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Amendments to reflect the 2013 FDA Food Code
Stage: Final
2VAC5-585-15

2VAC5-585-15. Categories of requirements. (Repealed.)

Requirements contained in this regulation are presented as being in one of three categories of importance: critical item (as defined in 2VAC5-585-40); "swing" (i.e., those that may or may not be critical depending on the circumstances); and noncritical. An asterisk (*) after a catchline (the language immediately following a section number that introduces the subject of the section) indicates that all of the provisions within that section are critical unless otherwise indicated, as follows:

1. Any provisions that are "swing" items are followed by the superscripted letter S and any provisions that are noncritical are followed by the superscripted letter N.

2. Any unmarked provisions within a section that has an asterisked catchline are critical. All provisions following a catchline that is not marked with an asterisk are noncritical.

2VAC5-585-40

Article 2
Definitions

2VAC5-585-40. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this regulation chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Accredited program" means a food protection manager certification program that has been evaluated and listed by an accrediting agency as conforming to national standards for organizations that certify individuals. "Accredited program" refers to the certification process and is a designation based upon an independent evaluation of factors such as the sponsor's mission; organizational structure; staff resources; revenue sources; policies; public information regarding program scope, eligibility requirements, recertification, discipline, and grievance procedures; and test development and administration. "Accredited program" does not refer to training functions or educational programs.

"Additive" means either a (i) "food additive" having the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 USC § 321(s) and 21 CFR Part 170 170.3(e)(1) or (ii) "color additive" having the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 USC § 321(t) and 21 CFR Part 70 70.3(f).

"Adulterated" has the meaning stated in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 USC § 342.

"Approved" means acceptable to the department based on a determination of conformity with principles, practices, and generally recognized standards that protect public health.

"Approved water system" means a permitted waterworks constructed, maintained, and operated pursuant to 12VAC5-590 or a private well constructed, maintained, and operated pursuant to 12VAC5-630. ]

"Asymptomatic" means without obvious symptoms; not showing or producing indication indications of a disease or other medical condition, such as an individual infected with a pathogen but not exhibiting or producing any signs or symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, or jaundice. Asymptomatic includes not showing symptoms because symptoms have resolved or subsided, or because symptoms never manifested.

"aw" "Aw" means water activity that is a measure of the free moisture in a food, is the quotient of the water vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature, and is indicated by the symbol aw Aw.

"Balut" means an embryo inside a fertile egg that has been incubated for a period sufficient for the embryo to reach a specific stage of development after which it is removed from incubation before hatching.

"Beverage" means a liquid for drinking, including water.

"Board" means the Board of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Bottled drinking water" means water that is sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water.

"Casing" means a tubular container for sausage products made of either natural or artificial (synthetic) material.

"Certification number" means a unique combination of letters and numbers assigned by a shellfish control authority to a molluscan shellfish dealer according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. 

"CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations. Citations in this chapter to the CFR refer sequentially to the title, part, and section numbersfor. For ] example, 40 CFR 180.194 refers to Title 40, Part 180, Section 194.

"CIP" means cleaned in place by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and sanitize a frozen dessert machine. "CIP" does not include the cleaning of equipment such as band saws, slicers, or mixers that are subjected to in-place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system.

"CFR" means Code of Federal Regulations. Citations in this regulation to the CFR refer sequentially to the title, part, and section numbers, such as 21 CFR 178.1010 refers to Title 21, Part 178, Section 1010.

"Code of Federal Regulations" means the compilation of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government that:

1. Is published annually by the U.S. Government Printing Office; and

2. Contains FDA rules in 21 CFR, USDA rules in 7 CFR and 9 CFR, EPA rules in 40 CFR, and Wildlife and Fisheries rules in 50 CFR.

"Commingle" means:

1. To combine shellstock harvested on different days or from different growing areas as identified on the tag or label; or

2. To combine shucked shellfish from containers with different container codes or different shucking dates.

"Comminuted" means reduced in size by methods including chopping, flaking, grinding, or mincing. "Comminuted" includes (i) fish or meat products that are reduced in size and restructured or reformulated such as gefilte fish, gyros, ground beef, and sausage; and (ii) a mixture of two or more types of meat that have been reduced in size and combined, such as sausages made from two or more meats.

"Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Services, his duly designated officer, or his agent.

"Conditional employee" means a potential food employee to whom a job offer is made, conditional on responses to subsequent medical questions or examinations designed to identify potential food employees who may be suffering from a disease that can be transmitted through food and done in compliance with Title 1 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

"Confirmed disease outbreak" means a foodborne disease outbreak in which laboratory analysis of appropriate specimens identifies a causative organism or chemical agent and epidemiological analysis implicates the food as the source of the illness.

"Consumer" means a person who is a member of the public, takes possession of food, is not functioning in the capacity of an operator of a food establishment or food processing plant, and does not offer the food for resale.

"Core item" means a provision in this chapter that is not designated as a priority item or a priority foundation item. "Core item" includes an item that usually relates to general sanitation, operational controls, sanitation standard operating procedures, facilities or structures, equipment design, or general maintenance.

"Corrosion-resistant materials" means a material that maintains acceptable surface cleanability characteristics under prolonged influence of the food to be contacted, the normal use of cleaning compounds and sanitizing solutions, and other conditions of the use environment.

"Counter-mounted equipment" means equipment that is not easily movable portable and is designed to be mounted off the floor on a table, counter, or shelf.

"Critical control point" means a point or procedure in a specific food system where loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk.

"Critical item" means a provision of this regulation that, if in noncompliance, is more likely than other violations to contribute to food contamination, illness, or environmental health hazard. "Critical item" is an item that is denoted in this regulation with an asterisk (*).

"Critical limit" means the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical parameter must be controlled at a critical control point to minimize the risk that the identified food safety hazard may occur.

"Cut leafy greens" means fresh leafy greens whose leaves have been cut, shredded, sliced, chopped, or torn. The term "leafy greens" includes iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, leaf lettuce, butter lettuce, baby leaf lettuce (i.e., immature lettuce or leafy greens), escarole, endive, spring mix, spinach, cabbage, kale, arugula, and chard. The term "leafy greens" does not include herbs such as cilantro or parsley.

"Dealer" means a person who is authorized by a shellfish control authority for the activities of a shellstock shipper, shucker-packer, repacker, reshipper, or depuration processor of molluscan shellfish according to the provisions of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Disclosure" means a written statement that clearly identifies the animal-derived foods that are, or can be ordered, raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens in their entirety, or items that contain an ingredient that is raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens.

 [ "Drinking water" means water that meets the "water quality standards" requirements for bacteria and nitrates of the Virginia Waterworks Regulations (12VAC5-590). Drinking water is traditionally known as "potable water." Drinking water includes the term water except where the term used connotes that the water is not potable, such as "boiler water," "mop water," "rainwater," "wastewater," and ] "nondrinking" water"nondrinking water." ]

"Dry storage area" means a room or area designated for the storage of packaged or containerized bulk food that is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food and dry goods such as single-service items.

"Easily cleanable" means a characteristic of a surface that:

1. Allows effective removal of soil by normal cleaning methods;

2. Is dependent on the material, design, construction, and installation of the surface; and

3. Varies with the likelihood of the surface's role in introducing pathogenic or toxigenic agents or other contaminants into food based on the surface's approved placement, purpose, and use.

"Easily cleanable" includes a tiered application of the criteria that qualify the surface as easily cleanable as specified above in this definition to different situations in which varying degrees of cleanability are required such as:

1. The appropriateness of stainless steel for a food preparation surface as opposed to the lack of need for stainless steel to be used for floors or for tables used for consumer dining; or

2. The need for a different degree of cleanability for a utilitarian attachment or accessory in the kitchen as opposed to a decorative attachment or accessory in the consumer dining area.

"Easily movable" means:

1. Portable; mounted on casters, gliders, or rollers; or provided with a mechanical means to safely tilt a unit of equipment for cleaning; and

2. Having no utility connection, a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to allow the equipment to be moved for cleaning of the equipment and adjacent area.

"Egg" means the shell egg of avian species such as chicken, duck, goose, guinea, quail, ratites, or turkey. Egg does not include a balut, egg of the reptile species such as alligator, or an egg product.

"Egg product" means all, or a portion of, the contents found inside eggs separated from the shell and pasteurized in a food processing plant, with or without added ingredients, intended for human consumption, such as dried, frozen, or liquid eggs. Egg product does not include food that contains eggs only in a relatively small proportion such as cake mixes.

"Employee" means the operator, person in charge, food employee, person having supervisory or management duties, person on the payroll, family member, volunteer, person performing work under contractual agreement, or other person working in a food establishment.

"Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)" means E. coli, which cause hemorrhagic colitis, meaning bleeding enterically or bleeding from the intestine. The term is typically used in association with E. coli that have the capacity to produce Shiga toxins and to cause attaching and effacing lesion in the intestine. EHEC is a subset of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), whose members produce additional virulence factors. Infections with EHEC may be asymptomatic but are classically associated with bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis) and hemolytic euremic syndrome (HUS) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Examples of serotypes of EHEC include: E. coli O157:H7; E. coli O157:NM; E. coli O26:H11; E. coli O145:NM; E. coli O103:H2; or E. coli O111:NM. Also see Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

"EPA" means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

"Equipment" means an article that is used in the operation of a food establishment. "Equipment" includes, but is not limited to, items, such as a freezer, grinder, hood, ice maker, meat block, mixer, oven, reach-in refrigerator, scale, sink, slicer, stove, table, temperature measuring device for ambient air, vending machine, or warewashing machine.

"Equipment" does not include items apparatuses used for handling or storing large quantities of packaged foods that are received from a supplier in a cased or overwrapped lot, such as hand trucks, forklifts, dollies, pallets, racks, and skids.

"Exclude" means to prevent a person from working as a food an employee in a food establishment or entering a food establishment as an employee.

"°F" means degrees Fahrenheit.

"FDA" means the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

"Fish" means fresh or saltwater finfish, crustaceans, and other forms of aquatic life (including alligator, frog, aquatic turtle, jellyfish, sea cucumber, and sea urchin and the roe of such animals) other than birds or mammals; all mollusks, if such animal life is intended for human consumption; and includes any edible human food product derived in whole or in part from fish, including fish that has been processed in any manner.

"Food" means (i) a raw, cooked, or processed edible substance, ice, beverage, or ingredient used or intended for use or for sale in whole or in part for human consumption or (ii) chewing gum.

"Foodborne disease outbreak" means the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food.

"Food-contact surface" means a surface of equipment or a utensil with which food normally comes into contact, or a surface of equipment or a utensil from which food may drain, drip, or splash into a food, or onto a surface normally in contact with food.

"Food employee" means an individual working with unpackaged food, food equipment or utensils, or food-contact surfaces.

"Food establishment," as used in this regulation, means an operation that stores, prepares, packages, serves, vends food directly to the consumer, or otherwise offers for retail sale provides food for human consumption (i) such as a market;, restaurant;, satellite or catered feeding location;, catering operation if the operation provides food directly to a consumer or to a conveyance used to transport people;, vending location;, conveyance used to transport people;, institution;, or food bank and (ii) that relinquishes possession of a food to a consumer directly, or indirectly through a delivery service such as home delivery of grocery orders or restaurant take out takeout orders, or delivery service that is provided by common carriers.

"Food establishment," as used in this regulation, includes (i) an element of the operation such as a transportation vehicle or a central preparation facility that supplies a vending location or satellite feeding location and (ii) an operation that is conducted in a mobile, stationary, temporary, or permanent facility or location, where consumption is on or off the premises.

"Food establishment," as used in this regulation, does not include:

1. An establishment that offers only prepackaged foods that are not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety foods;

2. A produce stand that only offers whole, uncut fresh fruits and vegetables;

3. A food processing plant, including those that are located on the premises of a food establishment;

4. A food warehouse;

5. A kitchen in a private home; or

6. A private home that receives catered or home delivered food.

"Food processing plant" means a commercial operation that manufactures, packages, labels, or stores food for human consumption and provides food for sale or distribution to other business entities such as food processing plants or food establishments. "Food processing plant" does not include a "food establishment" as previously defined in this section. establishment."

"Game animal" means an animal, the products of which are food, that is not classified as cattle, (i) livestock, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine in 9 CFR Part 301, Definitions, as Poultry in 9 CFR Part 381, Poultry Products Inspection Regulations, or as fish as previously defined in this section. 301.2; (ii) poultry; or (iii) fish. "Game animal" includes mammals such as reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, bison, rabbit, squirrel, opossum, raccoon, nutria, or muskrat, and nonaquatic reptiles such as land snakes. "Game animal" does not include ratites such as ostrich, emu, and rhea.

"General use pesticide" means a pesticide that is not classified by EPA for restricted use as specified in 40 CFR 152.175.

"Grade A standards" means the requirements of the United States Public Health Service/FDA "Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (2003)", 2013 Revision, (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and "Grade A Condensed and Dry Milk Ordinance (1995)" with which certain fluid and dry milk and milk products comply.

"HACCP Plan" plan" means a written document that delineates the formal procedures for following the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles developed by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.

"Handwashing sink" means a lavatory, a basin or vessel for washing, a wash basin, or a plumbing fixture especially placed for use in personal hygiene and designed for the washing of hands. Handwashing sink includes an automatic handwashing facility.

"Hazard" means a biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause an unacceptable consumer health risk.

"Health practitioner" means a physician licensed to practice medicine, or if allowed by law, a nurse practitioner, physician assistant, or similar medical profession professional.

"Hermetically sealed container" means a container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms and, in the case of low acid canned foods, to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processing.

"Highly susceptible population" means persons who are more likely than other people in the general population to experience foodborne disease because they are (i) immunocompromised; preschool age children, or older adults; and (ii) obtaining food at a facility that provides services such as custodial care, health care, or assisted living, such as a child or adult day care center, kidney dialysis center, hospital or nursing home, or nutritional or socialization services such as a senior center.

"Imminent health hazard" means a significant threat or danger to health that is considered to exist when there is evidence sufficient to show that a product, practice, circumstance, or event creates a situation that requires immediate correction or cessation of operation to prevent injury based on the number of potential injuries, and the nature, severity, and duration of the anticipated injury.

"Injected" means tenderizing a meat with deep penetration or injecting the meat such as with juices that may be referred to as "injecting," "pinning," or "stitch pumping." During injection infectious or toxigenic microorganisms may be introduced from its surface to its interior. manipulating meat to which a solution has been introduced into its interior by processes such as "injecting," "pump marinating," or "stitch pumping."

"Juice" means the aqueous liquid expressed or extracted from one or more fruits or vegetables, purées of the edible portions of one or more fruits or vegetables, or any concentrate of such liquid or purée. Juice does not include, for purposes of HACCP, liquids, purées, or concentrates that are not used as beverages or ingredients of beverages.

"Kitchenware" means food preparation and storage utensils.

"Law" means applicable local, state, and federal statutes, regulations, and ordinances.

"Linens" means fabric items such as cloth hampers, cloth napkins, table cloths, wiping cloths, and work garments, including cloth gloves.

"Major food allergen" means milk, egg, fish (such as bass, flounder, cod, and including crustacean shellfish such as crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (such as almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans; or a food ingredient that contains protein derived from one of these foods. Major food allergen does not include (i) any highly refined oil derived from a major food allergen in this definition and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil; or (ii) any ingredient that is exempt under the petition or notification process specified in the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (P. L. 108-282, Title II, Sec. 201) (Pub. L. No. 108-282).

"Meat" means the flesh of animals used as food including the dressed flesh of cattle, swine, sheep, or goats and other edible animals, except fish, poultry, and wild game animals as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2 and 3 and 4.

"Mechanically tenderized" means manipulating meat with deep penetration by processes that may be referred to as "blade tenderizing," "jaccarding," "pinning," "needling," or using blades, pins, needles or any mechanical device. "Mechanically tenderized" does not include processes by which solutions are injected into meat.

"mg/L" means milligrams per liter, which is the metric equivalent of parts per million (ppm).

"Molluscan shellfish" means any edible species of fresh or frozen oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops or edible portions thereof, except when the scallop product consists only of the shucked adductor muscle.

"Noncontinuous cooking" means the cooking of food in a food establishment using a process in which the initial heating of the food is intentionally halted so that it may be cooled and held for complete cooking at a later time prior to sale or service. "Noncontinuous cooking" does not include cooking procedures that only involve temporarily interrupting or slowing an otherwise continuous cooking process.

"Operator" means the entity that is legally responsible for the operation of the food establishment such as the owner, the owner's agent, or other person.

"Packaged" means bottled, canned, cartoned, securely bagged, or securely packaged wrapped, whether packaged in a food establishment or a food processing plant. "Packaged" does not include a wrapper, carry-out box, or other nondurable container used to containerize food with the purpose of facilitating food protection during service and receipt of the food by the consumer. wrapped or placed in a carry-out container to protect the food during service or delivery to the consumer, by a food employee, upon consumer request.

"Person" means an association, a corporation, individual, partnership, other legal entity, government, or governmental subdivision or agency.

"Person in charge" means the individual present at a food establishment who is responsible for the operation at the time of inspection.

"Personal care items" means items or substances that may be poisonous, toxic, or a source of contamination and are used to maintain or enhance a person's health, hygiene, or appearance. Personal care items include items such as medicines;, first aid supplies;, and other items such as cosmetics, and toiletries such as toothpaste and mouthwash.

"pH" means the symbol for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, which is a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Values between 0 and 7.0 indicate acidity and values between 7.0 and 14 indicate alkalinity. The value for pure distilled water is 7.0, which is considered neutral.

"Physical facilities" means the structure and interior surfaces of a food establishment including accessories such as soap and towel dispensers and attachments such as light fixtures and heating or air conditioning system vents.

"Plumbing fixture" means a receptacle or device that is permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution system of the premises and demands a supply of water from the system or discharges used water, waste materials, or sewage directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises.

"Plumbing system" means the water supply and distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste, and vent pipes; sanitary and storm sewers and building drains, including their respective connections, devices, and appurtenances within the premises; and water-treating equipment.

"Poisonous or toxic materials" means substances that are not intended for ingestion and are included in four categories:

1. Cleaners and sanitizers, which include cleaning and sanitizing agents and agents such as caustics, acids, drying agents, polishes, and other chemicals;

2. Pesticides, except sanitizers, which include substances such as insecticides and rodenticides;

3. Substances necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment such as nonfood grade lubricants, paints, and personal care items that may be deleterious to health; and

4. Substances that are not necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment and are on the premises for retail sale, such as petroleum products and paints.

"Potable water" means water fit for human consumption that is obtained from an approved water supply and that is (i) sanitary and normally free of minerals, organic substances, and toxic agents in excess of reasonable amounts and (ii) adequate in quantity and quality for the minimum health requirements of the person served. Potable water is traditionally known as drinking water and excludes such nonpotable forms as boiler water, mop water, rainwater, wastewater, and nondrinking water. ]

"Potentially hazardous food (time/temperature control for safety food)" means a food that requires time/temperature control for safety (TCS) to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation:

1. Potentially hazardous food (time/temperature control for safety food) includes an animal food that is raw or heat-treated; a plant food that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts, cut melons, cut tomatoes, or mixtures of cut tomatoes that are not modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation, or garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation; and except as specified in subdivision 2 of this definition, a food that because of the interaction of its Aw and pH values is designated as Product Assessment Required (PA) in Table A or B of this definition:

Table A. Interaction of pH and Aw for control of spores in food heat treated to destroy vegetative cells and subsequently packaged.

Aw values

pH values

4.6 or less

>4.6-5.6

>5.6

<0.92

non-PHF*/non-TCS food**

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

> 0.92-0.95

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

PA***

>0.95

non-PHF/non-TCS food

PA

PA

*PHF means Potentially Hazardous Food

**TCS means Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food

***PA means Product Assessment required

 

Table B. Interaction of pH and Aw for control of vegetative cells and spores in food not heat treated or heat treated but not packaged.

Aw values

pH values

< 4.2

4.2 - 4.6

> 4.6 - 5.0

> 5.0

<0.88

non-PHF*/non-TCS food**

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

0.88-0.90

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

PA***

>0.90-0.92

non-PHF/non-TCS food

non-PHF/non-TCS food

PA

PA

>0.92

non-PHF/non-TCS food

PA

PA

PA

*PHF means Potentially Hazardous Food

**TCS means Time/Temperature Control for Safety Food

***PA means Product Assessment required

2. Potentially hazardous food (time/temperature control for safety food) does not include:

a. An air-cooled hard-boiled egg with shell intact, or an egg with shell intact that is not hard boiled, but has been pasteurized to destroy all viable Salmonellae;

b. A food in an unopened hermetically sealed container that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of nonrefrigerated storage and distribution;

c. A food that because of its pH or Aw value, or interaction of Aw and pH values, is designated as a non-PHF/non-TCS food in Table A or B of this definition;

d. A food that is designated as Product Assessment required (PA) in Table A or B of this definition and has undergone a Product Assessment showing that the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms that are reasonably likely to occur in that food is precluded due to:

(1) Intrinsic factors including added or natural characteristics of the food such as preservatives, antimicrobials, humectants, acidulants, or nutrients;

(2) Extrinsic factors including environmental or operational factors that affect the food such as packaging, modified atmosphere such as reduced oxygen packaging, shelf-life and use, or temperature range of storage and use; or

(3) A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors; or

e. A food that does not support the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms in accordance with one of the subdivisions 2 a through 2 d of this definition even though the food may contain a pathogenic microorganism or chemical or physical contaminant at a level sufficient to cause illness or injury.

"Poultry" means any domesticated bird (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, or guineas), guineas, ratites, or squabs), whether live or dead, as defined in 9 CFR Part 381, Poultry Products Inspection Regulations, 381.1 and any migratory waterfowl, game bird, or squab such as pheasant, partridge, quail, grouse, or guineas, or pigeon or squab, whether live or dead, as defined in 9 CFR Part 362 362.1, Voluntary Poultry Inspection Regulations. "Poultry" does not include ratites.

"Premises" means the physical facility, its contents, and the contiguous land or property under the control of the operator or person in charge or the physical facility, its contents, and the land or property not described above if its facilities and contents are under the control of the operator and may impact food establishment personnel, facilities, or operations, and a food establishment is only one component of a larger operation.

"Primal cut" means a basic major cut into which carcasses and sides of meat are separated, such as a beef round, pork loin, lamb flank, or veal breast.

"Priority item" means a provision in this chapter whose application contributes directly to the elimination, prevention, or reduction to an acceptable level of hazards associated with foodborne illness or injury and there is no other provision that more directly controls the hazard. "Priority item" includes items with a quantifiable measure to show control of hazards such as cooking, reheating, cooling, and handwashing and is denoted in this chapter with a superscript Pp.

"Priority foundation item" means a provision in this chapter whose application supports, facilitates, or enables one or more priority items. "Priority foundation item" includes an item that requires the purposeful incorporation of specific actions, equipment, or procedures by industry management to attain control of risk factors that contribute to foodborne illness or injury such as personnel training, infrastructure or necessary equipment, HACCP plans, documentation or recordkeeping, and labeling and is denoted in this chapter with a superscript PfPf.

 [ "Public water system" has the meaning stated in 40 CFR Part 141, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

"Private well" means any water well constructed for a person on land that is owned or leased by that person and is usually intended for household, groundwater source heat pump, agricultural use, industrial use, or other nonpublic water well.

"Pure water" means potable water fit for human consumption that is (i) sanitary and normally free of minerals, organic substances, and toxic agents in excess of reasonable amounts and (ii) adequate in quantity and quality for the minimum health requirements of the persons served. Potable water is traditionally known as drinking water and excludes such nonpotable forms as boiler water, mop water, rainwater, wastewater, and nondrinking water. ]

"Ratite" means a flightless bird such as an emu, ostrich, or rhea.

"Ready-to-eat food" means food that:

1. (i) Is in a form that is edible without additional preparation to achieve food safety, as specified under subsections A through C of 2VAC5-585-700 or A, B, and C; 2VAC5-585-710; or 2VAC5-585-730; (ii) is a raw or partially cooked animal food and the consumer is advised as specified under subdivisions D 1 and D 2 of 2VAC5-585-700 D 1 and D 3; or (iii) is prepared in accordance with a variance that is granted as specified under subdivisions D 1 and D 3 of 2VAC5-585-700 D 4; and

2. May receive additional preparation for palatability or aesthetic, epicurean, gastronomic, or culinary purposes.

"Ready-to-eat food" includes:

1. Raw animal food that is cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 or 2VAC5-585-710, or frozen as specified under 2VAC5-585-730;

2. Raw fruits and vegetables that are washed as specified under 2VAC5-585-510;

3. Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding, as specified under 2VAC5-585-720;

4. All potentially hazardous food time/temperature control for safety food that is cooked to the temperature and time required for the specific food under Article 4 (2VAC5-585-700 et seq.) of Part III of this regulation chapter and cooled as specified in 2VAC5-585-800;

5. Plant food for which further washing, cooking, or other processing is not required for food safety, and from which rinds, peels, husks, or shells, if naturally present, are removed;

6. Substances derived from plants such as spices, seasonings, and sugar;

7. A bakery item such as bread, cakes, pies, fillings, or icing for which further cooking is not required for food safety;

8. The following products that are produced in accordance with USDA guidelines and that have received a lethality treatment for pathogens: dry, fermented sausages, such as dry salami or pepperoni; salt-cured meat and poultry products, such as prosciutto ham, country cured ham, and Parma ham; and dried meat and poultry products, such as jerky or beef sticks; and

9. Food manufactured according to 21 CFR Part 113, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers.

"Reduced oxygen packaging" means (i) the reduction of the amount of oxygen in a package by removing oxygen; displacing oxygen and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen content to a level below that normally found in the atmosphere (approximately 21% at sea level); and (ii) a process as specified in clause (i) of this definition that involves a food for which the hazards Clostridium botulinum or Listeria monocytogenes require control in the final packaged form.

"Reduced oxygen packaging" includes:

1. Vacuum packaging, in which air is removed from a package of food and the package is hermetically sealed so that a vacuum remains inside the package, such as sous vide;

2. Modified atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that its composition is different from air but the atmosphere may change over time due to the permeability of the packaging material or the respiration of the food. Modified atmosphere packaging includes reduction in the proportion of oxygen, total replacement of oxygen, or an increase in the proportion of other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen;

3. Controlled atmosphere packaging, in which the atmosphere of a package of food is modified so that until the package is opened, its composition is different from air, and continuous control of that atmosphere is maintained, such as by using oxygen scavengers or a combination of total replacement of oxygen, nonrespiring food, and impermeable packaging material;

4. Cook chill packaging, in which cooked food is hot filled into impermeable bags that have the air expelled and are then sealed or crimped closed. The bagged food is rapidly chilled and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychotrophic pathogens; or

5. Sous vide packaging, in which raw or partially cooked food is placed in a hermetically sealed, vacuum packaged in an impermeable bag, cooked in the bag, rapidly chilled, and refrigerated at temperatures that inhibit the growth of psychotrophic pathogens.

"Refuse" means solid waste not carried by water through the sewage system.

