Products, for curing certain cheese varieties.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-380. Package integrity.*

Food packages shall be in good condition and protect the integrity of the contents so that the food is not exposed to adulteration or potential contaminants.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-390. Ice.*

Ice for use as a food or a cooling medium shall be made from drinking water.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-400. Shucked shellfish, packaging and identification.

A. Raw shucked shellfish shall be obtained in nonreturnable packages that bear a legible label that identifies the:

1. Name, address, and certification number of the shucker-packer or repacker of the molluscan shellfish; and

2. The "sell by" date for packages with a capacity of less than one-half gallon (1.87 L) or the date shucked for packages with a capacity of one-half gallon (1.87 L) or more.

B. A package of raw shucked shellfish that does not bear a label or which bears a label that does not contain all the information as specified under subsection A of this section shall be subject to a hold order, as allowed by law, or seizure and destruction in accordance with 21 CFR 1240.60(d), Subpart D, Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-410. Shellstock identification.*

A. Shellstock shall be obtained in containers bearing legible source identification tags or labels that are affixed by the harvester and each dealer that depurates, ships, or reships the shellstock, as specified in the National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations, Part II Sanitation of the Harvesting, Processing and Distribution of Shellfish, 1995 Revision, and that list:

1. Except as specified under subsection C of this section, on the harvester''s tag or label, the following information in the following order:

a. The harvester''s identification number that is assigned by the shellfish control authority;

b. The date of harvesting;

c. The most precise identification of the harvest location or aquaculture site that is practicable based on the system of harvest area designations that is in use by the shellfish control authority and including the abbreviation of the name of the state or country in which the shellfish are harvested;

d. The type and quantity of shellfish; and

e. The following statement in bold, capitalized type: "This tag is required to be attached until container is empty or retagged and thereafter kept on file for 90 days"; and

2. Except as specified under subsection D of this section, on each dealer''s tag or label, the following information in the following order:

a. The dealer''s name and address, and the certification number assigned by the shellfish control authority;

b. The original shipper''s certification number including the abbreviation of the name of the state or country in which the shellfish are harvested;

c. The same information as specified for a harvester’s tag under subdivisions 1 b through d of this subsection; and

d. The following statement in bold, capitalized type: "This tag is required to be attached until container is empty and thereafter kept on file for 90 days."

B. A container of shellstock that does not bear a tag or label or that bears a tag or label that does not contain all the information as specified under subsection A of this section shall be subject to a hold order, as allowed by law, or seizure and destruction in accordance with 21 CFR 1240.60(d), Subpart D, Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments.

C. If a place is provided on the harvester''s tag or label for a dealer''s name, address, and certification number, the dealer''s information shall be listed first.

D. If the harvester''s tag or label is designed to accommodate each dealer''s identification as specified under subdivisions A 2 a and b of this section, individual dealer tags or labels need not be provided.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-420. Shellstock; condition.

When received by a food establishment, shellstock shall be reasonably free of mud, dead shellfish, and shellfish with broken shells. Dead shellfish or shellstock with badly broken shells shall be discarded.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-430. Molluscan shellfish; original container.

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, molluscan shellfish may not be removed from the container in which they were received other than immediately before sale or preparation for service.

B. For display purposes, shellstock may be removed from the container in which they are received, displayed on drained ice, or held in a display container, and a quantity specified by a consumer may be removed from the display or display container and provided to the consumer if:

1. The source of the shellstock on display is identified as specified under 2VAC5-585-410 and recorded as specified under 2VAC5-585-440; and

2. The shellstock are protected from contamination.

C. Shucked shellfish may be removed from the container in which they were received and held in a display container from which individual servings are dispensed upon a consumer''s request if:

1. The labeling information for the shellfish on display as specified under 2VAC5-585-400 is retained and correlated to the date when, or dates during which, the shellfish are sold or served; and

2. The shellfish are protected from contamination.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-440. Shellstock; maintaining identification.*

A. Except as specified under subdivision B 2 of this section, shellstock tags shall remain attached to the container in which the shellstock are received until the container is empty.

B. The identity of the source of shellstock that are sold or served shall be maintained by retaining shellstock tags or labels for 90 calendar days from the date the container is emptied by:

1. Using an approved recordkeeping system that keeps the tags or labels in chronological order correlated to the date when, or dates during which, the shellstock are sold or served; and

2. If shellstock are removed from their tagged or labeled container:

a. Preserving source identification by using a recordkeeping system as specified under subdivision 1 of this subsection;

b. Ensuring that shellstock from one tagged or labeled container are not commingled with shellstock from another container being ordered by the consumer.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

Protection from Contamination after Receiving

2VAC5-585-450. Preventing contamination from hands.*

A. Food employees shall wash their hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-140.

B. Except when washing fruits and vegetables as specified under 2VAC5-585-510 or as specified in subsection C of this section, food employees may not contact exposed, ready-to-eat food with their bare hands and shall use suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves, or dispensing equipment.

C. When otherwise approved, food employees not serving a highly susceptible population may contact exposed, ready-to-eat food with their bare hands.

D. Food employees shall minimize bare hand and arm contact with exposed food that is not in a ready-to-eat form.S

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-460. Preventing contamination when tasting.*

A food employee may not use a utensil more than once to taste food that is to be sold or served.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-470. Packaged and unpackaged food - separation, packaging, and segregation.*

A. Food shall be protected from cross contamination by:

1. Separating raw animal foods during storage, preparation, holding, and display from:

a. Raw ready-to-eat food including other raw animal food such as fish for sushi or molluscan shellfish, or other raw ready-to-eat food such as vegetables; and

b. Cooked ready-to-eat food;

2. Except when combined as ingredients, separating types of raw animal foods from each other such as beef, fish, lamb, pork, and poultry during storage, preparation, holding, and display by:

a. Using separate equipment for each type or arranging each type of food in equipment so that cross contamination of one type with another is prevented; and

b. Preparing each type of food at different times or in separate areas;

3. Cleaning equipment and utensils as specified under 2VAC5-585-1780 A and sanitizing as specified under 2VAC5-585-1900;

4. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, storing the food in packages, covered containers, or wrappings;

5. Cleaning hermetically sealed containers of food of visible soil before opening;

6. Protecting food containers that are received packaged together in a case or overwrap from cuts when the case or overwrap is opened;

7. Storing damaged, spoiled, or recalled food being held in the food establishment as specified under 2VAC5-585-3150; and

8. Separating fruits and vegetables before they are washed as specified under 2VAC5-585-510 from ready-to-eat food.

B. Subdivision A 4 of this section does not apply to:

1. Whole, uncut, raw fruits and vegetables and nuts in the shell, that require peeling or hulling before consumption;

2. Primal cuts, quarters, or sides of raw meat or slab bacon that are hung on clean, sanitized hooks or placed on clean, sanitized racks;

3. Whole, uncut, processed meats such as country hams, and smoked or cured sausages that are placed on clean, sanitized racks;

4. Food being cooled as specified under 2VAC5-585-810 B 2; or

5. Shellstock.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-480. Food storage containers; identified with common name of food.

Working containers holding food or food ingredients that are removed from their original packages for use in the food establishment, such as cooking oils, flour, herbs, potato flakes, salt, spices, and sugar, shall be identified with the common name of the food (in English and the common language of the food workers) except that containers holding food that can be readily and unmistakably recognized such as dry pasta need not be identified.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-490. Pasteurized eggs; substitute for raw shell eggs for certain recipes and populations.*

Pasteurized eggs or egg products shall be substituted for raw shell eggs in the preparation of foods such as Caesar salad, hollandaise or béarnaise sauce, mayonnaise, and egg-fortified beverages that are not:

1. Cooked as specified under subdivisions A 1 or 2 of 2VAC5-585-700; or

2. Included in 2VAC5-585-700 D.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-500. Protection from unapproved additives.*

A. As specified in 2VAC5-585-350, food shall be protected from contamination that may result from the addition of:

1. Unsafe or unapproved food or color additives; and

2. Unsafe or unapproved levels of approved food and color additives.

B. A food employee may not:

1. Apply sulfiting agents to fresh fruits and vegetables intended for raw consumption or to a food considered to be a good source of vitamin B1; or

2. Serve or sell food specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection that is treated with sulfiting agents before receipt by the food establishment, except that grapes need not meet the provisions of this subsection.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-510. Washing fruits and vegetables.

A. Raw fruits and vegetables shall be thoroughly washed in water to remove soil and other contaminants before being cut, combined with other ingredients, cooked, served, or offered for human consumption in ready-to-eat form except as specified in subsection B of this section and except that whole, raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for washing by the consumer before consumption need not be washed before they are sold.

B. Fruits and vegetables may be washed by using chemicals as specified under 2VAC5-585-3390.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-520. Ice used as exterior coolant prohibited as ingredient.

After use as a medium for cooling the exterior surfaces of food such as melons or fish, packaged foods such as canned beverages, or cooling coils and tubes of equipment, ice may not be used as food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-530. Storage or display of food in contact with water or ice.

A. Packaged food may not be stored in direct contact with ice or water if the food is subject to the entry of water because of the nature of its packaging, wrapping, or container or its positioning in the ice or water.

B. Except as specified in subsections C and D of this section, unpackaged food may not be stored in direct contact with undrained ice.

C. Whole, raw fruits or vegetables; cut, raw vegetables such as celery or carrot sticks or cut potatoes; and tofu may be immersed in ice or water.

D. Raw chicken and raw fish that are received immersed in ice in shipping containers may remain in that condition while in storage awaiting preparation, display, service, or sale.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-540. Food contact with equipment and utensils.*

Food shall only contact surfaces of equipment and utensils that are cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1770 through 2VAC5-585-1870 and sanitized as specified under 2VAC5-585-1880 through 2VAC5-585-1900.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-550. In-use utensils, between-use storage.

During pauses in food preparation or dispensing, food preparation and dispensing utensils shall be stored:

1. Except as specified under subdivision 2 of this section, in the food with their handles above the top of the food and the container;

2. In food that is not potentially hazardous with their handles above the top of the food within containers or equipment that can be closed, such as bins of sugar, flour, or cinnamon;

3. On a clean portion of the food preparation table or cooking equipment only if the in-use utensil and the food-contact surface of the food preparation table or cooking equipment are cleaned and sanitized at a frequency specified under 2VAC5-585-1780 and 2VAC5-585-1890;

4. In running water of sufficient velocity to flush particulates to the drain, if used with moist food such as ice cream or mashed potatoes;

5. In a clean, protected location if the utensils, such as ice scoops, are used only with a food that is not potentially hazardous; or

6. In a container of water if the water is maintained at a temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) and the container is cleaned at a frequency specified under 2VAC5-585-1780 D 7.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-560. Linens and napkins, use limitation.

Linens and napkins may not be used in contact with food unless they are used to line a container for the service of foods and the linens and napkins are replaced each time the container is refilled for a new customer.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-570. Wiping cloths, use limitation.

A. Cloths that are in use for wiping food spills shall be used for no other purpose.

B. Cloths used for wiping food spills shall be:

1. Dry and used for wiping food spills from tableware and carry-out containers; or

2. Wet and cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1920 D, stored in a chemical sanitizer at a concentration specified in 2VAC5-585-1700, and used for wiping spills from food-contact and nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment.

C. Dry or wet cloths that are used with raw animal foods shall be kept separate from cloths used for other purposes, and moist cloths used with raw animal foods shall be kept in a separate sanitizing solution.

D. Wet wiping cloths used with a freshly made sanitizing solution and dry wiping cloths shall be free of food debris and visible soil.

E. Working containers of sanitizing solutions for storage of in-use wiping cloths may be placed above the floor and used in a manner to prevent contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, single-service or single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-580. Gloves, use limitation.

A. If used, single-use gloves shall be used for only one task such as working with ready-to-eat food or with raw animal food, used for no other purpose, and discarded when damaged or soiled, or when interruptions occur in the operation.

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, slash-resistant gloves that are used to protect the hands during operations requiring cutting shall be used in direct contact only with food that is subsequently cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 through 2VAC5-585-765 such as frozen food or a primal cut of meat.

C. Slash-resistant gloves may be used with ready-to-eat food that will not be subsequently cooked if the slash-resistant gloves have a smooth, durable, and nonabsorbent outer surface; or if the slash-resistant gloves are covered with a smooth, durable, nonabsorbent glove, or a single-use glove.

D. Cloth gloves may not be used in direct contact with food unless the food is subsequently cooked as required under 2VAC5-585-700 through 2VAC5-585-765 such as frozen food or a primal cut of meat.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-590. Using clean tableware for second portions and refills.

A. Except for refilling a consumer''s drinking cup or container without contact between the pouring utensil and the lip contact area of the drinking cup or container, food employees may not use tableware, including single-service articles, soiled by the consumer to provide second portions or refills.

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, self-service consumers may not be allowed to use soiled tableware, including single-service articles, to obtain additional food from the display and serving equipment.

C. Cups and glasses may be reused by self-service consumers or food employees if refilling is a contamination-free process as specified under subdivisions 1, 2 and 4 of 2VAC5-585-1230.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-600. Refilling returnables.

A. A take-home food container returned to a food establishment may not be refilled at a food establishment with a potentially hazardous food.

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, a take-home food container refilled with food that is not potentially hazardous shall be cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1870 B.

C. Personal take-out beverage containers, such as thermally insulated bottles, nonspill coffee cups and promotional beverage glasses, may be refilled by employees or the consumer if refilling is a contamination-free process as specified under subdivisions 1, 2 and 4 of 2VAC5-585-1230.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-610. Food storage.

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, food shall be protected from contamination by storing the food:

1. In a clean, dry location;

2. Where it is not exposed to splash, dust, or other contamination; and

3. At least six inches (15 cm) above the floor.

B. Food in packages and working containers may be stored less than six inches (15 cm) above the floor on case lot handling equipment as specified under 2VAC5-585-1420.

C. Pressurized beverage containers, cased food in waterproof containers such as bottles or cans, and milk containers in plastic crates may be stored on a floor that is clean and not exposed to floor moisture.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-620. Food storage; prohibited areas.

Food may not be stored:

1. In locker rooms;

2. In toilet rooms or their vestibules;

3. In dressing rooms;

4. In garbage rooms;

5. In mechanical rooms;

6. Under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips;

7. Under leaking water lines, including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads, or under lines on which water has condensed;

8. Under open stairwells; or

9. Under other sources of contamination.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-630. Vended potentially hazardous food; original container.

Potentially hazardous food dispensed through a vending machine shall be in the package in which it was placed at the food establishment or food processing plant at which it was prepared.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-640. Food preparation.

During preparation, unpackaged food shall be protected from environmental sources of contamination.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-650. Food display.

Except for nuts in the shell and whole, raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for hulling, peeling, or washing by the consumer before consumption, food on display shall be protected from contamination by the use of packaging; counter, service line, or salad bar food guards; display cases; or other effective means.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-660. Condiments; protection.

A. Condiments shall be protected from contamination by being kept in dispensers that are designed to provide protection, protected food displays provided with the proper utensils, original containers designed for dispensing, or individual packages or portions.

B. Condiments at a vending machine location shall be in individual packages or provided in dispensers that are filled at a location that is approved by the department, such as the food establishment that provides food to the vending machine location, a food processing plant that is regulated by the agency that has jurisdiction over the operation, or a properly equipped facility that is located on the site of the vending machine location.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-670. Consumer self-service operations.*

A. Raw, unpackaged animal food, such as beef, lamb, pork, poultry, and fish may not be offered for consumer self-service. This subsection does not apply to:

1. Consumer self-service of ready-to-eat foods at buffets or salad bars that serve foods such as sushi or raw shellfish;

2. Ready-to-cook individual portions for immediate cooking and consumption on the premises such as consumer-cooked meats or consumer-selected ingredients for Mongolian barbecue; or

3. Raw, frozen, shell-on shrimp or lobster.

B. Consumer self-service operations for ready-to-eat foods shall be provided with suitable utensils or effective dispensing methods that protect the food from contamination.

C. Consumer self-service operations such as buffets and salad bars shall be monitored by food employees trained in safe operating procedures.N

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-680. Returned food and reservice of food.*

A. Except as specified under subsection B of this section, after being served or sold and in the possession of a consumer, food that is unused or returned by the consumer may not be offered as food for human consumption.

B. A container of food that is not potentially hazardous may be transferred from one consumer to another if:

1. The food is dispensed so that it is protected from contamination and the container is closed between uses such as a narrow-neck bottle containing catsup, steak sauce, or wine; or

2. The food, such as crackers, salt or pepper, is in an unopened original package and maintained in sound condition.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-690. Miscellaneous sources of contamination.

Food shall be protected from contamination that may result from a factor or source not specified under 2VAC5-585-450 through 2VAC5-585-680.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 4

Destruction of Organisms of Public Health Concern

2VAC5-585-700. Raw animal foods.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, raw animal foods such as eggs, fish, meat, poultry, and foods containing these raw animal foods shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time that complies with one of the following methods based on the food that is being cooked:

1. 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds for:

a. Raw shell eggs that are broken and prepared in response to a consumer''s order and for immediate service; and

b. Except as specified under subdivisions A 2 and 3 and subsection B of this section, fish and meat including game animals commercially raised for food as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 1 and game animals under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2;

2. 155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds or the temperature specified in the following chart that corresponds to the holding time for ratites and injected meats; the following if they are comminuted: fish, meat, game animals commercially raised for food as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 1, and game animals under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2; and raw eggs that are not prepared as specified under subdivision A 1 a of this section:

Minimum

Temperature °F (°C)

Time

145 (63)

3 minutes

150 (66)

1 minute

158 (70)

<1 second (instantaneous)

3. 165°F (74°C) or above for 15 seconds for poultry, wild game animals as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 3, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, stuffed pasta, stuffed poultry, stuffed ratites, or stuffing containing fish, meat, or poultry.

B. Whole beef roasts and corned beef roasts, pork roasts, and cured pork roasts such as ham shall be cooked:

1. In an oven that is preheated to the temperature specified for the roast’s weight in the following chart and that is held at that temperature; and

Oven Type

Oven Temperature Based on Roast Weight

Less than 10 lbs (4.5 kg)

10 lbs (4.5 kg) or more

Still Dry

350°F (177°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

Convection

325°F (163°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

High Humidity1

250°F (121°C) or less

250°F (121°C) or less

1Relative humidity greater than 90% for at least one hour as measured in the cooking chamber or exit of the oven; or in a moisture-impermeable bag that provides 100% humidity.