"Regulatory authority" means local, state, or federal enforcement body or their authorized representative having jurisdiction over the food establishment.

"Reminder" means a written statement concerning the health risk of consuming animal foods raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens.

"Reservice" means the transfer of food that is unused and returned by a consumer after being served or sold and in the possession of the consumer, to another person.

"Restrict" means to limit the activities of a food employee so that there is no risk of transmitting a disease that is transmissible through food and the food employee does not work with exposed food, clean equipment, utensils, linens, and or unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.

"Restricted egg" means any check, dirty egg, incubator reject, inedible, leaker, or loss as defined in 9 CFR Part 590.

"Restricted use pesticide" means a pesticide product that contains the active ingredients specified in 40 CFR 152.175 (pesticides classified for restricted use) and that is limited to use by or under the direct supervision of a certified applicator.

"Risk" means the likelihood that an adverse health effect will occur within a population as a result of a hazard in a food.

"Safe material" means an article manufactured from or composed of materials that may not reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in their becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food; an additive that is used as specified in § 409 or 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 USC §§ 348 and 376) (21 USC § 348); or other materials that are not additives and that are used in conformity with applicable regulations of the Food and Drug Administration.

"Sanitization" means the application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned food contact food-contact surfaces that, when evaluated for efficacy, is sufficient to yield a 5-log reduction of five logs, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of representative disease microorganisms of public health importance.

"Sealed" means free of cracks or other openings that permit allow the entry or passage of moisture.

"Service animal" means an animal such as a guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individually trained to provide assistance to an individual with a disability.

"Servicing area" means an operating base location to which a mobile food establishment or transportation vehicle returns regularly for such things as vehicle and equipment cleaning, discharging liquid or solid wastes, refilling water tanks and ice bins, and boarding food.

"Sewage" means liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.

"Shellfish control authority" means a state, federal, foreign, tribal, or other government entity legally responsible for administering a program that includes certification of molluscan shellfish harvesters and dealers for interstate commerce.

"Shellstock" means raw, in-shell molluscan shellfish.

"Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli" (STEC) or "STEC" means any E. coli capable of producing Shiga toxins (also called verocytotoxins or "Shiga-like" toxins) verocytotoxins). STEC infections can be asymptomatic or may result in a spectrum of illness ranging from mild nonbloody diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (i.e., bloody diarrhea) to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is a type of kidney failure. Examples of serotypes of STEC include both O157 and non-O157 E.coli. Also see Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.: E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O157:NM, E. coli O26:H11, E. coli O145:NM, E. coli O103:H2, and E. coli O111:NM. STEC are sometimes referred to as VTEC (verocytotoxigenic E. coli) or as EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli). EHEC are a subset of STEC that can cause hemorrhagic colitis or HUS.

"Shucked shellfish" means molluscan shellfish that have one or both shells removed.

"Single-service articles" means tableware, carry-out utensils, and other items such as bags, containers, placemats, stirrers, straws, toothpicks, and wrappers that are designed and constructed for one time, one person use after which they are intended for discard.

"Single-use articles" means utensils and bulk food containers designed and constructed to be used once and discarded. Single-use articles includes items such as wax paper, butcher paper, plastic wrap, formed aluminum food containers, jars, plastic tubs or buckets, bread wrappers, pickle barrels, ketchup bottles, and number 10 cans that do not meet the materials, durability, strength, and cleanability specifications under 2VAC5-585-960, 2VAC5-585-1080, and 2VAC5-585-1100 for multiuse utensils.

"Slacking" means the process of moderating the temperature of a food such as allowing a food to gradually increase from a temperature of -10°F (-23°C) to 25°F (-4°C) in preparation for deep-fat frying or to facilitate even heat penetration during the cooking of previously block-frozen food such as spinach shrimp.

"Smooth" means a food-contact surface having a surface free of pits and inclusions with a cleanability equal to or exceeding that of (100 grit) number three stainless steel; a nonfood-contact surface of equipment having a surface equal to that of commercial grade hot-rolled steel free of visible scale; and a floor, wall, or ceiling having an even or level surface with no roughness or projections that render it difficult to clean.

"Tableware" means eating, drinking, and serving utensils for table use such as flatware including forks, knives, and spoons; hollowware including bowls, cups, serving dishes, and tumblers; and plates.

"Temperature measuring device" means a thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of food, air, or water.

"Temporary food establishment" means a food establishment that operates for a period of no more than 14 consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration.

"Time/temperature control for safety food" or "TCS" (formerly "potentially hazardous food") means a food that requires time/temperature control for safety to limit pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation:

1. Time/temperature control for safety food includes an animal food that is raw or heat treated; a plant food that is heat treated or consists of raw seed sprouts, cut melons, cut leafy greens, cut tomatoes or mixtures of cut tomatoes that are not modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation, or garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way so that they are unable to support pathogenic microorganism growth or toxin formation; and except as specified in subdivision 2 d of this definition, a food that because of the interaction of its Aw and pH values is designated as product assessment required (PA) in Table A or B of this definition:

Table A. Interaction of pH and Aw for control of spores in food heat treated to destroy vegetative cells and subsequently packaged.

Aw values

pH values

4.6 or less

>4.6-5.6

>5.6

≤0.92

non-TCS food*

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

>0.92‑0.95

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

PA**

>0.95

non-TCS food

PA

PA

*TCS means time/temperature control for safety food

**PA means product assessment required

 

Table B. Interaction of pH and Aw for control of vegetative cells and spores in food not heat treated or heat treated but not packaged.

Aw values

pH values

< 4.2

4.2 - 4.6

> 4.6 - 5.0

> 5.0

<0.88

non-TCS food*

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

0.88‑0.90

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

PA**

>0.90‑0.92

non-TCS food

non-TCS food

PA

PA

>0.92

non-TCS food

PA

PA

PA

*TCS means time/temperature control for safety food

**PA means product assessment required

2. Time/temperature control for safety food does not include:

a. An air-cooled hard-boiled egg with shell intact, or an egg with shell intact that is not hard boiled, but has been pasteurized to destroy all viable salmonellae;

b. A food in an unopened hermetically sealed container that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of nonrefrigerated storage and distribution;

c. A food that because of its pH or Aw value, or interaction of Aw and pH values, is designated as a non-TCS food in Table A or B of this definition;

d. A food that is designated as PA in Table A or B of this definition and has undergone a product assessment showing that the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms that are reasonably likely to occur in that food is precluded due to:

(1) Intrinsic factors including added or natural characteristics of the food such as preservatives, antimicrobials, humectants, acidulants, or nutrients;

(2) Extrinsic factors including environmental or operational factors that affect the food such as packaging, modified atmosphere such as reduced oxygen packaging, shelf-life and use, or temperature range of storage and use; or

(3) A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors; or

e. A food that does not support the growth or toxin formation of pathogenic microorganisms in accordance with one of the subdivisions 2 a through 2 d of this definition even though the food may contain a pathogenic microorganism or chemical or physical contaminant at a level sufficient to cause illness or injury.

"USDA" means the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

"Utensil" means a food-contact implement or container used in the storage, preparation, transportation, dispensing, sale, or service of food, such as kitchenware or tableware that is multiuse, single service, or single use; gloves used in contact with food; temperature sensing probes of food temperature measuring devices; and probe-type price or identification tags used in contact with food.

"Variance" means a written document issued by the department that authorizes a modification or waiver of one or more requirements of this chapter if, in the opinion of the department, a health hazard or nuisance will not result from the modification or waiver.

"Vending machine" means a self-service device that, upon insertion of a coin, paper currency, token, card, or key, or by optional manual operation, dispenses unit servings of food in bulk or in packages without the necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation.

"Vending machine location" means the room, enclosure, space, or area where one or more vending machines are installed and operated and includes the storage and servicing areas on the premises that are used in conjunction with the vending machines areas and areas on the premises that are used to service and maintain the vending machines.

"Warewashing" means the cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment and utensils.

 [ "Waterworks" means a system that serves piped water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections or 25 or more individuals for at least 60 days out of the year.  Waterworks includes all structures, equipment, and appurtenances used in the storage, collection, purification, treatment, and distribution of potable water except the piping and fixtures inside the building where such water is delivered. ]

"Whole-muscle, intact beef" means whole muscle beef that is not injected, mechanically tenderized, reconstructed, or scored and marinated, from which beef steaks may be cut.

2VAC5-585-50

Part II
Management and Personnel

Article 1
Supervision

2VAC5-585-50. Assignment of responsibility.*

The A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, the operator shall be the person in charge or shall designate a person in charge and shall ensure that a person in charge is present at the food establishment during all hours of operation.Pf

B. In a food establishment with two or more separately inspected departments that are the legal responsibility of the same operator and that are located on the same premises, the operator may, during specific time periods when food is not being prepared, packaged, or served, designate a single person in charge who is present on the premises during all hours of operation, and who is responsible for each separately inspected food establishment on the premises.Pf

2VAC5-585-55

 [ 2VAC5-585-55. Certified food protection manager.

A. At least one employee who has supervisory and management responsibility and the authority to direct and control food preparation and service shall be a certified food protection manager who has shown proficiency of required information through passing a test that is part of an accredited program.

B. This section does not apply to certain types of food establishments deemed by the regulatory authority to pose minimal risk of causing, or contributing to, foodborne illness based on the nature of the operation and extent of food preparation.

C. For purposes of enforcing this section, this requirement will take effect insert date 18 months after the effective date of this chapter.

2VAC5-585-57

2VAC5-585-57. Food protection manager certification.

A. A person in charge who demonstrates knowledge by being a food protection manager and is certified by a food protection manager certification program that is evaluated and listed by a Conference for Food Protection-recognized accrediting agency as conforming to the Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, (Conference for Food Protection) is deemed to comply with subdivision 2 of 2VAC5-585-60.

B. A food establishment that has an employee who is certified by a food protection manager certification program that is evaluated and listed by a Conference for Food Protection-recognized accrediting agency as conforming to the Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, (Conference for Food Protection) is deemed to comply with 2VAC5-585-55. ]

2VAC5-585-60

2VAC5-585-60. Demonstration.*

Based on the risks of foodborne illness inherent to the food operation, during inspections and upon request the person in charge shall demonstrate to the department knowledge of foodborne disease prevention, application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles, and the requirements of this regulation chapter. The person in charge shall demonstrate this knowledge by:

1. Complying with this regulation chapter by having no violations of priority items during the current inspection;Pf

2. Being a certified food protection manager who has shown proficiency of required information through passing a test that is part of an accredited program;Pf or

3. Responding correctly to the inspector's questions as they relate to the specific food operation. The areas of knowledge include:

a. Describing the relationship between the prevention of foodborne disease and the personal hygiene of a food employee;Pf

b. Explaining the responsibility of the person in charge for preventing the transmission of foodborne disease by a food employee who has a disease or medical condition that may cause foodborne disease;Pf

c. Describing the symptoms associated with the diseases that are transmissible through food;Pf

d. Explaining the significance of the relationship between maintaining the time and temperature of potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food and the prevention of foodborne illness;Pf

e. Explaining the hazards involved in the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and fish;Pf

f. Stating the required food temperatures and times for safe cooking of potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food including meat, poultry, eggs, and fish;Pf

g. Stating the required temperatures and times for the safe refrigerated storage, hot holding, cooling, and reheating of potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food;Pf

h. Describing the relationship between the prevention of foodborne illness and the management and control of the following:

(1) Cross contamination;Pf

(2) Hand contact with ready-to-eat foods;Pf

(3) Handwashing;Pf and

(4) Maintaining the food establishment in a clean condition and in good repair;Pf

i. Describing the foods identified as major food allergens and the symptoms that a major food allergen could cause in a sensitive individual who has an allergic reaction;Pf

j. Explaining the relationship between food safety and providing equipment that is:

(1) Sufficient in number and capacity;Pf and

(2) Properly designed, constructed, located, installed, operated, maintained, and cleaned;Pf

k. Explaining correct procedures for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment;Pf

l. Identifying the source of water used and measures taken to ensure that it remains protected from contamination such as providing protection from backflow and precluding the creation of cross connections;Pf

m. Identifying poisonous or toxic materials in the food establishment and the procedures necessary to ensure that they are safely stored, dispensed, used, and disposed of according to law;Pf

n. Identifying critical control points in the operation from purchasing through sale or service that when not controlled may contribute to the transmission of foodborne illness and explaining steps taken to ensure that the points are controlled in accordance with the requirements of this regulation chapter;Pf

o. Explaining the details of how the person in charge and food employees comply with the HACCP plan if a plan is required by the law, this regulation chapter, or an agreement between the department and the food establishment;Pf

p. Explaining the responsibilities, rights, and authorities assigned by this regulation chapter to the:

(1) Food employee;Pf

(2) Conditional employee;Pf

(3) Person in charge;Pf and

(3) (4) Department;Pf and

q. Explaining how the person in charge, food employees, and conditional employees comply with reporting responsibilities and the exclusion or restriction of food employees.Pf

2VAC5-585-65

 [ 2VAC5-585-65. Certified food protection manager.

A. At least one employee who has supervisory and management responsibility and the authority to direct and control food preparation and service shall be a certified food protection manager who has shown proficiency of required information through passing a test that is part of an accredited program.

B. This section does not apply to certain types of food establishments deemed by the regulatory authority to pose minimal risk of causing, or contributing to, foodborne illness based on the nature of the operation and extent of food preparation.

C. For purposes of enforcing this section, this requirement will take effect July 1, 2018.

2VAC5-585-67

2VAC5-585-67. Food protection manager certification.

A. A person in charge who demonstrates knowledge by being a food protection manager and is certified by a food protection manager certification program that is evaluated and listed by a Conference for Food Protection-recognized accrediting agency as conforming to the Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, (Conference for Food Protection) is deemed to comply with subdivision 2 of 2VAC5-585-60.

B. A food establishment that has an employee who is certified by a food protection manager certification program that is evaluated and listed by a Conference for Food Protection-recognized accrediting agency as conforming to the Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, (Conference for Food Protection) is deemed to comply with 2VAC5-585-65. ]

2VAC5-585-70

2VAC5-585-70. Duties of person in charge.

The person in charge shall ensure that:

1. Food establishment operations are not conducted in a private home or in a room used as living or sleeping quarters as specified under 2VAC5-585-2990;Pf

2. Persons unnecessary to the food establishment operation are not allowed in the food preparation, food storage, or warewashing areas, except that brief visits and tours may be authorized by the person in charge if steps are taken to ensure that exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles are protected from contamination;Pf

3. Employees and other persons such as delivery and maintenance persons and pesticide applicators entering the food preparation, food storage, and warewashing areas comply with this regulation chapter;Pf

4. Employees are effectively cleaning their hands, by routinely monitoring the employees' handwashing;Pf

5. Employees are visibly observing foods as they are received to determine that they are from approved sources, delivered at the required temperatures, protected from contamination, unadulterated, and accurately presented, by routinely monitoring the employees' observations and periodically evaluating foods upon their receipt;Pf

6. Employees are verifying that foods delivered to the food establishment during nonoperating hours are from approved sources and are placed into appropriate storage locations such that they are maintained at the required temperatures, protected from contamination, unadulterated, and accurately presented;Pf

7. Employees are properly cooking potentially hazardous food time/temperature control for safety food, being particularly careful in cooking those foods known to cause severe foodborne illness and death, such as eggs and comminuted meats, through daily oversight of the employees' routine monitoring of the cooking temperatures using appropriate temperature measuring devices properly scaled and calibrated as specified under 2VAC5-585-1180 and 2VAC5-585-1730 B;Pf

7. 8. Employees are using proper methods to rapidly cool potentially hazardous foods time/temperature control for safety foods that are not held hot or are not for consumption within four hours, through daily oversight of the employees' routine monitoring of food temperatures during cooling;Pf

8. 9.Employees are properly maintaining the temperatures of time/temperature control for safety food during hot and cold holding through daily oversight of the employees' routine monitoring of food temperatures;Pf

10. ] Consumers who order raw or partially cooked ready-to-eat foods of animal origin are informed as specified under 2VAC5-585-930 that the food is not cooked sufficiently to ensure its safety;Pf

9.10. 11. ] Employees are properly sanitizing cleaned multiuse equipment and utensils before they are reused, through routine monitoring of solution temperature and exposure time for hot water sanitizing, and chemical concentration, pH, temperature, and exposure time for chemical sanitizing;Pf

10.11. 12. ] Consumers are notified that clean tableware is to be used when they return to self-service areas such as salad bars and buffets as specified under 2VAC5-585-590;Pf

11.12. 13. ] Except when otherwise approved approval is obtained from the department as specified in 2VAC5-585-450 B E, employees are preventing cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food with bare hands by properly using suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves, or dispensing equipment;Pf

12.13. 14. ] Employees are properly trained in food safety, including food allergy awareness, as it relates to their assigned duties; andPf

13.14. 15. ] Food employees and conditional employees are informed in a verifiable manner of their responsibility to report in accordance with law, to the person in charge, information about their health and activities as they relate to diseases that are transmissible through food, as specified under 2VAC5-585-80. A;Pf and

15. 16. ] Written procedures and plans where specified by this chapter and as developed by the food establishment are maintained and implemented as required.Pf

2VAC5-585-80

Article 2
Employee Health

2VAC5-585-80. Responsibility of the operator, person in charge, and conditional employees.*

A. The person in charge operator shall require food employees and conditional employees to report to the person in charge information about their health and activities as they relate to diseases that are transmissible through food. A food employee or conditional employee shall report the information in a manner that allows the person in charge to reduce the risk of foodborne disease transmission, including providing necessary additional information, such as the date of onset of symptoms and an illness, or of a diagnosis without symptoms, if the food employee or conditional employee:

1. Has any of the following symptoms:

a. Vomiting;P

b. Diarrhea;P

c. Jaundice;P

d. Sore throat with fever;P or

e. A lesion containing pus such as a boil or infected wound that is open or draining and is:

(1) On the hands or wrists, unless an impermeable cover such as a finger cot or stall protects the lesion and a single-use glove is worn over the impermeable cover;P

(2) On exposed portions of the arms, unless the lesion is protected by an impermeable cover;P or

(3) On other parts of the body, unless the lesion is covered by a dry, durable, tight-fitting bandage;P

2. Has an illness diagnosed by a health practitioner due to:

a. Norovirus;P

b. Hepatitis A virus;P

c. Shigella spp.;P

d. Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; orP

e. [ Salmonella Typhi Typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi) ];P or

f.Nontyphoidal Salmonella Salmonella (nontyphoidal) ];P

3. Had [ a previous illness typhoid fever ], diagnosed by a health practitioner, within the past three months due to Salmonella [ Typhi typhi ], without having received antibiotic therapy, as determined by a health practitioner;P

4. Has been exposed to, or is the suspected source of, a confirmed disease outbreak, because the food employee or conditional employee consumed or prepared food implicated in the outbreak, or consumed food at an event prepared by a person who is infected or ill with:

a. Norovirus within the past 48 hours of the last exposure;P

b. Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, or Shigella spp. within the past three days of the last exposure;P

c. [ Salmonella Typhi Typhoid fever ] within the past 14 days of the last exposure;P or

d. Hepatitis A virus within the past 30 days of the last exposure;P or

5. Has been exposed by attending or working in a setting where there is a confirmed disease outbreak, or living in the same household as, and has knowledge about an individual who works or attends a setting where there is a confirmed disease outbreak, or living in the same household as, and has knowledge about, an individual diagnosed with an illness caused by:

a. Norovirus within the past 48 hours of the last exposure;P

b. Enterohemorragic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, or Shigella spp. within the past three days of the last exposure;P

c. [ Salmonella Typhi Typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi) ] within the past 14 days of the last exposure;P or

d. Hepatitis A virus within the past 30 days of the last exposure.P

B. The person in charge shall notify the regulatory authority department when a food employee is:

1. Jaundiced;Pf or

2. Diagnosed with an illness due to a pathogen as specified under subdivisions A 2 a through e f of this section.Pf

C. The person in charge shall ensure that a conditional employee:

1. Who exhibits or reports a symptom, or who reports a diagnosed illness as specified under subdivisions A 2 a through e A 1 through 3 of this section, is prohibited from becoming a food employee until the conditional employee meets the criteria for the specific symptoms or diagnosed illness as specified under 2VAC5-585-100;P and

2. Who will work as a food employee in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population and reports a history of exposure as specified under subdivisions A 4 and 5 of this section, is prohibited from becoming a food employee until the conditional employee meets the criteria specified under subdivision 9 10 of 2VAC5-585-100.P

D. The person in charge shall ensure that a food employee who exhibits or reports a symptom, or who reports a diagnosed illness or a history of exposure as specified under subdivision subsection A 1 through 5 of this section is:

1. Excluded as specified under subdivisions 1 through 3 and 4 a, 5 a, 6 a, or 7, or 8 a of 2VAC5-585-90 and in compliance with the provisions specified under subdivisions 1 through 7 8 of 2VAC5-585-100;P or

2. Restricted as specified under subdivisions subdivision 4 b, 5 b, 6 b, 7 b, 8 b, or 9, or 10 of 2VAC5-585-90 and in compliance with the provisions specified under subdivisions 4 through 9 10 of 2VAC5-585-100.P

E. A food employee or conditional employee shall report to the person in charge the information as specified under subsection A of this section.Pf

F. A food employee shall:

1. Comply with an exclusion as specified under subdivisions 1 through 3 and 4 a, 5 a, 6 a, or 7, or 8 a of 2VAC5-585-90, and with the provisions specified under subdivisions 1 through 7 8 of 2VAC5-585-100;P or

2. Comply with a restriction as specified under subdivisons subdivision 4 b, 5 b, 6 b, 7 b, or 8, or 9 b of 2VAC5-585-90 or under subdivision 8, 9, or 10 of 2VAC5-585-90 and comply with the provisions specified under subdivisons subdivisions 4 through 9 10 of 2VAC5-585-100.P

2VAC5-585-90

2VAC5-585-90. Exclusions and restrictions.*

The person in charge shall exclude or restrict a food employee from a food establishment in accordance with the following:

1. Except when the symptom is from a noninfectious condition, exclude a food employee if the food employee is:

a. Symptomatic with vomiting or diarrhea;P or

b. Symptomatic with vomiting or diarrhea and diagnosed with an infection from Norovirus, Shigella spp., or Enterohemorrhagicnontyphoidal ] Salmonella(nontyphoidal) ], or Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.P

2. Exclude a food employee who is:

a. Jaundiced and the onset of jaundice occurred within the last seven calendar days, unless the food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner specifying that the jaundice is not caused by Hepatitis A virus or other fecal-orally transmitted infection;P

b. Diagnosed with an infection from Hepatitis A virus within 14 calendar days from the onset of any illness symptoms, or within seven calendar days of the onset of jaundice;P or

c. Diagnosed with an infection from Hepatitis A virus without developing symptoms.P

3. Exclude a food employee who is diagnosed with [ an infection from Salmonella Typhi typhoid fever ], or reports [ a previous infection with Salmonella Typhi having had typhoid fever ] within the past three months as specified in 2VAC5-585-80 A 3.P

4. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Norovirus and is asymptomatic:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

5. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Shigella spp. and is asymptomatic:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

6. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection from Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and is asymptomatic:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

7. If a food employee is diagnosed with an infection fromnontyphoidal ] Salmonella(nontyphoidal) ] and is asymptomatic, restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population or in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

7. 8. If a food employee is ill with symptoms of acute onset of sore throat with fever:

a. Exclude the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population;P or

b. Restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population.P

8. 9. If a food employee is infected with a skin lesion containing pus such as a boil or infected wound that is open or draining and not properly covered as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 A 1 e, restrict the food employee.P

9. 10. If a food employee is exposed to a foodborne pathogen as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 A 4 or 5, restrict the food employee who works in a food establishment serving a highly susceptible population.P

2VAC5-585-100

2VAC5-585-100. Removal of exclusions and restrictions.

The person in charge shall adhere to the following conditions when removing, adjusting, or retaining the exclusion or restriction of a food employee:

1. Except when a food employee is diagnosed with [ typhoid fever or ] an infection from Hepatitis A virus [ or Salmonella Typhi ]:

a. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 a of 2VAC5-585-90 if the food employee:

(1) Is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours;P or

(2) Provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner that states the symptom is from a noninfectious condition.P

b. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Norovirus and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 2VAC5-585-90 1 b:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 4 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 4 a or b of this section are met.P

c. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Shigella spp. and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 2VAC5-585-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic, for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 5 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in (i) subdivision 5 a or 5 b of this section, or 5 a and c (1) (ii) subdivisions 1 c (1) and 5 a of this section are met.P

d. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection from Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 2VAC5-585-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment not serving a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 6 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is asymptomatic for at least 24 hours and works in a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population, until the conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 6 a or b are met.P

e. If a food employee was diagnosed with an infection fromnontyphoidal ] Salmonella(nontyphoidal) ] and excluded as specified in subdivision 1 b of 2VAC5-585-90:

(1) Restrict the food employee, who is asymptomatic, for at least 30 days until conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 7 a or b of this section are met;P or

(2) Retain the exclusion for the food employee, who is symptomatic, until conditions for reinstatement as specified in subdivision 7 a or b of this section are met.P

2. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 2 of 2VAC5-585-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the regulatory authority department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The food employee has been jaundiced for more than seven calendar days;P

b. The anicteric food employee has been symptomatic with symptoms other than jaundice for more than 14 calendar days;P or

c. The food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Hepatitis A virus infection.P

3. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-90 if:

a. The person in charge obtains approval from the regulatory authority department;P and

b. The food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner that states the food employee is free from S.Salmonella Typhi infection typhoid fever ].P

4. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b or 4 a of 2VAC5-585-90, who was restricted under subdivision 4 b of 2VAC5-585-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the regulatory authority department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Norovirus infection;P

b. The food employee was excluded or restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved, and more than 48 hours have passed since the food employee became symptomatic asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than 48 hours have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

5. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b or 5 a of 2VAC5-585-90 or who was restricted under subdivision 5 b of 2VAC5-585-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the regulatory authority department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of a Shigella spp. infection based on test results showing two consecutive negative stool specimen cultures that are taken:

(1) Not earlier than 48 hours after discontinuance of antibiotics;P and

(2) At least 24 hours apart;P

b. The food employee was excluded or restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved, and more than seven calendar days have passed since the food employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than seven calendar days have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

6. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded or restricted as specified under subdivision 1 b or 6 a of 2VAC5-585-90 or who was restricted under subdivision 6 b of 2VAC5-585-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the regulatory authority department and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of an infection from Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli based on test results that show two consecutive negative stool specimen cultures that are taken:

(1) Not earlier than 48 hours after the discontinuance of antibiotics;P and

(2) At least 24 hours apart;P

b. The food employee was excluded or restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved and more than seven calendar days have passed since the food employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than seven days have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

7. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded as specified under subdivision 1 b of 2VAC5-585-90 or who was restricted under subdivision 7 of 2VAC5-585-90 if the person in charge obtains approval from the departmentP and one of the following conditions is met:

a. The excluded or restricted food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee is free of anontyphoidal ] Salmonella(nontyphoidal) ] infection based on test results showing two consecutive negative stool specimen cultures that are taken:

(1) Not earlier than 48 hours after discontinuance of antibiotics,P and

(2) At least 24 hours apart;P

b. The food employee was restricted after symptoms of vomiting or diarrhea resolved, and more than 30 days have passed since the food employee became asymptomatic;P or

c. The food employee was excluded or restricted and did not develop symptoms and more than 30 days have passed since the food employee was diagnosed.P

7. 8. Reinstate a food employee who was excluded or restricted as specified under subdivision 7 8 a or b of 2VAC5-585-90 if the food employee provides to the person in charge written medical documentation from a health practitioner stating that the food employee meets one of the following conditions:

a. Has received antibiotic therapy for Streptococcus pyogenes infection for more than 24 hours;P

b. Has at least one negative throat specimen culture for Streptococcus pyogenes infection;P or

c. Is otherwise determined by a health practitioner to be free of Streptococcus pyogenes infection.P

8. 9. Reinstate a food employee who was restricted as specified under subdivision 8 9 of 2VAC5-585-90 if the skin, infected wound, cut, or pustular boil is properly covered with one of the following:

a. An impermeable cover such as a finger cot or stall and a single-use glove over the impermeable cover if the infected wound or pustular boil is on the hand, finger, or wrist;P

b. An impermeable cover on the arm if the infected wound or pustular boil is on the arm;P or

c. A dry, durable, tight-fitting bandage if the infected wound or pustular boil is on another part of the body.P

9. 10. Reinstate a food employee who was restricted as specified under subdivision 9 10 of 2VAC5-585-90 and was exposed to one of the following pathogens as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 A 4 or 5:

a. Norovirus and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) More than 48 hours have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P or

(2) More than 48 hours have passed since the food employee's household contact became asymptomatic.P

b. Shigella spp. or Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga-toxin producing Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) More than three calendar days have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P or

(2) More than three calendar days have passed since the food employee's household contact became asymptomatic.P

c. S.Salmonella Typhi typhoid fever (caused by Salmonella typhi) ] and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) More than 14 calendar days have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P or

(2) More than 14 calendar days have passed since the food employee's household contact became asymptomatic.P

d. Hepatitis A virus and one of the following conditions is met:

(1) The food employee is immune to Hepatitis A virus infection because of prior illness from Hepatitis A;P

(2) The food employee is immune to Hepatitis A virus infection because of vaccination against Hepatitis A;P

(3) The food employee is immune to Hepatitis A virus infection because of IgG administration;P

(4) More than 30 calendar days have passed since the last day the food employee was potentially exposed;P

(5) More than 30 calendar days have passed since the food employee's household contact became jaundiced;P or

(6) The food employee does not use an alternative procedure that allows bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food until at least 30 days after the potential exposure, as specified in subdivision 9 10 d (4) and (5) of this section, and the food employee receives additional training about:

(a) Hepatitis A symptoms and preventing the transmission of infection;P

(b) Proper handwashing procedures;P and

(c) Protecting ready-to-eat food from contamination introduced by bare hand contact.P

2VAC5-585-125

 [ 2VAC5-585-125. Clean-up of vomiting and diarrheal events.