2. As specified in the following chart, to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for the holding time that corresponds to that temperature.

Temperature

°F (°C)

Time1 in Minutes

Temperature

°F (°C)

Time1 in Seconds

130 (54.4)

112

147 (63.9)

134

131 (55.0)

89

149 (65.0)

85

133 (56.1)

56

151 (66.1)

54

135 (57.2)

36

153 (67.2)

34

136 (57.8)

28

155 (68.3)

22

138 (58.9)

18

157 (69.4)

14

140 (60.0)

12

158 (70.0)

0

142 (61.1)

8

 

 

144 (62.2)

5

 

 

145 (62.8)

4

 

 

1Holding time may include postoven heat rise

C. A raw or undercooked whole-muscle, intact beef steak may be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. The food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population;

2. The steak is labeled, as specified under 2VAC5-585-270 E, to indicate that it meets the definition of "whole-muscle, intact beef"; and

3. The steak is cooked on both the top and bottom to a surface temperature of 145°F (63°C) or above and a cooked color change is achieved on all external surfaces.

D. A raw animal food such as raw egg, raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, or steak tartare, or a partially cooked food such as lightly cooked fish, soft cooked eggs, or rare meat other than whole-muscle, intact beef steaks as specified in subsection C of this section, may be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. As specified under subdivisions 3 a and 3 b of 2VAC5-585-950, the food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population; and

2. The consumer is informed as specified under 2VAC5-585-930 that to ensure its safety, the food should be cooked as specified under subsection A or B of this section; or

3. The department grants a variance from subsection A or B of this section as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 based on a HACCP plan that:

a. Is submitted by the operator and approved as specified under 2VAC5-585-3541;

b. Documents scientific data or other information that shows that a lesser time and temperature regimen results in a safe food; and

c. Verifies that equipment and procedures for food preparation and training of food employees at the food establishment meet the conditions of the variance.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-710. Microwave cooking.*

Raw animal foods cooked in a microwave oven shall be:

1. Rotated or stirred throughout or midway during cooking to compensate for uneven distribution of heat;

2. Covered to retain surface moisture;

3. Heated to a temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) in all parts of the food; and

4. Allowed to stand covered for two minutes after cooking to obtain temperature equilibrium.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-720. Plant food cooking for hot holding.

Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding shall be cooked to a temperature of 135°F (57°C).

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-730. Parasite destruction.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, before service or sale in ready-to-eat form, raw, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish other than molluscan shellfish shall be:

1. Frozen and stored at a temperature of -4°F (-20°C) or below for 168 hours (seven days) in a freezer; or

2. Frozen at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -31°F (-35°C) for 15 hours.

B. If the fish are tuna of the species Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin tuna), Thunnus atlanticus, Thunnus maccoyii (Bluefin tuna, Southern), Thunnus obesus (Bigeye tuna), or Thunnus thynnus (Bluefin tuna, Northern), the fish may be served or sold in a raw, raw-marinated, or partially cooked ready-to-eat form without freezing as specified under subsection A of this section.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-740. Records; creation and retention.

A. Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-730 B and subsection B of this section, if raw, marinated, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish are served or sold in ready-to-eat form, the person in charge shall record the freezing temperature and time to which the fish are subjected and shall retain the records at the food establishment for 90 calendar days beyond the time of service or sale of the fish.

B. If the fish are frozen by a supplier, a written agreement or statement from the supplier stipulating that the fish supplied are frozen to a temperature and for a time specified under 2VAC5-585-730 may substitute for the records specified under subsection A of this section.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-750. Reheating; preparation for immediate service.

Cooked and refrigerated food that is prepared for immediate service in response to an individual consumer order, such as a roast beef sandwich au jus, may be served at any temperature.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-760. Reheating for hot holding.*

A. Except as specified under subsections B, C and E of this section, potentially hazardous food that is cooked, cooled, and reheated for hot holding shall be reheated so that all parts of the food reach at least 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds.

B. Except as specified under subsection C of this section, potentially hazardous food reheated in a microwave oven for hot holding shall be reheated so that all parts of the food reach a temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) and the food is rotated or stirred, covered, and allowed to stand covered two minutes after reheating.

C. Ready-to-eat food taken from a commercially processed, hermetically sealed container, or from an intact package from a food processing plant that is inspected by the food regulatory authority that has jurisdiction over the plant, shall be heated to a temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) for hot holding.

D. Reheating for hot holding shall be done rapidly and the time the food is between the temperature specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 and 165°F (74°C) may not exceed two hours.

E. Remaining unsliced portions of roasts that are cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 B may be reheated for hot holding using the oven parameters and minimum time and temperature conditions specified under 2VAC5-585-700 B.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-765. Treating juice.

Juice packaged in a food establishment shall be:

1. Treated under a HACCP plan as specified in subdivisions 2 through 5 of 2VAC5-585-3610 to attain a 5-log reduction, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance; or

2. Labeled, if not treated to yield a 5-log reduction of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance:

a. As specified under 2VAC5-585-900; and

b. As specified in 21 CFR 101.17(g) with the phrase, "WARNING: This product has not been pasteurized and, therefore, may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems."

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 5

Limitation of Growth of Organisms of Public Health Concern

2VAC5-585-770. Frozen food.

Stored frozen foods shall be maintained frozen.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-780. Potentially hazardous food, slacking.

Frozen potentially hazardous food that is slacked to moderate the temperature shall be held:

1. Under refrigeration that maintains the food temperature at 41°F (5°C) or less, or at 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b; or

2. At any temperature if the food remains frozen.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-790. Thawing.

Except as specified in subdivision 4 of this section, potentially hazardous food shall be thawed:

1. Under refrigeration that maintains the food temperature at 41°F (5°C) or less, or at 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b; or

2. Completely submerged under running water:

a. At a water temperature of 70°F (21°C) or below;

b. With sufficient water velocity to agitate and float off loose particles in an overflow; and

c. For a period of time that does not allow thawed portions of ready-to-eat food to rise above 41°F (5°C), or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b; or

d. For a period of time that does not allow thawed portions of a raw animal food requiring cooking as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A or B to be above 41°F (5°C), or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b, for more than four hours including:

(1) The time the food is exposed to the running water and the time needed for preparation for cooking; or

(2) The time it takes under refrigeration to lower the food temperature to 41°F (5°C), or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b;

3. As part of a cooking process if the food that is frozen is:

a. Cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A or B or 2VAC5-585-710; or

b. Thawed in a microwave oven and immediately transferred to conventional cooking equipment, with no interruption in the process; or

4. Using any procedure if a portion of frozen ready-to-eat food is thawed and prepared for immediate service in response to an individual consumer''s order.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-800. Cooling.*

A. Cooked potentially hazardous food shall be cooled:

1. Within two hours, from 135°F (57°C) to 70°F (21°C); and

2. Within a total of six hours, from 135°F (57°C) to 41°F (5°C) or less, or to 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b.

B. Potentially hazardous food shall be cooled within four hours to 41°F (5°C) or less, or to 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b if prepared from ingredients at ambient temperature, such as reconstituted foods and canned tuna.

C. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, a potentially hazardous food received in compliance with laws allowing a temperature above 41°F (5°C) during shipment from the supplier as specified in 2VAC5-585-340 B, shall be cooled within four hours to 41°F (5°C) or less, or 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under of 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b.

D. Raw shell eggs shall be received as specified under 2VAC5-585-340 C and immediately placed in refrigerated equipment that maintains an ambient air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or less.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-810. Cooling methods.

A. Cooling shall be accomplished in accordance with the time and temperature criteria specified under 2VAC5-585-800 by using one or more of the following methods based on the type of food being cooled:

1. Placing the food in shallow pans;

2. Separating the food into smaller or thinner portions;

3. Using rapid cooling equipment;

4. Stirring the food in a container placed in an ice water bath;

5. Using containers that facilitate heat transfer;

6. Adding ice as an ingredient; or

7. Other effective methods.

B. When placed in cooling or cold holding equipment, food containers in which food is being cooled shall be:

1. Arranged in the equipment to provide maximum heat transfer through the container walls; and

2. Loosely covered, or uncovered if protected from overhead contamination as specified under 2VAC5-585-610 A 2, during the cooling period to facilitate heat transfer from the surface of the food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-820. Potentially hazardous food; hot and cold holding.*

A. Except during preparation, cooking, or cooling, or when time is used as the public health control as specified under 2VAC5-585-850, potentially hazardous food shall be maintained:

1. At 135°F (57°C) or above, except that roasts cooked to a temperature and for a time specified in 2VAC5-585-700 B or reheated as specified in 2VAC5-585-760 E may be held at a temperature of 130°F (54°C) or above; or

2. At a temperature specified in the following:

a. 41°F (5°C) or less; or

b. 45°F (7°C) or between 45°F (7°C) and 41°F (5°C) in existing refrigeration equipment that is not capable of maintaining the food at 41°F (5°C) or less if:

(1) The equipment is in place and in use in the food establishment; and

(2) Before January 1, 2012, the equipment is upgraded or replaced to maintain food at a temperature of 41°F (5°C) or less.

B. Shell eggs that have not been treated to destroy all viable Salmonellae shall be stored in refrigerated equipment that maintains an ambient air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or less.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-830. Ready to eat, potentially hazardous food; date marking.*

A. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, refrigerated, ready?to?eat, potentially hazardous food prepared and held in a food establishment for more than 24 hours shall be clearly marked to indicate the date or day by which the food shall be consumed on the premises, sold, or discarded based on the temperature and time combinations specified below. The day of preparation shall be counted as Day 1.

1. 41°F (5°C) or less for a maximum of seven days; or

2. 45°F (7°C) or between 41°F (5°C) and 45°F (7°C) for a maximum of four days in existing refrigeration equipment that is not capable of maintaining the food at 41°F (5°C) or less if:

a. The equipment is in place and in use in the food establishment; and

b. Before January 1, 2012, the equipment is upgraded or replaced to maintain food at a temperature of 41°F (5°C) or less.

B. Except as specified in subsections D and E of this section, refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food prepared and packaged by a food processing plant shall be clearly marked, at the time the original container is opened in a food establishment and if the food is held for more than 24 hours, to indicate the date or day by which the food shall be consumed on the premises, sold, or discarded, based on the temperature and time combinations specified in subsection A of this section and:

1. The day the original container is opened in the food establishment shall be counted as Day 1; and

2. The day or date marked by the food establishment may not exceed a manufacturer’s use-by date if the manufacturer determined the use-by date based on food safety.

C. A refrigerated, ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food that is frequently rewrapped, such as lunchmeat or a roast, or for which date marking is impractical, such as soft serve mix or milk in a dispensing machine, may be marked as specified in subsection A or B of this section, or by an alternative method acceptable to the department.

D. Subsections A and B of this section do not apply to individual meal portions served or repackaged for sale from a bulk container upon a consumer’s request.

E. Subsection B of this section does not apply to the following when the face has been cut, but the remaining portion is whole and intact:

1. Fermented sausages produced in a federally inspected food processing plant that are not labeled "Keep Refrigerated" and that retain the original casing on the product;

2. Shelf stable, dry, fermented sausages; and

3. Shelf stable salt-cured products such as prosciutto and Parma (ham) produced in a federally inspected food processing plant that are not labeled "Keep Refrigerated."

F. A refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food ingredient or a portion of a refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food that is subsequently combined with additional ingredients or portions of food shall retain the date marking of the earliest-prepared or first-prepared ingredient.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-840. Ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food; disposition.*

A. A food specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A or B shall be discarded if it:

1. Exceeds either of the temperature and time combinations specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A, except time that the product is frozen;

2. Is in a container or package that does not bear a date or day; or

3. Is appropriately marked with a date or day that exceeds a temperature and time combination as specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A.

B. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food prepared in a food establishment and dispensed through a vending machine with an automatic shutoff control shall be discarded if it exceeds a temperature and time combination as specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-850. Time as a public health control.*

A. Except as specified under subsection B of this section, if time only, rather than time in conjunction with temperature, is used as the public health control for a working supply of potentially hazardous food before cooking, or for ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food that is displayed or held for service for immediate consumption:

1. The food shall be marked or otherwise identified to indicate the time that is four hours past the point in time when the food is removed from temperature control;

2. The food shall be cooked and served, served if ready-to-eat, or discarded, within four hours from the point in time when the food is removed from temperature control;

3. The food in unmarked containers or packages or marked to exceed a four-hour limit shall be discarded; and

4. Written procedures shall be maintained in the food establishment and made available to the department upon request, that ensure compliance with:

a. Subdivisions 1 through 4 of this subsection; and

b. 2VAC5-585-800 for food that is prepared, cooked, and refrigerated before time is used as a public health control.

B. In a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, time only, rather than time in conjunction with temperature, may not be used as the public health control for raw eggs.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-860. Variance requirement.*

A food establishment shall obtain a variance from the department as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 and 2VAC5-585-3541 before:

1. Smoking food as a method of food preservation rather than as a method of flavor enhancement;

2. Curing food;

3. Using food additives or adding components such as vinegar:

a. As a method of food preservation rather than as a method of flavor enhancement; or

b. To render a food so that it is not potentially hazardous;

4. Packaging food using a reduced oxygen packaging method except as specified under 2VAC5-585-870 where a barrier to Clostridium botulinum in addition to refrigeration exists;

5. Operating a molluscan shellfish life-support system display tank used to store and display shellfish that are offered for human consumption;

6. Custom processing animals that are for personal use as food and not for sale or service in a food establishment; or

7. Preparing food by another method that is determined by the department to require a variance.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-870. Reduced oxygen packaging; criteria.*

A. Except for a food establishment that obtains a variance as specified under 2VAC5-585-860, a food establishment that packages food using a reduced oxygen packaging method and Clostridium botulinum is identified as a microbiological hazard in the final packaged form shall ensure that there are at least two barriers in place to control the growth and toxin formation of Clostridium botulinum.

B. A food establishment that packages food using a reduced oxygen packaging method and Clostridium botulinum is identified as a microbiological hazard in the final packaged form shall have a HACCP plan that contains the information specified under subdivision 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630 and that:

1. Identifies the food to be packaged;

2. Limits the food packaged to a food that does not support the growth of Clostridium botulinum because it complies with one of the following:

a. Has an aw of 0.91 or less;

b. Has a pH of 4.6 or less;

c. Is a meat or poultry product cured at a food processing plant regulated by the USDA using substances specified in 9 CFR 424.21, Use of Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation, and is received in an intact package; or

d. Is a food with a high level of competing organisms such as raw meat or raw poultry;

3. Specifies methods for maintaining food at 41°F (5°C) or below;

4. Describes how the packages shall be prominently and conspicuously labeled on the principal display panel in bold type on a contrasting background, with instructions to:

a. Maintain the food at 41°F (5°C) or below; and

b. For food held at refrigeration temperatures, discard the food if within 14 calendar days of its packaging it is not served for on-premises consumption, or consumed if served or sold for off-premises consumption;

5. Limits the refrigerated shelf life to no more than 14 calendar days from packaging to consumption, except the time the product is maintained frozen, or the original manufacturer''s "sell by" or "use by" date, whichever occurs first;

6. Includes operational procedures that:

a. Prohibit contacting food with bare hands;

b. Identify a designated area and the method by which:

(1) Physical barriers or methods of separation of raw foods and ready?to?eat foods minimize cross contamination; and

(2) Access to the processing equipment is restricted to responsible trained personnel familiar with the potential hazards of the operation; and

c. Delineate cleaning and sanitization procedures for food?contact surfaces; and

7. Describes the training program that ensures that the individual responsible for the reduced oxygen packaging operation understands the:

a. Concepts required for a safe operation;

b. Equipment and facilities; and

c. Procedures specified under subdivision 6 of this subsection and subdivision 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630.

C. Except for fish that is frozen before, during, and after packaging, a food establishment may not package fish using a reduced oxygen packaging method.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 6

Food Identity, Presentation, and On-Premises Labeling

2VAC5-585-880. Standards of identity.

Packaged food shall comply with standard of identity requirements in 21 CFR Parts 131-169 and 9 CFR Part 319, Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition, and the general requirements in 21 CFR Part 130, Food Standards: General, and 9 CFR Part 319, Subpart A, General.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-890. Honestly presented.

A. Food shall be offered for human consumption in a way that does not mislead or misinform the consumer.

B. Food or color additives, colored overwraps, or lights may not be used to misrepresent the true appearance, color, or quality of a food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-900. Food labels.

A. Food packaged in a food establishment shall be labeled as specified in law, including 21 CFR Part 101, Food Labeling, and 9 CFR Part 317, Labeling, Marking Devices, and Containers.

B. Label information shall include:

1. The common name of the food, or absent a common name, an adequately descriptive identity statement;

2. If made from two or more ingredients, a list of ingredients in descending order of predominance by weight, including a declaration of artificial color or flavor and chemical preservatives, if contained in the food;

3. An accurate declaration of the quantity of contents;

4. The name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and

5. Except as exempted in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 21 USC § 343(q) (3) through (5), nutrition labeling as specified in 21 CFR Part 101, Food Labeling, and 9 CFR Part 317, Subpart B, Nutrition Labeling.

6. For any salmonid fish containing canthaxanthin as a color additive, the labeling of the bulk fish container, including a list of ingredients, displayed on the retail container or by other written means, such as a counter card, that discloses the use of canthaxanthin.

C. Bulk food that is available for consumer self-dispensing shall be prominently labeled with the following information in plain view of the consumer:

1. The manufacturer''s or processor''s label that was provided with the food; or

2. A card, sign, or other method of notification that includes the information specified under subdivisions B 1, 2 and 5 of this section.

D. Bulk, unpackaged foods such as bakery products and unpackaged foods that are portioned to consumer specification need not be labeled if:

1. A health, nutrient content, or other claim is not made;

2. There are no state or local laws requiring labeling; and

3. The food is manufactured or prepared on the premises of the food establishment or at another food establishment or a food processing plant that is owned by the same person and is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-910. Other forms of information.

A. If required by law, consumer warnings shall be provided.

B. Food establishment or manufacturers'' dating information on foods may not be concealed or altered.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-920. (Reserved.)

2VAC5-585-930. Consumer advisory; consumption of animal foods that are raw, undercooked, or not otherwise processed to eliminate pathogens.*

A. Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 C and 2VAC5-585-700 D 3 and under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-950, if an animal food such as beef, eggs, fish, lamb, milk, pork, poultry, or shellfish is served or sold raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens, either in ready-to-eat form or as an ingredient in another ready-to-eat food, the person in charge shall inform consumers of the significantly increased risk of consuming such foods by way of a disclosure and reminder, as specified in subsections B and C of this section, using brochures, deli case or menu advisories, label statements, table tents, placards, or other effective written means.

B. Disclosure shall include:

1. A description of the animal-derived foods, such as "oysters on the half shell (raw oysters)," "raw-egg Caesar salad," and "hamburgers (can be cooked to order)"; or

2. Identification of the animal-derived foods by asterisking them to a footnote that states that the items are served raw or undercooked, or contain (or may contain) raw or undercooked ingredients.

C. Reminder shall include asterisking the animal-derived foods requiring disclosure to a footnote that states:

1. Regarding the safety of these items, written information is available upon request:

2. Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness; or

3. Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness, especially if you have certain medical conditions.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 7

Contaminated Food

2VAC5-585-940. Discarding or reconditioning unsafe, adulterated, or contaminated food.*

A. A food that is unsafe, adulterated, or not honestly presented as specified under 2VAC5-585-260 shall be reconditioned according to an approved procedure or discarded.

B. Food that is not from an approved source as specified under 2VAC5-585-270 through 2VAC5-585-330 shall be discarded.

C. Ready-to-eat food that may have been contaminated by an employee who has been restricted or excluded as specified under 2VAC5-585-90 shall be discarded.

D. Food that is contaminated by food employees, consumers, or other persons through contact with their hands, bodily discharges, such as nasal or oral discharges, or other means shall be discarded.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 8

Special Requirements for Highly Susceptible Populations

2VAC5-585-950. Pasteurized foods and prohibited food.*

In a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population:

1. The following criteria apply to juice:

a. For the purposes of subdivision 1 of this section only, children who are age 9 or less and receive food in a school, day care setting or similar facility that provides custodial care are included as highly susceptible populations;

b. Prepackaged juice or a prepackaged beverage containing juice, that bears a warning label as specified in 21 CFR 101.17(g), Food Labeling, or packaged juice or beverage containing juice, that bears a warning label as specified under subdivision 2 of 2VAC5-585-765 may not be served or offered for sale; and

c. Unpackaged juice that is prepared on the premises for service or sale in a ready-to-eat form shall be processed under a HACCP plan that contains the information specified in subdivisions 2 through 5 of 2VAC5-585-3630 and as specified under 21 CFR Part 120, Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems, Subpart B, Pathogen Reduction, 120.24, Process Controls.

2. Pasteurized shell eggs or pasteurized liquid, frozen, or dry eggs or egg products shall be substituted for raw shell eggs in the preparation of:

a. Foods such as Caesar salad, hollandaise or béarnaise sauce, mayonnaise, and egg-fortified beverages; and

b. Except as specified in subdivision 5 of this section, recipes in which more than one egg is broken and the eggs are combined.

3. The following foods may not be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form:

a. Raw animal foods such as raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, and steak tartare;

b. A partially cooked animal food such as lightly cooked fish, rare meat, soft-cooked eggs that are made from raw shell eggs, and meringue; and

c. Raw seed sprouts.

4. Food employees may not contact ready-to-eat food as specified in 2VAC5-585-450 B.

5. Subdivision 2 b of this section does not apply if:

a. The raw eggs are combined immediately before cooking for one consumer''s serving at a single meal, cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A 1, and served immediately, such as an omelet, soufflé, or scrambled eggs;

b. The raw eggs are combined as an ingredient immediately before baking and the eggs are thoroughly cooked to a ready-to-eat form, such as a cake, muffin, or bread; or

c. The preparation of the food is conducted under a HACCP plan that:

(1) Identifies the food to be prepared;

(2) Prohibits contacting ready-to-eat food with bare hands;

(3) Includes specifications and practices that ensure:

(a) Salmonella Enteritidis growth is controlled before and after cooking; and

(b) Salmonella Enteritidis is destroyed by cooking the eggs according to the temperature and time specified in 2VAC5-585-700 A 2;

(4) Contains the information specified under subdivision 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630 including procedures that:

(a) Control cross contamination of ready-to-eat food with raw eggs; and

(b) Delineate cleaning and sanitization procedures for food-contact surfaces; and

(5) Describes the training program that ensures that the food employee responsible for the preparation of the food understands the procedures to be used.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part IV

Equipment, Utensils, and Linens

Article 1

Materials for Construction and Repair

2VAC5-585-960. Multiuse, characteristics.*

Materials that are used in the construction of utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment may not allow the migration of deleterious substances or impart colors, odors, or tastes to food and under normal use conditions shall be:

1. Safe;

2. Durable, corrosion-resistant, and nonabsorbent;N

3. Sufficient in weight and thickness to withstand repeated warewashing;N

4. Finished to have a smooth, easily cleanable surface;N and

5. Resistant to pitting, chipping, crazing, scratching, scoring, distortion, and decomposition.N

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-970. Cast iron, use limitation.

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, cast iron may not be used for utensils or food-contact surfaces of equipment.

B. Cast iron may be used as a surface for cooking.

C. Cast iron may be used in utensils for serving food if the utensils are used only as part of an uninterrupted process from cooking through service.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-980. Lead in ceramic, china, and crystal utensils, use limitation.

Ceramic, china, crystal utensils, and decorative utensils such as hand-painted ceramic or china that are used in contact with food shall be lead-free or contain levels of lead not exceeding the limits of the following utensil categories:

Utensil Category

Description

Maximum Lead (mg/L)

Hot Beverage Mugs

Coffee Mugs

0.5

Large Hollowware

Bowls 1.1 L (1.16 qt)

1.0

Small Hollowware

Bowls <1.1 L (1.16 qt)

2.0

Flat Utensils

Plates, Saucers

3.0

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-990. Copper, use limitation.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, copper and copper alloys such as brass may not be used in contact with a food that has a pH below 6 such as vinegar, fruit juice, or wine or for a fitting or tubing installed between a backflow prevention device and a carbonator.

B. Copper and copper alloys may be used in contact with beer brewing ingredients that have a pH below 6 in the prefermentation and fermentation steps of a beer brewing operation such as a brewpub or microbrewery.

C. Copper and copper alloys may be used in contact with apple butter and molasses that have a pH below 6 during the typical processing times (i.e., mixing, cooking and cooling) for these products, as long as laboratory analysis does not reveal excessive levels of copper or other heavy metals in the finished product. Apple butter and molasses may not be held or stored in copper or copper alloys for time periods any longer than the typical processing times for these products.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1000. Galvanized metal, use limitation.*

Galvanized metal may not be used for utensils or food-contact surfaces of equipment that are used in contact with acidic food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1010. Sponges, use limitation.

Sponges may not be used in contact with cleaned and sanitized or in-use food-contact surfaces.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1020. Lead in pewter alloys, use limitation.

Pewter alloys containing lead in excess of 0.05% may not be used as a food-contact surface.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1030. Lead in solder and flux, use limitation.

Solder and flux containing lead in excess of 0.2% may not be used as a food-contact surface.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1040. Wood, use limitation.

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, wood and wood wicker may not be used as a food-contact surface.

B. Hard maple or an equivalently hard, close-grained wood may be used for:

1. Cutting boards; cutting blocks; bakers'' tables; and utensils such as rolling pins, doughnut dowels, salad bowls, and chopsticks; and

2. Wooden paddles used in confectionery operations for pressure scraping kettles when manually preparing confections at a temperature of 230°F (110°C) or above.

C. Whole, uncut, raw fruits and vegetables, and nuts in the shell may be kept in the wood shipping containers in which they were received, until the fruits, vegetables, or nuts are used.

D. If the nature of the food requires removal of rinds, peels, husks, or shells before consumption, the whole, uncut, raw food may be kept in:

1. Untreated wood containers; or

2. Treated wood containers if the containers are treated with a preservative that meets the requirements specified in 21 CFR 178.3800.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1050. Nonstick coatings, use limitation.

Multiuse kitchenware such as frying pans, griddles, sauce pans, cookie sheets, and waffle bakers that have a perfluorocarbon resin coating shall be used with nonscoring or nonscratching utensils and cleaning aids.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1060. Nonfood-contact surfaces.

Nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment that are exposed to splash, spillage, or other food soiling or that require frequent cleaning shall be constructed of a corrosion-resistant, nonabsorbent, and smooth material.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1070. Single-service and single-use, characteristics.*

Materials that are used to make single-service and single-use articles:

1. May not:

a. Allow the migration of deleterious substances; or

b. Impart colors, odors, or tastes to food.N

2. Shall be:

a. Safe; and

b. Clean.N

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Design and Construction

2VAC5-585-1080. Equipment and utensils.

Equipment and utensils shall be designed and constructed to be durable and to retain their characteristic qualities under normal use conditions.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1090. Food temperature measuring devices.*

Food temperature measuring devices may not have sensors or stems constructed of glass, except that thermometers with glass sensors or stems that are encased in a shatterproof coating such as candy thermometers may be used.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1100. Food-contact surfaces; cleanability.*

A. Multiuse food-contact surfaces shall be:

1. Smooth;

2. Free of breaks, open seams, cracks, chips, pits, and similar imperfections;

3. Free of sharp internal angles, corners, and crevices;

4. Finished to have smooth welds and joints; and

5. Accessible for cleaning and inspection by one of the following methods:

a. Without being disassembled;

b. By disassembling without the use of tools; or

c. By easy disassembling with the use of handheld tools commonly available to maintenance and cleaning personnel such as screwdrivers, pliers, open-end wrenches, and Allen wrenches.

B. Subdivision A 5 of this section does not apply to cooking oil storage tanks, distribution lines for cooking oils or beverage syrup lines or tubes.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1110. CIP equipment.

A. CIP equipment shall meet the characteristics specified under 2VAC5-585-1100 and shall be designed and constructed so that:

1. Cleaning and sanitizing solutions circulate throughout a fixed system and contact all interior food-contact surfaces; and

2. The system is self-draining or capable of being completely drained of cleaning and sanitizing solutions.

B. CIP equipment that is not designed to be disassembled for cleaning shall be designed with inspection access points to ensure that all interior food-contact surfaces throughout the fixed system are being effectively cleaned.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1120. "V" threads, use limitation.

"V" type threads may not be used on food-contact surfaces. This section does not apply to hot oil cooking or filtering equipment.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1130. Hot oil filtering equipment.

Hot oil filtering equipment shall meet the characteristics specified under 2VAC5-585-1100 or 2VAC5-585-1110 and shall be readily accessible for filter replacement and cleaning of the filter.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1140. Can openers.

Cutting or piercing parts of can openers shall be readily removable for cleaning and for replacement.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1150. Nonfood-contact surfaces.

Nonfood-contact surfaces shall be free of unnecessary ledges, projections, and crevices, and designed and constructed to allow easy cleaning and to facilitate maintenance.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1160. Kick plates; removable.

Kick plates shall be designed so that the areas behind them are accessible for inspection and cleaning by being:

1. Removable by one of the methods specified under 2VAC5-585-1100 A 5 or capable of being rotated open; and

2. Removable or capable of being rotated open without unlocking equipment doors.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1170. Ventilation hood systems; filters.

Filters or other grease extracting equipment shall be designed to be readily removable for cleaning and replacement if not designed to be cleaned in place.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1180. Temperature measuring devices; food.

A. Food temperature measuring devices that are scaled only in Fahrenheit or dually scaled in Fahrenheit and Celsius shall be scaled in 2°F increments and accurate to ±2°F in the intended range of use.

B. Food temperature measuring devices that are scaled only in Celsius shall be scaled in 1°C increments accurate to ±1°C in the intended range of use.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1190. Temperature measuring devices; ambient air and water.

A. Ambient air and water temperature measuring devices that are scaled in Fahrenheit or dually scaled in Fahrenheit and Celsius and shall be designed to be easily readable and scaled in 3°F increments and accurate to ±3°F in the intended range of use.

B. Ambient air and water temperature measuring devices that are scaled only in Celsius shall be scaled in 1.5°C increments and accurate to ±1.5°C in the intended range of use.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1200. Pressure measuring devices, mechanical warewashing equipment.

Pressure measuring devices that display the pressures in the water supply line for the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse shall have increments of one pound per square inch (seven kilopascals) or smaller and shall be accurate to ± two pounds per square inch (± 14 kilopascals) in the 15-25 pounds per square inch (100-170 kilopascals) range.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1210. Ventilation hood systems, drip prevention.

Exhaust ventilation hood systems in food preparation and warewashing areas including components such as hoods, fans, guards, and ducting shall be designed to prevent grease or condensation from draining or dripping onto food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1220. Equipment openings, closures and deflectors.

A. A cover or lid for equipment shall overlap the opening and be sloped to drain.

B. An opening located within the top of a unit of equipment that is designed for use with a cover or lid shall be flanged upward at least two-tenths of an inch (five millimeters).

C. Except as specified under subsection D of this section, fixed piping, temperature measuring devices, rotary shafts, and other parts extending into equipment shall be provided with a watertight joint at the point where the item enters the equipment.

D. If a watertight joint is not provided:

1. The piping, temperature measuring devices, rotary shafts, and other parts extending through the openings shall be equipped with an apron designed to deflect condensation, drips, and dust from openings into the food; and

2. The opening shall be flanged as specified under subsection B of this section.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1230. Dispensing equipment, protection of equipment and food.

In equipment that dispenses or vends liquid food or ice in unpackaged form:

1. The delivery tube, chute, orifice, and splash surfaces directly above the container receiving the food shall be designed in a manner, such as with barriers, baffles, or drip aprons, so that drips from condensation and splash are diverted from the opening of the container receiving the food;

2. The delivery tube, chute, and orifice shall be protected from manual contact such as by being recessed;

3. The delivery tube or chute and orifice of equipment used to vend liquid food or ice in unpackaged form to self-service consumers shall be designed so that the delivery tube or chute and orifice are protected from dust, insects, rodents, and other contamination by a self-closing door if the equipment is:

a. Located in an outside area that does not otherwise afford the protection of an enclosure against the rain, windblown debris, insects, rodents, and other contaminants that are present in the environment; or

b. Available for self-service during hours when it is not under the full-time supervision of a food employee; and

4. The dispensing equipment actuating lever or mechanism and filling device of consumer self-service beverage dispensing equipment shall be designed to prevent contact with the lip-contact surface of glasses or cups that are refilled.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1240. Vending machine, vending stage closure.

The dispensing compartment of a vending machine including a machine that is designed to vend prepackaged snack food that is not potentially hazardous such as chips, party mixes, and pretzels shall be equipped with a self-closing door or cover if the machine is:

1. Located in an outside area that does not otherwise afford the protection of an enclosure against the rain, windblown debris, insects, rodents, and other contaminants that are present in the environment; or

2. Available for self-service during hours when it is not under the full-time supervision of a food employee.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1250. Bearings and gear boxes, leakproof.

Equipment containing bearings and gears that require lubricants shall be designed and constructed so that the lubricant cannot leak, drip, or be forced into food or onto food-contact surfaces.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1260. Beverage tubing, separation.

Beverage tubing and cold-plate beverage cooling devices may not be installed in contact with stored ice. This section does not apply to cold plates that are constructed integrally with an ice storage bin.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1270. Ice units, separation of drains.

Liquid waste drain lines may not pass through an ice machine or ice storage bin.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1280. Condenser unit, separation.

If a condenser unit is an integral component of equipment, the condenser unit shall be separated from the food and food storage space by a dustproof barrier.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1290. Can openers on vending machines.

Cutting or piercing parts of can openers on vending machines shall be protected from manual contact, dust, insects, rodents, and other contamination.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1300. Molluscan shellfish tanks.

A. Except as specified under subsection B of this section, molluscan shellfish life support system display tanks may not be used to display shellfish that are offered for human consumption.

B. Molluscan shellfish life-support system display tanks that are used to store and display shellfish that are offered for human consumption shall be operated and maintained in accordance with a variance granted by the department as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 and a HACCP plan that:

1. Is submitted by the person in charge and approved as specified under 2VAC5-585-3541; and

2. Ensures that:

a. Water used with fish other than molluscan shellfish does not flow into the molluscan tank;

b. The safety and quality of the shellfish as they were received are not compromised by the use of the tank; and

c. The identity of the source of the shellstock is retained as specified under 2VAC5-585-440.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1310. Vending machines, automatic shutoff.*

A. A machine vending potentially hazardous food shall have an automatic control that prevents the machine from vending food:

1. If there is a power failure, mechanical failure, or other condition that results in an internal machine temperature that cannot maintain food temperatures as specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter; and

2. If a condition specified under subdivision 1 of this subsection occurs, until the machine is serviced and restocked with food that has been maintained at temperatures specified under Part III.

B. When the automatic shutoff within a machine vending potentially hazardous food is activated:

1. In a refrigerated vending machine, the ambient temperature may not exceed 41°F (5°C ) or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 for more than 30 minutes immediately after the machine is filled, serviced, or restocked; or

2. In a hot holding vending machine, the ambient temperature may not be less than 135°F (57°C) for more than 120 minutes immediately after the machine is filled, serviced, or restocked.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1320. Temperature measuring devices.

A. In a mechanically refrigerated or hot food storage unit, the sensor of a temperature measuring device shall be located to measure the air temperature or a simulated product temperature in the warmest part of a mechanically refrigerated unit and in the coolest part of a hot food storage unit.

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, cold or hot holding equipment used for potentially hazardous food shall be designed to include and shall be equipped with at least one integral or affixed temperature measuring device that is located to allow easy viewing of the device''s temperature display.

C. Subsection B of this section does not apply to equipment for which the placement of a temperature measuring device is not a practical means for measuring the ambient air surrounding the food because of the design, type, and use of the equipment, such as calrod units, heat lamps, cold plates, bainmaries, steam tables, insulated food transport containers, and salad bars.

D. Temperature measuring devices shall be designed to be easily readable.

E. Food temperature measuring devices and water temperature measuring devices on warewashing machines shall have a numerical scale, printed record, or digital readout in increments no greater than 2°F or 1°C in the intended range of use.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1330. Warewashing machine, data plate operating specifications.