 A food establishment shall have procedures for employees to follow when responding to vomiting or diarrheal events that involve the discharge of vomitus or fecal matter onto surfaces in the food establishment.

The procedures shall address the specific actions employees must take to minimize the spread of contamination and the exposure of employees, consumers, food, and surfaces to vomitus or fecal matter.Pf ]

2VAC5-585-130

Article 3
Personal Cleanliness

2VAC5-585-130. Clean condition of hands and arms.*

Food employees shall keep their hands and exposed portions of their arms clean.P

2VAC5-585-140

2VAC5-585-140. Cleaning procedure of hands and arms.*

A. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms (or, including surrogate prosthetic devices for hands or arms) arms for at least 20 seconds, using a cleaning compound in a lavatory handwashing sink that is equipped as specified under 2VAC5-585-2190 and 2VAC5-585-3020 through 2VAC5-585-3045.P

B. Food employees shall use the following cleaning procedure in the order stated to clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms, including surrogate prosthetic devices for hands and arms:

1. Rinse under clean, running warm water;P

2. Apply an amount of cleaning compound recommended by the cleaning compound manufacturer;P

3. Rub together vigorously for at least 10 to 15 seconds while:

a. Paying particular attention to removing soil from underneath the fingernails during the cleaning procedure;P and

b. Creating friction on the surfaces of the hands and arms or surrogate prosthetic devices for hands and arms, finger tips, and areas between the fingers;P

4. Thoroughly rinsing under clean, running warm water;P and

5. Immediately follow the cleaning procedure with thorough drying using a method as specified under 2VAC5-585-3030.P

C. To avoid recontaminating their hands or surrogate prosthetic devices, food employees may use disposable paper towels or similar clean barriers when touching surfaces such as manually operated faucet handles on a handwashing sink or the handle of a restroom door.

D. If approved and capable of removing the types of soils encountered in the food operations involved, an automatic handwashing facility may be used by food employees to clean their hands or surrogate prosthetic devices.

2VAC5-585-160

2VAC5-585-160. When to wash.*

Food employees shall clean their hands and exposed portions of their arms as specified under 2VAC5-585-140 immediately before engaging in food preparation including working with exposed food, clean equipment and utensils, and unwrapped single-service and single-use articlesP and:

1. After touching bare human body parts or hair other than clean hands and clean, exposed portions of arms;P

2. After using the toilet room;P

3. After caring for or handling support service animals or aquatic animals as allowed under 2VAC5-585-250 B;P

4. Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-220 B, after coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief or disposable tissue, using tobacco, eating, or drinking;P

5. After handling soiled equipment or utensils;P

6. During food preparation, as often as necessary to remove soil and contamination and to prevent cross contamination when changing tasks;P

7. When switching between working with raw foods food and working with ready-to-eat foods food;P

8. Before donning gloves for to initiate a task that involves working with food;P and

9. Prior to donning single-use gloves if gloves are used; and

10. After engaging in other activities that contaminate the hands.P

2VAC5-585-170

2VAC5-585-170. Where to wash.

Food employees shall clean their hands in a hand washing lavatory handwashing sink or approved automatic hand washing handwashing facility and may not clean their hands in a sink used for food preparation or warewashing, or in a service sink or a curbed cleaning facility used for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.Pf

2VAC5-585-180

2VAC5-585-180. Hand antiseptics.

A. A hand antiseptic used as a topical application, a hand antiseptic solution used as a hand dip, or a hand antiseptic soap shall:

1. Comply with one of the following:

a. Be an approved drug that is listed in the FDA publication "Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, 34th Edition," 2014, (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) as an approved drug based on safety and effectiveness;Pf or

b. Have active antimicrobial ingredients that are listed in the FDA tentative final monograph for over the counter (OTC) Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products, 59 FR 31402-31452 (June 17, 1994) as an antiseptic handwash;Pf and

2. Comply Consist only of components that the intended use of each complies with one of the following:

a. Have components that are exempted from the requirement of being listed in the federal Food Additive regulations as specified in A threshold of regulation exemption under 21 CFR 170.39 Threshold of regulation for substances used in food-contact articles; orPf

b. Comply with and be listed in:

(1) 21 CFR Part 178, Indirect Food Additives: Adjuvants, Production Aids, and Sanitizers as regulated for use as a food additive with conditions of safe use; or

(2) 21 CFR Part 182, Substances Generally Recognized as Safe; 21 CFR Part 184, Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe; or 21 CFR Part 186, Indirect Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe for use in contact with food; and

b. 21 CFR Part 178, as regulated for use as a food additive with conditions of safe use;Pf

c. A determination of generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Partial listings of substances with food uses that are GRAS may be found in 21 CFR Part 182, 21 CFR Part 184, or 21 CFR Part 186; and in FDA's Inventory of GRAS Notices;Pf

d. A prior sanction listed under 21 CFR Part 181;Pf or

e. A food contact notification that is effective;Pf and

3. Be applied only to hands that are cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-140.Pf

B. If a hand antiseptic or a hand antiseptic solution used as a hand dip does not meet the criteria specified under subdivision A 2 of this section, use shall be:

1. Followed by thorough hand rinsing in clean water before hand contact with food or by the use of gloves;Pf or

2. Limited to situations that involve no direct contact with food by the bare hands.Pf

C. A hand antiseptic solution used as a hand dip shall be maintained clean and at a strength equivalent to at least 100 ppm (mg/l) mg/l (ppm) chlorine or above.Pf

2VAC5-585-190

2VAC5-585-190. Maintenance of fingernails.

A. Food employees shall keep their fingernails trimmed, filed, and maintained so the edges and surfaces are cleanable and not rough.Pf

B. Unless wearing intact gloves in good repair, a food employee may not wear fingernail polish or artificial nails when working with exposed food.Pf

2VAC5-585-200

2VAC5-585-200. Prohibition of jewelry.

While preparing food, food employees may not wear jewelry including medical information jewelry on their arms and hands. This section does not apply to a plain ring such as a wedding band. Except for a plain ring such as a wedding band, while preparing food, food employees may not wear jewelry, including medical information jewelry, on their arms and hands.

2VAC5-585-220

Article 4
Hygienic Practices

2VAC5-585-220. Eating, drinking, or using tobacco.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an employee shall eat, drink, or use any form of tobacco only in designated areas where the contamination of exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; unwrapped single-service and single-use articles; or other items needing protection cannot result.

B. A food employee may drink from a closed beverage container with a straw if the container is handled to prevent contamination of:

1. The employee's hands;

2. The container; and

3. Exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

2VAC5-585-230

2VAC5-585-230. Discharges from the eyes, nose, and mouth.*

Food employees experiencing persistent sneezing, coughing, or a runny nose that causes discharges from the eyes, nose, or mouth may not work with exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; or unwrapped single-service or single-use articles.

2VAC5-585-250

2VAC5-585-250. Handling of animals prohibited.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, food employees may not care for or handle animals that may be present such as patrol dogs, support service animals, or pets that are allowed in as specified in subdivisions B 2 through B [ 5 6 ] of 2VAC5-585-3310.Pf

B. Food employees with support service animals may handle or care for their support service animals and food employees may handle or care for fish in aquariums or molluscan shellfish or crustacea in display tanks if they wash their hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-140 and subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-160.

2VAC5-585-255

 [ 2VAC5-585-255. Clean-up of vomiting and diarrheal events.

A. A food establishment shall have procedures for employees to follow when responding to vomiting or diarrheal events that involve the discharge of vomitus or fecal matter onto surfaces in the food establishment.Pf

B. The procedures shall address the specific actions employees must take to minimize the spread of contamination and the exposure of employees, consumers, food, and surfaces to vomitus or fecal matter.Pf ]

2VAC5-585-260

Part III
Food

Article 1
Characteristics

2VAC5-585-260. Safe, unadulterated, and honestly presented.*

Food shall be safe, unadulterated, and, as specified under 2VAC5-585-890, honestly presented.P

2VAC5-585-270

Article 2
Sources, Specifications, and Original Containers and Records

2VAC5-585-270. Compliance with food law.*

A. Food shall be obtained from sources that comply with law.P

B. Food prepared in a private home may not be used or offered for human consumption in a food establishment unless the home kitchen is inspected by the responsible and regulated by the food regulatory authority that has jurisdiction over the private home.P

C. Packaged food shall be labeled as specified in law, including 21 CFR Part 101, Food Labeling; 9 CFR Part 317, Labeling, Marking Devices, and Containers; and 9 CFR Part 381, Subpart N, Labeling and Containers; and as specified under 2VAC5-585-400 and 2VAC5-585-410.Pf

D. Fish, other than molluscan shellfish, that are intended for consumption in their raw form and allowed as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 D 1 may be offered for sale or service if they are obtained from a supplier that freezes the fish as specified under 2VAC5-585-730, or frozen on the premises as specified under 2VAC5-585-730, and records are retained as specified under 2VAC5-585-740.

D. Fish, other than those specified in 2VAC5-585-730 B, that are intended for consumption in raw or undercooked form and allowed as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 D, may be offered for sale or service if they are obtained from a supplier that freezes fish as specified under 2VAC5-585-730 A, or if they are frozen on the premises as specified under 2VAC5-585-730 A and records are retained as specified under 2VAC5-585-740.

E. Whole-muscle, intact beef steaks that are intended for consumption in an undercooked form without a consumer advisory as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 C shall be:

1. Obtained from a food processing plant that, upon request by the purchaser, packages the steaks and labels them to indicate that they the steaks meet the definition of whole-muscle, intact beef;Pf or

2. Deemed acceptable by the department based on other evidence, such as written buyer specifications or invoices, that indicates that the steaks meet the definition of whole-muscle, intact beef;Pf and

3. If individually cut in a food establishment:

a. Cut from whole-muscle, intact beef that is labeled by a food processing plant as specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection or identified as specified in subdivision 2 of this subsection;Pf

b. Prepared so they remain intact;Pf and

c. If packaged for undercooking in a food establishment, labeled to indicate that they meet the definition of whole-muscle, intact beef as specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection or identified as specified in subdivision 2 of this subsection.Pf

F. Meat and poultry that are not a ready-to-eat food foods and are in a packaged form when offered for sale or otherwise offered for consumption shall be labeled to include safe handling instructions as specified in law, including 9 CFR 317.2(l) and 9 CFR 381.125(b).

G. Shell eggs Eggs that have not been specifically treated to destroy all viable Salmonellae shall be labeled to include safe handling instructions as specified in law, including 21 CFR 101.17(h).

2VAC5-585-280

2VAC5-585-280. Food in a hermetically sealed container.*

Food in a hermetically sealed container shall be obtained from a food processing plant that is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over the plant.P

2VAC5-585-290

2VAC5-585-290. Fluid milk and milk products.*

Fluid milk and milk products shall be obtained from sources that comply with Grade A standards as specified in law.P

2VAC5-585-295

2VAC5-585-295. Juice treated.

Pre-packaged Prepackaged juice shall:

1. Be obtained from a processor with a HACCP system as specified in 21 CFR Part 120;Pf and

2. Be obtained pasteurized or otherwise treated to attain a 5-log reduction of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance as specified in 21 CFR 120.24; or.P

3. Bear a warning label as specified in 21 CFR 101.17(g).

2VAC5-585-300

2VAC5-585-300. Fish.*

A. Fish that are received for sale or service shall be:

1. Commercially and legally caught or harvested;P or

2. Approved for sale or service by a regulatory authority.P

B. Molluscan shellfish that are recreationally caught may not be received for sale or service.P

2VAC5-585-310

2VAC5-585-310. Molluscan shellfish.*

A. Molluscan shellfish shall be obtained from sources according to law and the requirements specified in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations, Part II, Sanitation of the Harvesting, Processing and Distribution of Shellfish, 1995 Revision (NSSP) Guide for the Control of Molluscan Shellfish,2011 2013 ] Revision, (U.S. Food and Drug Administration).P

B. Molluscan shellfish [ received in interstate commerce ] shall be from sources that are listed in the "Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List," updated monthly (U.S. Food and Drug Administration).P

2VAC5-585-320

2VAC5-585-320. Wild mushrooms.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, mushroom species picked in the wild shall be obtained from sources where each mushroom is individually inspected and found to be safe by an approved mushroom identification expert not be offered for sale or service by a food establishment unless the food establishment has been approved to do so.P

B. This section does not apply to:

1. Cultivated wild mushroom species that are grown, harvested, and processed in an operation that is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over the operation; or

2. Wild mushroom species if they are in packaged form and are the product of a food processing plant that is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction over the plant.

2VAC5-585-330

2VAC5-585-330. Game animals.*

A. If game animals are received for sale or service they shall be:

1. Commercially raised for food and: a. Raised raised, slaughtered, and processed under a voluntary inspection program that is conducted by the state agency that has animal health jurisdiction; or

b. Under a routine inspection program conducted by a regulatory agency other than the agency that has animal health jurisdiction; and

c. Raised, slaughtered, and processed according to:

(1) Laws governing meat and poultry as determined by the agency; and

(2) Requirements that are developed by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program with consideration of factors such as the need for antemortem and postmortem examination by an approved veterinarian or veterinarian's designee;

2. Under under a voluntary inspection program administered by the USDA for game animals such as exotic animals including animals (i.e., reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, water buffalo, or bison) that are "inspected and approved" in accordance with 9 CFR Part 352, Exotic Animals; Voluntary Inspection, or rabbits that are "inspected and certified" in accordance with 9 CFR Part 354, Voluntary Inspection of Rabbits and Edible Products Thereof;P

3. 2. As allowed by law, for wild game animals that are live-caught:

a. Under a routine inspection program conducted by a regulatory agency such as the agency that has animal health jurisdiction;P

b. Slaughtered and processed according to:

(1) Laws governing meat and poultry as determined by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program;P and

(2) Requirements that are developed by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program with consideration of factors such as the need for antemortem and postmortem examination by an approved veterinarian or veterinarian's designee;P or

4. 3. As allowed by law for field-dressed wild game animals under a routine inspection program that ensures the animals:

a. Receive a postmortem examination by an approved veterinarian or veterinarian's designee, or are field-dressed and transported according to requirements specified by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program; andP

b. Are field-dressed and transported according to requirements specified by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program;P and

c. Are processed according to laws governing meat and poultry as determined by the agency that has animal health jurisdiction and the agency that conducts the inspection program.P

B. A game animal may not be received for sale or service if it is a species of wildlife that is listed in 50 CFR Part 17, Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.

2VAC5-585-340

2VAC5-585-340. Temperature.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, refrigerated, potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food shall be at a temperature of 41°F (5°C) or below when received.P

B. If a temperature other than 41°F (5°C) for a potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food is specified in law governing its distribution, such as laws governing milk, and molluscan shellfish, and shell eggs, the food may be received at the specified temperature.

C. Raw shell eggs shall be received in refrigerated equipment that maintains an ambient air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or less.P

D. Potentially hazardous Time/temperature control for safety food that is cooked to a temperature and for a time specified under 2VAC5-585-700 through 2VAC5-585-720 and received hot shall be at a temperature of 135°F (57°C) or above.P

E. A food that is labeled frozen and shipped frozen by a food processing plant shall be received frozen.Pf

F. Upon receipt, potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food shall be free of evidence of previous temperature abuse.Pf

2VAC5-585-350

2VAC5-585-350. Additives.*

Food may not contain unapproved food additives or additives that exceed amounts allowed specified in 21 CFR Parts 170-180 relating to food additives; generally recognized as safe or prior sanctioned substances that exceed amounts allowed specified in 21 CFR Parts 181-186; substances that exceed amounts specified in 9 CFR, Subpart C, 424.21(b), Approval of Substances for Use in the Preparation of Products; or pesticide residues that exceed provisions specified in 40 CFR Part 185, Tolerances for Pesticides in Food. 180.P

2VAC5-585-360

2VAC5-585-360. Shell eggs Eggs.*

Shell eggs Eggs shall be received clean and sound and [ may shall ] not exceed the restricted egg tolerances for U.S. Consumer Grade B as specified in United States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs, AMS 56, effective July 20, 2000, AMS 56.200 et seq., administered by the (Agricultural Marketing Service of USDA).PEggs sold pursuant to § 3.2-5305 of the Code of Virginia are exempt from the restricted egg tolerances for U.S. Consumer Grade B as specified in the United States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs, AMS 56, effective July 20, 2000, (Agricultural Marketing Service of USDA). ]

2VAC5-585-370

2VAC5-585-370. Eggs and milk products, pasteurized.*

A. Egg products shall be obtained pasteurized.P

B. Fluid and dry milk and milk products shall:

1. Be obtained pasteurized;P and

2. Comply with Grade A standards as specified in law.P

C. Frozen milk products, such as ice cream, shall be obtained pasteurized in accordance with as specified in 21 CFR Part 135, Frozen Desserts.P

D. Cheese shall be obtained pasteurized unless alternative procedures to pasteurization are provided for in the Code of Federal Regulations, specified in the CFR, such as 21 CFR Part 133, Cheeses and Related Cheese Products, for curing certain cheese varieties.P

2VAC5-585-380

2VAC5-585-380. Package integrity.*

Food packages shall be in good condition and protect the integrity of the contents so that the food is not exposed to adulteration or potential contaminants.Pf

2VAC5-585-390

2VAC5-585-390. Ice.*

Ice for use as a food or a cooling medium shall be made from drinking water.P

2VAC5-585-400

2VAC5-585-400. Shucked shellfish, packaging and identification.

A. Raw shucked shellfish shall be obtained in nonreturnable packages that bear a legible label that identifies the:Pf

1. Name, address, and certification number of the shucker, packer, or repacker of the molluscan shellfish;Pf and

2. The "sell by" or "best if used by" date for packages with a capacity of less than one-half gallon (1.87 L) (1.89 L) or the date shucked for packages with a capacity of one-half gallon (1.87 L) (1.89 L) or more.Pf

B. A package of raw shucked shellfish that does not bear a label or which that bears a label that does not contain all the information as specified under subsection A of this section shall be subject to a hold order, as allowed by law, or seizure and destruction in accordance with 21 CFR 1240.60(d), Subpart D, Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments.

2VAC5-585-410

2VAC5-585-410. Shellstock identification.*

A. Shellstock shall be obtained in containers bearing legible source identification tags or labels that are affixed by the harvester and each dealer that depurates, ships, or reships the shellstock, as specified in the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) Guide for the Control of Molluscan Shellfish (2007),2011 2013 ] Revision, (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and that list: on each dealer's tag or label the following information in the following order:Pf

1. Except as specified under subsection C of this section, on the harvester's tag or label, the following information in the following order:

a. The harvester's identification number that is assigned by the shellfish control authority;

b. The date of harvesting;

c. The most precise identification of the harvest location or aquaculture site that is practicable based on the system of harvest area designations that is in use by the shellfish control authority and including the abbreviation of the name of the state or country in which the shellfish are harvested;

d. The type and quantity of shellfish; and

e. The following statement in bold, capitalized type: "This tag is required to be attached until container is empty or retagged and thereafter kept on file for 90 days"; and

2. Except as specified under subsection D of this section, on each dealer's tag or label, the following information in the following order:

a. 1. The dealer's name and address, and the certification number assigned by the shellfish control authority;Pf

b. 2. The original shipper's certification number [ including the abbreviation of the name of the state or country in which the shellfish are harvested ];Pf

c. The same information as specified for a harvester's tag under subdivisions 1 b through d of this subsection; and 3. The harvest date, or if depurated, the date of depuration processing, or if wet stored, the original harvest date and the final harvest date, which is the date removed from wet storage ];Pf

4. If wet stored or depurated, the wet storage or depuration cycle or lot number. The wet storage lot number shall begin with the letter "w";Pf

5. The harvest area including the initials of the state of harvest;Pf

6. The type and quantity of shellstock;Pf

d. 7. The following statement in bold, capitalized type: " "THIS TAG IS REQUIRED TO BE ATTACHED UNTIL CONTAINER IS EMPTY AND THEREAFTER KEPT ON FILE FOR 90 DAYS";Pf and

8. A consumer advisory as specified in 2VAC5-585-930.

B. A container of shellstock that does not bear a tag or label or that bears a tag or label that does not contain all the information as specified under subsection A of this section shall be subject to a hold order, as allowed by law, or seizure and destruction in accordance with 21 CFR 1240.60(d), Subpart D, Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments and § 28.2-801 of the Code of Virginia.

C. If a place is provided on the harvester's tag or label for a dealer's name, address, and certification number, the dealer's information shall be listed first.

D. If the harvester's tag or label is designed to accommodate each dealer's identification as specified under subdivisions A 2 a and b of this section, individual dealer tags or labels need not be provided.

2VAC5-585-430

2VAC5-585-430. Molluscan shellfish; original container.

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C through D of this section, molluscan shellfish may not be removed from the container in which they were are received other than immediately before sale or preparation for service.

B. For display purposes, shellstock may be removed from the container in which they are received, displayed on drained ice, or held in a display container, and a quantity specified by a consumer may be removed from the display or display container and provided to the consumer if:

1. The source of the shellstock on display is identified as specified under 2VAC5-585-410 and recorded as specified under 2VAC5-585-440; and

2. The shellstock are protected from contamination.

C. Shucked shellfish may be removed from the container in which they were received and held in a display container from which individual servings are dispensed upon a consumer's request if:

1. The labeling information for the shellfish on display as specified under 2VAC5-585-400 is retained and correlated to the date when, or dates during which, the shellfish are sold or served; and

2. The shellfish are protected from contamination.

D. Shucked shellfish may be removed from the container in which they were received and repacked in consumer self-service containers where allowed by law if:

1. The labeling information for the shellfish is on each consumer self-service container as specified under 2VAC5-585-400 and 2VAC5-585-900 A and B 1 through 5;

2. The labeling information as specified under 2VAC5-585-400 is retained and correlated with the date when, or dates during which, the shellfish are sold or served;

3. The labeling information and dates specified under subdivision 2 of this subsection are maintained for 90 days; and

4. The shellfish are protected from contamination.

2VAC5-585-440

2VAC5-585-440. Shellstock; maintaining identification.*

A. Except as specified under subdivision C 2 of this section, shellstock tags or labels shall remain attached to the container in which the shellstock are received until the container is empty.Pf

B. The date when the last shellstock from the container is sold or served shall be recorded on the tag or label.Pf

C. The identity of the source of shellfish shellstock that are sold or served shall be maintained by retaining shellstock tags or labels for 90 calendar days from the date that is recorded on the tag or label as specified in subsection B of this section by:Pf

1. Using an approved recordkeeping system that keeps the tags or labels in chronological order correlated to the date that is recorded on the tag or label, as specified under subsection B of this section;Pf and

2. If shellstock are removed from its tagged or labeled container:

a. Preserving source identification by using a recordkeeping system as specified under subdivision 1 of this subsection;Pf and

b. Ensuring that shellstock from one tagged or labeled container are not commingled with shellstock from another container with different certification numbers; different harvest dates; or different growing areas as identified on the tag or label before being ordered by the consumer.Pf

2VAC5-585-450

Article 3
Protection from Contamination after Receiving

2VAC5-585-450. Preventing contamination from hands.*

A. Food employees shall wash their hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-140.

B. Except when washing fruits and vegetables as specified under 2VAC5-585-510 or as specified in subsection C subsections D and E of this section, food employees may not contact exposed, ready-to-eat food with their bare hands and shall use suitable utensils such as deli tissue, spatulas, tongs, single-use gloves, or dispensing equipment.P

C. Food employees shall minimize bare hand and arm contact with exposed food that is not in a ready-to-eat form.S Pf

D. Subsection B of this section does not apply to a food employee who contacts exposed, ready-to-eat food with bare hands at the time the ready-to-eat food is being added as an ingredient to food that:

1. Contains a raw animal food and is to be cooked in the food establishment to heat all parts of the food to the minimum temperatures specified in 2VAC5-585-700 A and B or 2VAC5-585-710; or

2. Does not contain a raw animal food but is to be cooked in the food establishment to heat all parts of the food to a temperature of at least 145°F (63°C).

E. Food employees not serving a highly susceptible population may contact exposed, ready-to-eat food with their bare hands if:

1. The operator obtains prior approval from the regulatory authority department;

2. Written procedures are maintained in the food establishment and made available to the regulatory authority department upon request that include:

a. For each bare hand contact procedure, a listing of the specific ready-to-eat foods that are touched by bare hands; and

b. Diagrams and other information showing that handwashing facilities, installed, located, equipped, and maintained as specified under 2VAC5-585-2230, 2VAC5-585-2280, 2VAC5-585-2310, 2VAC5-585-3020, 2VAC5-585-3030, and 2VAC5-585-3045, are in an easily accessible location and in close proximity to the work station where the bare hand contact procedure is conducted;

3. A written employee health policy that details how the food establishment complies with 2VAC5-585-80, 2VAC5-585-90, and 2VAC5-585-100 including:

a. Documentation that the food employees and conditional employees acknowledge that they are informed to report information about their health and activities as they relate to gastrointestinal symptoms and diseases that are transmittable through food as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 A;

b. Documentation that food employees and conditional employees acknowledge their responsibilities as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 E and F; and

c. Documentation that the person in charge acknowledges the responsibilities as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 B, C, and D, 2VAC5-585-90, and 2VAC5-585-100;

4. Documentation that the food employees acknowledge that they have received training in:

a. The risks of contacting the specific ready-to-eat foods with their bare hands,

b. Proper handwashing as specified under 2VAC5-585-140,

c. When to wash their hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-160,

d. Where to wash their hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-170,

e. Proper fingernail maintenance as specified under 2VAC5-585-190,

f. Prohibition of jewelry as specified under 2VAC5-585-200, and

g. Good hygienic practices as specified under 2VAC5-585-220 and 2VAC5-585-230;

5. Documentation that hands are washed before food preparation and as necessary to prevent cross-contamination by food employees as specified under 2VAC5-585-130, 2VAC5-585-140, 2VAC5-585-160, and 2VAC5-585-170 during all hours of operation when the specific ready-to-eat foods are prepared;

6. Documentation that food employees contacting ready-to-eat food with bare hands use two or more of the following control measures to provide additional safeguards to hazards associated with bare hand contact:

a. Double handwashing,

b. Nail brushes,

c. A hand antiseptic after handwashing as specified under 2VAC5-585-180,

d. Incentive programs such as paid sick leave that assist or encourage food employees not to work when they are ill, or

e. Other control measures approved by the regulatory authority department; and

7. Documentation that corrective action is taken when subdivisions 1 through 6 of this subsection are not followed.

2VAC5-585-460

2VAC5-585-460. Preventing contamination when tasting.*

A food employee may not use a utensil more than once to taste food that is to be sold or served.P

2VAC5-585-470

2VAC5-585-470. Packaged and unpackaged food - separation, packaging, and segregation.*

A. Food shall be protected from cross contamination by:

1. Separating Except as specified in subdivision 1 c of this subsection, separating raw animal foods during storage, preparation, holding, and display from:

a. Raw ready-to-eat food including other raw animal food such as fish for sushi or molluscan shellfish, or other raw ready-to-eat food such as fruits and vegetables; andP

b. Cooked ready-to-eat food;P and

c. Frozen, commercially processed and packaged raw animal food may be stored or displayed with or above frozen, commercially processed and packaged, ready-to-eat food;

2. Except when combined as ingredients, separating types of raw animal foods from each other such as beef, fish, lamb, pork, and poultry during storage, preparation, holding, and display by:

a. Using separate equipment for each type or arranging each type of food in equipment so that cross contamination of one type with another is prevented; and P

b. Arranging each type of food in equipment so that cross contamination of one type with another is prevented;P and

c. Preparing each type of food at different times or in separate areas;P

3. Cleaning equipment and utensils as specified under 2VAC5-585-1780 A and sanitizing as specified under 2VAC5-585-1900;

4. Except as specified in subdivision B 2 of 2VAC5-585-810 and subsection B of this section, storing the food in packages, covered containers, or wrappings;

5. Cleaning hermetically sealed containers of food of visible soil before opening;

6. Protecting food containers that are received packaged together in a case or overwrap from cuts when the case or overwrap is opened;

7. Storing damaged, spoiled, or recalled food being held in the food establishment as specified under 2VAC5-585-3150; and

8. Separating fruits and vegetables before they are washed as specified under 2VAC5-585-510 from ready-to-eat food.

B. Subdivision A 4 of this section does not apply to:

1. Whole, uncut, raw fruits and vegetables and nuts in the shell, that require peeling or hulling before consumption;

2. Primal cuts, quarters, or sides of raw meat or slab bacon that are hung on clean, sanitized hooks or placed on clean, sanitized racks;

3. Whole, uncut, processed meats such as country hams, and smoked or cured sausages that are placed on clean, sanitized racks;

4. Food being cooled as specified under 2VAC5-585-810 B 2; or

5. Shellstock.

2VAC5-585-480

2VAC5-585-480. Food storage containers; identified with common name of food.

Working containers holding food or food ingredients that are removed from their original packages for use in the food establishment, such as cooking oils, flour, herbs, potato flakes, salt, spices, and sugar, shall be identified with the common name of the food (in English and the common language of the food workers) except that containers holding food that can be readily and unmistakably recognized such as dry pasta need not be identified. Except for containers holding food that can be readily and unmistakably recognized, such as dry pasta, working containers holding food or food ingredients that are removed from their original packages for use in the food establishment, such as cooking oils, flour, herbs, potato flakes, salt, spices, and sugar, shall be identified with the common name of the food.

2VAC5-585-490

2VAC5-585-490. Pasteurized eggs; substitute for raw shell eggs for certain recipes and populations.*

Pasteurized eggs or egg products shall be substituted for raw shell eggs in the preparation of foods such as Caesar salad, hollandaise or béarnaise sauce, mayonnaise, meringue, eggnog, ice cream, and egg-fortified beverages that are not:P

1. Cooked as specified under subdivisions subdivision A 1 or 2 of 2VAC5-585-700;P or

2. Included in 2VAC5-585-700 D.P

2VAC5-585-500

2VAC5-585-500. Protection from unapproved additives.*

A. Food shall be protected from contamination that may result from the addition of, as specified in 2VAC5-585-350:

1. Unsafe or unapproved food or color additives;P and

2. Unsafe or unapproved levels of approved food and color additives.P

B. A food employee may not:

1. Apply sulfiting agents to fresh fruits and vegetables intended for raw consumption or to a food considered to be a good source of vitamin B1 B1;P or

2. Except for grapes, serve or sell food specified in subdivision 1 of this subsection that is treated with sulfiting agents before receipt by the food establishment.P

2VAC5-585-510

2VAC5-585-510. Washing fruits and vegetables.

A. Raw fruits and vegetables shall be thoroughly washed in water to remove soil and other contaminants before being cut, combined with other ingredients, cooked, served, or offered for human consumption in ready-to-eat form except as specified in subsection B of this section and except that whole, raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for washing by the consumer before consumption need not be washed before they are sold. Except as specified in subsection B of this section and except for whole, raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for washing by the consumer before consumption, raw fruits and vegetables shall be thoroughly washed in water to remove soil and other contaminants before being cut, combined with other ingredients, cooked, served, or offered for human consumption in ready-to-eat form.

B. Fruits and vegetables may be washed by using chemicals as specified under 2VAC5-585-3390.

C. Devices used for onsite generation of chemicals meeting the requirements specified in 21 CFR 173.315 for the washing of raw, whole fruits and vegetables shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.Pf

2VAC5-585-520

2VAC5-585-520. Ice used as exterior coolant prohibited as ingredient.

After use as a medium for cooling the exterior surfaces of food such as melons or fish, packaged foods such as canned beverages, or cooling coils and tubes of equipment, ice may not be used as food.P

2VAC5-585-530

2VAC5-585-530. Storage or display of food in contact with water or ice.

A. Packaged food may not be stored in direct contact with ice or water if the food is subject to the entry of water because of the nature of its packaging, wrapping, or container or its positioning in the ice or water.

B. Except as specified in subsections C and D of this section, unpackaged food may not be stored in direct contact with undrained ice.

C. Whole, raw fruits or vegetables; cut, raw vegetables such as celery or carrot sticks or cut potatoes; and tofu may be immersed in ice or water.

D. Raw chicken poultry and raw fish that are received immersed in ice in shipping containers may remain in that condition while in storage awaiting preparation, display, service, or sale.

2VAC5-585-540

2VAC5-585-540. Food contact with equipment and utensils.*

Food shall only contact surfaces of:

1. Equipment and utensils that are cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1770 through 2VAC5-595-1870 2VAC5-585-1860 and sanitized as specified under 2VAC5-585-1890 2VAC5-585-1885 through 2VAC5-585-1900; orP

2. Single-service and single-use articles; or P

3. Linens, such as cloth napkins, as specified under 2VAC5-585-560, that are laundered as specified under 2VAC5-585-1910 through 2VAC5-585-1950.P

2VAC5-585-550

2VAC5-585-550. In-use utensils, between-use storage.

During pauses in food preparation or dispensing, food preparation and dispensing utensils shall be stored:

1. Except as specified under subdivision 2 of this section, in the food with their handles above the top of the food and the container;

2. In food that is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food with their handles above the top of the food within containers or equipment that can be closed, such as bins of sugar, flour, or cinnamon;

3. On a clean portion of the food preparation table or cooking equipment only if the in-use utensil and the food-contact surface of the food preparation table or cooking equipment are cleaned and sanitized at a frequency specified under 2VAC5-585-1780 and 2VAC5-585-1890;

4. In running water of sufficient velocity to flush particulates to the drain, if used with moist food such as ice cream or mashed potatoes;

5. In a clean, protected location if the utensils, such as ice scoops, are used only with a food that is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food; or

6. In a container of water if the water is maintained at a temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) and the container is cleaned at a frequency specified under 2VAC5-585-1780 D 7.

2VAC5-585-560

2VAC5-585-560. Linens and napkins, use limitation.

Linens and napkins, such as cloth napkins, may not be used in contact with food unless they are used to line a container for the service of foods and the linens and napkins are replaced each time the container is refilled for a new customer consumer.

2VAC5-585-570

2VAC5-585-570. Wiping cloths, use limitation.

A. Cloths in use for wiping food spills from tableware and carry-out containers that occur as food is being served shall be:

1. Maintained dry; and

2. Used for no other purpose.

B. Cloths in use for wiping counters and other equipment surfaces shall be:

1. Held between uses in a chemical sanitizer solution at a concentration specified in 2VAC5-585-3380 2VAC5-585-1700; and

2. Laundered daily as specified under 2VAC5-585-1920 D.

C. Cloths in use for wiping surfaces in contact with raw animal foods shall be kept separate from other cloths used for other purposes.

D. Dry wiping cloths and the chemical sanitizing solutions specified in subdivision B 1 of this section in which wet wiping cloths are held between uses shall be free of food debris and visible soil.

E. Containers of chemical sanitizing solutions specified in subdivision B 1 of this section in which wet wiping cloths are held between uses shall be stored off the floor and used in a manner that prevents contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, single-service, or single-use articles.

F. Single-use disposable sanitizer wipes shall be used in accordance with EPA-approved manufacturer's label use instructions.

2VAC5-585-580

2VAC5-585-580. Gloves, use limitation.

A. If used, single-use gloves shall be used for only one task such as working with ready-to-eat food or with raw animal food, used for no other purpose, and discarded when damaged or soiled, or when interruptions occur in the operation.P

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, slash-resistant gloves that are used to protect the hands during operations requiring cutting shall be used in direct contact only with food that is subsequently cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 through 2VAC5-585-765 such as frozen food or a primal cut of meat.

C. Slash-resistant gloves may be used with ready-to-eat food that will not be subsequently cooked if the slash-resistant gloves have a smooth, durable, and nonabsorbent outer surface; or if the slash-resistant gloves are covered with a smooth, durable, nonabsorbent glove, or a single-use glove.

D. Cloth gloves may not be used in direct contact with food unless the food is subsequently cooked as required under 2VAC5-585-700 through 2VAC5-585-765 such as frozen food or a primal cut of meat.

2VAC5-585-590

2VAC5-585-590. Using clean tableware for second portions and refills.

A. Except for refilling a consumer's drinking cup or container without contact between the pouring utensil and the lip contact area of the drinking cup or container, food employees may not use tableware, including single-service articles, soiled by the consumer to provide second portions or refills.

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, self-service consumers may not be allowed to use soiled tableware, including single-service articles, to obtain additional food from the display and serving equipment.

C. Cups and glasses Drinking cups and containers may be reused by self-service consumers or food employees if refilling is a contamination-free process as specified under subdivisions 1, 2, and 4 of 2VAC5-585-1230.

2VAC5-585-600

2VAC5-585-600. Refilling returnables.

A. A take-home food container Except as specified in subsections B through E of this section, empty containers returned to a food establishment may not be refilled at a food establishment with a potentially hazardous food for cleaning and refilling with food shall be cleaned and refilled in a regulated food processing plant.P

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, a A take-home food container refilled with food that is not potentially hazardous shall be cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1870 B. returned to a food establishment may be refilled at a food establishment with food if the food container is:

1. Designed and constructed for reuse and in accordance with the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-960 through 2VAC5-585-1435;P

2. One that was initially provided by the food establishment to the consumer, either empty or filled with food by the food establishment, for the purpose of being returned for reuse;

3. Returned to the food establishment by the consumer after use;

4. Subject to the following steps before being refilled with food:

a. Cleaned as specified under 2VAC5-585-1770 through 2VAC5-585-1860;

b. Sanitized as specified under 2VAC5-585-1885 through 2VAC5-585-1900;P and

c. Visually inspected by a food employee to verify that the container, as returned, meets the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-960 through 2VAC5-585-1435P.

C. Personal take-out beverage containers, such as thermally insulated bottles, nonspill coffee cups and promotional beverage glasses, may be refilled by employees or the consumer if refilling is a contamination-free process as specified under subdivisions 1, 2 and 4 of 2VAC5-585-1230. A take-home food container returned to a food establishment may be refilled at a food establishment with beverage if:

1. The beverage is not a time/temperature control for safety food;

2. The design of the container and of the rinsing equipment and the nature of the beverage, when considered together, allow effective cleaning at home or in the food establishment;

3. Facilities for rinsing before refilling returned containers with fresh, hot water that is under pressure and not recirculated are provided as part of the dispensing system;

4. The consumer-owned container returned to the food establishment for refilling is refilled for sale or service only to the same consumer; and

5. The container is refilled by:

a. An employee of the food establishment; or

b. The owner of the container if the beverage system includes a contamination-free transfer process as specified under subdivisions 1, 2, and 4 of 2VAC5-585-1230 that cannot be bypassed by the container owner.

D. Consumer-owned, personal take-out beverage containers, such as thermally insulated bottles, nonspill coffee cups, and promotional beverage glasses, may be refilled by employees or the consumer if refilling is a contamination-free process as specified under subdivisions 1, 2, and 4 of 2VAC5-585-1230.

E. Consumer-owned containers that are not food specific may be filled at a water vending machine or system.

2VAC5-585-620

2VAC5-585-620. Food storage; prohibited areas.

Food may not be stored:

1. In locker rooms;

2. In toilet rooms or their vestibules;

3. In dressing rooms;

4. In garbage rooms;

5. In mechanical rooms;

6. Under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips;

7. Under leaking water lines, including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads, or under lines on which water has condensed;

8. Under open stairwells; or

9. Under other sources of contamination.

2VAC5-585-630

2VAC5-585-630. Vended potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food; original container.

Potentially hazardous Time/temperature control for safety food dispensed through a vending machine shall be in the package in which it was placed at the food establishment or food processing plant at which it was prepared.

2VAC5-585-650

2VAC5-585-650. Food display.

Except for nuts in the shell and whole, raw fruits and vegetables that are intended for hulling, peeling, or washing by the consumer before consumption, food on display shall be protected from contamination by the use of packaging; counter, service line, or salad bar food guards; display cases; or other effective means.P

2VAC5-585-660

2VAC5-585-660. Condiments; protection.

A. Condiments shall be protected from contamination by being kept in dispensers that are designed to provide protection, protected food displays provided with the proper utensils, original containers designed for dispensing, or individual packages or portions.

B. Condiments at a vending machine location shall be in individual packages or provided in dispensers that are filled at a an approved location that is approved by the department, such as the food establishment that provides food to the vending machine location, a food processing plant that is regulated by the agency that has jurisdiction over the operation, or a properly equipped facility that is located on the site of the vending machine location.

2VAC5-585-670

2VAC5-585-670. Consumer self-service operations.*

A. Raw, unpackaged animal food, such as beef, lamb, pork, poultry, and fish may not be offered for consumer self-service.P This subsection does not apply to:

1. Consumer self-service of ready-to-eat foods at buffets or salad bars that serve foods such as sushi or raw shellfish;

2. Ready-to-cook individual portions for immediate cooking and consumption on the premises such as consumer-cooked meats or consumer-selected ingredients for Mongolian barbecue; or

3. Raw, frozen, shell-on shrimp or lobster.

B. Consumer self-service operations for ready-to-eat foods shall be provided with suitable utensils or effective dispensing methods that protect the food from contamination.Pf

C. Consumer self-service operations such as buffets and salad bars shall be monitored by food employees trained in safe operating procedures.N Pf

2VAC5-585-680

2VAC5-585-680. Returned food and reservice of food.*

A. Except as specified under subsection B of this section, after being served or sold and in the possession of a consumer, food that is unused or returned by the consumer may not be offered as food for human consumption.P

B. Except as specified in subdivision 8 7 of 2VAC5-585-950, a container of food that is not potentially hazardous (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food may be re-served from one consumer to another if:

1. The food is dispensed so that it is protected from contamination and the container is closed between uses such as a narrow-neck bottle containing catsup, steak sauce, or wine; or

2. The food, such as crackers, salt, or pepper, is in an unopened original package and is maintained in sound condition.

2VAC5-585-700

Article 4
Destruction of Organisms of Public Health Concern

2VAC5-585-700. Raw animal foods.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, raw animal foods such as eggs, fish, meat, poultry, and foods containing these raw animal foods shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time that complies with one of the following methods based on the food that is being cooked:

1. 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds for:P

a. Raw shell eggs that are broken and prepared in response to a consumer's order and for immediate service;P and

b. Except as specified under subdivisions A 2 and 3 and subsections B and C of this section, fish and meat including game animals commercially raised for food and under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 1 and game animals under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2;P

2. 155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds or the temperature specified in the following chart that corresponds to the holding time for ratites, mechanically tenderized, and injected meats; the following if they are comminuted: fish, meat, game animals commercially raised for food and under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 1, and game animals under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2; and raw eggs that are not prepared as specified under subdivision A 1 a of this section:P

 

Minimum

 

Temperature °F (°C)

Time

 

145 (63)

3 minutes

 

150 (66)

1 minute

 

158 (70)

<1 second (instantaneous)

3. 165°F (74°C) or above for 15 seconds for poultry, baluts, wild game animals as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2 and 3, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, stuffed pasta, stuffed poultry, stuffed ratites, or stuffing containing fish, meat, or poultry, or ratites.P

B. Whole meat roasts including beef, corned beef, lamb, pork, and cured pork roasts such as ham shall be cooked:

1. In an oven that is preheated to the temperature specified for the roast's weight in the following chart and that is held at that temperature;Pf and

 

Oven Type

Oven Temperature Based on Roast Weight

 

Less than 10 lbs (4.5 kg)

10 lbs (4.5 kg) or more

 

Still Dry

350°F (177°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

 

Convection

325°F (163°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

 

High Humidity1

250°F (121°C) or less

250°F (121°C) or less

 

1Relative humidity greater than 90% for at least one hour as measured in the cooking chamber or exit of the oven; or in a moisture-impermeable bag that provides 100% humidity

2. As specified in the following chart, to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for the holding time that corresponds to that temperature.P

 

Temperature
°F (°C)

Time1 in Minutes

Temperature
°F (°C)

Time1 in Seconds

 

130 (54.4)

112

147 (63.9)

134

 

131 (55.0)

89

149 (65.0)

85

 

133 (56.1)

56

151 (66.1)

54

 

135 (57.2)

36

153 (67.2)

34

 

136 (57.8)

28

155 (68.3)

22

 

138 (58.9)

18

157 (69.4)

14

 

140 (60.0)

12

158 (70.0)

0

 

142 (61.1)

8

 

 

 

144 (62.2)

5

 

 

 

145 (62.8)

4

 

 

 

1Holding time may include postoven heat rise.

C. A raw or undercooked whole-muscle, intact beef steak may be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. The food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population;

2. The steak is labeled, as specified under 2VAC5-585-270 E, to indicate that it meets the definition of "whole-muscle, intact beef"; and

3. The steak is cooked on both the top and bottom to a surface temperature of 145°F (63°C) or above and a cooked color change is achieved on all external surfaces.

D. A raw animal food such as raw egg, raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, or steak tartare, or a partially cooked food such as lightly cooked fish, soft cooked eggs, or rare meat other than whole-muscle, intact beef steaks as specified in subsection C of this section, may be served or offered for sale upon consumer request or selection in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. As specified under subdivisions 3 a and 3 b of 2VAC5-585-950, the food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population; and

2. The food, if served or offered for service by consumer selection from a children's menu, does not contain comminuted meat;Pf and

2. 3. The consumer is informed as specified under 2VAC5-585-930 that to ensure its safety, the food should be cooked as specified under subsection A or B of this section; or

3. 4. The department grants a variance from subsection A or B of this section as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 based on a HACCP plan that:

a. Is submitted by the operator and approved as specified under 2VAC5-585-3541;

b. Documents scientific data or other information that shows showing that a lesser time and temperature regimen results in a safe food; and

c. Verifies that equipment and procedures for food preparation and training of food employees at the food establishment meet the conditions of the variance.

2VAC5-585-710

2VAC5-585-710. Microwave cooking.*

Raw animal foods cooked in a microwave oven shall be:

1. Rotated or stirred throughout or midway during cooking to compensate for uneven distribution of heat;

2. Covered to retain surface moisture;

3. Heated to a temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) in all parts of the food;P and

4. Allowed to stand covered for two minutes after cooking to obtain temperature equilibrium.

2VAC5-585-720

2VAC5-585-720. Plant food cooking for hot holding.

Fruits and vegetables that are cooked for hot holding shall be cooked to a temperature of 135°F (57°C).Pf

2VAC5-585-725

2VAC5-585-725. Noncontinuous cooking of raw animal foods.

Raw animal foods that are cooked using a noncontinuous cooking process shall be:

1. Subject to an initial heating process that is no longer than 60 minutes in duration;P

2. Immediately after initial heating, cooled according to the time and temperature parameters specified for cooked time/temperature control for safety food under 2VAC5-585-800 A;P

3. After cooling, held frozen or cold as specified for time/temperature control for safety food under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2;P

4. Prior to sale or service, cooked using a process that heats all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time as designated in 2VAC5-585-700 A through C;P

5. Cooled according to the time and temperature parameters specified for cooked time/temperature control for safety food under 2VAC5-585-800 A if not either hot held as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 1, served immediately, or held using time as a public health control as specified under 2VAC5-585-850 after complete cooking;P and

6. Prepared and stored according to written procedures that:

a. Have obtained prior approval from the department;Pf

b. Are maintained in the food establishment and are available to the department upon request;Pf

c. Describe how the requirements specified under subdivisions 1 through 5 of this section are to be monitored and documented by the operator and the corrective actions to be taken if the requirements are not met;Pf

d. Describe how the foods, after initial heating but prior to complete cooking, are to be marked or otherwise identified as foods that must be cooked as specified under subdivision 4 of this section prior to being offered for sale or service;Pf and

e. Describe how the foods, after initial heating but prior to cooking as specified in subdivision 4 of this section, are to be separated from ready-to-eat foods as specified under 2VAC5-585-470 A.Pf

2VAC5-585-730

2VAC5-585-730. Parasite destruction.*

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, before service or sale in ready-to-eat form, raw, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish shall be:

1. Frozen and stored at a temperature of -4°F (-20°C) or below for a minimum of 168 hours (seven days) in a freezer;P

2. Frozen at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -31°F (-35°C) or below for a minimum of 15 hours;P or

3. Frozen at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -4°F (-20°C) or below for a minimum of 24 hours.P

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply to:

1. Molluscan shellfish,;

2. A scallop product consisting only of the shucked abductor muscle;

3. Tuna of the species Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin tuna), Thunnus atlanticus, Thunnus maccoyii (Bluefin tuna, Southern), Thunnus obesus (Bigeye tuna), or Thunnus thynnus (Bluefin, Northern); or

3. 4. Aquacultured fish, such as salmon, that:

a. If raised in open water, are raised in net pens, or

b. Are raised in land-based operations such as ponds or tanks, and

c. Are fed formulated feed, such as pellets, that contains no live parasites infective to the aquacultured fish. or

5. Fish eggs that have been removed from the skein and rinsed.

2VAC5-585-740

2VAC5-585-740. Records; creation and retention.

A. Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-730 B and subsection B of this section, if raw, marinated, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish are served or sold in ready-to-eat form, the person in charge shall record the freezing temperature and time to which the fish are subjected and shall retain the records at the food establishment for 90 calendar days beyond the time of service or sale of the fish.Pf

B. If the fish are frozen by a supplier, a written agreement or statement from the supplier stipulating that the fish supplied are frozen to a temperature and for a time specified under 2VAC5-585-730 may substitute for the records specified under subsection A of this section.

C. If raw, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish are served or sold in ready-to-eat form, and the fish are raised and fed as specified in 2VAC5-585-730 B 3 4, a written agreement or statement from the supplier or aquaculturist stipulating that the fish were raised and fed as specified in 2VAC5-585-730 B 3 4 shall be obtained by the person in charge and retained in the records of the food establishment for 90 calendar days beyond the time of service or sale of the fish.Pf

2VAC5-585-755

2VAC5-585-755. Preparation for immediate service.

Cooked and refrigerated food that is prepared for immediate service in response to an individual consumer order, such as a roast beef sandwich au jus, may be served at any temperature.

2VAC5-585-760

2VAC5-585-760. Reheating for hot holding.*

A. Except as specified under subsections B, C and E of this section, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food that is cooked, cooled, and reheated for hot holding shall be reheated so that all parts of the food reach at least 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds.P

B. Except as specified under subsection C of this section, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food reheated in a microwave oven for hot holding shall be reheated so that all parts of the food reach a temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) and the food is rotated or stirred, covered, and allowed to stand covered for two minutes after reheating.P

C. Ready-to-eat time/temperature control for safety food taken from a that has been commercially processed, hermetically sealed container, or from an intact package from and packaged in a food processing plant that is inspected by the food regulatory authority that has jurisdiction over the plant, shall be heated to a temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) when being reheated for hot holding.P

D. Reheating for hot holding as specified under subsections A, B, and C of this section shall be done rapidly and the time the food is between the temperature specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 41°F (5°C) and the temperatures specified under subsections A through, B and C of this section may not exceed two hours.P

E. Remaining unsliced portions of meat roasts that are cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 B may be reheated for hot holding using the oven parameters and minimum time and temperature conditions specified under 2VAC5-585-700 B.

2VAC5-585-765

2VAC5-585-765. Treating juice.