A warewashing machine shall be provided with an easily accessible and readable data plate affixed to the machine by the manufacturer that indicates the machine''s design and operating specifications including the:

1. Temperatures required for washing, rinsing, and sanitizing;

2. Pressure required for the fresh water sanitizing rinse unless the machine is designed to use only a pumped sanitizing rinse; and

3. Conveyor speed for conveyor machines or cycle time for stationary rack machines.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1340. Warewashing machines, internal baffles.

Warewashing machine wash and rinse tanks shall be equipped with baffles, curtains, or other means to minimize internal cross contamination of the solutions in wash and rinse tanks.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1350. Warewashing machines, temperature measuring devices.

A warewashing machine shall be equipped with a temperature measuring device that indicates the temperature of the water:

1. In each wash and rinse tank; and

2. As the water enters the hot water sanitizing final rinse manifold or in the chemical sanitizing solution tank.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1360. Manual warewashing equipment, heaters and baskets.

If hot water is used for sanitization in manual warewashing operations, the sanitizing compartment of the sink shall be:

1. Designed with an integral heating device that is capable of maintaining water at a temperature not less than 171°F (77°C); and

2. Provided with a rack or basket to allow complete immersion of equipment and utensils into the hot water.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1370. Warewashing machines, automatic dispensing of detergents and sanitizers.

A. A warewashing machine that is installed after the adoption of this regulation by the board shall be equipped to:

1. Automatically dispense detergents and sanitizers; and

2. Incorporate a visual means to verify that detergents and sanitizers are delivered or a visual or audible alarm to signal if the detergents and sanitizers are not delivered to the respective washing and sanitizing cycles.

B. Before January 1, 2012, existing warewashing equipment shall be upgraded or replaced to meet the requirements of subsection A of this section.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1380. Warewashing machines, flow pressure device.

A. Warewashing machines that provide a fresh hot water sanitizing rinse shall be equipped with a pressure gauge or similar device such as a transducer that measures and displays the water pressure in the supply line immediately before entering the warewashing machine.

B. If the flow pressure measuring device is upstream of the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse control valve, the device shall be mounted in a one-fourth inch or 6.4 millimeter Iron Pipe Size (IPS) valve.

C. Subsections A and B of this section do not apply to a machine that uses only a pumped or recirculated sanitizing rinse.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1390. Warewashing sinks and drainboards, self-draining.

Sinks and drainboards of warewashing sinks and machines shall be self-draining.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1400. Equipment compartments, drainage.

Equipment compartments that are subject to accumulation of moisture due to conditions such as condensation, food or beverage drip, or water from melting ice shall be sloped to an outlet that allows complete draining.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1410. Vending machines, liquid waste products.

A. Vending machines designed to store beverages that are packaged in containers made from paper products shall be equipped with diversion devices and retention pans or drains for container leakage.

B. Vending machines that dispense liquid food in bulk shall be:

1. Provided with an internally mounted waste receptacle for the collection of drip, spillage, overflow, or other internal wastes; and

2. Equipped with an automatic shutoff device that will place the machine out of operation before the waste receptacle overflows.

C. Shutoff devices specified under subdivision B 2 of this section shall prevent water or liquid food from continuously running if there is a failure of a flow control device in the water or liquid food system or waste accumulation that could lead to overflow of the waste receptacle.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1420. Case lot handling equipment, movability.

Equipment, such as dollies, pallets, racks, and skids used to store and transport large quantities of packaged foods received from a supplier in a cased or overwrapped lot, shall be designed to be moved by hand or by conveniently available equipment such as hand trucks and forklifts.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1430. Vending machine doors and openings.

A. Vending machine doors and access opening covers to food and container storage spaces shall be tight-fitting so that the space along the entire interface between the doors or covers and the cabinet of the machine, if the doors or covers are in a closed position, is no greater than one-sixteenth inch or 1.5 millimeters by:

1. Being covered with louvers, screens, or materials that provide an equivalent opening of not greater than one-sixteenth inch or 1.5 millimeters. Screening of 12 mesh to one inch (12 or more mesh to 2.5 centimeters) meets this requirement;

2. Being effectively gasketed;

3. Having interface surfaces that are at least one-half inch wide or 13 millimeters; or

4. Jambs or surfaces used to form an L-shaped entry path to the interface.

B. Vending machine service connection openings through an exterior wall of a machine shall be closed by sealants, clamps, or grommets so that the openings are no larger than 1.5 millimeters or one-sixteenth inch.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1440. Food equipment, certification and classification.

Food equipment that is certified or classified for sanitation by an American National Standards Institute (ANSI)-accredited certification program will be deemed to comply with Articles 1 (2VAC5-585-960 et seq.) and 2 (2VAC5-585-1080 et seq.) of this part.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

Numbers and Capacities

2VAC5-585-1450. Cooling, heating, and holding capacities.

Equipment for cooling and heating food, and holding cold and hot food, shall be sufficient in number and capacity and capable of providing food temperatures as specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1460. Manual warewashing, sink compartment requirements.

A. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, a sink with at least three compartments shall be provided for manually washing, rinsing, and sanitizing equipment and utensils.

B. Sink compartments shall be large enough to accommodate immersion of the largest equipment and utensils. If equipment or utensils are too large for the warewashing sink, a warewashing machine or alternative equipment as specified in subsection C of this section shall be used.

C. Alternative manual warewashing equipment may be used when there are special cleaning needs or constraints and its use is approved. Alternative manual warewashing equipment may include:

1. High-pressure detergent sprayers;

2. Low- or line-pressure spray detergent foamers;

3. Other task-specific cleaning equipment;

4. Brushes or other implements;

5. Two-compartment sinks as specified under subsections D and E of this section; or

6. Receptacles that substitute for the compartments of a multicompartment sink.

D. Before a two-compartment sink is used:

1. The operator shall have its use approved; and

2. The person in charge shall limit the number of kitchenware items cleaned and sanitized in the two-compartment sink, and shall limit warewashing to batch operations for cleaning kitchenware such as between cutting one type of raw meat and another or cleanup at the end of a shift, and shall:

a. Make up the cleaning and sanitizing solutions immediately before use and drain them immediately after use; and

b. Use a detergent-sanitizer to sanitize and apply the detergent-sanitizer in accordance with the manufacturer’s label instructions and as specified under 2VAC5-585-1710; or

c. Use a hot water sanitization immersion step as specified under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-1860.

E. A two-compartment sink may not be used for warewashing operations where cleaning and sanitizing solutions are used for a continuous or intermittent flow of kitchenware or tableware in an ongoing warewashing process.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1470. Drainboards.

Drainboards, utensil racks, or tables large enough to accommodate all soiled and cleaned items that may accumulate during hours of operation shall be provided for necessary utensil holding before cleaning and after sanitizing.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1480. Ventilation hood systems, adequacy.

Ventilation hood systems and devices shall be sufficient in number and capacity to prevent grease or condensation from collecting on walls and ceilings.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1490. Clothes washers and dryers.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, if work clothes or linens are laundered on the premises, a mechanical clothes washer and dryer shall be provided and used.

B. If on-premises laundering is limited to wiping cloths intended to be used moist, or wiping cloths are air-dried as specified under 2VAC5-585-1970, a mechanical clothes washer and dryer need not be provided.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1500. Utensils, consumer self-service.

A food dispensing utensil shall be available for each container displayed at a consumer self-service unit such as a buffet or salad bar.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1510. Food temperature measuring devices.

A. Food temperature measuring devices shall be provided and readily accessible for use in ensuring attainment and maintenance of food temperatures as specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter.

B. A temperature measuring device with a suitable small-diameter probe that is designed to measure the temperature of thin masses shall be provided and readily accessible to accurately measure the temperature in thin foods such as meat patties and fish fillets.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1520. Temperature measuring devices, manual warewashing.

In manual warewashing operations, a temperature measuring device shall be provided and readily accessible for frequently measuring the washing and sanitizing temperatures.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1530. Sanitizing solutions, testing devices.

A test kit or other device that accurately measures the concentration in mg/L (ppm) of sanitizing solutions shall be provided and readily accessible for use.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 4

Location and Installation

2VAC5-585-1540. Equipment, clothes washers and dryers, and storage cabinets, contamination prevention.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, equipment, cabinets used for the storage of food, or cabinets used to store cleaned and sanitized equipment, utensils, laundered linens, and single-service and single-use articles may not be located:

1. In locker rooms;

2. In toilet rooms or vestibules;

3. In garbage rooms;

4. In mechanical rooms;

5. Under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips;

6. Under leaking water lines including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads or under lines on which water has condensed;

7. Under open stairwells; or

8. Under other sources of contamination.

B. A storage cabinet used for linens or single-service or single-use articles may be stored in a locker room.

C. If a mechanical clothes washer or dryer is provided, it shall be located only where there is no exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; unwrapped single-service and single-use articles; and so that the washer or dryer is protected from contamination.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1550. Fixed equipment, spacing or sealing.

A. Equipment that is fixed because it is not easily movable shall be installed so that it is:

1. Spaced to allow access for cleaning along the sides, behind, and above the equipment;

2. Spaced from adjoining equipment, walls, and ceilings a distance of not more than 1/32 inch or one millimeter; or

3. Sealed to adjoining equipment or walls, if the equipment is exposed to spillage or seepage.

B. Table-mounted equipment that is not easily movable shall be installed to allow cleaning of the equipment and areas underneath and around the equipment by being:

1. Sealed to the table; or

2. Elevated on legs as specified under 2VAC5-585-1560 D.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1560. Fixed equipment, elevation or sealing.

A. Except as specified in subsection B and C of this section, floor-mounted equipment that is not easily movable shall be sealed to the floor or elevated on legs that provide at least a six-inch (15-centimeter) clearance between the floor and the equipment.

B. If no part of the floor under the floor-mounted equipment is more than six inches (15 centimeters) from the point of cleaning access, the clearance space may be only four inches (10 centimeters).

C. This section does not apply to display shelving units, display refrigeration units, and display freezer units located in the consumer shopping areas of a retail food store, if the floor under the units is maintained clean.

D. Except as specified in subsection E of this section, table-mounted equipment that is not easily movable shall be elevated on legs that provide at least a four-inch (10-centimeter) clearance between the table and the equipment.

E. The clearance space between the table and table-mounted equipment may be:

1. Three inches (7.5 centimeters) if the horizontal distance of the table top under the equipment is no more than 20 inches (50 centimeters) from the point of access for cleaning; or

2. Two inches (5 centimeters) if the horizontal distance of the table top under the equipment is no more than three inches (7.5 centimeters) from the point of access for cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 5

Maintenance and Operation

2VAC5-585-1570. Good repair and proper adjustment.

A. Equipment shall be maintained in a state of repair and condition that meets the requirements specified under Articles 1 (2VAC5-585-960 et seq.) and 2 (2VAC5-585-1080 et seq.) of this part. Unused or nonfunctioning equipment shall be removed from the premises.

B. Equipment components such as doors, seals, hinges, fasteners, and kick plates shall be kept intact, tight, and adjusted in accordance with manufacturer''s specifications.

C. Cutting or piercing parts of can openers shall be kept sharp to minimize the creation of metal fragments that can contaminate food when the container is opened.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1580. Cutting surfaces.

Surfaces such as cutting blocks and boards that are subject to scratching and scoring shall be resurfaced if they can no longer be effectively cleaned and sanitized, or discarded if they are not capable of being resurfaced.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1590. Microwave ovens.

Microwave ovens shall meet the safety standards specified in 21 CFR 1030.10.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1600. Warewashing equipment, cleaning frequency.

A warewashing machine; the compartments of sinks, basins, or other receptacles used for washing and rinsing equipment, utensils, or raw foods, or laundering wiping cloths; and drainboards or other equipment used to substitute for drainboards as specified under 2VAC5-585-1470 shall be cleaned:

1. Before use;

2. Throughout the day at a frequency necessary to prevent recontamination of equipment and utensils and to ensure that the equipment performs its intended function; and

3. If used, at least every 24 hours.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1610. Warewashing machines, manufacturers'' operating instructions.

A. A warewashing machine and its auxiliary components shall be operated in accordance with the machine''s data plate and other manufacturer''s instructions.

B. A warewashing machine''s conveyor speed or automatic cycle times shall be maintained accurately timed in accordance with manufacturer''s specifications.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1620. Warewashing sinks, use limitation.

A. A warewashing sink may not be used for handwashing as specified under 2VAC5-585-170.

B. If a warewashing sink is used to wash wiping cloths, wash produce, or thaw food, the sink shall be cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1600 before and after each time it is used to wash wiping cloths or wash produce or thaw food. Sinks used to wash or thaw food shall be sanitized as specified under Article 7 (2VAC5-585-1880 et seq.) of this part before and after using the sink to wash produce or thaw food.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1630. Warewashing equipment, cleaning agents.

When used for warewashing, the wash compartment of a sink, mechanical warewasher, or wash receptacle of alternative manual warewashing equipment as specified in 2VAC5-585-1460 C, shall contain a wash solution of soap, detergent, acid cleaner, alkaline cleaner, degreaser, abrasive cleaner, or other cleaning agent according to the cleaning agent manufacturer''s label instructions.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1640. Warewashing equipment, clean solutions.

The wash, rinse, and sanitize solutions shall be maintained clean.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1650. Manual warewashing equipment, wash solution temperature.

The temperature of the wash solution in manual warewashing equipment shall be maintained at not less than 110°F (43°C) or the temperature specified on the cleaning agent manufacturer''s label instructions.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1660. Mechanical warewashing equipment, wash solution temperature.

A. The temperature of the wash solution in spray type warewashers that use hot water to sanitize may not be less than:

1. For a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 165°F (74°C);

2. For a stationary rack, dual temperature machine, 150°F (66°C);

3. For a single tank, conveyor, dual temperature machine, 160°F (71°C); or

4. For a multitank, conveyor, multitemperature machine, 150°F (66°C).

B. The temperature of the wash solution in spray-type warewashers that use chemicals to sanitize may not be less than 120°F (49°C).

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1670. Manual warewashing equipment, hot water sanitization temperatures.*

If immersion in hot water is used for sanitizing in a manual operation, the temperature of the water shall be maintained at 171°F (77°C) or above.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1680. Mechanical warewashing equipment, hot water sanitization temperatures.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, in a mechanical operation, the temperature of the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse as it enters the manifold may not be more than 194°F (90°C), or less than:

1. For a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 165°F (74°C); or

2. For all other machines, 180°F (82°C).

B. The maximum temperature specified under subsection A of this section does not apply to the high pressure and temperature systems with wand-type, hand-held, spraying devices used for the in-place cleaning and sanitizing of equipment such as meat saws.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1690. Mechanical warewashing equipment, sanitization pressure.

The flow pressure of the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse in a warewashing machine may not be less than 15 pounds per square inch (100 kilopascals) or more than 25 pounds per square inch (170 kilopascals) as measured in the water line immediately downstream or upstream from the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse control valve.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1700. Manual and mechanical warewashing equipment, chemical sanitization - temperature, pH, concentration, and hardness.*

A chemical sanitizer used in a sanitizing solution for a manual or mechanical operation at exposure times specified under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-1900 shall be listed in21 CFR 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions 40 CFR 180.940, Tolerance Exemptions for Active and Inert Ingredients for Use in Antimicrobial Formulations (Food-Contact Surface Sanitizing Solutions) ], shall be used in accordance with the EPA-approved manufacturer''s label use instructions, and shall be used as follows:

1. A chlorine solution shall have a minimum temperature based on the concentration and pH of the solution as listed in the following chart;

Minimum Concentration

Minimum Temperature

mg/L (ppm)

pH 10 or less

°F (°C)

pH 8 or less

°F (°C)

25

120 (49)

120 (49)

50

100 (38)

75 (24)

100

55 (13)

55 (13)

2. An iodine solution shall have a:

a. Minimum temperature of 75°F (24°C);

b. pH of 5.0 or less or a pH no higher than the level for which the manufacturer specifies the solution is effective; and

c. Concentration between 12.5 mg/L(ppm) and 25 mg/L (ppm);

3. A quaternary ammonium compound solution shall:

a. Have a minimum temperature of 75°F (24°C);

b. Have a concentration as specified under 2VAC5-585-3380 and as indicated by the manufacturer''s use directions included in the labeling; and

c. Be used only in water with 500 mg/L hardness or less or in water having a hardness no greater than specified by the manufacturer''s label;

4. If another solution of a chemical specified under subdivisions 1 through 3 of this section is used, the person in charge shall demonstrate to the department that the solution achieves sanitization and the use of the solution shall be approved; or

5. If a chemical sanitizer other than chlorine, iodine, or a quaternary ammonium compound is used, it shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer''s use directions included in the labeling.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1710. Manual warewashing equipment, chemical sanitization using detergent-sanitizers.

If a detergent-sanitizer is used to sanitize in a cleaning and sanitizing procedure where there is no distinct water rinse between the washing and sanitizing steps, the agent applied in the sanitizing step shall be the same detergent-sanitizer that is used in the washing step.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1720. Warewashing equipment, determining chemical sanitizer concentration.

Concentration of the sanitizing solution shall be accurately determined by using a test kit or other device.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1730. Good repair and calibration.

A. Utensils shall be maintained in a state of repair or condition that complies with the requirements specified under Articles 1 (2VAC5-585-960 et seq.) and 2 (2VAC5-585-1080 et seq.) of this part or shall be discarded.

B. Food temperature measuring devices shall be calibrated in accordance with manufacturer''s specifications as necessary to ensure their accuracy.

C. Ambient air temperature, water pressure, and water temperature measuring devices shall be maintained in good repair and be accurate within the intended range of use.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1740. Single-service and single-use articles, required use.*

A food establishment without facilities specified under Articles 6 (2VAC5-585-1770 et seq.) and 7 (2VAC5-585-1880 et seq.) of this part for cleaning and sanitizing kitchenware and tableware shall provide only single-use kitchenware, single-service articles, and single-use articles for use by food employees and single-service articles for use by consumers.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1750. Single-service and single-use articles, use limitation.

A. Single-service and single-use articles may not be reused.

B. The bulk milk container dispensing tube shall be cut on the diagonal leaving no more than one inch protruding from the chilled dispensing head.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1760. Shells, use limitation.

Mollusk and crustacea shells may not be used more than once as serving containers.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 6

Cleaning of Equipment and Utensils

2VAC5-585-1770. Equipment, food-contact surfaces, nonfood-contact surfaces, and utensils.*

A. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be clean to sight and touch.

B. The food-contact surfaces of cooking equipment and pans shall be kept free of encrusted grease deposits and other soil accumulations.N

C. Nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment shall be kept free of an accumulation of dust, dirt, food residue, and other debris.N

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1780. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils.*

A. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be cleaned:

1. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, before each use with a different type of raw animal food such as beef, fish, lamb, pork, or poultry;

2. Each time there is a change from working with raw foods to working with ready-to-eat foods;

3. Between uses with raw fruits and vegetables and with potentially hazardous food;

4. Before using or storing a food temperature measuring device; and

5. At any time during the operation when contamination may have occurred.

B. Subdivision A 1 of this section does not apply if the food contact surface or utensil is in contact with a succession of different raw animal foods each requiring a higher cooking temperature as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 than the previous food, such as preparing raw fish followed by cutting raw poultry on the same cutting board.

C. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, if used with potentially hazardous food, equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be cleaned throughout the day at least every four hours.

D. Surfaces of utensils and equipment contacting potentially hazardous food may be cleaned less frequently than every four hours if:

1. In storage, containers of potentially hazardous food and their contents are maintained at temperatures specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter and the containers are cleaned when they are empty;

2. Utensils and equipment are used to prepare food in a refrigerated room or area that is maintained at one of the temperatures in the following chart and:

a. The utensils and equipment are cleaned at the frequency in the following chart that corresponds to the temperature; and

Temperature

Cleaning Frequency

41°F (5.0°C) or less

24 hours

>41°F - 45°F

(>5.0°C - 7.2°C)

20 hours

>45°F - 50°F

(>7.2°C - 10.0°C)

16 hours

>50°F - 55°F

(>10.0°C - 12.8°C)

10 hours

b. The cleaning frequency based on the ambient temperature of the refrigerated room or area is documented in the food establishment.

3. Containers in serving situations such as salad bars, delis, and cafeteria lines hold ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food that is maintained at the temperatures specified under Part III, are intermittently combined with additional supplies of the same food that is at the required temperature, and the containers are cleaned at least every 24 hours;

4. Temperature measuring devices are maintained in contact with food, such as when left in a container of deli food or in a roast, held at temperatures specified under Part III;

5. Equipment is used for storage of packaged or unpackaged food such as a reach-in refrigerator and the equipment is cleaned at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil residues; or

6. The cleaning schedule is approved based on consideration of:

a. Characteristics of the equipment and its use;

b. The type of food involved;

c. The amount of food residue accumulation; and

d. The temperature at which the food is maintained during the operation and the potential for the rapid and progressive multiplication of pathogenic or toxigenic microorganisms that are capable of causing foodborne disease; or

7. In-use utensils are intermittently stored in a container of water in which the water is maintained at 135°F (57°C) or more and the utensils and container are cleaned at least every 24 hours or at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil residues.

E. Except when dry cleaning methods are used as specified under 2VAC5-585-1810, surfaces of utensils and equipment contacting food that is not potentially hazardous shall be cleaned:N

1. At any time when contamination may have occurred;

2. At least every 24 hours for iced tea dispensers and consumer self-service utensils such as tongs, scoops, or ladles;

3. Before restocking consumer self-service equipment and utensils such as condiment dispensers and display containers;

4. Equipment such as ice bins and beverage dispensing nozzles and enclosed components of equipment such as ice makers, beverage dispensing lines or tubes, coffee bean grinders, and water vending equipment:

a. At a frequency specified by the manufacturer; or

b. Absent manufacturer specifications, at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil or mold.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1790. Cooking and baking equipment.

A. The food-contact surfaces of in-use cooking and baking equipment shall be cleaned at least every 24 hours. This section does not apply to hot oil cooking and filtering equipment if it is cleaned as specified in 2VAC5-585-1780 D 6.

B. The cavities and door seals of microwave ovens shall be cleaned at least every 24 hours by using the manufacturer''s recommended cleaning procedure.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1800. Nonfood-contact surfaces.

Nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment shall be cleaned at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil residues.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1810. Dry cleaning.

A. If used, dry cleaning methods such as brushing, scraping, and vacuuming shall contact only surfaces that are soiled with dry food residues that are not potentially hazardous.

B. Cleaning equipment used in dry cleaning food-contact surfaces may not be used for any other purpose.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1820. Precleaning.

A. Food debris on equipment and utensils shall be scraped over a waste disposal unit or garbage receptacle or shall be removed in a warewashing machine with a prewash cycle.

B. If necessary for effective cleaning, utensils and equipment shall be preflushed, presoaked, or scrubbed with abrasives.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1830. Loading of soiled items, warewashing machines.

Soiled items to be cleaned in a warewashing machine shall be loaded into racks, trays, or baskets or onto conveyors in a position that:

1. Exposes the items to the unobstructed spray from all cycles; and

2. Allows the items to drain.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1840. Wet cleaning.

A. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be effectively washed to remove or completely loosen soils by using the manual or mechanical means necessary such as the application of detergents containing wetting agents and emulsifiers; acid, alkaline, or abrasive cleaners; hot water; brushes; scouring pads; high-pressure sprays; or ultrasonic devices.

B. The washing procedures selected shall be based on the type and purpose of the equipment or utensil, and on the type of soil to be removed.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1850. Washing, procedures for alternative manual warewashing equipment.

If washing in sink compartments or a warewashing machine is impractical such as when the equipment is fixed or the utensils are too large, washing shall be done by using alternative manual warewashing equipment as specified in 2VAC5-585-1460 C in accordance with the following procedures:

1. Equipment shall be disassembled as necessary to allow access of the detergent solution to all parts;

2. Equipment components and utensils shall be scraped or rough cleaned to remove food particle accumulation; and

3. Equipment and utensils shall be washed as specified under 2VAC5-585-1840 A.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1860. Rinsing procedures.

Washed utensils and equipment shall be rinsed so that abrasives are removed and cleaning chemicals are removed or diluted through the use of water or a detergent-sanitizer solution by using one of the following procedures:

1. Use of a distinct, separate water rinse after washing and before sanitizing if using:

a. A three-compartment sink;

b. Alternative manual warewashing equipment equivalent to a three-compartment sink as specified in 2VAC5-585-1460 C; or

c. A three-step washing, rinsing, and sanitizing procedure in a warewashing system for CIP equipment;

2. Use of a detergent-sanitizer as specified under 2VAC5-585-1710 if using:

a. Alternative warewashing equipment as specified in 2VAC5-585-1460 C that is approved for use with a detergent-sanitizer; or

b. A warewashing system for CIP equipment;

3. Use of a nondistinct water rinse that is integrated in the hot water sanitization immersion step of a two-compartment sink operation;

4. If using a warewashing machine that does not recycle the sanitizing solution as specified under subdivision 5 of this section, or alternative manual warewashing equipment such as sprayers, use of a nondistinct water rinse that is:

a. Integrated in the application of the sanitizing solution; and

b. Wasted immediately after each application; or

5. If using a warewashing machine that recycles the sanitizing solution for use in the next wash cycle, use of a nondistinct water rinse that is integrated in the application of the sanitizing solution.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1870. Returnables, cleaning for refilling.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, returned empty containers intended for cleaning and refilling with food shall be cleaned and refilled in a regulated food processing plant.

B. A food-specific container for beverages may be refilled at a food establishment if:

1. Only a beverage that is not a potentially hazardous food is used as specified under 2VAC5-585-600 A;

2. The design of the container and of the rinsing equipment and the nature of the beverage, when considered together, allow effective cleaning at home or in the food establishment;

3. Facilities for rinsing before refilling returned containers with fresh, hot water that is under pressure and not recirculated are provided as part of the dispensing system;

4. The consumer-owned container returned to the food establishment for refilling is refilled for sale or service only to the same consumer; and

5. The container is refilled by:

a. An employee of the food establishment; or

b. The owner of the container if the beverage system includes a contamination-free transfer process that cannot be bypassed by the container owner.

C. Consumer-owned containers that are not food-specific may be filled at a water vending machine or system.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 7

Sanitization of Equipment and Utensils

2VAC5-585-1880. Food-contact surfaces and utensils.

Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be sanitized.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1890. Before use after cleaning.*

Utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment shall be sanitized before use after cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1900. Hot water and chemical.*

After being cleaned, equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be sanitized in:

1. Hot water manual operations by immersion for at least 30 seconds as specified under 2VAC5-585-1670;

2. Hot water mechanical operations by being cycled through equipment that is set up as specified under 2VAC5-585-1610, 2VAC5-585-1680, and 2VAC5-585-1690 and achieving a utensil surface temperature of 160°F (71°C) as measured by an irreversible registering temperature indicator; or

3. Chemical manual or mechanical operations, including the application of sanitizing chemicals by immersion, manual swabbing, brushing, or pressure spraying methods, using a solution as specified under 2VAC5-585-1700 by providing:

a. Except as specified under subdivision 3 b of this section, an exposure time of at least 10 seconds for a chlorine solution specified under subdivision 1 of 2VAC5-585-1700;

b. An exposure time of at least 7 seconds for a chlorine solution of 50 mg/L that has a pH of 10 or less and a temperature of at least 100°F (38°C) or a pH of 8 or less and a temperature of at least 75°F (24°C);

c. An exposure time of at least 30 seconds for other chemical sanitizing solutions; or

d. An exposure time used in relationship with a combination of temperature, concentration, and pH that, when evaluated for efficacy, yields sanitization as defined in 2VAC5-585-40.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 8

Laundering

2VAC5-585-1910. Clean linens.

Clean linens shall be free from food residues and other soiling matter.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1920. Specifications.

A. Linens that do not come in direct contact with food shall be laundered between operations if they become wet, sticky, or visibly soiled.

B. Cloth gloves used as specified in 2VAC5-585-580 D shall be laundered before being used with a different type of raw animal food such as beef, lamb, pork, and fish.

C. Linens and napkins that are used as specified under 2VAC5-585-560 and cloth napkins shall be laundered between each use.

D. Wet wiping cloths shall be laundered daily.

E. Dry wiping cloths shall be laundered as necessary to prevent contamination of food and clean serving utensils.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1930. Storage of soiled linens.

Soiled linens shall be kept in clean, nonabsorbent receptacles or clean, washable laundry bags and stored and transported to prevent contamination of food, clean equipment, clean utensils, and single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1940. Mechanical washing.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, linens shall be mechanically washed.

B. In food establishments in which only wiping cloths are laundered as specified in 2VAC5-585-1490 B, the wiping cloths may be laundered in a mechanical washer, sink designated only for laundering wiping cloths, or a warewashing or food preparation sink that is cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1600.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1950. Use of laundry facilities.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, laundry facilities on the premises of a food establishment shall be used only for the washing and drying of items used in the operation of the establishment.

B. Separate laundry facilities located on the premises for the purpose of general laundering such as for institutions providing boarding and lodging may also be used for laundering food establishment items.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 9

Protection of Clean Items

2VAC5-585-1960. Equipment and utensils, air-drying required.

After cleaning and sanitizing, equipment and utensils:

1. Shall be air dried or used after adequate draining as specified in21 CFR 178.1010(a) 40 CFR 180.9401 ] before contact with food; and

2. May not be cloth dried except that utensils that have been air-dried may be polished with cloths that are maintained clean and dry.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1970. Wiping cloths, air-drying locations.

Wiping cloths laundered in a food establishment that does not have a mechanical clothes dryer as specified in 2VAC5-585-1490 B shall be air-dried in a location and in a manner that prevents contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles and the wiping cloths. This section does not apply if wiping cloths are stored after laundering in a sanitizing solution as specified under 2VAC5-585-1700.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1980. Food-contact surfaces.

Lubricants shall be applied to food-contact surfaces that require lubrication in a manner that does not contaminate food-contact surfaces.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-1990. Equipment.

Equipment shall be reassembled so that food-contact surfaces are not contaminated.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2000. Equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

A. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, cleaned equipment and utensils, laundered linens, and single-service and single-use articles shall be stored:

1. In a clean, dry location;

2. Where they are not exposed to splash, dust, or other contamination; and

3. At least six inches (15 cm) above the floor.

B. Clean equipment and utensils shall be stored as specified under subsection A of this section and shall be stored:

1. In a self-draining position that allows air drying; and

2. Covered or inverted.

C. Single-service and single-use articles shall be stored as specified under subsection A of this section and shall be kept in the original protective package or stored by using other means that afford protection from contamination until used.

D. Items that are kept in closed packages may be stored less than six inches (15 cm) above the floor on dollies, pallets, racks, and skids that are designed as provided under 2VAC5-585-1420.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2010. Prohibitions.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, cleaned and sanitized equipment, utensils, laundered linens, and single-service and single-use articles may not be stored:

1. In locker rooms;

2. In toilet rooms or vestibules;

3. In garbage rooms;

4. In mechanical rooms;

5. Under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips;

6. Under leaking water lines including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads or under lines on which water has condensed;

7. Under open stairwells; or

8. Under other sources of contamination.

B. Laundered linens and single-service and single-use articles that are packaged or in a facility such as a cabinet may be stored in a locker room.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2020. Kitchenware and tableware.

A. Single-service and single-use articles and cleaned and sanitized utensils shall be handled, displayed, and dispensed so that contamination of food- and lip-contact surfaces is prevented.

B. Knives, forks, and spoons that are not prewrapped shall be presented so that only the handles are touched by employees and by consumers if consumer self-service is provided.

C. Except as specified under subsection B of this section, single-service articles that are intended for food- or lip-contact shall be furnished for consumer self-service with the original individual wrapper intact or from an approved dispenser.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2030. Soiled and clean tableware.

Soiled tableware shall be removed from consumer eating and drinking areas and handled so that clean tableware is not contaminated.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2040. Preset tableware.

If tableware is preset:

1. It shall be protected from contamination by being wrapped, covered, or inverted;

2. Exposed, unused settings shall be removed when a consumer is seated; or

3. Exposed, unused settings shall be cleaned and sanitized before further use if the settings are not removed when a consumer is seated.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part V

Water, Plumbing, and Waste

Article 1

Water

2VAC5-585-2050. Approved system.*

Drinking water shall be obtained from an approved source that is:

1. A public water system; or

2. A nonpublic water system that is constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2060. System flushing and disinfection.*

A drinking water system shall be flushed and disinfected before being placed in service after construction, repair, or modification and after an emergency situation, such as a flood, that may introduce contaminants to the system.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2070. Bottled drinking water.*

Bottled drinking water used or sold in a food establishment shall be obtained from approved sources in accordance with 21 CFR Part 129, Processing and Bottling of Bottled Drinking Water.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2080. Quality standards.*

Except as specified under 2VAC5-585-2090:

1. Water from a public water system shall meet the applicable standards found in the Virginia Waterworks Regulations (12VAC5-590).

2. Water from a nonpublic water system shall meet state drinking water quality standards.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2090. Nondrinking water.*

A. A nondrinking water supply shall be used only if its use is approved.

B. Nondrinking water shall be used only for nonculinary purposes such as air conditioning, nonfood equipment cooling, fire protection, and irrigation.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2100. Sampling.

Except when used as specified under 2VAC5-585-2090, water from a nonpublic water system shall be sampled and tested at least annually and as required by state water quality regulations.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2110. Sample report.

The most recent sample report for the nonpublic water system shall be retained on file in the food establishment or the report shall be maintained as specified by state water quality regulations.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2120. Capacity.*

A. The water source and system shall be of sufficient capacity to meet the water demands of the food establishment.

B. Hot water generation and distribution systems shall be sufficient to meet the peak hot water demands throughout the food establishment.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2130. Pressure.

Water under pressure shall be provided to all fixtures, equipment, and nonfood equipment that are required to use water except that water supplied as specified under subdivisions 1 and 2 of 2VAC5-585-2160 to a temporary food establishment or in response to a temporary interruption of a water supply need not be under pressure.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2140. (Reserved)

2VAC5-585-2150. Distribution, delivery, and retention system.

Water shall be received from the source through the use of:

1. An approved public water main; or

2. One or more of the following that shall be constructed, maintained, and operated according to law:

a. Nonpublic water main, water pumps, pipes, hoses, connections, and other appurtenances;

b. Water transport vehicles; and

c. Water containers.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2160. Alternative water supply.

Water meeting the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-2050 through 2VAC5-585-2130 shall be made available for a mobile facility, for a temporary food establishment without a permanent water supply, and for a food establishment with a temporary interruption of its water supply through:

1. A supply of containers of commercially bottled drinking water;

2. One or more closed portable water containers;

3. An enclosed vehicular water tank;

4. An on-premises water storage tank; or

5. Piping, tubing, or hoses connected to an adjacent approved source.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Plumbing System

2VAC5-585-2170. Approved materials.*

A. A plumbing system and hoses conveying water shall be constructed and repaired with approved materials according to law.

B. A water filter shall be made of safe materials.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2180. Approved system and cleanable fixtures.*

A. A plumbing system shall be designed, constructed, and installed according to law.

B. A plumbing fixture such as a handwashing lavatory, toilet, or urinal shall be easily cleanable.N

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2190. Handwashing facility, installation.

A. A handwashing lavatory shall be equipped to provide water at a temperature of at least 100°F (38°C) through a mixing valve or combination faucet.

B. A steam mixing valve may not be used at a handwashing lavatory.

C. A self-closing, slow-closing, or metering faucet shall provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2200. Backflow prevention, air gap.*

An air gap between the water supply inlet and the flood level rim of the plumbing fixture, equipment, or nonfood equipment shall be at least twice the diameter of the water supply inlet and may not be less than one inch (25 mm).

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2210. Backflow prevention device, design standard.

A backflow or backsiphonage prevention device installed on a water supply system shall comply with the Virginia Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63) for construction, installation, maintenance, inspection, and testing for that specific application and type of device.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2220. Conditioning device, design.

A water filter, screen, and other water conditioning device installed on water lines shall be designed to facilitate disassembly for periodic servicing and cleaning. A water filter element shall be of the replaceable type.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2230. Handwashing facilities.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, at least one handwashing lavatory, or the number of handwashing lavatories necessary for their convenient use by employees in areas specified under 2VAC5-585-2280, and not fewer than the number of handwashing lavatories required by law shall be provided.