Juice packaged in a food establishment shall be:

1. Treated under a HACCP plan as specified in [ subdivisions 2 through 5 of 2VAC5-585-3610 2VAC5-585-3630 ] to attain a 5-log reduction, which is equal to a 99.999% reduction, of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance;P or

2. Labeled, if not treated to yield a 5-log reduction of the most resistant microorganism of public health significance:Pf

a. As specified under 2VAC5-585-900;Pf and

b. As specified in 21 CFR 101.17(g), with the phrase, following: "WARNING: This product has not been pasteurized and, therefore, may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems."Pf

2VAC5-585-780

2VAC5-585-780. Potentially hazardous Time/temperature control for safety food, slacking.

Frozen potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food that is slacked to moderate the temperature shall be held:

1. Under refrigeration that maintains the food temperature at 41°F (5°C) or less, or at 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b; or

2. At any temperature if the food remains frozen.

2VAC5-585-790

2VAC5-585-790. Thawing.

A. Except as specified in subdivision 4 of this section subsection, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food shall be thawed:

1. Under refrigeration that maintains the food temperature at 41°F (5°C) or less, or at 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b; or

2. Completely submerged under running water:

a. At a water temperature of 70°F (21°C) or below;

b. With sufficient water velocity to agitate and float off loose particles in an overflow; and

c. For a period of time that does not allow thawed portions of ready-to-eat food to rise above 41°F (5°C), or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b; or

d. For a period of time that does not allow thawed portions of a raw animal food requiring cooking as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A or B to be above 41°F (5°C), or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b, for more than four hours including:

(1) The time the food is exposed to the running water and the time needed for preparation for cooking; or

(2) The time it takes under refrigeration to lower the food temperature to 41°F (5°C), or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b;

3. As part of a cooking process if the food that is frozen is:

a. Cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A or B or 2VAC5-585-710; or

b. Thawed in a microwave oven and immediately transferred to conventional cooking equipment, with no interruption in the process; or

4. Using any procedure if a portion of frozen ready-to-eat food is thawed and prepared for immediate service in response to an individual consumer's order.

B. Reduced oxygen packaged fish that bears a label indicating that it is to be kept frozen until time of use shall be removed from the reduced oxygen environment:

1. Prior to its thawing under refrigeration as specified in subdivision A 1 of this section; or

2. Prior to, or immediately upon completion of, its thawing using procedures specified in subdivision A 2 of this section.

2VAC5-585-800

2VAC5-585-800. Cooling.*

A. Cooked potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food shall be cooled:

1. Within two hours, from 135°F (57°C) to 70°F (21°C);P and

2. Within a total of six hours, from 135°F (57°C) to 41°F (5°C) or less, or to 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b.P

B. Potentially hazardous food (time/temperature Time/temperature control for safety food) food shall be cooled within four hours to 41°F (5°C) or less, or to 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b if prepared from ingredients at ambient temperature, such as reconstituted foods and canned tuna.P

C. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, a potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food received in compliance with laws allowing a temperature above 41°F (5°C) during shipment from the supplier as specified in 2VAC5-585-340 B, shall be cooled within four hours to 41°F (5°C) or less, or 45°F (7°C) or less as specified under of 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b.P

D. Raw shell eggs shall be received as specified under 2VAC5-585-340 C and immediately placed in refrigerated equipment that maintains an ambient air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or less.P

2VAC5-585-810

2VAC5-585-810. Cooling methods.

A. Cooling shall be accomplished in accordance with the time and temperature criteria specified under 2VAC5-585-800 by using one or more of the following methods based on the type of food being cooled:

1. Placing the food in shallow pans;Pf

2. Separating the food into smaller or thinner portions;Pf

3. Using rapid cooling equipment;Pf

4. Stirring the food in a container placed in an ice water bath;Pf

5. Using containers that facilitate heat transfer;Pf

6. Adding ice as an ingredient;Pf or

7. Other effective methods.Pf

B. When placed in cooling or cold holding equipment, food containers in which food is being cooled shall be:

1. Arranged in the equipment to provide maximum heat transfer through the container walls; and

2. Loosely covered, or uncovered if protected from overhead contamination as specified under 2VAC5-585-610 A 2, during the cooling period to facilitate heat transfer from the surface of the food.

2VAC5-585-820

2VAC5-585-820. Potentially hazardous Time/temperature control for safety food; hot and cold holding.*

A. Except during preparation, cooking, or cooling, or when time is used as the public health control as specified under 2VAC5-585-850, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature and except as specified under subsections B and C of this section, time/temperature control for safety food) food shall be maintained:

1. At 135°F (57°C) or above, except that roasts cooked to a temperature and for a time specified in 2VAC5-585-700 B or reheated as specified in 2VAC5-585-760 E may be held at a temperature of 130°F (54°C) or above;P or

2. At a temperature specified in the following:

a. 41°F (5°C) or less; or

b. 45°F (7°C) or between 45°F (7°C) and 41°F (5°C) in existing refrigeration equipment that is not capable of maintaining the food at 41°F (5°C) or less if:

(1) The equipment is in place and in use in the food establishment; and

(2) Before January 1, 2012, the equipment is upgraded or replaced to maintain food at a temperature of At 41°F (5°C) or less.

B. Shell eggs Eggs that have not been treated to destroy all viable Salmonellae shall be stored in refrigerated equipment that maintains an ambient air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or less.P

C. Potentially hazardous food (time/temperature Time/temperature control for safety food) food in a homogenous liquid form may be maintained outside of the temperature control requirements, as specified in subsection A of this section, while contained within specially designed equipment that complies with the design and construction requirements as specified under subdivision 5 of 2VAC5-585-1230.

2VAC5-585-830

2VAC5-585-830. Ready to eat Ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food; date marking.*

A. Except when packaging food using a reduced oxygen packaging method as specified under 2VAC5-585-870 and except as specified in subsections D and E and F of this section, refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food prepared and held in a food establishment for more than 24 hours shall be clearly marked to indicate the date or day by which the food shall be consumed on the premises, sold, or discarded based on the temperature and time combinations specified below. The day of preparation shall be counted as Day 1.

1. 41°F (5°C) or less for a maximum of seven days; or

2. 45°F (7°C) or between 41°F (5°C) and 45°F (7°C) for a maximum of four days in existing refrigeration equipment that is not capable of maintaining the food at 41°F (5°C) or less if:

a. The equipment is in place and in use in the food establishment; and

b. Before January 1, 2012, the equipment is upgraded or replaced to maintain food at a temperature of 41°F (5°C) or less. when held at a temperature of 41°F (5°C) or less for a maximum of seven days. The day of preparation shall be counted as day one.Pf

B. Except as specified in subsections D through E, F, and G of this section, refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food prepared and packaged by a food processing plant shall be clearly marked, at the time the original container is opened in a food establishment and if the food is held for more than 24 hours, to indicate the date or day by which the food shall be consumed on the premises, sold, or discarded, based on the temperature and time combinations specified in subsection A of this section and:Pf

1. The day the original container is opened in the food establishment shall be counted as Day 1 day one;Pf and

2. The day or date marked by the food establishment may not exceed a manufacturer's use-by date if the manufacturer determined the use-by date based on food safety.Pf

C. A refrigerated, ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food (time/temperature, time/temperature control for safety food) food ingredient or a portion of a refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food that is subsequently combined with additional ingredients or portions of food shall retain the date marking of the earliest-prepared or first-prepared ingredient.Pf

D. A date marking system that meets the criteria specified stated in subsections A and B of this section may include:

1. Using a method approved by the regulatory authority department for refrigerated, ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food (time/temperature, time/temperature control for safety food) food that is frequently rewrapped, such as lunchmeat or a roast, or for which date marking is impractical, such as soft-serve mix or milk in a dispensing machine;

2. Marking the date or day of preparation, with a procedure to discard the food on or before the last date or day by which the food must be consumed on the premises, sold, or discarded as specified in subsection A of this section;

3. Marking the date or day the original container is opened in a food establishment, with a procedure to discard the food on or before the last date of or day by which the food must be consumed on the premises, sold, or discarded as specified under subsection B of this section; or

4. Using calendar dates, days of the week, color-coded marks, or other effective marking methods, provided that the marking system is disclosed to the regulatory authority department upon request.

E. Subsections A and B of this section do not apply to individual meal portions served or repackaged for sale from a bulk container upon a consumer's request.

F. Subsections A and B of this section do not apply to shellstock.

G. Subsection B of this section does not apply to the following foods prepared and packaged by a food processing plant inspected by a regulatory authority:

1. Deli salads, such as ham salad, seafood salad, chicken salad, egg salad, pasta salad, potato salad, and macaroni salad, manufactured in accordance with 21 CFR Part 110, Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding human food;

2. Hard cheeses containing not more than 39% moisture as defined in 21 CFR Part 133, Cheeses and related cheese products, such as cheddar, gruyere, parmesan and reggiano, and romano;

3. Semi-soft cheese containing more than 39% moisture, but not more than 50% moisture, as defined in 21 CFR Part 133, Cheeses and related cheese products, such as blue, edam, gorgonzola, gouda, and Monterey jack Jack;

4. Cultured dairy products as defined in 21 CFR Part 131, Milk and cream, such as yogurt, sour cream, and buttermilk;

5. Preserved fish products, such as pickled herring and dried or salted cod, and other acidified fish products as defined in 21 CFR Part 114, Acidified foods;

6. Shelf stable, dry fermented sausages, such as pepperoni and Genoa salami that are not labeled "Keep Refrigerated" as specified in 9 CFR Part 317, Labeling, marking devices, and containers, and which retain the original casing on the product; and

7. Shelf stable salt-cured products such as prosciutto and Parma (ham) that are not labeled "Keep Refrigerated" as specified in 9 CFR Part 317, Labeling, marking devices, and containers.

2VAC5-585-840

2VAC5-585-840. Ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food; disposition.*

A. A food specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A or B shall be discarded if it:

1. Exceeds either of the temperature and time combinations combination specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A, except time that the product is frozen;P

2. Is in a container or package that does not bear a date or day;P or

3. Is [ appropriately inappropriately ] marked with a date or day that exceeds a temperature and time combination as specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A.P

B. Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food prepared in a food establishment and dispensed through a vending machine with an automatic shutoff control shall be discarded if it exceeds a temperature and time combination as specified in 2VAC5-585-830 A.P

2VAC5-585-850

2VAC5-585-850. Time as a public health control.*

A. Except as specified under subsection D of this section, if time without temperature control is used as the public health control for a working supply of potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food before cooking, or for ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food (time/temperature, time/temperature control for safety food) food that is displayed or held for sale or service:

1. Written procedures shall be prepared in advance, maintained in the food establishment, and made available to the regulatory authority department upon request that specify:Pf

a. Methods of compliance with subdivision subdivisions B 1 through 4, 2, and 3 or subsection C 1 through 5 of this section;Pf and

b. Methods of compliance with 2VAC5-585-800 for food that is prepared, cooked, and refrigerated before time is used as a public health control.Pf

B. If time without temperature control is used as the public health control up to a maximum of 4 hours:

1. The food shall have an initial temperature of 41°F (5°C) or less when removed from cold holding temperature control, or 135°F (57°C) or greater when removed from hot-holding temperature control;P

2. The food shall be marked or otherwise identified to indicate the time that is four hours past the point in time when the food is removed from temperature control;Pf

3. The food shall be cooked and served, served at any temperature if ready-to-eat, or discarded, within four hours from the point in time when the food is removed from temperature control;P and

4. The food in unmarked containers or packages or marked to exceed a four-hour limit shall be discarded.P

C. If time without temperature control is used as the public health control up to a maximum of six hours:

1. The food shall have an initial temperature of 41°F (5°C) or less when removed from temperature control and the food temperature may not exceed 70°F (21°C) within a maximum time period of six hours;P

2. The food shall be monitored to ensure the warmest portion of the food does not exceed 70°F (21°C) during the six-hour period, unless an ambient air temperature is maintained that ensures the food does not exceed 70°F (21°C) during the six-hour holding period;Pf

3. The food shall be marked or otherwise identified to indicate:Pf

a. The time when the food is removed from 41°F (5°C) or less cold holding temperature control;Pf and

b. The time that is six hours past the point in time when the food is removed from 41°F (5°C) or less cold holding temperature control;Pf

4. The food shall be:

a. Discarded if the temperature of the foods exceeds 70°F (21°C);P or

b. Cooked and served, served at any temperature if ready-to-eat, or discarded within a maximum of six hours from the point in time when the food is removed from 41°F (5°C) or less cold holding temperature control;P and

5. The food in unmarked containers or packages, or marked with a time that exceeds the six-hour limit shall be discarded.P

D. A food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population may not use time as specified under subsections subsection A, B, or C of this section as the public health control for raw eggs.

2VAC5-585-860

2VAC5-585-860. Variance requirement.*

A food establishment shall obtain a variance from the department as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 and 2VAC5-585-3541 before:Pf

1. Smoking food as a method of food preservation rather than as a method of flavor enhancement;Pf

2. Curing food;Pf

3. Using food additives or adding components such as vinegar:Pf

a. As a method of food preservation rather than as a method of flavor enhancement;Pf or

b. To render a food so that it is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food;Pf

4. Packaging time/temperature control for safety food using a reduced oxygen packaging method except as specified under 2VAC5-585-870 where a barrier to where the growth of and toxin formation by Clostridium botulinum in addition to refrigeration exists and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes are controlled as specified under 2VAC5-585-870;Pf

5. Operating a molluscan shellfish life-support system display tank used to store and or display shellfish that are offered for human consumption;Pf

6. Custom processing animals that are for personal use as food and not for sale or service in a food establishment;Pf

7. Sprouting seeds or beans;Pf or

8. Preparing food by another method that is determined by the regulatory authority department to require a variance.Pf

2VAC5-585-870

2VAC5-585-870. Reduced oxygen packaging without a variance; criteria.*

A. Except for a food establishment that obtains a variance as specified under 2VAC5-585-860 and except as specified under subsections C and E of this section, a food establishment that packages potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food using a reduced oxygen packaging method shall ensure that there are at least two barriers in place to control the growth and toxin formation of Clostridium botulinum and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.P

B. A Except as specified in subsection F of this section, a food establishment that packages potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food using a reduced oxygen packaging method shall have implement a HACCP plan that contains the following information specified under subdivision subdivisions2 3 ] and 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630 and that:Pf

1. Identifies food to be packaged;Pf

2. Except as specified in subsections C and, D, and E and as specified in subsection D of this section, requires that the packaged food shall be maintained at 41°F (5°C) or less and meet at least one of the following criteria:Pf

a. Has an Aw of 0.91 or less,Pf

b. Has a pH of 4.6 or less,Pf

c. Is a meat or poultry product cured at a food processing plant regulated by the USDA using substances specified in 9 CFR 424.21, Use of food ingredients and sources of radiation, and is received in an intact package,Pf or

d. Is a food with a high level of competing organisms such as raw meat, or raw poultry, or raw vegetables;Pf

3. Describes how the package shall be prominently and conspicuously labeled on the principal display panel in bold type on a contrasting background, with instructions to:Pf

a. Maintain the food at 41°F (5°C) or below,Pf and

b. Discard the food within 14 30 calendar days of its packaging if it is not served for on-premises consumption, or consumed if served or sold for off-premises consumption;Pf

4. Limits the refrigerated shelf life to no more than 14 30 calendar days from packaging to consumption, except the time the product is maintained frozen, or the original manufacturer's "sell by" or "use by" date, whichever occurs first;P

5. Includes operational procedures that:

a. Prohibit contacting ready-to-eat food with bare hands as specified under 2VAC5-585-450 B;Pf

b. Identify a designated work area and the method by which:Pf

(1) Physical barriers or methods of separation of raw foods and ready-to-eat foods minimize cross contamination,Pf and

(2) Access to the processing equipment is limited to responsible trained personnel familiar with the potential hazards of the operation;Pf and

c. Delineate cleaning and sanitization procedures for food contact food-contact surfaces; andPf

6. Describes the training program that ensures that the individual responsible for the reduced oxygen packaging operation understands the:Pf

a. Concepts required for safe operation;Pf

b. Equipment and facilities;Pf and

c. Procedures specified under subdivision 5 of this subsection and 2VAC5-585-3630 D. subdivisions2 3 ] and 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630;Pf and

7. Is provided to the department prior to implementation as specified under subsection B of 2VAC5-585-3620.

C. Except for fish that is frozen before, during, and after packaging, a food establishment may not package fish using a reduced oxygen packaging method.P

D. Except as specified in subsection subsections C and F of this section, a food establishment may package that packages time/temperature control for safety food using a cook-chill or sous-vide sous vide process without obtaining a variance if shall:

1. The food establishment implements Provide to the department prior to implementation, a HACCP plan that contains the information as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 D subdivisions2 3 ] and 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630;Pf

2. The Ensure the food is:

a. Prepared and consumed on the premises, or prepared and consumed off the premises but within the same business entity with no distribution or sale of the bagged packaged product to another business entity or the consumer;Pf

b. Cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A, B, and C;P

c. Protected from contamination before and after cooking as specified in 2VAC5-585-450 through 2VAC5-585-690 2VAC5-585-765;P

d. Placed in a package or bag with an oxygen barrier and sealed before cooking, or placed in a package or bag and sealed immediately after cooking, and before reaching a temperature below 135°F (57°C);P

e. Cooled to 41°F (5°C) in the sealed package or bag as specified under 2VAC5-585-800, and subsequently;P

(1) Cooled to 34°F (1°C) within 48 hours of reaching 41°F (5°C) and held at that temperature until consumed or discarded within 30 days after the date of preparation packaging;P

(2) Cooled to 34°F (1°C) within 48 hours of reaching 41°F (5°C), removed from refrigeration equipment that maintains a 34°F (1°C) food temperature and then held Held at 41°F (5°C) or less for no more than 72 hours seven days, at which time the food must be consumed or discarded;P or

(3) Cooled to 38°F (3°C) or less within 24 hours of reaching 41°F (5°C) and held there for no more than 72 hours from packaging, at which time the food must be consumed or discarded; or

(4) (3) Held frozen with no shelf-life restriction while frozen until consumed or used;P

f. Held in a refrigeration unit that is equipped with an electronic system that continuously monitors time and temperature and is visually examined for proper operation twice daily;Pf

g. If transported off-site to a satellite location of the same business entity, equipped with verifiable electronic monitoring devices to ensure that times and temperatures are monitored during transportation;Pf and

h. Labeled with the product name and the date packaged;Pf and

3. The Maintain the records required to confirm that cooling and cold holding refrigeration time/temperature parameters are required as part of the HACCP plan, are maintained and are:

a. Made Make such records available to the regulatory authority department upon request;Pf and

b. Held Hold such records for at least six months;Pf and

4. Written Implement written operational procedures as specified under subdivision B 5 of this section and a training program as specified under subdivision B 6 of this section are implemented.Pf

E. A Except as specified under subsection F of this section, a food establishment may package that packages cheese using a reduced oxygen packaging method without obtaining a variance shall:

1. If it limits Limit the cheeses packaged to those that are commercially manufactured in a food processing plant with no ingredients added in the food establishment and that meet the Standards of Identity as specified in 21 CFR 133.150, Hard Cheeses, 21 CFR 133.169, Pasteurized process cheese, or 21 CFR 133.187, Semi-soft cheeses;P

2. If it has Have a HACCP plan that contains the information specified in 2VAC5-585-3630 D subdivisions2 3 ] and 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630 and as specified in subdivisions B 1, B 3 a, B 5, and B 6 of this section;Pf

3. Except as specified under subdivisions B 2, B 3 b, and B 4, complies with subsection B of this section;

4. If it labels 3.Labels Label ] the package on the principal display panel with a "use by" date that does not exceed 30 days from its packaging or the original manufacturer's "sell by" or "use by" date, whichever comes occurs first;Pf and

5. If it discards 4.Discards Discard ] the reduced oxygen packaged cheese if it is not sold for off-premises consumption or consumed within 30 calendar days of its packaging.Pf

F. A HACCP plan is not required when a food establishment uses a reduced oxygen packaging method to package time/temperature control for safety food that is always:

1. Labeled with the production time and date;

2. Held at 41°F (5°C) or less during refrigerated storage; and

3. Removed from its packaging in the food establishment within 48 hours after packaging.

2VAC5-585-900

2VAC5-585-900. Food labels.

A. Food packaged in a food establishment shall be labeled as specified in law, including 21 CFR Part 101, Food Labeling, and 9 CFR Part 317, Labeling, Marking Devices, and Containers.

B. Label information shall include:

1. The common name of the food, or absent a common name, an adequately descriptive identity statement;

2. If made from two or more ingredients, a list of ingredients and subingredients in descending order of predominance by weight, including a declaration of artificial color or flavor colors, artificial flavors, and chemical preservatives, if contained in the food;

3. An accurate declaration of the net quantity of contents;

4. The name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor;

5. The name of the food source for each major food allergen contained in the food unless the food source is already part of the common or usual name of the respective ingredient;Pf

6. Except as exempted in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act 21 USC § 343(q) (3) through (5) 21 USC § 403(g)(3) through (5), nutrition labeling as specified in 21 CFR Part 101, Food Labeling, and 9 CFR Part 317, Subpart B, Nutrition Labeling; and

7. For any salmonid fish containing canthaxanthin or astaxanthin as a color additive, the labeling of the bulk fish container, including a list of ingredients, displayed on the retail container or by other written means, such as a counter card, that discloses the use of canthaxanthin or astaxanthin.

C. Bulk food that is available for consumer self-dispensing shall be prominently labeled with the following information in plain view of the consumer:

1. The manufacturer's or processor's label that was provided with the food; or

2. A card, sign, or other method of notification that includes the information specified under subdivisions B 1, 2, and 5 6 of this section.

D. Bulk, unpackaged foods such as bakery products and unpackaged foods that are portioned to consumer specification need not be labeled if:

1. A health, nutrient content, or other claim is not made;

2. There are no state or local laws requiring labeling; and

3. The food is manufactured or prepared on the premises of the food establishment or at another food establishment or a food processing plant that is owned by the same person and is regulated by the food regulatory agency that has jurisdiction.

2VAC5-585-930

2VAC5-585-930. Consumer advisory; consumption of animal foods that are raw, undercooked, or not otherwise processed to eliminate pathogens.*

A. Except as specified in 2VAC5-585-700 C and 2VAC5-585-700 D 3 4 and under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-950, if an animal food such as beef, eggs, fish, lamb, milk, pork, poultry, or shellfish is served or sold raw, undercooked, or without otherwise being processed to eliminate pathogens, either in ready-to-eat form or as an ingredient in another ready-to-eat food, the person in charge operator shall inform consumers of the significantly increased risk of consuming such foods by way of a disclosure and reminder, as specified in subsections B and C of this section, using brochures, deli case or menu advisories, label statements, table tents, placards, or other effective written means.Pf

B. Disclosure shall include:

1. A description of the animal-derived foods, such as "oysters on the half shell (raw oysters)," "raw-egg Caesar salad," and "hamburgers (can be cooked to order)";Pf or

2. Identification of the animal-derived foods by asterisking them to a footnote that states that the items are served raw or undercooked, or contain (or may contain) raw or undercooked ingredients.Pf

C. Reminder shall include asterisking the animal-derived foods requiring disclosure to a footnote that states:

1. Regarding the safety of these items, written information is available upon request:;Pf

2. Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness;Pf or

3. Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness, especially if you have certain medical conditions.Pf

2VAC5-585-940

Article 7
Contaminated Food

2VAC5-585-940. Discarding or reconditioning unsafe, adulterated, or contaminated food.*

A. A food that is unsafe, adulterated, or not honestly presented as specified under 2VAC5-585-260 shall be discarded or reconditioned according to an approved procedure or discarded.P

B. Food that is not from an approved source as specified under 2VAC5-585-270 through 2VAC5-585-330 shall be discarded.P

C. Ready-to-eat food that may have been contaminated by an employee who has been restricted or excluded as specified under 2VAC5-585-90 shall be discarded.P

D. Food that is contaminated by food employees, consumers, or other persons through contact with their hands, bodily discharges, such as nasal or oral discharges, or other means shall be discarded.P

2VAC5-585-950

Article 8
Special Requirements for Highly Susceptible Populations

2VAC5-585-950. Pasteurized foods, prohibited reservice, and prohibited food.*

In a food establishment that serves a highly susceptible population:

1. The following criteria apply to juice:

a. For the purposes of subdivision 1 of this section only, children who are age 9 nine years or less younger and receive food in a school, day care setting, or similar facility that provides custodial care are included as highly susceptible populations;

b. Prepackaged juice or a prepackaged beverage containing juice, that bears a warning label as specified in 21 CFR 101.17(g), Food Labeling, or a packaged juice or beverage containing juice, that bears a warning label as specified under subdivision 2 of 2VAC5-585-765 may not be served or offered for sale;P and

c. Unpackaged juice that is prepared on the premises for service or sale in a ready-to-eat form shall be processed under a HACCP plan that contains the information specified in subdivisions [ 2 3 ] through 5 of 2VAC5-585-3630 and as specified under in 21 CFR Part 120, Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems, Subpart B, Pathogen Reduction, 120.24, Process Controls.P

2. Pasteurized shell eggs or egg products shall be substituted for raw shell eggs in the preparation of:P

a. Foods such as Caesar salad, hollandaise or béarnaise sauce, mayonnaise, meringue, eggnog, ice cream, and egg-fortified beverages;P and

b. Except as specified in subdivision 6 of this section, recipes in which more than one egg is broken and the eggs are combined.P

3. The following foods may not be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form:P

a. Raw animal foods such as raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, and steak tartare;P

b. A partially cooked animal food such as lightly cooked fish, rare meat, soft-cooked eggs that are made from raw shell eggs, and meringue;P and

c. Raw seed sprouts.P

4. Food employees may not contact ready-to-eat food as specified in 2VAC5-585-450 B and E.P

5. Time only, as the public health control as specified under 2VAC5-585-850 D, may not be used for raw eggs.P

6. Subdivision 2 b of this section does not apply if:

a. The raw eggs are combined immediately before cooking for one consumer's serving at a single meal, cooked as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 A 1, and served immediately, such as an omelet, soufflé, or scrambled eggs;

b. The raw eggs are combined as an ingredient immediately before baking and the eggs are thoroughly cooked to a ready-to-eat form, such as a cake, muffin, or bread; or

c. The preparation of the food is conducted under a HACCP plan that:

(1) Identifies the food to be prepared;

(2) Prohibits contacting ready-to-eat food with bare hands;

(3) Includes specifications and practices that ensure:

(a) Salmonella enteritidis Enteritidis growth is controlled before and after cooking; and

(b) Salmonella enteritidis Enteritidis is destroyed by cooking the eggs according to the temperature and time specified in 2VAC5-585-700 A 2;

d. Contains the information specified under subdivision 4 of 2VAC5-585-3630 including procedures that:

(1) Control cross contamination of ready-to-eat food with raw eggs; and

(2) Delineate cleaning and sanitization procedures for food-contact surfaces; and

e. Describes the training program that ensures that the food employee responsible for the preparation of the food understands the procedures to be used.