B. If approved and capable of removing the types of soils encountered in the food operations involved, automatic handwashing facilities may be substituted for handwashing lavatories in a food establishment that has at least one handwashing lavatory.

C. If approved, when food exposure is limited and handwashing lavatories are not conveniently available, such as in some mobile or temporary food establishments or at some vending machine locations, employees may use chemically-treated towelettes for handwashing.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2240. Toilets and urinals.*

At least one toilet and not fewer than the toilets required by law shall be provided. If authorized by law and urinals are substituted for toilets, the substitution shall be done as specified in law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2250. Service sink.

At least one service sink or one curbed cleaning facility equipped with a floor drain shall be provided and conveniently located for the cleaning of mops or similar wet floor cleaning tools and for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2260. Backflow prevention device, when required.*

A plumbing system shall be installed to preclude backflow of a solid, liquid, or gas contaminant into the water supply system at each point of use at the food establishment, including on a hose bibb (threaded faucet) if a hose is attached or on a hose bibb if a hose is not attached and backflow prevention is required by law by:

1. Providing an air gap as specified under 2VAC5-585-2200; or

2. Installing an approved backflow prevention device as specified under 2VAC5-585-2210.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2270. Backflow prevention device, carbonator.*

A. If not provided with an air gap as specified under 2VAC5-585-2200, a double check valve with an intermediate vent preceded by a screen of not less than 100 mesh to one inch (100 mesh to 25.4mm) shall be installed upstream from a carbonating device and downstream from any copper in the water supply line.

B. A single or double check valve attached to the carbonator need not be of the vented type if an air gap or vented backflow prevention device has been otherwise provided as specified under subsection A of this section.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2280. Handwashing facilities.*

A handwashing facility shall be located:

1. To be readily accessible for use by employees in food preparation, food dispensing, and warewashing areas; and

2. In, or immediately adjacent to, toilet rooms.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2290. Backflow prevention device, location.

A backflow prevention device shall be located so that it may be serviced and maintained.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2300. Conditioning device, location.

A water filter, screen, and other water conditioning device installed on water lines shall be located to facilitate disassembly for periodic servicing and cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2310. Using a handwashing facility.

A. A handwashing facility shall be maintained so that it is accessible at all times for employee use.

B. A handwashing facility may not be used for purposes other than handwashing.

C. An automatic handwashing facility shall be used in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2320. Prohibiting a cross connection.*

A. Except as specified in 9 CFR 308.3(d) for firefighting, a person may not create a cross connection by connecting a pipe or conduit between the drinking water system and a nondrinking water system or a water system of unknown quality.

B. The piping of a nondrinking water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that carries drinking water.N

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2330. Scheduling inspection and service for a water system device.

A device such as a water treatment device or backflow preventer shall be scheduled for inspection and service, in accordance with manufacturer''s instructions and as necessary to prevent device failure based on local water conditions, and records demonstrating inspection and service shall be maintained by the person in charge.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2340. Water reservoir of fogging devices, cleaning.*

A. A reservoir that is used to supply water to a device such as a produce fogger shall be:

1. Maintained in accordance with manufacturer''s specifications; and

2. Cleaned in accordance with manufacturer''s specifications or according to the procedures specified under subsection B of this section, whichever is more stringent.

B. Cleaning procedures shall include at least the following steps and shall be conducted at least once a week:

1. Draining and complete disassembly of the water and aerosol contact parts;

2. Brush-cleaning the reservoir, aerosol tubing, and discharge nozzles with a suitable detergent solution;

3. Flushing the complete system with water to remove the detergent solution and particulate accumulation; and

4. Rinsing by immersing, spraying, or swabbing the reservoir, aerosol tubing, and discharge nozzles with at least 50 mg/L (ppm) hypochlorite solution.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2350. System maintained in good repair.*

A plumbing system shall be:

1. Repaired according to law; and

2. Maintained in good repair.S

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

Mobile Water Tank and Mobile Food Establishment Water Tank

2VAC5-585-2360. Approved materials.

Materials that are used in the construction of a mobile water tank, mobile food establishment water tank, and appurtenances shall be:

1. Safe;

2. Durable, corrosion resistant, and nonabsorbent; and

3. Finished to have a smooth, easily cleanable surface.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2370. Enclosed system, sloped to drain.

A mobile water tank shall be:

1. Enclosed from the filling inlet to the discharge outlet; and

2. Sloped to an outlet that allows complete drainage of the tank.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2380. Inspection and cleaning port, protected and secured.

If a water tank is designed with an access port for inspection and cleaning, the opening shall be in the top of the tank and:

1. Flanged upward at least one-half inch (13 mm); and

2. Equipped with a port cover assembly that is:

a. Provided with a gasket and a device for securing the cover in place; and

b. Flanged to overlap the opening and sloped to drain.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2390. "V" type threads, use limitation.

A fitting with "V" type threads on a water tank inlet or outlet shall be allowed only when a hose is permanently attached.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2400. Tank vent, protected.

If provided, a water tank vent shall terminate in a downward direction and shall be covered with:

1. 16 mesh to one-inch (16 mesh to 25.4-mm) screen or equivalent when the vent is in a protected area; or

2. A protective filter when the vent is in an area that is not protected from windblown dirt and debris.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2410. Inlet and outlet, sloped to drain.

A. A water tank and its inlet and outlet shall be sloped to drain.

B. A water tank inlet shall be positioned so that it is protected from contaminants such as waste discharge, road dust, oil, or grease.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2420. Hose, construction and identification.

A hose used for conveying drinking water from a water tank shall be:

1. Safe;

2. Durable, corrosion resistant, and nonabsorbent;

3. Resistant to pitting, chipping, crazing, scratching, scoring, distortion, and decomposition;

4. Finished with a smooth interior surface; and

5. Clearly and durably identified as to its use if not permanently attached.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2430. Filter, compressed air.

A filter that does not pass oil or oil vapors shall be installed in the air supply line between the compressor and drinking water system when compressed air is used to pressurize the water tank system.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2440. Protective cover or device.

A cap and keeper chain, closed cabinet, closed storage tube, or other approved protective cover or device shall be provided for a water inlet, outlet, and hose.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2450. Mobile food establishment tank inlet.

A mobile food establishment''s water tank inlet shall be:

1. Three-fourths inch (19.1 mm) in inner diameter or less; and

2. Provided with a hose connection of a size or type that will prevent its use for any other service.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2460. System flushing and disinfection.*

A water tank, pump, and hoses shall be flushed and sanitized before being placed in service after construction, repair, modification, and periods of nonuse.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2470. Using a pump and hoses, backflow prevention.

A person shall operate a water tank, pump, and hoses so that backflow and other contamination of the water supply are prevented.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2480. Protecting inlet, outlet, and hose fitting.

If not in use, a water tank and hose inlet and outlet fitting shall be protected using a cover or device as specified under 2VAC5-585-2440.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2490. Tank, pump, and hoses, dedication.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, a water tank, pump, and hoses used for conveying drinking water shall be used for no other purpose.

B. Water tanks, pumps, and hoses approved for liquid foods may be used for conveying drinking water if they are cleaned and sanitized before they are used to convey water.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 4

Sewage, Other Liquid Waste, and Rainwater

2VAC5-585-2500. Mobile holding tank capacity and drainage.

A sewage holding tank in a mobile food establishment shall be:

1. Sized 15% larger in capacity than the water supply tank; and

2. Sloped to a drain that is one inch (25 mm) in inner diameter or greater, equipped with a shut-off valve.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2510. Establishment drainage system.

Food establishment drainage systems, including grease traps, that convey sewage shall be designed and installed as specified under 2VAC5-585-2180 A.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2520. Backflow prevention.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, a direct connection may not exist between the sewage system and a drain originating from equipment in which food, portable equipment, or utensils are placed.

B. If allowed by law, a warewashing machine may have a direct connection between its waste outlet and a floor drain when the machine is located within five feet (1.5 m) of a trapped floor drain and the machine outlet is connected to the inlet side of a properly vented floor drain trap.

C. If allowed by law, a warewashing or culinary sink may have a direct connection.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2530. Grease trap.

If used, a grease trap shall be located to be easily accessible for cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2540. Conveying sewage.*

Sewage shall be conveyed to the point of disposal through an approved sanitary sewage system or other system, including use of sewage transport vehicles, waste retention tanks, pumps, pipes, hoses, and connections that are constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2550. Removing mobile food establishment wastes.

Sewage and other liquid wastes shall be removed from a mobile food establishment at an approved waste servicing area or by a sewage transport vehicle in such a way that a public health hazard or nuisance is not created.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2560. Flushing a waste retention tank.

A tank for liquid waste retention shall be thoroughly flushed and drained in a sanitary manner during the servicing operation.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2570. Approved sewage disposal system.*

Sewage shall be disposed through an approved facility that is:

1. A public sewage treatment plant; or

2. An individual sewage disposal system that is sized, constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2580. Other liquid wastes and rainwater.

Condensate drainage and other nonsewage liquids and rainwater shall be drained from point of discharge to disposal according to law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 5

Refuse, Recyclables, and Returnables

2VAC5-585-2590. Indoor storage area.

If located within the food establishment, a storage area for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall meet the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-2790, 2VAC5-585-2810 through 2VAC5-585-2880, 2VAC5-585-2930, and 2VAC5-585-2940.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2600. Outdoor storage surface.

An outdoor storage surface for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be constructed of nonabsorbent material such as concrete or asphalt and shall be smooth, durable, and sloped to drain.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2610. Outdoor enclosure.

If used, an outdoor enclosure for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be constructed of durable and cleanable materials.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2620. Receptacles.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables and for use with materials containing food residue shall be durable, cleanable, insect- and rodent-resistant, leakproof, and nonabsorbent.

B. Plastic bags and wet strength paper bags may be used to line receptacles for storage inside the food establishment, or within closed outside receptacles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2630. Receptacles in vending machines.

A refuse receptacle may not be located within a vending machine, except that a receptacle for beverage bottle crown closures may be located within a vending machine.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2640. Outside receptacles.

A. Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables used with materials containing food residue and used outside the food establishment shall be designed and constructed to have tight-fitting lids, doors, or covers.

B. Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse and recyclables such as an on-site compactor shall be installed so that accumulation of debris and insect and rodent attraction and harborage are minimized and effective cleaning is facilitated around and, if the unit is not installed flush with the base pad, under the unit.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2650. Storage areas, rooms, and receptacles, capacity and availability.

A. An inside storage room and area and outside storage area and enclosure, and receptacles shall be of sufficient capacity to hold refuse, recyclables, and returnables that accumulate.

B. A receptacle shall be provided in each area of the food establishment or premises where refuse is generated or commonly discarded, or where recyclables or returnables are placed.

C. If disposable towels are used at handwashing lavatories, a waste receptacle shall be located at each lavatory or group of adjacent lavatories.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2660. Toilet room receptacle, covered.

A toilet room used by females shall be provided with a covered receptacle for sanitary napkins.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2670. Cleaning implements and supplies.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, suitable cleaning implements and supplies such as high pressure pumps, hot water, steam, and detergent shall be provided as necessary for effective cleaning of receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables.

B. If approved, off-premises-based cleaning services may be used if on-premises cleaning implements and supplies are not provided.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2680. Storage areas, redeeming machines, receptacles and waste handling units, location.

A. An area designated for refuse, recyclables, returnables, and, except as specified in subsection B of this section, a redeeming machine for recyclables or returnables shall be located so that it is separate from food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles and a public health hazard or nuisance is not created.

B. A redeeming machine may be located in the packaged food storage area or consumer area of a food establishment if food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles are not subject to contamination from the machines and a public health hazard or nuisance is not created.

C. The location of receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables may not create a public health hazard or nuisance or interfere with the cleaning of adjacent space.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2690. Storing refuse, recyclables, and returnables.

Refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be stored in receptacles or waste handling units so that they are inaccessible to insects and rodents.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2700. Areas, enclosures, and receptacles, good repair.

Storage areas, enclosures, and receptacles for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be maintained in good repair.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2710. Outside storage prohibitions.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, refuse receptacles not meeting the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-2620 A, such as receptacles that are not rodent-resistant, unprotected plastic bags and paper bags, or baled units that contain materials with food residue may not be stored outside.

B. Cardboard or other packaging material that does not contain food residues and that is awaiting regularly scheduled delivery to a recycling or disposal site may be stored outside without being in a covered receptacle if it is stored so that it does not create a rodent harborage problem.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2720. Covering receptacles.

Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be kept covered:

1. Inside the food establishment if the receptacles and units:

a. Contain food residue and are not in continuous use; or

b. After they are filled; and

2. With tight-fitting lids or doors if kept outside the food establishment.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2730. Using drain plugs.

Drains in receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall have drain plugs in place.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2740. Maintaining refuse areas and enclosures.

A storage area and enclosure for refuse, recyclables, or returnables shall be maintained free of unnecessary items, as specified under 2VAC5-585-3300, and clean.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2750. Cleaning receptacles.

A. Receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be thoroughly cleaned in a way that does not contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, or single-service and single-use articles, and waste water shall be disposed of as specified under 2VAC5-585-2550.

B. Soiled receptacles and waste handling units for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be cleaned at a frequency necessary to prevent them from developing a buildup of soil or becoming attractants for insects and rodents.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2760. Removal frequency.

Refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be removed from the premises at a frequency that will minimize the development of objectionable odors and other conditions that attract or harbor insects and rodents.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2770. Receptacles or vehicles.

Refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall be removed from the premises by way of:

1. Portable receptacles that are constructed and maintained according to law; or

2. A transport vehicle that is constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2780. Community or individual facility.

Solid waste not disposed of through the sewage system such as through grinders and pulpers shall be recycled or disposed of in an approved public or private community recycling or refuse facility; or solid waste shall be disposed of in an individual refuse facility such as a landfill or incinerator which is sized, constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part VI

Physical Facilities

Article 1

Materials for Construction and Repair

2VAC5-585-2790. Indoor areas; surface characteristics.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, materials for indoor floor, wall, and ceiling surfaces under conditions of normal use shall be:

1. Smooth, durable, and easily cleanable for areas where food establishment operations are conducted;

2. Closely woven and easily cleanable carpet for carpeted areas; and

3. Nonabsorbent for areas subject to moisture such as food preparation areas, walk-in refrigerators, warewashing areas, toilet rooms, mobile food establishment servicing areas, and areas subject to flushing or spray cleaning methods.

B. In a temporary food establishment:

1. A floor may be concrete, if graded to drain, machine?laid asphalt, or dirt or gravel if it is covered with mats, removable platforms, duckboards, or other suitable approved materials that are effectively treated to control dust and mud; and

2. Walls and ceilings may be constructed of a material that protects the interior from the weather and windblown dust and debris.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2800. Outdoor areas; surface characteristics.

A. The outdoor walking and driving areas shall be surfaced with concrete, asphalt, or gravel or other materials that have been effectively treated to minimize dust, facilitate maintenance, and prevent muddy conditions.

B. Exterior surfaces of buildings and mobile food establishments shall be of weather-resistant materials and shall comply with law.

C. Outdoor storage areas for refuse, recyclables, or returnables shall be of materials specified under 2VAC5-585-2600 and 2VAC5-585-2610.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Design, Construction, and Installation

2VAC5-585-2810. Floors, walls, and ceilings - cleanability.

Except as specified under 2VAC5-585-2840, the floors, floor coverings, walls, wall coverings, and ceilings shall be designed, constructed, and installed so they are smooth and easily cleanable, except that antislip floor coverings or applications may be used for safety reasons.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2820. Floors, walls, and ceilings, utility lines.

A. Utility service lines and pipes may not be unnecessarily exposed.

B. Exposed utility service lines and pipes shall be installed so they do not obstruct or prevent cleaning of the floors, walls, or ceilings.

C. Exposed horizontal utility service lines and pipes may not be installed on the floor.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2830. Floor and wall junctures, coved, and enclosed or sealed.

A. In food establishments in which cleaning methods other than water flushing are used for cleaning floors, the floor and wall junctures shall be coved and closed to no larger than 1/32 inch (one mm).

B. The floors in food establishments in which water flush cleaning methods are used shall be provided with drains and be graded to drain, and the floor and wall junctures shall be coved and sealed.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2840. Floor carpeting, restrictions and installation.

A. A floor covering such as carpeting or similar material may not be installed as a floor covering in food preparation areas, walk-in refrigerators, warewashing areas, toilet room areas where handwashing lavatories, toilets, and urinals are located, refuse storage rooms, or other areas where the floor is subject to moisture, flushing, or spray cleaning methods.

B. If carpeting is installed as a floor covering in areas other than those specified under subsection A of this section, it shall be:

1. Securely attached to the floor with a durable mastic, by using a stretch and tack method, or by another method; and

2. Installed tightly against the wall under the coving or installed away from the wall with a space between the carpet and the wall and with the edges of the carpet secured by metal stripping or some other means.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2850. Floor covering, mats and duckboards.

Mats and duckboards shall be designed to be removable and easily cleanable.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2860. Wall and ceiling coverings and coatings.

A. Wall and ceiling covering materials shall be attached so that they are easily cleanable.

B. Except in areas used only for dry storage, concrete, porous blocks, or bricks used for indoor wall construction shall be finished and sealed to provide a smooth, nonabsorbent, easily cleanable surface.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2870. Walls and ceilings, attachments.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, attachments to walls and ceilings such as light fixtures, mechanical room ventilation system components, vent covers, wall mounted fans, decorative items, and other attachments shall be easily cleanable.

B. In a consumer area, wall and ceiling surfaces and decorative items and attachments that are provided for ambiance need not meet this requirement if they are kept clean.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2880. Walls and ceilings, studs, joists, and rafters.

Studs, joists, and rafters may not be exposed in areas subject to moisture. This requirement does not apply to temporary food establishments.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2890. Light bulbs, protective shielding.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, light bulbs shall be shielded, coated, or otherwise shatter-resistant in areas where there is exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; or unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

B. Shielded, coated, or otherwise shatter-resistant bulbs need not be used in areas used only for storing food in unopened packages, if:

1. The integrity of the packages cannot be affected by broken glass falling onto them; and

2. The packages are capable of being cleaned of debris from broken bulbs before the packages are opened.

C. An infrared or other heat lamp shall be protected against breakage by a shield surrounding and extending beyond the bulb so that only the face of the bulb is exposed.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2900. Heating, ventilating, air conditioning system vents.

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems shall be designed and installed so that make-up air intake and exhaust vents do not cause contamination of food, food-contact surfaces, equipment, or utensils.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2910. Insect control devices, design and installation.

A. Insect control devices that are used to electrocute or stun flying insects shall be designed to retain the insect within the device.

B. Insect control devices shall be installed so that:

1. The devices are not located over a food preparation area; and

2. Dead insects and insect fragments are prevented from being impelled onto or falling on exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2920. Toilet rooms, enclosed.

A toilet room located on the premises shall be completely enclosed and provided with a tight-fitting and self-closing door except that this requirement does not apply to a toilet room that is located outside a food establishment and does not open directly into the food establishment such as a toilet room that is provided by the management of a shopping mall.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2930. Outer openings, protected.

A. Except as specified in subsections B through E of this section, outer openings of a food establishment shall be protected against the entry of insects and rodents by:

1. Filling or closing holes and other gaps along floors, walls and ceilings;

2. Closed, tight-fitting windows; and

3. Solid self-closing, tight-fitting doors.

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply if a food establishment opens into a larger structure, such as a mall, airport, or office building, or into an attached structure, such as a porch, and the outer openings from the larger or attached structure are protected against the entry of insects and rodents.

C. Exterior doors used as exits need not be self-closing if they are:

1. Solid and tight-fitting;

2. Designated for use only when an emergency exists, by the fire protection authority that has jurisdiction over the food establishment; and

3. Restricted so they are not used for entrance or exit from the building for purposes other than the designated emergency exit use.

D. Except as specified in subsections B and E of this section, if the windows or doors of a food establishment, or of a larger structure within which a food establishment is located, are kept open for ventilation or other purposes, the openings shall be protected against the entry of insects and rodents by:

1. 16 mesh to one-inch (16 mesh to 25.4-mm) screens;

2. Properly designed and installed air curtains to control flying insects; or

3. Other effective means.

E. Subsection D of this section does not apply if flying insects and other pests are absent due to the location of the establishment, the weather, or other limiting condition.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2940. Exterior walls and roofs, protective barrier.

Perimeter walls and roofs of a food establishment shall effectively protect the establishment from the weather and the entry of insects, rodents, and other animals.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2950. Outdoor food vending areas, overhead protection.

If located outside, a machine used to vend food shall be provided with overhead protection except that machines vending canned beverages need not meet this requirement.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2960. Outdoor servicing areas, overhead protection.

Servicing areas shall be provided with overhead protection except that areas used only for the loading of water or the discharge of sewage and other liquid waste, through the use of a closed system of hoses, need not be provided with overhead protection.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2970. Outdoor walking and driving surfaces, graded to drain.

Exterior walking and driving surfaces shall be graded to drain.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2980. Outdoor refuse areas, curbed and graded to drain.

Outdoor refuse areas shall be constructed in accordance with law and shall be curbed and graded to drain to collect and dispose of liquid waste that results from the refuse and from cleaning the area and waste receptacles.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-2990. Private homes and living or sleeping quarters, use prohibition.

A room used as sleeping quarters may not be used for conducting food establishment operations.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3000. Living or sleeping quarters, separation.

Sleeping quarters located on the premises of a food establishment shall be separated from rooms and areas used for food establishment operations by complete partitioning and solid self-closing doors.

Statutory Authority

§3.1-398 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

Numbers and Capacities

2VAC5-585-3010. Handwashing lavatories, minimum number.

Handwashing lavatories shall be provided as specified under 2VAC5-585-2230.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3020. Handwashing cleanser, availability.

Each handwashing lavatory or group of two adjacent lavatories shall be provided with a supply of hand cleaning liquid, powder, or bar soap.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3030. Hand drying provision.

Each handwashing lavatory or group of adjacent lavatories shall be provided with:

1. Individual, disposable towels;

2. A continuous towel system that supplies the user with a clean towel; or

3. A heated-air hand drying device.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3040. Handwashing aids and devices, use restrictions.

A sink used for food preparation or utensil washing may not be provided with the handwashing aids and devices required for a handwashing lavatory as specified under 2VAC5-585-3020 and 2VAC5-585-3030 and 2VAC5-585-2650 C.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3045. Handwashing signage.

A sign or poster that notifies food employees to wash their hands shall be provided at all handwashing lavatories used by food employees and shall be clearly visible to food employees.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3050. Disposable towels, waste receptacle.

A handwashing lavatory or group of adjacent lavatories that is provided with disposable towels shall be provided with a waste receptacle as specified under 2VAC5-585-2650 C.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3060. Toilets and urinals, minimum number.

Toilets and urinals shall be provided as specified under 2VAC5-585-2240.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3070. Toilet tissue, availability.

A supply of toilet tissue shall be available at each toilet.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3080. Lighting, intensity.

The light intensity shall be:

1. At least 10 foot candles (110 lux) at a distance of 30 inches (75 cm) above the floor, in walk-in refrigeration units and dry food storage areas and in other areas and rooms during periods of cleaning;

2. At least 20 foot candles (220 lux):

a. At a surface where food is provided for consumer self-service such as buffets and salad bars or where fresh produce or packaged foods are sold or offered for consumption;

b. Inside equipment such as reach-in and under-counter refrigerators;

c. At a distance of 30 inches (75 cm) above the floor in areas used for handwashing, warewashing, and equipment and utensil storage, and in toilet rooms; and

3. At least 50 foot candles (540 lux) at a surface where a food employee is working with food or working with utensils or equipment such as knives, slicers, grinders, or saws where employee safety is a factor.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3090. Ventilation, mechanical.

If necessary to keep rooms free of excessive heat, steam, condensation, vapors, obnoxious odors, smoke, and fumes, mechanical ventilation of sufficient capacity shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3100. Dressing areas and lockers, designation.

A. Dressing rooms or dressing areas shall be designated if employees routinely change their clothes in the establishment.

B. Lockers or other suitable facilities shall be provided for the orderly storage of employees'' clothing and other possessions.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3110. Service sinks, availability.

A service sink or curbed cleaning facility shall be provided as specified under 2VAC5-585-2250.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 4

Location and Placement

2VAC5-585-3120. Handwashing lavatories, conveniently located.

Handwashing lavatories shall be conveniently located as specified under 2VAC5-585-2280.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3130. Toilet rooms, convenience and accessibility.

Toilet rooms shall be conveniently located and accessible to employees during all hours of operation. Toilet rooms intended for use by customers shall not necessitate travel through food preparation or handling areas.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3140. Employee accommodations, designated areas.

A. Areas designated for employees to eat, drink, and use tobacco shall be located so that food, equipment, linens, and single-service and single-use articles are protected from contamination.

B. Lockers or other suitable facilities shall be located in a designated room or area where contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles cannot occur.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3150. Distressed merchandise, segregation and location.

Products that are held by the person in charge for credit, redemption, or return to the distributor, such as damaged, spoiled, or recalled products, shall be segregated and held in designated areas that are separated from food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3160. Refuse, recyclables, and returnables - receptacles, waste handling units, and designated storage areas.

Units, receptacles, and areas designated for storage of refuse and recyclable and returnable containers shall be located as specified under 2VAC5-585-2680.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 5

Maintenance and Operation

2VAC5-585-3170. Repairing.

The physical facilities shall be maintained in good repair.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3180. Cleaning, frequency and restrictions.

A. The physical facilities shall be cleaned as often as necessary to keep them clean.

B. Cleaning shall be done during periods when the least amount of food is exposed such as after closing. This requirement does not apply to cleaning that is necessary due to a spill or other accident.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3190. Cleaning floors, dustless methods.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, only dustless methods of cleaning shall be used, such as wet cleaning, vacuum cleaning, mopping with treated dust mops, or sweeping using a broom and dust-arresting compounds.

B. Spills or drippage on floors that occur between normal floor cleaning times may be cleaned:

1. Without the use of dust-arresting compounds; and

2. In the case of liquid spills or drippage, with the use of a small amount of absorbent compound such as sawdust or diatomaceous earth applied immediately before spot cleaning.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3200. Cleaning ventilation systems, nuisance and discharge prohibition.

A. Intake and exhaust air ducts shall be cleaned and filters changed so they are not a source of contamination by dust, dirt, and other materials.

B. If vented to the outside, ventilation systems may not create a public health hazard or nuisance or unlawful discharge.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3210. Cleaning maintenance tools, preventing contamination.*

Food preparation sinks, handwashing lavatories, and warewashing equipment may not be used for the cleaning of maintenance tools, the preparation or holding of maintenance materials, or the disposal of mop water and similar liquid wastes.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3220. Drying mops.

After use, mops shall be placed in a position that allows them to air-dry without soiling walls, equipment, or supplies.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3230. Absorbent materials on floors, use limitation.

Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-3190 B, sawdust, wood shavings, granular salt, baked clay, diatomaceous earth, or similar materials may not be used on floors.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3240. Maintaining and using handwashing lavatories.

Handwashing lavatories shall be kept clean, and maintained and used as specified under 2VAC5-585-2310.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3250. Closing toilet room doors.

Toilet room doors as specified under 2VAC5-585-2920 shall be kept closed except during cleaning and maintenance operations unless otherwise required by other regulations or law.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3260. Using dressing rooms and lockers.

A. Dressing rooms shall be used by employees if the employees regularly change their clothes in the establishment.

B. Lockers or other suitable facilities shall be used for the orderly storage of employee clothing and other possessions.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3270. Controlling pests.*

The presence of insects, rodents, and other pests shall be controlled to minimize their presence on the premises by:

1. Routinely inspecting incoming shipments of food and supplies;N

2. Routinely inspecting the premises for evidence of pests;N

3. Using methods, if pests are found, such as trapping devices or other means of pest control as specified under 2VAC5-585-3360, 2VAC5-585-3440, and 2VAC5-585-3450; and

4. Eliminating harborage conditions.N

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3280. Removing dead or trapped birds, insects, rodents, and other pests.

Dead or trapped birds, insects, rodents, and other pests shall be removed from control devices and the premises at a frequency that prevents their accumulation, decomposition, or the attraction of pests.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3290. Storing maintenance tools.

Maintenance tools such as brooms, mops, vacuum cleaners, and similar items shall be:

1. Stored so they do not contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles; and

2. Stored in an orderly manner that facilitates cleaning the area used for storing the maintenance tools.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3300. Maintaining premises, unnecessary items and litter.

The premises shall be free of:

1. Items that are unnecessary to the operation or maintenance of the establishment such as equipment that is nonfunctional or no longer used; and

2. Litter.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3310. Prohibiting animals.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, live animals may not be allowed on the premises of a food establishment.

B. Live animals may be allowed in the following situations if the contamination of food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles cannot result:

1. Edible fish or decorative fish in aquariums, shellfish or crustacea on ice or under refrigeration, and shellfish and crustacea in display tank systems;

2. Patrol dogs accompanying police or security officers in offices and dining, sales, and storage areas, and sentry dogs running loose in outside fenced areas;

3. In areas that are not used for food preparation and that are usually open for customers, such as dining and sales areas, service animals that are controlled by the disabled employee or person, if a health or safety hazard will not result from the presence or activities of the service animal;

4. Pets in the common dining areas of institutional care facilities such as nursing homes, assisted living facilities, group homes, or residential care facilities at times other than during meals if:

a. Effective partitioning and self-closing doors separate the common dining areas from food storage or food preparation areas;

b. Condiments, equipment, and utensils are stored in enclosed cabinets or removed from the common dining areas when pets are present; and

c. Dining areas including tables, countertops, and similar surfaces are effectively cleaned before the next meal service; and

5. In areas that are not used for food preparation, storage, sales, display, or dining, in which there are caged animals or animals that are similarly restricted, such as in a variety store that sells pets or a tourist park that displays animals.

C. Live or dead fish bait may be stored if contamination of food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles cannot result.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part VII

Poisonous or Toxic Materials

Article 1

Labeling and Identification

2VAC5-585-3320. Original containers - identifying information, prominence.*

Containers of poisonous or toxic materials and personal care items shall bear a legible manufacturer''s label.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3330. Working containers - common name.*

Working containers used for storing poisonous or toxic materials such as cleaners and sanitizers taken from bulk supplies shall be clearly and individually identified with the common name of the material.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 2

Operational Supplies and Applications

2VAC5-585-3340. Storage, separation.*

Poisonous or toxic materials shall be stored so they cannot contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles by:

1. Separating the poisonous or toxic materials by spacing or partitioning;S and

2. Locating the poisonous or toxic materials in an area that is not above food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service or single-use articles. This subsection does not apply to equipment and utensil cleaners and sanitizers that are stored in warewashing areas for availability and convenience if the materials are stored to prevent contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles; and

3. Detergents, sanitizers, related cleaning or drying agents and caustics, acids, polishes and other chemicals shall be stored separately from insecticides and rodenticides.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3350. Presence and use restriction.*

A. Only those poisonous or toxic materials that are required for the operation and maintenance of a food establishment, such as for the cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and utensils and the control of insects and rodents, shall be allowed in a food establishment.S

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply to packaged poisonous or toxic materials that are for retail sale.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3360. Conditions of use.*

A. Poisonous or toxic materials shall be:

1. Used according to:

a. Law and this chapter;

b. Manufacturer’s use directions included in labeling, and, for a pesticide, manufacturer''s label instructions that state that use is allowed in a food establishment;

c. The conditions of certification, if certification is required, for use of the pest control materials; and

d. Additional conditions that may be established by the department; and

2. Applied so that:

a. A hazard to employees or other persons is not constituted; and

b. Contamination including toxic residues due to drip, drain, fog, splash or spray on food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles is prevented, and for a restricted-use pesticide, this is achieved by:

(1) Removing the items;

(2) Covering the items with impermeable covers; or

(3) Taking other appropriate preventive actions; and

(4) Cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils after the application.

B. A restricted use pesticide shall be applied only by an applicator certified as defined in §§ 3.1-249.51, 3.1-249.52, and 3.1-249.53 E of the Code of Virginia (Virginia Pesticide Control Act) or a person under the direct supervision of a certified applicator.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3370. Poisonous or toxic material containers.*

A container previously used to store poisonous or toxic materials may not be used to store, transport, or dispense food.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3380. Sanitizers, criteria.*

Chemical sanitizers and other chemical antimicrobials applied to food-contact surfaces shall meet the requirements specified in21 CFR 178.1010 40 CRF 180.940 ].

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3390. Chemicals for washing fruits and vegetables, criteria.*

Chemicals used to wash or peel raw, whole fruits and vegetables shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 173.315.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3400. Boiler water additives, criteria.*

Chemicals used as boiler water additives shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 173.310.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3410. Drying agents, criteria.*

Drying agents used in conjunction with sanitization shall:

1. Contain only components that are listed as one of the following:

a. Generally recognized as safe for use in food as specified in 21 CFR Part 182, Substances Generally Recognized as Safe, or 21 CFR Part 184, Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe;

b. Generally recognized as safe for the intended use as specified in 21 CFR Part 186, Indirect Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe;

c. Approved for use as a drying agent under a prior sanction specified in 21 CFR Part 181, Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients;

d. Specifically regulated as an indirect food additive for use as a drying agent as specified in 21 CFR Parts 175-178; or

e. Approved for use as a drying agent under the threshold of regulation process established by 21 CFR 170.39, Threshold of Regulation for Substances Used in Food-Contact Articles; and

2. When sanitization is with chemicals, the approval required under subdivisions 1 c or 1 e of this section or the regulation as an indirect food additive required under subdivision 1 d of this section, shall be specifically for use with chemical sanitizing solutions.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3420. Lubricants - incidental food contact, criteria.*

Lubricants shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 178.3570 if they are used on food-contact surfaces, on bearings and gears located on or within food?contact surfaces, or on bearings and gears that are located so that lubricants may leak, drip, or be forced into food or onto food-contact surfaces.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3430. Restricted use pesticides, criteria.*

Restricted use pesticides specified under subsection B of 2VAC5-585-3360 shall meet the requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 152, Subpart I, Classification of Pesticides.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3440. Rodent bait stations.*

Rodent bait shall be contained in a covered, tamper-resistant bait station.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3450. Tracking powders, pest control and monitoring.*

A. A tracking powder pesticide may not be used in a food establishment.

B. If used, a nontoxic tracking powder such as talcum or flour may not contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.N

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3460. Medicines - restriction and storage.*

A. Only those medicines that are necessary for the health of employees shall be allowed in a food establishment. This section does not apply to medicines that are stored or displayed for retail sale.

B. Medicines that are in a food establishment for the employees'' use shall be labeled as specified under 2VAC5-585-3320 and located to prevent the contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3470. Refrigerated medicines, storage.*

Medicines belonging to employees or to children in a day care center that require refrigeration and are stored in a food refrigerator shall be:

1. Stored in a package or container and kept inside a covered, leakproof container that is identified as a container for the storage of medicines; and

2. Located so they are inaccessible to children.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3480. First aid supplies, storage.*

First aid supplies that are in a food establishment for the employees'' use shall be:

1. Labeled as specified under 2VAC5-585-3320;S and

2. Stored in a kit or a container that is located to prevent the contamination of food, equipment, utensils, and linens, and single-service and single-use articles.S

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3490. Other personal care items, storage.

Except as specified under 2VAC5-585-3470 and 2VAC5-585-3480, employees shall store their personal care items in facilities as specified under 2VAC5-585-3100 B.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

Stock and Retail Sale

2VAC5-585-3500. Storage and display, separation.*

Poisonous or toxic materials shall be stored and displayed for retail sale so they cannot contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles by:

1. Separating the poisonous or toxic materials by spacing or partitioning;S and

2. Locating the poisonous or toxic materials in an area that is not above food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service or single-use articles.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Part VIII

Compliance and Enforcement

Article 1

Applicability of Chapter

2VAC5-585-3510. Public health protection.

A. The department shall apply this regulation to promote its underlying purpose, as specified in 2VAC5-585-20, of safeguarding public health and ensuring that food is safe and unadulterated when offered to the consumer.