7. Except as specified in subdivision 8 of this section, food may be re-served as specified under 2VAC5-585-680 B 1 and 2.

8. Foods may not be re-served under the following conditions:

1. a. ] Any food served to patients or clients who are under contact precautions in medical isolation or quarantine, or protective environment isolation may not be re-served to others outside.

2. b. ] Packages of food from any patients, clients, or other consumers should not be re-served to persons in protective environment isolation.

2VAC5-585-960

Part IV
Equipment, Utensils, and Linens

Article 1
Materials for Construction and Repair

2VAC5-585-960. Multiuse, characteristics.*

Materials that are used in the construction of utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment may not allow the migration of deleterious substances or impart colors, odors, or tastes to food and under normal use conditions shall be:P

1. Safe;P

2. Durable, corrosion-resistant, and nonabsorbent;N

3. Sufficient in weight and thickness to withstand repeated warewashing;N

4. Finished to have a smooth, easily cleanable surface;N and

5. Resistant to pitting, chipping, crazing, scratching, scoring, distortion, and decomposition.N

2VAC5-585-980

2VAC5-585-980. Lead use limitation.

A. Ceramic, china, and crystal utensils, and decorative utensils such as hand-painted ceramic or china that are used in contact with food shall be lead-free or contain levels of lead not exceeding the limits of the following utensil categories:P

Utensil Category

Ceramic Article Description

Maximum Lead (mg/L)

Beverage Mugs, Cups, Pitchers

Coffee Mugs

0.5

Large Hollowware (excluding pitchers)

Bowls >1.1 Liter (1.16 Quart)

1.0

Small Hollowware (excluding cups and mugs)

Bowls <1.1 Liter (1.16 Quart)

2.0

Flat Tableware

Plates, Saucers

3.0

B. Pewter alloys containing lead in excess of 0.05% may not be used as a food contact food-contact surface.P

C. Solder and flux containing lead in excess of 0.2% may not be used as a food contact food-contact surface.

2VAC5-585-990

2VAC5-585-990. Copper, use limitation.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, copper and copper alloys such as brass may not be used in contact with a food that has a pH below 6 6.0 such as vinegar, fruit juice, or wine or for a fitting or tubing installed between a backflow prevention device and a carbonator.P

B. Copper and copper alloys may be used in contact with beer brewing ingredients that have a pH below 6 6.0 in the prefermentation and fermentation steps of a beer brewing operation such as a brewpub or microbrewery.

C. Copper and copper alloys may be used in contact with apple butter and molasses that have a pH below 6 6.0 during the typical processing times (i.e., mixing, cooking, and cooling) for these products, as long as laboratory analysis does not reveal excessive levels of copper or other heavy metals in the finished product. Apple butter and molasses may not be held or stored in copper or copper alloys for time periods any longer than the typical processing times for these products.

2VAC5-585-1000

2VAC5-585-1000. Galvanized metal, use limitation.*

Galvanized metal may not be used for utensils or food-contact surfaces of equipment that are used in contact with acidic food.P

2VAC5-585-1070

2VAC5-585-1070. Single-service and single-use, characteristics.*

Materials that are used to make single-service and single-use articles:

1. May not:

a. Allow the migration of deleterious substances;P or

b. Impart colors, odors, or tastes to food.N

2. Shall be:

a. Safe;P and

b. Clean.N

2VAC5-585-1090

2VAC5-585-1090. Food temperature measuring devices.*

Food temperature measuring devices may not have sensors or stems constructed of glass, except that thermometers with glass sensors or stems that are encased in a shatterproof coating such as candy thermometers may be used.P

2VAC5-585-1100

2VAC5-585-1100. Food-contact surfaces; cleanability.*

A. Multiuse food-contact surfaces shall be:

1. Smooth;Pf

2. Free of breaks, open seams, cracks, chips, inclusions, pits, and similar imperfections;Pf

3. Free of sharp internal angles, corners, and crevices;Pf

4. Finished to have smooth welds and joints;Pf and

5. Accessible Except as specified in subsection B of this section, accessible for cleaning and inspection by one of the following methods:

a. Without being disassembled;Pf

b. By disassembling without the use of tools;Pf or

c. By easy disassembling with the use of handheld tools commonly available to maintenance and cleaning personnel such as screwdrivers, pliers, open-end wrenches, and Allen wrenches.Pf

B. Subdivision A 5 of this section does not apply to cooking oil storage tanks, distribution lines for cooking oils, or beverage syrup lines or tubes.

2VAC5-585-1110

2VAC5-585-1110. CIP equipment.

A. CIP equipment shall meet the characteristics specified under 2VAC5-585-1100 and shall be designed and constructed so that:

1. Cleaning and sanitizing solutions circulate throughout a fixed system and contact all interior food-contact surfaces;Pf and

2. The system is self-draining or capable of being completely drained of cleaning and sanitizing solutions.

B. CIP equipment that is not designed to be disassembled for cleaning shall be designed with inspection access points to ensure that all interior food-contact surfaces throughout the fixed system are being effectively cleaned.

2VAC5-585-1120

2VAC5-585-1120. "V" threads, use limitation.

Except for hot oil cooking or filtering equipment, "V" type threads may not be used on food-contact surfaces. This section does not apply to hot oil cooking or filtering equipment.

2VAC5-585-1180

2VAC5-585-1180. Temperature measuring devices; food.

A. Food temperature measuring devices that are scaled only in Fahrenheit or dually scaled in Fahrenheit and Celsius shall be scaled in 2°F increments and accurate to ±2°F in the intended range of use.Pf

B. Food temperature measuring devices that are scaled only in Celsius shall be scaled in 1°C increments accurate to ±1°C in the intended range of use.Pf

2VAC5-585-1190

2VAC5-585-1190. Temperature measuring devices; ambient air and water.

A. Ambient air and water temperature measuring devices that are scaled in Fahrenheit or dually scaled in Fahrenheit and Celsius and shall be designed to be easily readable and scaled in 3°F increments and accurate to ±3°F in the intended range of use.Pf

B. Ambient air and water temperature measuring devices that are scaled only in Celsius shall be scaled in 1.5°C increments and accurate to ±1.5°C in the intended range of use.Pf

2VAC5-585-1230

2VAC5-585-1230. Dispensing equipment, protection of equipment and food.

In equipment that dispenses or vends liquid food or ice in unpackaged form:

1. The delivery tube, chute, orifice, and splash surfaces directly above the container receiving the food shall be designed in a manner, such as with barriers, baffles, or drip aprons, so that drips from condensation and splash are diverted from the opening of the container receiving the food.

2. The delivery tube, chute, and orifice shall be protected from manual contact such as by being recessed.

3. The delivery tube or chute and orifice of equipment used to vend liquid food or ice in unpackaged form to self-service consumers shall be designed so that the delivery tube or chute and orifice are protected from dust, insects, rodents, and other contamination by a self-closing door if the equipment is:

a. Located in an outside area that does not otherwise afford the protection of an enclosure against the rain, windblown debris, insects, rodents, and other contaminants that are present in the environment; or

b. Available for self-service during hours when it is not under the full-time supervision of a food employee.

4. The dispensing equipment actuating lever or mechanism and filling device of consumer self-service beverage dispensing equipment shall be designed to prevent contact with the lip-contact surface of glasses or cups that are refilled.

5. Dispensing equipment in which potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food in homogenous liquid form is maintained outside of the temperature control requirements as specified in 2VAC5-585-820 C A shall:

a. Be specifically designed and equipped to maintain the commercial sterility of aseptically packaged food in a homogenous liquid form for a specified duration from the time of opening the packaging within the equipment;P and

b. Conform to the requirements for this equipment as specified in NSF/ANSI 18-2006 18-2012 Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment, 2012, (NSF International).P

2VAC5-585-1240

2VAC5-585-1240. Vending machine, vending stage closure.

The dispensing compartment of a vending machine including a machine that is designed to vend prepackaged snack food that is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food such as chips, party mixes, and pretzels shall be equipped with a self-closing door or cover if the machine is:

1. Located in an outside area that does not otherwise afford the protection of an enclosure against the rain, windblown debris, insects, rodents, and other contaminants that are present in the environment; or

2. Available for self-service during hours when it is not under the full-time supervision of a food employee.

2VAC5-585-1300

2VAC5-585-1300. Molluscan shellfish tanks.

A. Except as specified under subsection B of this section, molluscan shellfish life support system display tanks may not be used to display shellfish that are offered for human consumption and shall be conspicuously marked so that it is obvious to consumers that the shellfish are for display only.P

B. Molluscan shellfish life-support system display tanks that are used to store and or display shellfish that are offered for human consumption shall be operated and maintained in accordance with a variance granted by the department as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 and a HACCP plan that:Pf

1. Is submitted by the person in charge operator and approved as specified under 2VAC5-585-3541;Pf and

2. Ensures that:

a. Water used with fish other than molluscan shellfish does not flow into the molluscan tank;Pf

b. The safety and quality of the shellfish as they were received are not compromised by the use of the tank;Pf and

c. The identity of the source of the shellstock is retained as specified under 2VAC5-585-440.Pf

2VAC5-585-1310

2VAC5-585-1310. Vending machines, automatic shutoff.*

A. A machine vending potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food shall have an automatic control that prevents the machine from vending food:

1. If there is a power failure, mechanical failure, or other condition that results in an internal machine temperature that cannot maintain food temperatures as specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter;P and

2. If a condition specified under subdivision 1 of this subsection occurs, until the machine is serviced and restocked with food that has been maintained at temperatures specified under Part III.P

B. When the automatic shutoff within a machine vending potentially hazardous food (time/temperature time/temperature control for safety food) food is activated:

1. In a refrigerated vending machine, the ambient temperature may not exceed 41°F (5°C) or 45°F (7°C) as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 for more than 30 minutes immediately after the machine is filled, serviced, or restocked;P or

2. In a hot holding vending machine, the ambient temperature may not be less than 135°F (57°C) for more than 120 minutes immediately after the machine is filled, serviced, or restocked.P

2VAC5-585-1320

2VAC5-585-1320. Temperature measuring devices.

A. In a mechanically refrigerated or hot food storage unit, the sensor of a temperature measuring device shall be located to measure the air temperature or a simulated product temperature in the warmest part of a mechanically refrigerated unit and in the coolest part of a hot food storage unit.

B. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, cold or hot holding equipment used for potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food shall be designed to include and shall be equipped with at least one integral or affixed temperature measuring device that is located to allow easy viewing of the device's temperature display.

C. Subsection B of this section does not apply to equipment for which the placement of a temperature measuring device is not a practical means for measuring the ambient air surrounding the food because of the design, type, and use of the equipment, such as calrod units, heat lamps, cold plates, bainmaries, steam tables, insulated food transport containers, and salad bars.

D. Temperature measuring devices shall be designed to be easily readable.

E. Food temperature measuring devices and water temperature measuring devices on warewashing machines shall have a numerical scale, printed record, or digital readout in increments no greater than 2°F or 1°C in the intended range of use.Pf

2VAC5-585-1330

2VAC5-585-1330. Warewashing machine, data plate operating specifications.

A warewashing machine shall be provided with an easily accessible and readable data plate affixed to the machine by the manufacturer that indicates the machine's design and operating operation specifications including the:

1. Temperatures required for washing, rinsing, and sanitizing;

2. Pressure required for the fresh water sanitizing rinse unless the machine is designed to use only a pumped sanitizing rinse; and

3. Conveyor speed for conveyor machines or cycle time for stationary rack machines.

2VAC5-585-1350

2VAC5-585-1350. Warewashing machines, temperature measuring devices.

A warewashing machine shall be equipped with a temperature measuring device that indicates the temperature of the water:

1. In each wash and rinse tank;Pf and

2. As the water enters the hot water sanitizing final rinse manifold or in the chemical sanitizing solution tank.Pf

2VAC5-585-1360

2VAC5-585-1360. Manual warewashing equipment, heaters and baskets.

If hot water is used for sanitization in manual warewashing operations, the sanitizing compartment of the sink shall be:

1. Designed with an integral heating device that is capable of maintaining water at a temperature not less than 171°F (77°C);Pf and

2. Provided with a rack or basket to allow complete immersion of equipment and utensils into the hot water.Pf

2VAC5-585-1370

2VAC5-585-1370. Warewashing machines, automatic dispensing of detergents and sanitizers.

A. A warewashing machine that is installed after the adoption of this regulation by the board shall be equipped to:

1. Automatically dispense detergents and sanitizers;Pf and

2. Incorporate a visual means to verify that detergents and sanitizers are delivered or a visual or audible alarm to signal if the detergents and sanitizers are not delivered to the respective washing and sanitizing cycles.Pf

B. Before January 1, 2012, existing warewashing equipment shall be upgraded or replaced to meet the requirements of subsection A of this section.

2VAC5-585-1435

2VAC5-585-1435. Food equipment, certification and classification.

Food equipment that is certified or classified for sanitation by an American National Standards Institute accredited certification program is deemed to comply with the requirements of Articles 1 (2VAC5-585-960 et seq.) and 2 (2VAC5-585-1080 et seq.) of this part.

2VAC5-585-1450

Article 3
Numbers and Capacities

2VAC5-585-1450. Cooling, heating, and holding capacities.

Equipment for cooling and heating food, and holding cold and hot food, shall be sufficient in number and capacity and capable of providing to provide food temperatures as specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter.Pf

2VAC5-585-1460

2VAC5-585-1460. Manual warewashing, sink compartment requirements.

A. Except as specified in subsection C of this section, a sink with at least three compartments shall be provided for manually washing, rinsing, and sanitizing equipment and utensils.Pf

B. Sink compartments shall be large enough to accommodate immersion of the largest equipment and utensils. If equipment or utensils are too large for the warewashing sink, a warewashing machine or alternative equipment as specified in subsection C of this section shall be used.Pf

C. Alternative manual warewashing equipment may be used when there are special cleaning needs or constraints and its use is approved. Alternative manual warewashing equipment may include:

1. High-pressure detergent sprayers;

2. Low-pressure or line-pressure spray detergent foamers;

3. Other task-specific cleaning equipment;

4. Brushes or other implements;

5. Two-compartment sinks as specified under subsections D and E of this section; or

6. Receptacles that substitute for the compartments of a multicompartment sink.

D. Before a two-compartment sink is used:

1. The operator shall have its use approved; and

2. The person in charge operator shall limit the number of kitchenware items cleaned and sanitized in the two-compartment sink, and shall limit warewashing to batch operations for cleaning kitchenware such as between cutting one type of raw meat and another or cleanup at the end of a shift, and shall:

a. Make up the cleaning and sanitizing solutions immediately before use and drain them immediately after use; and

b. Use a detergent-sanitizer to sanitize and apply the detergent-sanitizer in accordance with the manufacturer's label instructions and as specified under 2VAC5-585-1710; or

c. Use a hot water sanitization immersion step as specified under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-1860.

E. A two-compartment sink may not be used for warewashing operations where cleaning and sanitizing solutions are used for a continuous or intermittent flow of kitchenware or tableware in an ongoing warewashing process.

2VAC5-585-1500

2VAC5-585-1500. Utensils, consumer self-service.

A food dispensing utensil shall be available for each container displayed at a consumer self-service unit such as a buffet or salad bar.Pf

2VAC5-585-1510

2VAC5-585-1510. Food temperature measuring devices.

A. Food temperature measuring devices shall be provided and readily accessible for use in ensuring attainment and maintenance of food temperatures as specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter.Pf

B. A temperature measuring device with a suitable small-diameter probe that is designed to measure the temperature of thin masses shall be provided and readily accessible to accurately measure the temperature in thin foods such as meat patties and fish fillets.Pf

2VAC5-585-1520

2VAC5-585-1520. Temperature measuring devices, manual and mechanical warewashing.

A. In manual warewashing operations, a temperature measuring device shall be provided and readily accessible for frequently measuring the washing and sanitizing temperatures.Pf

B. In hot water mechanical warewashing operations, an irreversible registering temperature indicator shall be provided and readily accessible for measuring the utensil surface temperature.Pf

2VAC5-585-1530

2VAC5-585-1530. Sanitizing solutions, testing devices.

A test kit or other device that accurately measures the concentration in mg/L (ppm) of sanitizing solutions shall be provided and readily accessible for use.Pf

2VAC5-585-1535

 [ 2VAC5-585-1535. Cleaning agents and sanitizers; availability.

A. Cleaning agents that are used to clean equipment and utensils as specified under Article 6 (2VAC5-585-1770 et seq.) of this part shall be provided and available for use during all hours of operation.

B. Except for chemical sanitizers that are generated on site at the time of use, chemical sanitizers that are used to sanitize equipment and utensils as specified under Article 7 (2VAC5-585-1885 et seq.) of this part shall be provided and available for use during all hours of operation. ]

2VAC5-585-1540

Article 4
Location and Installation

2VAC5-585-1540. Equipment, clothes washers and dryers, and storage cabinets, contamination prevention.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, equipment, cabinets a cabinet used for the storage of food, or cabinets a cabinet used to store cleaned and sanitized equipment, utensils, laundered linens, and single-service and single-use articles may not be located:

1. In locker rooms;

2. In toilet rooms or vestibules;

3. In garbage rooms;

4. In mechanical rooms;

5. Under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips;

6. Under leaking water lines including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads or under lines on which water has condensed;

7. Under open stairwells; or

8. Under other sources of contamination.

B. A storage cabinet used for linens or single-service or single-use articles may be stored in a locker room.

C. If a mechanical clothes washer or dryer is provided, it shall be located only where there is no exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; unwrapped single-service and single-use articles; and (i) so that the washer or dryer is protected from contamination and (ii) only where there is no exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; or unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.

2VAC5-585-1550

2VAC5-585-1550. Fixed equipment, spacing or sealing.

A. Equipment that is fixed because it is not easily movable shall be installed so that it is:

1. Spaced to allow access for cleaning along the sides, behind, and above the equipment;

2. Spaced from adjoining equipment, walls, and ceilings a distance of not more than 1/32 inch or one millimeter; or

3. Sealed to adjoining equipment or walls, if the equipment is exposed to spillage or seepage.

B. Counter-mounted equipment that is not easily movable shall be installed to allow cleaning of the equipment and areas underneath and around the equipment by being:

1. Sealed to the table; or

2. Elevated on legs as specified under 2VAC5-585-1560 D.

2VAC5-585-1560

2VAC5-585-1560. Fixed equipment, elevation or sealing.

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, floor-mounted equipment that is not easily movable shall be sealed to the floor or elevated on legs that provide at least a six-inch [ (15-centimeter) (15 centimeter) ] clearance between the floor and the equipment.

B. If no part of the floor under the floor-mounted equipment is more than six inches (15 centimeters) from the point of cleaning access, the clearance space may be only four inches (10 centimeters).

C. This section does not apply to display shelving units, display refrigeration units, and display freezer units located in the consumer shopping areas of a retail food store, if the floor under the units is maintained clean.

D. Except as specified in subsection E of this section, counter-mounted equipment that is not easily movable shall be elevated on legs that provide at least a four-inch [ (10-centimeter) (10 centimeter) ] clearance between the table and the equipment.

E. The clearance space between the table and counter-mounted equipment may be:

1. Three inches (7.5 centimeters) if the horizontal distance of the table top under the equipment is no more than 20 inches (50 centimeters) from the point of access for cleaning; or

2. Two inches (5 centimeters) if the horizontal distance of the table top under the equipment is no more than three inches (7.5 centimeters) from the point of access for cleaning.

2VAC5-585-1570

Article 5
Maintenance and Operation

2VAC5-585-1570. Good repair and proper adjustment.

A. Equipment shall be maintained in a state of repair and condition that meets the requirements specified under Articles 1 (2VAC5-585-960 et seq.) and 2 (2VAC5-585-1080 et seq.) of this part. Unused or nonfunctioning equipment shall be removed from the premises.

B. Equipment components such as doors, seals, hinges, fasteners, and kick plates shall be kept intact, tight, and adjusted in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

C. Cutting or piercing parts of can openers shall be kept sharp to minimize the creation of metal fragments that can contaminate food when the container is opened.

2VAC5-585-1630

2VAC5-585-1630. Warewashing equipment, cleaning agents.

When used for warewashing, the wash compartment of a sink, mechanical warewasher, or wash receptacle of alternative manual warewashing equipment as specified in 2VAC5-585-1460 C, shall contain a wash solution of soap, detergent, acid cleaner, alkaline cleaner, degreaser, abrasive cleaner, or other cleaning agent according to the cleaning agent manufacturer's label instructions.Pf

2VAC5-585-1650

2VAC5-585-1650. Manual warewashing equipment, wash solution temperature.

The temperature of the wash solution in manual warewashing equipment shall be maintained at not less than 110°F (43°C) or the temperature specified on the cleaning agent manufacturer's label instructions.Pf

2VAC5-585-1660

2VAC5-585-1660. Mechanical warewashing equipment, wash solution temperature.

A. The temperature of the wash solution in spray type warewashers that use hot water to sanitize may not be less than:

1. For a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 165°F (74°C);Pf

2. For a stationary rack, dual temperature machine, 150°F (66°C);Pf

3. For a single tank, conveyor, dual temperature machine, 160°F (71°C);Pf or

4. For a multitank, conveyor, multitemperature machine, 150°F (66°C).Pf

B. The temperature of the wash solution in spray-type warewashers that use chemicals to sanitize may not be less than 120°F (49°C).Pf

2VAC5-585-1670

2VAC5-585-1670. Manual warewashing equipment, hot water sanitization temperatures.*

If immersion in hot water is used for sanitizing in a manual operation, the temperature of the water shall be maintained at 171°F (77°C) or above.P

2VAC5-585-1680

2VAC5-585-1680. Mechanical warewashing equipment, hot water sanitization temperatures.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, in a mechanical operation, the temperature of the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse as it enters the manifold may not be more than 194°F (90°C), or less than:Pf

1. For a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 165°F (74°C);Pf or

2. For all other machines, 180°F (82°C).Pf

B. The maximum temperature specified under subsection A of this section does not apply to the high pressure and temperature systems with wand-type, hand-held, spraying devices used for the in-place cleaning and sanitizing of equipment such as meat saws.

2VAC5-585-1700

2VAC5-585-1700. Manual and mechanical warewashing equipment, chemical sanitization - temperature, pH, concentration, and hardness.*

A chemical sanitizer used in a sanitizing solution for a manual or mechanical operation at exposure contact times specified under subdivision 3 of 2VAC5-585-1900 shall be listed in 40 CFR 180.940, Tolerance Exemptions for Active and Inert Ingredients for Use in Antimicrobial Formulations (Food-Contact Surface Sanitizing Solutions), shall be used in accordance with the EPA-approved manufacturer's label use instructions, meet the criteria specified under 2VAC5-585-3380, shall be used in accordance with the EPA-registered label use instructions,P and shall be used as follows:

1. A chlorine solution shall have a minimum temperature based on the concentration and pH of the solution as listed in the following chart;P

 

Minimum Concentration

Minimum Temperature

 

mg/L (ppm)

pH 10 or less
°F (°C)

pH 8 8.0 or less
°F (°C)

 

25-49

120 (49)

120 (49)

 

50-99

100 (38)

75 (24)

 

100

55 (13)

55 (13)

2. An iodine solution shall have a:

a. Minimum temperature of 75°F (24°C) 68°F (20°C);P

b. pH of 5.0 or less or a pH no higher than the level for which the manufacturer specifies the solution is effective;P and

c. Concentration between 12.5 mg/L(ppm) and 25 mg/L (ppm);P

3. A quaternary ammonium compound solution shall:

a. Have a minimum temperature of 75°F (24°C);P

b. Have a concentration as specified under 2VAC5-585-3380 and as indicated by the manufacturer's use directions included in the labeling;P and

c. Be used only in water with 500 mg/L hardness or less or in water having a hardness no greater than specified by the manufacturer's label EPA-registered label use instructions;P

4. If another solution of a chemical specified under subdivisions 1 through 3 of this section is used, the person in charge operator shall demonstrate to the department that the solution achieves sanitization and the use of the solution shall be approved;P or

5. If a chemical sanitizer other than chlorine, iodine, or a quaternary ammonium compound is used, it shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's use directions included in the labeling. EPA-registered label use instructions;P and

6. If a chemical sanitizer is generated by a device located on site at the food establishment, it shall be used as specified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this section and shall be produced by a device that:

a. Complies with regulation as specified in §§ 2(q)(1) and 12 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 USC § 136(q)(1) and 7 USC § 136j);P

b. Complies with 40 CFR 152.500 and 40 CFR 156.10;P

c. Displays the EPA device manufacturing facility registration number on the device;Pf and

d. Is operated and maintained in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.Pf

2VAC5-585-1720

2VAC5-585-1720. Warewashing equipment, determining chemical sanitizer concentration.

Concentration of the sanitizing solution shall be accurately determined by using a test kit or other device.Pf

2VAC5-585-1730

2VAC5-585-1730. Good repair and calibration.

A. Utensils shall be maintained in a state of repair or condition that complies with the requirements specified under Articles 1 (2VAC5-585-960 et seq.) and 2 (2VAC5-585-1080 et seq.) of this part or shall be discarded.

B. Food temperature measuring devices shall be calibrated in accordance with manufacturer's specifications as necessary to ensure their accuracy.Pf

C. Ambient air temperature, water pressure, and water temperature measuring devices shall be maintained in good repair and be accurate within the intended range of use.

2VAC5-585-1740

2VAC5-585-1740. Single-service and single-use articles, required use.*

A food establishment without facilities specified under Articles 6 (2VAC5-585-1770 et seq.) and 7 (2VAC5-585-1880 (2VAC5-585-1885 et seq.) of this part for cleaning and sanitizing kitchenware and tableware shall provide only single-use kitchenware, single-service articles, and single-use articles for use by food employees and single-service articles for use by consumers.P

2VAC5-585-1770

Article 6
Cleaning of Equipment and Utensils

2VAC5-585-1770. Equipment, food-contact surfaces, nonfood-contact surfaces, and utensils.*

A. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be clean to sight and touch.Pf

B. The food-contact surfaces of cooking equipment and pans shall be kept free of encrusted grease deposits and other soil accumulations.N

C. Nonfood-contact surfaces of equipment shall be kept free of an accumulation of dust, dirt, food residue, and other debris.N

2VAC5-585-1780

2VAC5-585-1780. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils.*

A. Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be cleaned:

1. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, before each use with a different type of raw animal food such as beef, fish, lamb, pork, or poultry;P

2. Each time there is a change from working with raw foods to working with ready-to-eat foods;P

3. Between uses with raw fruits and vegetables and with potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food;P

4. Before using or storing a food temperature measuring device;P and

5. At any time during the operation when contamination may have occurred.P

B. Subdivision A 1 of this section does not apply if the food contact food-contact surface or utensil is in contact with a succession of different raw animal foods types of raw meat and poultry each requiring a higher cooking temperature as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 than the previous food, such as preparing raw fish followed by cutting raw poultry on the same cutting board type.

C. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, if used with potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food, equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be cleaned throughout the day at least every four hours.P

D. Surfaces of utensils and equipment contacting potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food may be cleaned less frequently than every four hours if:

1. In storage, containers of potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food and their contents are maintained at temperatures specified under Part III (2VAC5-585-260 et seq.) of this chapter and the containers are cleaned when they are empty;

2. Utensils and equipment are used to prepare food in a refrigerated room or area that is maintained at one of the temperatures in the following chart and:

a. The utensils and equipment are cleaned at the frequency in the following chart that corresponds to the temperature; and

 

Temperature

Cleaning Frequency

 

41°F (5.0°C) or less

24 hours

 

>41°F - 45°F

(>5.0°C - 7.2°C)

20 hours

 

>45°F - 50°F

(>7.2°C - 10.0°C)

16 hours

 

>50°F - 55°F

(>10.0°C - 12.8°C)

10 hours

b. The cleaning frequency based on the ambient temperature of the refrigerated room or area is documented in the food establishment.

3. Containers in serving situations such as salad bars, delis, and cafeteria lines hold ready-to-eat potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food that is maintained at the temperatures specified under Part III, are intermittently combined with additional supplies of the same food that is at the required temperature, and the containers are cleaned at least every 24 hours;

4. Temperature measuring devices are maintained in contact with food, such as when left in a container of deli food or in a roast, held at temperatures specified under Part III;

5. Equipment is used for storage of packaged or unpackaged food such as a reach-in refrigerator and the equipment is cleaned at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil residues; or

6. The cleaning schedule is approved based on consideration of:

a. Characteristics of the equipment and its use;

b. The type of food involved;

c. The amount of food residue accumulation; and

d. The temperature at which the food is maintained during the operation and the potential for the rapid and progressive multiplication of pathogenic or toxigenic microorganisms that are capable of causing foodborne disease; or

7. In-use utensils are intermittently stored in a container of water in which the water is maintained at 135°F (57°C) or more and the utensils and container are cleaned at least every 24 hours or at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil residues.

E. Except when dry cleaning methods are used as specified under 2VAC5-585-1810, surfaces of utensils and equipment contacting food that is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food shall be cleaned:N

1. At any time when contamination may have occurred;

2. At least every 24 hours for iced tea dispensers and consumer self-service utensils such as tongs, scoops, or ladles;

3. Before restocking consumer self-service equipment and utensils such as condiment dispensers and display containers; and

4. Equipment In equipment such as ice bins and beverage dispensing nozzles and enclosed components of equipment such as ice makers, cooking oil storage tanks and distribution lines, beverage and syrup dispensing lines or tubes, coffee bean grinders, and water vending equipment:

a. At a frequency specified by the manufacturer; or

b. Absent manufacturer specifications, at a frequency necessary to preclude accumulation of soil or mold.

2VAC5-585-1790

2VAC5-585-1790. Cooking and baking equipment.

A. The food-contact surfaces of in-use cooking and baking equipment shall be cleaned at least every 24 hours. This section does not apply to hot oil cooking and filtering equipment if it is cleaned as specified in 2VAC5-585-1780 D 6.

B. The cavities and door seals of microwave ovens shall be cleaned at least every 24 hours by using the manufacturer's recommended cleaning procedure.

2VAC5-585-1810

2VAC5-585-1810. Dry cleaning.

A. If used, dry cleaning methods such as brushing, scraping, and vacuuming shall contact only surfaces that are soiled with dry food residues that are not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food.

B. Cleaning equipment used in dry cleaning food-contact surfaces may not be used for any other purpose.

2VAC5-585-1870

2VAC5-585-1870. Returnables, cleaning for refilling.* (Repealed.)

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, returned empty containers intended for cleaning and refilling with food shall be cleaned and refilled in a regulated food processing plant.

B. A food-specific container for beverages may be refilled at a food establishment if:

1. Only a beverage that is not a potentially hazardous food is used as specified under 2VAC5-585-600 A;

2. The design of the container and of the rinsing equipment and the nature of the beverage, when considered together, allow effective cleaning at home or in the food establishment;

3. Facilities for rinsing before refilling returned containers with fresh, hot water that is under pressure and not recirculated are provided as part of the dispensing system;

4. The consumer-owned container returned to the food establishment for refilling is refilled for sale or service only to the same consumer; and

5. The container is refilled by:

a. An employee of the food establishment; or

b. The owner of the container if the beverage system includes a contamination-free transfer process that cannot be bypassed by the container owner.

C. Consumer-owned containers that are not food-specific may be filled at a water vending machine or system.

2VAC5-585-1885

Article 7
Sanitization of Equipment and Utensils

2VAC5-585-1885. Food-contact surfaces and utensils.

Equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be sanitized.

2VAC5-585-1890

2VAC5-585-1890. Before use after cleaning.*

Utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment shall be sanitized before use after cleaning.P

2VAC5-585-1900

2VAC5-585-1900. Hot water and chemical.*

After being cleaned, equipment food-contact surfaces and utensils shall be sanitized in:

1. Hot water manual operations by immersion for at least 30 seconds as specified under 2VAC5-585-1670;P

2. Hot water mechanical operations by being cycled through equipment that is set up as specified under 2VAC5-585-1610, 2VAC5-585-1680, and 2VAC5-585-1690 and achieving a utensil surface temperature of 160°F (71°C) as measured by an irreversible registering temperature indicator;P or

3. Chemical manual or mechanical operations, including the application of sanitizing chemicals by immersion, manual swabbing, brushing, or pressure spraying methods, using a solution as specified under 2VAC5-585-1700. Contact times shall be consistent with those on EPA-registered label use instructions by providing:

a. Except as specified under subdivision 3 b of this section, an exposure a contact time of at least 10 seconds for a chlorine solution specified under subdivision 1 of 2VAC5-585-1700;P

b. An exposure A contact time of at least 7 seven seconds for a chlorine solution of 50 mg/L that has a pH of 10 or less and a temperature of at least 100°F (38°C) or a pH of 8 8.0 or less and a temperature of at least 75°F (24°C);P

c. An exposure A contact time of at least 30 seconds for other chemical sanitizing solutions;P or

d. An exposure A contact time used in relationship with a combination of temperature, concentration, and pH that, when evaluated for efficacy, yields sanitization as defined in 2VAC5-585-40.P

2VAC5-585-1920

2VAC5-585-1920. Specifications.

A. Linens that do not come in direct contact with food shall be laundered between operations if they become wet, sticky, or visibly soiled.

B. Cloth gloves used as specified in 2VAC5-585-580 D shall be laundered before being used with a different type of raw animal food such as beef, lamb, pork, and fish, or poultry.

C. Linens and napkins that are used as specified under 2VAC5-585-560 and cloth napkins shall be laundered between each use.

D. Wet wiping cloths shall be laundered daily.

E. Dry wiping cloths shall be laundered as necessary to prevent contamination of food and clean serving utensils.

2VAC5-585-1960

Article 9
Protection of Clean Items

2VAC5-585-1960. Equipment and utensils, air-drying required.

After cleaning and sanitizing, equipment and utensils:

1. Shall be air dried or used after adequate draining as specified in 40 CFR 180.9401 the first paragraph of 40 CFR 180.940 before contact with food; and

2. May not be cloth dried except that utensils that have been air-dried may be polished with cloths that are maintained clean and dry.

2VAC5-585-2000

2VAC5-585-2000. Equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.

A. Except as specified in subsection D of this section, cleaned equipment and utensils, laundered linens, and single-service and single-use articles shall be stored:

1. In a clean, dry location;

2. Where they are not exposed to splash, dust, or other contamination; and

3. At least six inches (15 cm) centimeters) above the floor.

B. Clean equipment and utensils shall be stored as specified under subsection A of this section and shall be stored:

1. In a self-draining position that allows air drying; and

2. Covered or inverted.

C. Single-service and single-use articles shall be stored as specified under subsection A of this section and shall be kept in the original protective package or stored by using other means that afford protection from contamination until used.

D. Items that are kept in closed packages may be stored less than six inches (15 cm) centimeters) above the floor on dollies, pallets, racks, and skids that are designed as provided under 2VAC5-585-1420.

2VAC5-585-2010

2VAC5-585-2010. Prohibitions.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, cleaned and sanitized equipment, utensils, laundered linens, and single-service and single-use articles may not be stored:

1. In locker rooms;

2. In toilet rooms or vestibules;

3. In garbage rooms;

4. In mechanical rooms;

5. Under sewer lines that are not shielded to intercept potential drips;

6. Under leaking water lines including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads or under lines on which water has condensed;

7. Under open stairwells; or

8. Under other sources of contamination.

B. Laundered linens and single-service and single-use articles that are packaged or in a facility such as a cabinet may be stored in a locker room.

2VAC5-585-2040

2VAC5-585-2040. Preset tableware.

A. Tableware Except as specified in subsection B of this section, tableware that is preset shall be protected from contamination by being wrapped, covered, or inverted.

B. When tableware is preset, exposed, unused settings shall be:

1. Removed when a consumer is seated; or

2. Cleaned and sanitized before further use if the settings are not removed when a consumer is seated.

B. Preset tableware may be exposed if:

1. Unused settings are removed when a consumer is seated; or

2. Settings not removed when a consumer is seated are cleaned and sanitized before further use.

2VAC5-585-2045

2VAC5-585-2045. Rinsing equipment and utensils after cleaning.

After being cleaned and sanitized, equipment and utensils shall not be rinsed before air drying or use unless:

1. The rinse is applied directly from a potable water supply by a warewashing machine that is maintained and operated as specified under 2VAC5-585-1210 through 2VAC5-585-1430 and 2VAC5-585-1570 through 2VAC5-585-1720; and

2. The rinse is applied only after the equipment and utensils have been sanitized by the application of hot water or by the application of a chemical sanitizer solution whose EPA-registered label use instructions call for rinsing off the sanitizer after it is applied in a commercial warewashing machine.

2VAC5-585-2050

Part V
Water, Plumbing, and Waste

Article 1
Water

2VAC5-585-2050. Approved system.*

Drinking Pure ] water shall be obtained from an approved [ source that is water system defined as ]:

1. A [ public water system waterworks constructed, maintained, and operated in compliance with 12VAC5-590 ];P or

2. A [ nonpublic water system that is constructed, maintained, and operated according to law private well constructed, maintained, and operated in compliance with 12VAC5-630 ].P

2VAC5-585-2060

2VAC5-585-2060. System flushing and disinfection.*

A drinking water An approved water ] system shall be flushed and disinfected [ before being placed in service ] after construction, repair, or modification and after an emergency situation, such as a flood, that may introduce contaminants to the system. [ A sample shall be collected from the water system and the results of the analysis shall be total coliform negative prior to placing the water system into service. ]P

2VAC5-585-2070

2VAC5-585-2070. Bottled drinking water.*

Bottled drinking water used or sold in a food establishment shall be obtained from approved sources in accordance with 21 CFR Part 129, Processing and Bottling of Bottled Drinking Water.P

2VAC5-585-2080

2VAC5-585-2080. [ Quality Pure water ] standards.*

Except as specified under 2VAC5-585-2090:

1. Water from a [ public water system waterworks ] shall meet [ the applicable water quality and quantity ] standards [ found in 40 CFR Part 141 and the Virginia Waterworks Regulations (12VAC5-590) in accordance with 12VAC5-590 ].P

2. Water from a [ nonpublic water system private well ] shall meet state drinking water quality standardsthe bacteriological standards found in the Virginia Waterworks Regulations (12VAC5-590) water quality and quantity standards in accordance with 12VAC5-630-370 ].P

2VAC5-585-2090

2VAC5-585-2090. [ Nondrinking Nonpotable ] water.*

A. A [ nondrinking nonpotable ] water supply shall be used only if its use is approved.P

B. [ Nondrinking Nonpotable ] water shall be used only for nonculinary purposes such as air conditioning, nonfood equipment cooling, and fire protection, and irrigation.P

2VAC5-585-2100

2VAC5-585-2100. Sampling.

Except when used as specified under 2VAC5-585-2090, water A. Water ] from a [ nonpublic water system private well ] shall be sampled and tested at least annually [ and as required by state water quality regulations for nitrate and total coliform ]. [ Pf ]

B. If nitrate, which is reported as "N" on the test results, exceeds 10 mg/L, the operator shall notify the department by the end of the day the operator is notified of the test result. Additional sampling may be required.Pf

C. If a sample is total coliform positive, the positive culture medium shall be further analyzed to determine if E. coli is present. The operator shall notify the department within two days from when the operator is notified of the coliform-positive test result. Pf

D. If E. coli is present, the operator shall notify the department by the end of the day the operator is notified of the test result.Pf ]

2VAC5-585-2110

 [ 2VAC5-585-2110. Sample report.

The most recent All sample report reports for the nonpublic water system private well shall be retained on file in the food establishment or the report shall be maintained as specified by state water quality regulations for a minimum of five years and be made available to the department upon request. ]

2VAC5-585-2120

2VAC5-585-2120. Capacity.*

A. The water source and system shall be of sufficient capacity to meet the [ peak maximum daily ] water demands [ and the peak hourly water demands ] of the food establishment.Pf

B. Hot water generation and distribution systems shall be sufficient to meet the peak hot water demands throughout the food establishment.Pf

2VAC5-585-2130

2VAC5-585-2130. Pressure.

Water under pressure shall be provided to all fixtures, equipment, and nonfood equipment that are required to use water except that water supplied as specified under subdivisions 1 and 2 of 2VAC5-585-2160 to a temporary food establishment or in response to a temporary interruption of a water supply need not be under pressure.Pf

2VAC5-585-2150

2VAC5-585-2150. Distribution, delivery, and retention system.

Water shall be received from the source through the use of:

1. An approved public water main;Pf or

2. One or more of the following that shall be constructed, maintained, and operated according to law:Pf

a. Nonpublic water main, water pumps, pipes, hoses, connections, and other appurtenances;Pf

b. Water transport vehicles; andPf or

c. Water containers.Pf

2VAC5-585-2160

2VAC5-585-2160. Alternative water supply.

Water meeting the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-2050 through 2VAC5-585-2130 shall be made available for a mobile facility, for a temporary food establishment without a permanent water supply, and for a food establishment with a temporary interruption of its water supply through:

1. A supply of containers of commercially bottled drinking water;Pf

2. One or more closed portable water containers;Pf

3. An enclosed vehicular water tank;Pf

4. An on-premises water storage tank;Pf or

5. Piping, tubing, or hoses connected to an adjacent approved source.Pf

2VAC5-585-2170

Article 2
Plumbing System

2VAC5-585-2170. Approved materials.*

A. A plumbing system and hoses conveying water shall be constructed and repaired with approved materials according to law.P

B. A water filter shall be made of safe materials.P

2VAC5-585-2180

2VAC5-585-2180. Approved system and cleanable fixtures.*

A. A plumbing system shall be designed, constructed, and installed according to law.P

B. A plumbing fixture such as a handwashing lavatory sink, toilet, or urinal shall be easily cleanable.N

2VAC5-585-2190

2VAC5-585-2190. Handwashing sink, water temperature, and flow.

A. A handwashing sink shall be equipped to provide water at a temperature of at least 100°F (38°C) through a mixing valve or combination faucet.Pf

B. A steam mixing valve may not be used at a handwashing sink.

C. A self-closing, slow-closing, or metering faucet shall provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

D. If an automatic handwashing facility is installed, it shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

2VAC5-585-2200

2VAC5-585-2200. Backflow prevention, air gap.*

An air gap between the water supply inlet and the flood level rim of the plumbing fixture, equipment, or nonfood equipment shall be at least twice the diameter of the water supply inlet and may not be less than one inch (25 mm).P

2VAC5-585-2210

2VAC5-585-2210. Backflow prevention device, design standard.

A backflow or backsiphonage prevention device installed on a water supply system shall comply with the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63) for construction, installation, maintenance, inspection, and testing for that specific application and type of device.P

2VAC5-585-2230

2VAC5-585-2230. Handwashing sinks, numbers and capacities.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, at least one handwashing sink, or the number of handwashing sinks necessary for their convenient use by employees in areas specified under 2VAC5-585-2280, and not fewer than the number of handwashing sinks required by law shall be provided.Pf

B. If approved and capable of removing the types of soils encountered in the food operations involved, automatic handwashing facilities may be substituted for handwashing sinks in a food establishment that has at least one handwashing sink.

C. If approved, when food exposure is limited and handwashing sinks are not conveniently available, such as in some mobile or temporary food establishments or at some vending machine locations, employees may use chemically-treated towelettes for handwashing.

2VAC5-585-2240

2VAC5-585-2240. Toilets and urinals.*

At least one toilet and not fewer than the toilets required by law shall be provided. If authorized by law and urinals are substituted for toilets, the substitution shall be done as specified in law.

2VAC5-585-2250

2VAC5-585-2250. Service sink.

A. At least one service sink or one curbed cleaning facility equipped with a floor drain shall be provided and conveniently located for the cleaning of mops or similar wet floor cleaning tools and for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.

B. Toilets and urinals may not be used as a service sink for the disposal of mop water and similar liquid waste.

2VAC5-585-2260

2VAC5-585-2260. Backflow prevention device, when required.*

A plumbing system shall be installed to preclude backflow of a solid, liquid, or gas contaminant into the water supply system at each point of use at the food establishment, including on a hose bibb (threaded faucet) if a hose is attached or on a hose bibb if a hose is not attached and backflow prevention is required by law by:

1. Providing an air gap as specified under 2VAC5-585-2200;P or

2. Installing an approved backflow prevention device as specified under 2VAC5-585-2210.P

2VAC5-585-2270

2VAC5-585-2270. Backflow prevention device, carbonator.*

A. If not provided with an air gap as specified under 2VAC5-585-2200, a double check valve with an intermediate vent preceded by a screen of not less than 100 mesh to one inch (100 mesh to 25.4mm) shall be installed upstream from a carbonating device and downstream from any copper in the water supply line.P

B. A single or double dual check valve attached to the carbonator need not be of the vented type if an air gap or vented backflow prevention device has been otherwise provided as specified under subsection A of this section.

2VAC5-585-2280

2VAC5-585-2280. Handwashing sinks, locations.*

A handwashing sink shall be located:

1. To be readily accessible for allow convenient use by employees in food preparation, food dispensing, and warewashing areas;Pf and

2. In, or immediately adjacent to, toilet rooms.Pf

2VAC5-585-2310

2VAC5-585-2310. Using a handwashing sink.

A. A handwashing sink shall be maintained so that it is accessible at all times for employee use.Pf

B. A handwashing sink may not be used for purposes other than handwashing.Pf

C. An automatic handwashing sink shall be used in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.Pf

2VAC5-585-2320

2VAC5-585-2320. Prohibiting a cross connection.*

A. Except as specified in 9 CFR 308.3(d) for firefighting, a A person may not create a cross connection by connecting a pipe or conduit between the drinking water system and a nondrinking water system or a water system of unknown quality.P

B. The piping of a nondrinking water system shall be durably identified so that it is readily distinguishable from piping that carries drinking water.N Pf

2VAC5-585-2330

2VAC5-585-2330. Scheduling inspection and service for a water system device.

A device such as a water treatment device or backflow preventer shall be scheduled for inspection and service, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and as necessary to prevent device failure based on local water conditions, and records demonstrating inspection and service shall be maintained by the person in charge.Pf

2VAC5-585-2340

2VAC5-585-2340. Water reservoir of fogging devices, cleaning.*

A. A reservoir that is used to supply water to a device such as a produce fogger shall be:

1. Maintained in accordance with manufacturer's specifications;P and

2. Cleaned in accordance with manufacturer's specifications or according to the procedures specified under subsection B of this section, whichever is more stringent.P

B. Cleaning procedures shall include at least the following steps and shall be conducted at least once a week:

1. Draining and complete disassembly of the water and aerosol contact parts;P

2. Brush-cleaning the reservoir, aerosol tubing, and discharge nozzles with a suitable detergent solution;P

3. Flushing the complete system with water to remove the detergent solution and particulate accumulation;P and

4. Rinsing by immersing, spraying, or swabbing the reservoir, aerosol tubing, and discharge nozzles with at least 50 mg/L (ppm) hypochlorite solution.P

2VAC5-585-2350

2VAC5-585-2350. System maintained in good repair.*

A plumbing system shall be:

1. Repaired according to law;P and

2. Maintained in good repair.S

2VAC5-585-2360

Article 3
Mobile Water Tank and Mobile Food Establishment Water Tank

2VAC5-585-2360. Approved materials.

Materials that are used in the construction of a mobile water tank, mobile food establishment water tank, and appurtenances shall be:

1. Safe;P

2. Durable, corrosion resistant, and nonabsorbent; and

3. Finished to have a smooth, easily cleanable surface.

2VAC5-585-2420

2VAC5-585-2420. Hose, construction and identification.

A hose used for conveying [ drinking potable ] water from a water tank shall be:

1. Safe;P

2. Durable, corrosion resistant, and nonabsorbent;

3. Resistant to pitting, chipping, crazing, scratching, scoring, distortion, and decomposition;

4. Finished with a smooth interior surface; and

5. Clearly and durably identified as to its use if not permanently attached.

2VAC5-585-2430

2VAC5-585-2430. Filter, compressed air.

A filter that does not pass oil or oil vapors shall be installed in the air supply line between the compressor and [ drinking potable ] water system when compressed air is used to pressurize the water tank system.P

2VAC5-585-2460

2VAC5-585-2460. System flushing and disinfection.*

A water tank, pump, and hoses shall be flushed and sanitized before being placed in service after construction, repair, modification, and periods of nonuse.P

2VAC5-585-2490

2VAC5-585-2490. Tank, pump, and hoses, dedication.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, a water tank, pump, and hoses used for conveying drinking water shall be used for no other purpose.P

B. Water tanks, pumps, and hoses approved for liquid foods may be used for conveying drinking water if they are cleaned and sanitized before they are used to convey water.

2VAC5-585-2505

2VAC5-585-2505. Establishment drainage system.

Food establishment drainage systems, including grease traps, that convey sewage shall be designed and installed as specified under 2VAC5-585-2180 A.

2VAC5-585-2520

2VAC5-585-2520. Backflow prevention.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, a direct connection may not exist between the sewage system and a drain originating from equipment in which food, portable equipment, or utensils are placed.P

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply to floor drains that originate in refrigerated spaces that are constructed as an integral part of the building.

C. If allowed by law, a warewashing machine may have a direct connection between its waste outlet and a floor drain when the machine is located within five feet (1.5 meters) of a trapped floor drain and the machine outlet is connected to the inlet side of a properly vented floor drain trap.

D. If allowed by law, a warewashing or culinary sink may have a direct connection.

2VAC5-585-2540

2VAC5-585-2540. Conveying sewage.*

Sewage shall be conveyed to the point of disposal through an approved sanitary sewage system or other system, including use of sewage transport vehicles, waste retention tanks, pumps, pipes, hoses, and connections that are constructed, maintained, and operated according to law.P

2VAC5-585-2550

2VAC5-585-2550. Removing mobile food establishment wastes.

Sewage and other liquid wastes shall be removed from a mobile food establishment at an approved waste servicing area or by a sewage transport vehicle in such a way that a public health hazard or nuisance is not created.Pf

2VAC5-585-2570

2VAC5-585-2570. Approved sewage disposal system.*

Sewage shall be disposed through an approved facility that is:

1. A public sewage treatment plant;P or

2. An individual sewage disposal system that is sized, constructed, maintained, and operated according to law in accordance with the regulations promulgated pursuant to Chapter 6 (§ 32.1-163 et seq.) of Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia.P

2VAC5-585-2595

2VAC5-585-2595. Indoor storage area.

If located within the food establishment, a storage area for refuse, recyclables, and returnables shall meet the requirements specified under 2VAC5-585-2790, 2VAC5-585-2810 through 2VAC5-585-2880, 2VAC5-585-2930, and 2VAC5-585-2940.

2VAC5-585-2840

2VAC5-585-2840. Floor carpeting, restrictions and installation.

A. A floor covering such as carpeting or similar material may not be installed as a floor covering in food preparation areas, walk-in refrigerators, warewashing areas, toilet room areas where handwashing lavatories sinks, toilets, and urinals are located, refuse storage rooms, or other areas where the floor is subject to moisture, flushing, or spray cleaning methods.

B. If carpeting is installed as a floor covering in areas other than those specified under subsection A of this section, it shall be:

1. Securely attached to the floor with a durable mastic, by using a stretch and tack method, or by another method; and

2. Installed tightly against the wall under the coving or installed away from the wall with a space between the carpet and the wall and with the edges of the carpet secured by metal stripping or some other means.

2VAC5-585-2930

2VAC5-585-2930. Outer openings, protected.

A. Except as specified in subsections B through E of this section, outer openings of a food establishment shall be protected against the entry of insects and rodents by:

1. Filling or closing holes and other gaps along floors, walls and ceilings;

2. Closed, tight-fitting windows; and

3. Solid self-closing, tight-fitting doors.

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply if a food establishment opens into a larger structure, such as a mall, airport, or office building, or into an attached structure, such as a porch, and the outer openings from the larger or attached structure are protected against the entry of insects and rodents.

C. Exterior doors used as exits need not be self-closing if they are:

1. Solid and tight-fitting;

2. Designated for use only when an emergency exists, by the fire protection authority that has jurisdiction over the food establishment; and

3. Restricted Limited-use so they are not used for entrance or exit from the building for purposes other than the designated emergency exit use.

D. Except as specified in subsections B and E of this section, if the windows or doors of a food establishment, or of a larger structure within which a food establishment is located, are kept open for ventilation or other purposes, or a temporary food establishment is not provided with windows and doors as specified in subsection A of this section, the openings shall be protected against the entry of insects and rodents by:

1. 16 mesh to one-inch (16 mesh to 25.4-mm) screens;

2. Properly designed and installed air curtains to control flying insects; or

3. Other effective means.

E. Subsection D of this section does not apply if flying insects and other pests are absent due to the location of the establishment, the weather, or other limiting condition.

2VAC5-585-2990

2VAC5-585-2990. Private homes and living or sleeping quarters, use prohibition.

A private home, a room used as living or sleeping quarters, or an area directly opening into a room used as living or sleeping quarters may not be used for conducting food establishment operations.P

2VAC5-585-3000

2VAC5-585-3000. Living or sleeping quarters, separation.

Sleeping Living or sleeping quarters located on the premises of a food establishment such as those provided for lodging registration clerks or resident managers shall be separated from rooms and areas used for food establishment operations by complete partitioning and solid self-closing doors.

2VAC5-585-3020

2VAC5-585-3020. Handwashing cleanser, availability.

Each handwashing sink or group of two adjacent handwashing sinks shall be provided with a supply of hand cleaning liquid, powder, or bar soap.Pf

2VAC5-585-3030

2VAC5-585-3030. Hand drying provision.

Each handwashing sink or group of adjacent handwashing sinks shall be provided with:

1. Individual, disposable towels;Pf

2. A continuous towel system that supplies the user with a clean towel; or Pf

3. A heated-air hand drying device;Pf or

4. A hand-drying device that employs an air-knife system that delivers high velocity, pressurized air at ambient temperatures.Pf

2VAC5-585-3040

2VAC5-585-3040. Handwashing aids and devices, use restrictions.