B. In enforcing the provisions of this regulation, the department shall assess existing facilities or equipment that were in use before the effective date of this regulation based on the following considerations:

1. Whether the facilities or equipment are in good repair and capable of being maintained in a sanitary condition;

2. Whether food-contact surfaces comply with 2VAC5-585-960 through 2VAC5-585-1060;

3. Whether the capacities of cooling, heating, and holding equipment are sufficient to comply with 2VAC5-585-1450; and

4. The existence of a documented agreement with the establishment operator that the facilities or equipment will be replaced or upgraded as specified in the following:

a. Except as specified under subdivision B 4 b of this section, replace existing facilities and equipment specified in this section with facilities and equipment that comply with this regulation if:

(1) The department directs the replacement because the facilities and equipment constitute a public health hazard or nuisance or no longer comply with the criteria upon which the facilities and equipment were accepted;

(2) The department directs the replacement of the facilities and equipment because of a change of ownership; or

(3) The facilities and equipment are replaced in the normal course of operation;

b. Upgrade or replace refrigeration equipment as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b, if the circumstances specified under subdivision B 4 a of this section do not occur first.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3520. Preventing health hazards, provision for conditions not addressed.

A. If necessary to protect against public health hazards or nuisances, the department may impose specific requirements in addition to the requirements contained in this regulation that are authorized by law.

B. The department shall document the conditions that necessitate the imposition of additional requirements and the underlying public health rationale. The documentation shall be provided to the establishment operator or person in charge and a copy shall be maintained in the department''s file for the food establishment.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3530. (Reserved)

2VAC5-585-3540. Variances, modifications and waivers.

The department may grant a variance by modifying or waiving the requirements of this regulation if in the opinion of the department a health hazard or nuisance will not result from the variance. If a variance is granted, the department shall retain the information specified under 2VAC5-585-3541 in its records for the food establishment.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3541. Documentation of proposed variance and justification.

Before a variance from a requirement of this regulation is approved, the information that shall be provided by the person requesting the variance and retained in the department''s file on the food establishment includes:

1. A statement of the proposed variance of the regulation requirement citing relevant regulation section numbers;

2. An analysis of the rationale for how the potential public health hazards and nuisances addressed by the relevant regulation sections will be alternatively addressed by the proposal; and

3. A HACCP plan if required as specified under 2VAC5-585-3620 A that includes the information specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 as it is relevant to the variance requested.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3542. Conformance with approved procedures.*

If the department grants a variance as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540, or a HACCP plan is otherwise required as specified under 2VAC5-585-3620, the operator shall:

1. Comply with the HACCP plans and procedures that are submitted as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 and approved as a basis for the modification or waiver; and

2. Maintain and provide to the department, upon request, records specified under subdivisions 4 and 5 of 2VAC5-585-3630 that demonstrate that the following are routinely employed:

a. Procedures for monitoring critical control points;

b. Monitoring of the critical control points;

c. Verification of the effectiveness of an operation or process; and

d. Necessary corrective actions if there is failure at a critical control point.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3550. (Reserved)

2VAC5-585-3560. (Reserved)

2VAC5-585-3570. (Reserved)

2VAC5-585-3580. (Reserved)

2VAC5-585-3590. (Reserved)

Article 2

Plan Submission and Approval

2VAC5-585-3600. Facility and operating plans - when plans are required.

An operator shall submit to the department properly prepared plans and specifications for review and approval when appropriate or when requested by the department. Such instances shall include:

1. The construction of a food establishment;

2. The conversion of an existing structure for use as a food establishment; or

3. The remodeling of a food establishment or a change of type of food establishment or food operation if the department determines that plans and specifications are necessary to ensure compliance with this regulation.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3610. Contents of the plans and specifications.

The plans and specifications for a food establishment, including a food establishment specified under 2VAC5-585-3620, shall include, as required by the department based on the type of operation, type of food preparation, and foods prepared, the following information to demonstrate conformance with the provisions of this chapter:

1. Intended menu;

2. Anticipated volume of food to be stored, prepared, and sold or served;

3. Proposed layout, mechanical schematics, construction materials, and finish schedules;

4. Proposed equipment types, manufacturers, model numbers, locations, dimensions, performance capacities, and installation specifications;

5. Evidence that standard procedures ensuring compliance with the requirements of this chapter are developed or are being developed; and

6. Other information that may be required by the department for the proper review of the proposed construction, conversion or modification, and procedures for operating a food establishment.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3620. When a HACCP plan is required.

A. Before engaging in an activity that requires a HACCP plan, an operator shall submit to the department for approval a properly prepared HACCP plan as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 and the relevant provisions of this chapter if:

1. Submission of a HACCP plan is required according to law;

2. A variance is required as specified under 2VAC5-585-860, 2VAC5-585-1300 B, or subdivision 2VAC5-585-700 D 3; or

3. The department determines that a food preparation or processing method requires a variance based on a plan submittal specified under 2VAC5-585-3610, an inspectional finding, or a variance request.

B. An operator shall have a properly prepared HACCP plan as specified under 2VAC5-585-870.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3630. Contents of a HACCP plan.

For a food establishment that is required under 2VAC5-585-3620 to have a HACCP plan, the plan and specifications shall indicate:

1. A categorization of the types of potentially hazardous foods that are specified in the menu such as soups and sauces, salads, and bulk, solid foods such as meat roasts, or of other foods that are specified by the department;

2. A flow diagram by specific food or category type identifying critical control points and providing information on the following:

a. Ingredients, materials, and equipment used in the preparation of that food; and

b. Formulations or recipes that delineate methods and procedural control measures that address the food safety concerns involved;

3. Food employee and supervisory training plan that addresses the food safety issues of concern;

4. A statement of standard operating procedures for the plan under consideration including clearly identifying:

a. Each critical control point;

b. The critical limits for each critical control point;

c. The method and frequency for monitoring and controlling each critical control point by the food employee designated by the person in charge;

d. The method and frequency for the person in charge to routinely verify that the food employee is following standard operating procedures and monitoring critical control points;

e. Action to be taken by the person in charge if the critical limits for each critical control point are not met; and

f. Records to be maintained by the person in charge to demonstrate that the HACCP plan is properly operated and managed; and

5. Additional scientific data or other information, as required by the department, supporting the determination that food safety is not compromised by the proposal.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3640. Confidentiality - trade secrets.

The department shall treat as confidential in accordance with law, information that meets the criteria specified in law for a trade secret and is contained on inspection report forms and in the plans and specifications submitted as specified under 2VAC5-585-3610 and 2VAC5-585-3630.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3650. Preoperational inspections.

The department shall conduct one or more preoperational inspections to verify that the food establishment is constructed and equipped in accordance with the approved plans and approved modifications of those plans, has established standard operating procedures as specified under subdivision 5 of 2VAC5-585-3610 and is in compliance with law and this chapter.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

Article 3

(Reserved)

Article 4

Inspection and Correction of Violations

2VAC5-585-3800. Frequency, establishing inspection interval.

Food establishments shall be inspected by the designee of the commissioner. Inspections of food establishments shall be performed as often as necessary for the enforcement of this part in accordance with the following:

1. Except as specified in subdivisions 2 and 3 of this section, the department shall inspect a food establishment at least once every six months.

2. The department may increase the interval between inspections beyond six months if:

a. The food establishment is fully operating under an approved and validated HACCP plan as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 and subdivisions 1 and 2 of 2VAC5-585-3542.

b. The food establishment is assigned a less frequent inspection frequency based on a written risk?based inspection schedule that is being uniformly applied throughout the jurisdiction.

c. The establishment''s operation involves only coffee service and other unpackaged or prepackaged food that is not potentially hazardous such as carbonated beverages and snack food such as chips, nuts, popcorn, and pretzels.

3. The department shall periodically inspect a temporary food establishment that prepares, sells, or serves unpackaged potentially hazardous food and that:

a. Has improvised rather than permanent facilities or equipment for accomplishing functions such as handwashing, food preparation and protection, food temperature control, warewashing, providing drinking water, waste retention and disposal, and insect and rodent control; or

b. Has inexperienced food employees.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3810. Performance- and risk-based inspections.

Within the parameters specified in 2VAC5-585-3800, the department shall prioritize, and conduct more frequent inspections based upon its assessment of a food establishment''s history of compliance with this chapter and the establishment''s potential as a vector of foodborne illness by evaluating:

1. Past performance for nonconformance with this chapter or HACCP plan requirements that are critical;

2. Past performance for numerous or repeat violations of this chapter or HACCP plan requirements that are noncritical;

3. Past performance for complaints investigated and found to be valid;

4. The hazards associated with the particular foods that are prepared, stored, or served;

5. The type of operation including the methods and extent of food storage, preparation, and service;

6. The number of people served; and

7. Whether the population served is a highly susceptible population.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3815. Competency of personnel.

An authorized representative of the commissioner who inspects a food establishment or conducts plan review for compliance with this regulation shall have the knowledge, skills, and ability to adequately perform the required duties.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3820. Access allowed at reasonable times.

After the authorized representative of the commissioner presents official credentials and identifies the purpose of, and an intent to conduct, an inspection, the person in charge shall allow the authorized representative to determine if the food establishment is in compliance with this chapter by allowing access to the establishment, allowing inspection, and providing information and records specified in this chapter and to which the department is entitled according to law, during the food establishment''s hours of operation and other reasonable times.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3830. Refusal, notification of right to access, and final request for access.

If a person denies access to the authorized representative of the commissioner, the authorized representative shall:

1. Inform the person that:

a. The person is required to allow access to the authorized representative as specified under 2VAC5-585-3820;

b. If access is denied, the department will refer the matter to the Commonwealth’s Attorney for handling in accordance with applicable sections of the Code of Virginia; and

2. Make a final request for access.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3840. Refusal, reporting.

If after the authorized representative of the commissioner presents credentials and identifies the purpose of and the intent to conduct an inspection as specified under 2VAC5-585-3820, explains the authority upon which access is requested, and makes a final request for access as specified in 2VAC5-585-3830, the person in charge continues to refuse access, the authorized representative shall provide details of the denial of access on an inspection report form.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3850. Inspection order to gain access.

If denied access to a food establishment for an authorized purpose and after complying with 2VAC5-585-3830, the department may apply for the issuance of an inspection order to gain access as provided in law.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3860. Documenting information and observations.

The authorized representative of the commissioner shall document on an inspection report form:

1. Administrative information about the food establishment''s legal identity, street and mailing addresses, type of establishment and operation, inspection date, and other information such as type of water supply and sewage disposal, and personnel certificates that may be required; and

2. Specific factual observations of violative conditions or other deviations from this chapter that require correction by the establishment operator including:

a. Failure of the person in charge to demonstrate the knowledge of foodborne illness prevention, application of HACCP principles, and the requirements of this chapter specified under 2VAC5-585-60;

b. Failure of food employees and the person in charge to demonstrate their knowledge of their responsibility to report a disease or medical condition as specified under 2VAC5-585-110 and 2VAC5-585-120;

c. Nonconformance with critical items of this chapter;

d. Failure of the appropriate food employees to demonstrate their knowledge of, and ability to perform in accordance with, the procedural, monitoring, verification, and corrective action practices required by the department as specified under 2VAC5-585-60;

e. Failure of the person in charge to provide records required by the department for determining conformance with a HACCP plan as specified under subdivision 4 f of 2VAC5-585-3630; and

f. Nonconformance with critical limits of a HACCP plan.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3870. Specifying time frame for corrections.

The authorized representative of the commissioner shall specify on the inspection report form the time frame for correction of the violations as specified under 2VAC5-585-3910, 2VAC5-585-3930, and 2VAC5-585-3950.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3880. Issuing report and obtaining acknowledgment of receipt.

At the conclusion of the inspection and according to law, the authorized representative of the commissioner shall provide a copy of the completed inspection report and the notice to correct violations to the person in charge, and request a signed acknowledgment of receipt.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3890. Refusal to sign acknowledgment.

The authorized representative of the commissioner shall:

1. Inform a person who declines to sign an acknowledgment of receipt of inspectional findings as specified in 2VAC5-585-3880 that:

a. An acknowledgment of receipt is not an agreement with findings;

b. Refusal to sign an acknowledgment of receipt will not affect the operator’s obligation to correct the violations noted in the inspection report within the time frames specified; and

c. A refusal to sign an acknowledgment of receipt is noted in the inspection report and conveyed to the department''s historical record for the food establishment; and

2. Make a final request that the person in charge sign an acknowledgment receipt of inspectional findings.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3900. Public information.

Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-3640, the department shall treat the inspection report as a public document and shall make it available for disclosure to a person who requests it as provided in law.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3910. Imminent health hazard, ceasing operations and reporting.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an operator shall immediately discontinue operations and notify the department if an imminent health hazard may exist because of an emergency such as a fire, flood, extended interruption of electrical or water service, sewage backup, misuse of poisonous or toxic materials, onset of an apparent foodborne illness outbreak, gross insanitary occurrence or condition, or other circumstance that may endanger public health.

B. An operator need not discontinue operations in an area of an establishment that is unaffected by the imminent health hazard.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3920. Resumption of operations.

If operations are discontinued as specified under 2VAC5-585-3910 or otherwise according to law, the operator shall obtain approval from the department before resuming operations.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3930. Critical violation, timely correction.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an operator or person in charge shall at the time of inspection correct a critical violation of this chapter and implement corrective actions for a HACCP plan provision that is not in compliance with its critical limit.

B. Considering the nature of the potential hazard involved and the complexity of the corrective action needed, the department may agree to or specify a longer time frame, not to exceed 10 calendar days after the inspection, for the operator or person in charge to correct critical violations or HACCP plan deviations.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3940. Verification and documentation of correction.

A. After observing at the time of inspection a correction of a critical violation or deviation, the authorized representative of the commissioner shall enter the violation and information about the corrective action on the inspection report.

B. As specified under 2VAC5-585-3930 B, the authorized representative shall verify correction of the critical violation or deviation during the next scheduled inspection of the establishment and shall document the information on an inspection report, and enter the report in the department''s records.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3950. Noncritical violation, time frame for correction.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, the operator or person in charge shall correct noncritical violations by a date and time agreed to or specified by the department but no later than 90 calendar days after the inspection.

B. The department may approve a compliance schedule that extends beyond the time limits specified under subsection A of this section if a written schedule of compliance is submitted by the operator and no health hazard exists or will result from allowing an extended schedule for compliance.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-3960 through 2VAC5-585-4030. (Reserved)

Article 5

Prevention of Foodborne Disease Transmission by Employees

2VAC5-585-4040. Investigation and control, obtaining information: personal history of illness, medical examination, and specimen analysis.

The department shall act when it has reasonable cause to believe that a food employee has possibly transmitted disease; may be infected with a disease in a communicable form that is transmissible through food; may be a carrier of infectious agents that cause a disease that is transmissible through food; or is affected with a boil, an infected wound, or acute respiratory infection, by:

1. Securing a confidential medical history of the employee suspected of transmitting disease or making other investigations as deemed appropriate; and

2. Requiring appropriate medical examinations, including collection of specimens for laboratory analysis, of a suspected employee and other employees.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-4050. Restriction or exclusion of food employee.

Based on the findings of an investigation related to a food employee who is suspected of being infected or diseased, the department may request that the suspected food employee or operator institute one of the following control measures:

1. Restricting the food employee; or

2. Excluding the food employee.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-4060. Restriction or exclusion request: information required.

Based on the findings of the investigation as specified in 2VAC5-585-4040 and to control disease transmission, the department may make a request to the suspected food employee or the operator regarding restriction or exclusion if the request:

1. States the reasons for the restriction or exclusion that is requested;

2. States the evidence that the food employee or operator shall provide in order to demonstrate that the reasons for the restriction or exclusion are eliminated.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

2VAC5-585-4070. Release of food employee from restriction or exclusion.

The department shall release a food employee from restriction or exclusion according to law and the following conditions:

1. A food employee who was infected with Salmonella typhi if the food employee''s stools are negative for S. typhi based on testing of at least three consecutive stool specimen cultures that are taken:

a. Not earlier than one month after onset;

b. At least 48 hours after discontinuance of antibiotics; and

c. At least 24 hours apart; and

2. If one of the cultures taken as specified in subdivision 1 of this section is positive, repeat cultures are taken at intervals of one month until at least three consecutive negative stool specimen cultures are obtained.

3. A food employee who was infected with Shigella spp. or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli if the employee''s stools are negative for Shigella spp. or Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli based on testing of two consecutive stool specimen cultures that are taken:

a. Not earlier than 48 hours after discontinuance of antibiotics; and

b. At least 24 hours apart.

4. A food employee who was infected with hepatitis A virus if:

a. Symptoms cease; or

b. At least two blood tests show falling liver enzymes.

Statutory Authority

§ of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume , Issue , eff. Month dd, yyyy.

FORMS

Food Safety and Security Program, Inspection Report.

Food Safety and Security Program, Record of Complaint.

Food Safety and Security Program, Record of Complaint, FBI.

Food Safety and Security Program, Sample Collection Report.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, 25th Edition, available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Office of Generic Drugs at http://www.fda.gov/cder/ob/default.htm.

7 CFR Parts 56 and 59, January 2006, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 North Capitol St., NW, Washington, DC 20401.

9 CFR Parts 301, 308, 317, 319, 352, 354, 362, 381, 424, and 590, January 2006, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 North Capitol St., NW, Washington, DC 20401.

21 CFR Parts70, ] 101, 113, 114, 120, 129 - 186, 21 CFR 1030.10, and 1240.60(d), April 2006, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 North Capitol St., NW, Washington, DC 20401.

40 CFR Parts 141, 152and 40 CFR 180.940, ] and 185 and 40 CFR, July 2005, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 North Capitol St., NW, Washington, DC 20401.

50 CFR Part 17, October 2005, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 North Capitol St., NW, Washington, DC 20401.

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended through December 31, 2004, 21 USC §§321, 342, 343, 348 and 376, published by the U.S. Government Printing Office, 732 North Capitol St., NW, Washington, DC 20401.

Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 2003 Revision, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Milk Safety Branch (HFS-626), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

Grade "A" Condensed and Dry Milk Ordinance, 1995 Revision, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Milk Safety Branch (HFS-626), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List, (updated monthly), published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood (HFS-417), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations, 1995 Revision, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood (HFS-417), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

Virginia Waterworks Regulations, 12VAC5-590, May 2006, Virginia Department of Health, 109 Governor Street, Richmond, VA 23219.

Virginia Statewide Building Code, 13VAC5-63, November 2005, Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development, 501 North 2nd Street, Richmond, VA 23219.