A sink used for food preparation or utensil washing or a service sink or curbed cleaning facility used for the disposal of mop water or similar wastes may not be provided with the handwashing aids and devices required for a handwashing sink as specified under 2VAC5-585-2650 C, 2VAC5-585-3020, and 2VAC5-585-3030 and 2VAC5-585-2650 C.

2VAC5-585-3047

2VAC5-585-3047. Disposable towels, waste receptacle.

A handwashing sink or group of adjacent handwashing sinks that is provided with disposable towels shall be provided with a waste receptacle as specified under 2VAC5-585-2650 C.

2VAC5-585-3070

2VAC5-585-3070. Toilet tissue, availability.

A supply of toilet tissue shall be available at each toilet.Pf

2VAC5-585-3130

2VAC5-585-3130. Toilet rooms, convenience and accessibility.

Toilet rooms shall be conveniently located and accessible to employees during all hours of operation. Toilet rooms intended for use by customers shall not necessitate travel through food preparation or handling areas.

2VAC5-585-3150

2VAC5-585-3150. Distressed merchandise, segregation and location.

Products that are held by the person in charge operator for credit, redemption, or return to the distributor, such as damaged, spoiled, or recalled products, shall be segregated and held in designated areas that are separated from food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.Pf

2VAC5-585-3210

2VAC5-585-3210. Cleaning maintenance tools, preventing contamination.*

Food preparation sinks, handwashing lavatories sinks, and warewashing equipment may not be used for the cleaning of maintenance tools, the preparation or holding of maintenance materials, or the disposal of mop water and similar liquid wastes.Pf

2VAC5-585-3240

2VAC5-585-3240. Cleaning of plumbing fixtures.

Plumbing fixtures such as handwashing sinks, toilets, and urinals shall be cleaned as often as necessary to keep them clean and maintained and used as specified under 2VAC5-585-2310.

2VAC5-585-3250

2VAC5-585-3250. Closing toilet room doors.

Toilet room doors as specified under 2VAC5-585-2920 shall be kept closed except during cleaning and maintenance operations unless otherwise required by other regulations or law. Except during cleaning and maintenance operations, toilet room doors as specified under 2VAC5-585-2920 shall be kept closed.

2VAC5-585-3270

2VAC5-585-3270. Controlling pests.*

The presence premises shall be maintained free of insects, rodents, and other pests. The presence of insects, rodents, and other pests shall be controlled to minimize eliminate their presence on the premises by:

1. Routinely inspecting incoming shipments of food and supplies;N

2. Routinely inspecting the premises for evidence of pests;N

3. Using methods, if pests are found, such as trapping devices or other means of pest control as specified under 2VAC5-585-3360, 2VAC5-585-3440, and 2VAC5-585-3450;Pf and

4. Eliminating harborage conditions.N

2VAC5-585-3310

2VAC5-585-3310. Prohibiting animals.*

A. Except as specified in subsections B and C of this section, live animals may not be allowed on the premises of a food establishment.Pf

B. Live animals may be allowed in the following situations if the contamination of food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles cannot result:

1. Edible fish or decorative fish in aquariums, shellfish or crustacea on ice or under refrigeration, and shellfish and crustacea in display tank systems;

2. Patrol dogs accompanying police or security officers in offices and dining, sales, and storage areas, and sentry dogs running loose in outside fenced areas;

3. In areas that are not used for food preparation and that are usually open for customers, such as dining and sales areas, service animals that are controlled by the disabled employee or person, if a health or safety hazard will not result from the presence or activities of the service animal;

4. Pets in the common dining areas of institutional care facilities such as nursing homes, assisted living facilities, group homes, or residential care facilities at times other than during meals if:

a. Effective partitioning and self-closing doors separate the common dining areas from food storage or food preparation areas;

b. Condiments, equipment, and utensils are stored in enclosed cabinets or removed from the common dining areas when pets are present; and

c. Dining areas including tables, countertops, and similar surfaces are effectively cleaned before the next meal service; [ and ]

5. In areas that are not used for food preparation, storage, sales, display, or dining, in which there are caged animals or animals that are similarly restricted confined, such as in a variety store that sells pets or a tourist park that displays animals [ ; and

6. Dogs in outdoor dining areas if:

a. The outdoor dining area is not fully enclosed with floor to ceiling walls and is not considered a part of the interior physical facility.

b. The outdoor dining area is equipped with an entrance that is separate from the main entrance to the food establishment, and the separate entrance serves as the sole means of entry for patrons accompanied by dogs.

c. A sign stating that dogs are allowed in the outdoor dining area is posted at each entrance to the outdoor dining area in such a manner as to be clearly observable by the public.

d. A sign within the outdoor dining area stating the requirements as specified in subdivisions 6 e, f, and g of this subsection is provided in such a manner as to be clearly observable by the public.

e. Food and water provided to dogs is served using equipment that is not used for the service of food to a person or is served in single-use articles.

f. Dogs are not allowed on chairs, seats, benches, or tables.

g. Dogs are kept on a leash or within a pet carrier and under the control of an adult at all times.

h. The establishment provides effective means for cleaning up dog vomitus and fecal matter ].

C. Live or dead fish bait may be stored if contamination of food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles cannot result.

2VAC5-585-3320

Part VII
Poisonous or Toxic Materials

Article 1
Labeling and Identification

2VAC5-585-3320. Original containers - identifying information, prominence.*

Containers of poisonous or toxic materials and personal care items shall bear a legible manufacturer's label.Pf

2VAC5-585-3330

2VAC5-585-3330. Working containers - common name.*

Working containers used for storing poisonous or toxic materials such as cleaners and sanitizers taken from bulk supplies shall be clearly and individually identified with the common name of the material.Pf

2VAC5-585-3340

Article 2
Operational Supplies and Applications

2VAC5-585-3340. Storage, separation.*

Poisonous or toxic materials shall be stored so they cannot contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles by:

1. Separating the poisonous or toxic materials by spacing or partitioning;S P and

2. Locating the poisonous or toxic materials in an area that is not above food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service or single-use articles. This subsection does not apply to equipment and utensil cleaners and sanitizers that are stored in warewashing areas for availability and convenience if the materials are stored to prevent contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles; and.P

3. Detergents, sanitizers, related cleaning or drying agents and caustics, acids, polishes and other chemicals shall be stored separately from insecticides and rodenticides.

2VAC5-585-3350

2VAC5-585-3350. Presence and use restriction.*

A. Only those poisonous or toxic materials that are required for the operation and maintenance of a food establishment, such as for the cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and utensils and the control of insects and rodents, shall be allowed in a food establishment.S Pf

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply to packaged poisonous or toxic materials that are for retail sale.

2VAC5-585-3360

2VAC5-585-3360. Conditions of use.*

A. Poisonous or toxic materials shall be:

1. Used according to:

a. Law and this chapter;

b. Manufacturer's use directions included in labeling, and, for a pesticide, manufacturer's label instructions that state that use is allowed in a food establishment;P

c. The conditions of certification, if certification is required, for use of the pest control materials;P and

d. Additional conditions that may be established by the department; and

2. Applied so that:

a. A hazard to employees or other persons is not constituted;P and

b. Contamination including toxic residues due to drip, drain, fog, splash or spray on food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles is prevented, and for a restricted-use pesticide, this is achieved by:P

(1) Removing the items;P

(2) Covering the items with impermeable covers;P or

(3) Taking other appropriate preventive actions;P and

(4) Cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils after the application.P

B. A restricted use pesticide shall be applied only by an applicator certified as defined in 7 USC § 136(e); §§ 3.2-3929, 3.2-3930, and 3.2-3931 of the Code of Virginia (Virginia Pesticide Control Act); or a person under the direct supervision of a certified applicator.Pf

2VAC5-585-3370

2VAC5-585-3370. Poisonous or toxic material containers.*

A container previously used to store poisonous or toxic materials may not be used to store, transport, or dispense food.P

2VAC5-585-3380

2VAC5-585-3380. Sanitizers, criteria.*

Chemical sanitizers, including chemical sanitizing solutions generated on site, and other chemical antimicrobials applied to food-contact surfaces shall meet the requirements specified in 40 CRF 180.940.:

1. Meet the requirements specified in 40 CFR 180.940;P or

2. Meet the requirements as specified in 40 CFR 180.2020.P

2VAC5-585-3390

2VAC5-585-3390. Chemicals for washing fruits and vegetables, criteria.*

A. Chemicals, including those generated on site, used to wash or peel raw, whole fruits and vegetables shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 173.315 40 CFR Part 156 and shall:P

1. Be an approved food additive listed for this intended use in 21 CFR Part 173;P

2. Be generally recognized as safe for this intended use;P or

3. Be the subject of an effective food contact notification for this intended use (only effective for the manufacturer or supplier identified in the notification).P

B. Ozone as an antimicrobial agent used in the treatment, storage, and processing of fruits and vegetables in a food establishment shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 173.368.P

2VAC5-585-3400

2VAC5-585-3400. Boiler water additives, criteria.*

Chemicals used as boiler water additives shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 173.310.P

2VAC5-585-3410

2VAC5-585-3410. Drying agents, criteria.*

Drying agents used in conjunction with sanitization shall:

1. Contain only components that are listed as one of the following:

a. Generally recognized as safe for use in food as specified in 21 CFR Part 182, Substances Generally Recognized as Safe, or 21 CFR Part 184, Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe;P

b. Generally recognized as safe for the intended use as specified in 21 CFR Part 186, Indirect Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe;P

c. Generally recognized as safe for the intended use as determined by experts qualified in scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety  of substances added, directly or indirectly, to food as described in 21 CFR 170.30;P

d. Subject of an effective food contact notification as described in § 409(h) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 USC § 348(h));P

e. Approved for use as a drying agent under a prior sanction specified in 21 CFR Part 181, Prior-Sanctioned Food Ingredients as described in § 201(s)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 USC § 321(s)(4));P

d. f. Specifically regulated as an indirect food additive for use as a drying agent as specified in 21 CFR Parts 175-178 174-178;P or

e. g. Approved for use as a drying agent under the threshold of regulation process established by 21 CFR 170.39, Threshold of Regulation for Substances Used in Food-Contact Articles;P and

2. When sanitization is with chemicals, the approval required under subdivisions 1 c or subdivision 1 e or 1 g of this section or the regulation chapter as an indirect food additive required under subdivision 1 d f of this section, shall be specifically for use with chemical sanitizing solutions.P

2VAC5-585-3420

2VAC5-585-3420. Lubricants - incidental food contact, criteria.*

Lubricants shall meet the requirements specified in 21 CFR 178.3570 if they are used on food-contact surfaces, on bearings and gears located on or within food‑contact surfaces, or on bearings and gears that are located so that lubricants may leak, drip, or be forced into food or onto food-contact surfaces.P

2VAC5-585-3430

2VAC5-585-3430. Restricted use pesticides, criteria.*

Restricted use pesticides specified under subsection B of 2VAC5-585-3360 shall meet the requirements specified in 40 CFR Part 152, Subpart I, Classification of Pesticides.P

2VAC5-585-3440

2VAC5-585-3440. Rodent bait stations.*

Rodent bait shall be contained in a covered, tamper-resistant bait station.P

2VAC5-585-3450

2VAC5-585-3450. Tracking powders, pest control and monitoring.*

A. A Except as specified in subsection B of this section, a tracking powder pesticide may not be used in a food establishment.P

B. If used, a nontoxic tracking powder such as talcum or flour may not contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.N

2VAC5-585-3460

2VAC5-585-3460. Medicines - restriction and storage.*

A. Except for medicines that are stored or displayed for retail sale, only those medicines that are necessary for the health of employees shall be allowed in a food establishment.Pf

B. Medicines that are in a food establishment for the employees' use shall be labeled as specified under 2VAC5-585-3320 and located to prevent the contamination of food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles.P

2VAC5-585-3470

2VAC5-585-3470. Refrigerated medicines, storage.*

Medicines belonging to employees or to children in a day care center that require refrigeration and are stored in a food refrigerator shall be:

1. Stored in a package or container and kept inside a covered, leakproof container that is identified as a container for the storage of medicines;P and

2. Located so they are inaccessible to children.P

2VAC5-585-3480

2VAC5-585-3480. First aid supplies, storage.*

First aid supplies that are in a food establishment for the employees' use shall be:

1. Labeled as specified under 2VAC5-585-3320;S Pf and

2. Stored in a kit or a container that is located to prevent the contamination of food, equipment, utensils, and linens, and single-service and single-use articles.S P

2VAC5-585-3500

Article 3
Stock and Retail Sale

2VAC5-585-3500. Storage and display, separation.*

Poisonous or toxic materials shall be stored and displayed for retail sale so they cannot contaminate food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service and single-use articles by:

1. Separating the poisonous or toxic materials by spacing or partitioning;S P and

2. Locating the poisonous or toxic materials in an area that is not above food, equipment, utensils, linens, and single-service or single-use articles.P

2VAC5-585-3510

Part VIII
Compliance and Enforcement

Article 1
Applicability of Chapter

2VAC5-585-3510. Public health protection.

A. The department shall apply this regulation chapter to promote its underlying purpose, as specified in 2VAC5-585-20, of safeguarding public health and ensuring that food is safe and, unadulterated, and honestly presented when offered to the consumer.

B. In enforcing the provisions of this regulation chapter, the department shall assess existing facilities or equipment that were in use before the effective date of this regulation chapter based on the following considerations:

1. Whether the facilities or equipment are in good repair and capable of being maintained in a sanitary condition;

2. Whether food-contact surfaces comply with 2VAC5-585-960 through 2VAC5-585-1060;

3. Whether the capacities of cooling, heating, and holding equipment are sufficient to comply with 2VAC5-585-1450; and

4. The existence of a documented agreement with the establishment operator that the facilities or equipment will be replaced or upgraded as specified in the following: subdivision 6 of 2VAC5-585-3660.

a. Except as specified under subdivision B 4 b of this section, replace existing facilities and equipment specified in this section with facilities and equipment that comply with this regulation if:

(1) The department directs the replacement because the facilities and equipment constitute a public health hazard or nuisance or no longer comply with the criteria upon which the facilities and equipment were accepted;

(2) The department directs the replacement of the facilities and equipment because of a change of ownership; or

(3) The facilities and equipment are replaced in the normal course of operation;

b. Upgrade or replace refrigeration equipment as specified under 2VAC5-585-820 A 2 b, if the circumstances specified under subdivision B 4 a of this section do not occur first.

2VAC5-585-3541

2VAC5-585-3541. Documentation of proposed variance and justification.

Before a variance from a requirement of this regulation chapter is approved, the information that shall be provided by the person requesting the variance and retained in the department's file on the food establishment includes:

1. A statement of the proposed variance of the regulation requirement citing relevant regulation section numbers;Pf

2. An analysis of the rationale for how the potential public health hazards and nuisances addressed by the relevant regulation sections will be alternatively addressed by the proposal;Pf and

3. A HACCP plan if required as specified under 2VAC5-585-3620 A that includes the information specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 as it is relevant to the variance requested.Pf

2VAC5-585-3542

2VAC5-585-3542. Conformance with approved procedures.*

If the department grants a variance as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540, or a HACCP plan is otherwise required as specified under 2VAC5-585-3620, the operator shall:

1. Comply with the HACCP plans and procedures that are submitted as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 and approved as a basis for the modification or waiver;P and

2. Maintain and provide to the department, upon request, records specified under subdivisions 4 and 5 [ c ] of 2VAC5-585-3630 that demonstrate that the following are routinely employed:

a. Procedures for monitoring critical control points;Pf

b. Monitoring of the critical control points;Pf

c. Verification of the effectiveness of an operation or process;Pf and

d. Necessary corrective actions if there is failure at a critical control point.Pf

2VAC5-585-3600

Article 2
Plan Submission and Approval

2VAC5-585-3600. Facility and operating plans - when plans are required.

An operator shall submit to the department properly prepared plans and specifications for review and approval when appropriate or when requested by the department. Such instances shall include before:

1. The construction of a food establishment;Pf

2. The conversion of an existing structure for use as a food establishment;Pf or

3. The remodeling of a food establishment or a change of type of food establishment or food operation if the department determines that plans and specifications are necessary to ensure compliance with this regulation chapter.Pf

2VAC5-585-3620

2VAC5-585-3620. When a HACCP plan is required.

A. Before engaging in an activity that requires a HACCP plan, an operator shall submit to the department for approval a properly prepared HACCP plan as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 and the relevant provisions of this chapter if:

1. Submission of a HACCP plan is required according to law;

2. A variance is required as specified under 2VAC5-585-700 D 4, 2VAC5-585-860, or 2VAC5-585-1300 B, or subdivision 2VAC5-585-700 D 3; or

3. The department determines that a food preparation or processing method requires a variance based on a plan submittal specified under 2VAC5-585-3610, an inspectional finding, or a variance request.

B. An operator shall have a properly prepared HACCP plan Before engaging in reduced oxygen packaging without a variance as specified under 2VAC5-585-870, an operator shall submit a properly prepared HACCP plan to the department.

2VAC5-585-3630

2VAC5-585-3630. Contents of a HACCP plan.

For a food establishment that is required under 2VAC5-585-3620 to have a HACCP plan, the [ plan and specifications shall indicate operator shall submit to the department a properly prepared HACCP plan that includes ]:

1. [ General information such as the name of the operator, the food establishment address, and contact information;

2. ] A categorization of the types of potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety foods that are [ specified in the menu such as soups and sauces, salads, and bulk, solid foods such as meat roasts, or of other foods that are specified by the department to be controlled under the HACCP plan ];Pf

2. 3. ] A flow diagram [ by specific food or category type identifying critical control points and providing information on the following or chart for each specific food or category type that identifies ]:

a. [ Ingredients, materials, and equipment used in the preparation of that food Each step in the process ];Pfand ]

b. [ Formulations or recipes that delineate methods and procedural control measures that address the food safety concerns involved The hazards and controls for each step in the flow diagram or chart ];Pf

c. The steps that are critical control points;Pf

d. The ingredients, materials, and equipment used in the preparation of that food;Pf and

e. The formulations or recipe that delineates methods and procedural control measures that address the food safety concerns involved;Pf ]

3. Food employee and supervisory training plan that addresses the food safety issues of concern;Pf ]

4. [ A statement of standard operating procedures for the plan under consideration including clearly identifying A critical control points summary for each specific food category type that clearly identifies ]:

a. Each critical control point;Pf

b. The critical limits for each critical control point;Pf

c. The method and frequency for monitoring and controlling each critical control point by the [ designated ] food employee [ designated by or ] the person in charge;Pf

d. The method and frequency for the person in charge to routinely verify that the food employee is following standard operating procedures and monitoring critical control points;Pf

e. Action to be taken by the [ designated food employee or ] person in charge if the critical limits for each critical control point are not met;Pf and

f. Records to be maintained by the person in charge to demonstrate that the HACCP plan is properly operated and managed;Pfand ]

5. [ Additional scientific data or other information, as required by the department, supporting the determination that food safety is not compromised by the proposal.Pf Supporting documents such as:

a. Food employee and supervisory training plan that addresses the food safety issues of concern;Pf

b. Copies of blank record forms that are necessary to implement the HACCP plan;Pf

c. Additional scientific data or other information, as required by the department, supporting the determination that food safety is not compromised by the proposal;Pfand

6. Any other information required by the department. ]

2VAC5-585-3655

2VAC5-585-3655. Responsibilities of the department.

A. At the time of the initial inspection, the department shall provide to the operator a copy of this chapter so that the operator is notified of the compliance requirements and the conditions of retention, as specified under 2VAC5-585-3660, that are applicable to the food establishment.

B. Failure to provide the information specified in subsection A of this section does not prevent the department from taking authorized action or seeking remedies if the operator fails to comply with this chapter or an order, warning, or directive of the department.

2VAC5-585-3660

2VAC5-585-3660. Responsibilities of the operator.

The operator shall:

1. Comply with the provisions of this chapter including the conditions of a granted variance as specified under 2VAC5-585-3542 and approved plans as specified under 2VAC5-585-3610;

2. If a food establishment is required under 2VAC5-585-3620 to operate under a HACCP plan, comply with the plan as specified under 2VAC5-585-3542;

3. Immediately contact the department to report an illness of a food employee or conditional employee as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 B;

4. Immediately discontinue operations and notify the department if an imminent health hazard may exist as specified under 2VAC5-585-3910;

5. Allow authorized representatives of the commissioner access to the food establishment as specified under 2VAC5-585-3820;

6. Replace existing facilities and equipment specified in 2VAC5-585-3510 with facilities and equipment that comply with this chapter if:

a. The department directs the replacement because the facilities and equipment constitute a public health hazard or nuisance or no longer comply with the criteria upon which the facilities and equipment were accepted;

b. The department directs the replacement of the facilities and equipment because of a change of ownership; or

c. The facilities and equipment are replaced in the normal course of operation;

7. Comply with directives of the department including timeframes for corrective actions specified in inspection reports, notices, orders, warnings, and other directives issued by the department in regard to the operator's food establishment or in response to community emergencies;

8. Accept notices issued and served by the department according to law;

9. Be subject to the administrative, civil, injunctive, and criminal remedies authorized in law for failure to comply with this chapter or a directive of the department, including time frames for corrective actions specified in inspection reports, notices, orders, warnings, and other directives; and

10. Notify customers that a copy of the most recent establishment inspection report is available upon request by posting a sign or placard in a location in the food establishment that is conspicuous to customers or by another method acceptable to the department.

2VAC5-585-3800

Article 4
Inspection and Correction of Violations

2VAC5-585-3800. Frequency, establishing inspection interval.

Food establishments shall be inspected by the designee of the commissioner. Inspections of food establishments shall be performed as often as necessary for the enforcement of this part in accordance with the following:

1. A. Except as specified in subdivisions 2 and 3 subsections B and C of this section, the department shall inspect a food establishment at least once every six months.

2. B. The department may increase the interval between inspections beyond six months if:

a. 1. The food establishment is fully operating under an approved and validated HACCP plan as specified under 2VAC5-585-3630 and subdivisions 1 and 2 of 2VAC5-585-3542 and 2VAC5-585-3630.

b. 2. The food establishment is assigned a less frequent inspection frequency based on a written risk-based inspection schedule that is being uniformly applied throughout the jurisdiction.

c. 3. The establishment's operation involves only coffee service and other unpackaged or prepackaged food that is not potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food such as carbonated beverages and snack food such as chips, nuts, popcorn, and pretzels.

3. C. The department shall periodically inspect a temporary food establishment that prepares, sells, or serves unpackaged potentially hazardous time/temperature control for safety food and that:

a. 1. Has improvised rather than permanent facilities or equipment for accomplishing functions such as handwashing, food preparation and protection, food temperature control, warewashing, providing drinking water, waste retention and disposal, and insect and rodent control; or

b. 2. Has inexperienced food employees.

2VAC5-585-3810

2VAC5-585-3810. Performance-based and risk-based inspections.

Within the parameters specified in 2VAC5-585-3800, the department shall prioritize, and conduct more frequent inspections based upon its assessment of a food establishment's history of compliance with this chapter and the establishment's potential as a vector of foodborne illness by evaluating:

1. Past performance for nonconformance with this chapter or HACCP plan requirements that are critical priority items or priority foundation items;

2. Past performance for numerous or repeat violations of this chapter or HACCP plan requirements that are noncritical core items;

3. Past performance for complaints investigated and found to be valid;

4. The hazards associated with the particular foods that are prepared, stored, or served;

5. The type of operation including the methods and extent of food storage, preparation, and service;

6. The number of people served; and

7. Whether the population served is a highly susceptible population.

2VAC5-585-3815

 [ 2VAC5-585-3815. Competency of personnel inspectors.

A. An authorized representative of the commissioner who inspects a food establishment or conducts plan review for compliance with this regulation shall have the knowledge, skills, and ability to adequately perform the required duties.

B. The department shall ensure that authorized representatives who inspect a food establishment or conduct plan review for compliance with this chapter have access to training and continuing education as needed to properly identify violations and apply the chapter. ]

2VAC5-585-3820

2VAC5-585-3820. Access allowed at reasonable times.

After the authorized representative of the commissioner presents official credentials and identifies provides notice of the purpose of, and an intent to conduct, an inspection, the person in charge shall allow the authorized representative to determine if the food establishment is in compliance with this chapter by allowing access to the establishment, allowing inspection, and providing information and records specified in this chapter and to which the department is entitled according to law, during the food establishment's hours of operation and other reasonable times.

2VAC5-585-3830

2VAC5-585-3830. Refusal, notification of right to access, and final request for access.

If a person denies access to the authorized representative of the commissioner, the authorized representative shall:

1. Inform the person that:

a. The person is required to allow access to the authorized representative as specified under 2VAC5-585-3820;

b. If access is denied, the The department will refer the matter to the Commonwealth's Attorney for handling in accordance with applicable sections of the Code of Virginia; and

2. Make a final request for access.

2VAC5-585-3840

2VAC5-585-3840. Refusal, reporting.

If after the authorized representative of the commissioner presents credentials and identifies the purpose of and the intent to conduct an inspection provides notice as specified under 2VAC5-585-3820, explains the authority upon which access is requested, and makes a final request for access as specified in 2VAC5-585-3830, the person in charge continues to refuse access, the authorized representative shall provide details of the denial of access on an inspection report form.

2VAC5-585-3860

2VAC5-585-3860. Documenting information and observations.

The authorized representative of the commissioner shall document on an inspection report form:

1. Administrative information about the food establishment's legal identity, street and mailing addresses, type of establishment and operation, inspection date, and other information such as type of water supply and sewage disposal, and personnel certificates that may be required; and

2. Specific factual observations of violative conditions or other deviations from this chapter that require correction by the establishment operator including:

a. Failure of the person in charge to demonstrate the knowledge of foodborne illness prevention, application of HACCP principles, and the requirements of this chapter specified under 2VAC5-585-60;

b. Failure of food employees, conditional employees, and the person in charge to demonstrate their knowledge of their responsibility to report a disease or medical condition as specified under 2VAC5-585-80 B and D;

c. Nonconformance with critical items priority items and priority foundation items of this chapter;

d. Failure of the appropriate food employees to demonstrate their knowledge of, and ability to perform in accordance with, the procedural, monitoring, verification, and corrective action practices required by the department as specified under 2VAC5-585-60 2VAC5-585-3542;

e. Failure of the person in charge to provide records required by the department for determining conformance with a HACCP plan as specified under subdivision 4 f of 2VAC5-585-3630; and

f. Nonconformance with critical limits of a HACCP plan.

2VAC5-585-3910

2VAC5-585-3910. Imminent health hazard, ceasing operations and reporting.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an operator shall immediately discontinue operations and notify the department if an imminent health hazard may exist because of an emergency such as a fire, flood, extended interruption of electrical or water service, sewage backup, misuse of poisonous or toxic materials, onset of an apparent foodborne illness outbreak, gross insanitary occurrence or condition, or other circumstance that may endanger public health.P

B. An operator need not discontinue operations in an area of an establishment that is unaffected by the imminent health hazard.

2VAC5-585-3930

2VAC5-585-3930. Critical violation Priority or priority foundation item, timely correction.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, an operator or person in charge shall at the time of inspection correct a critical violation of a priority item or priority foundation item of this chapter and implement corrective actions for a HACCP plan provision that is not in compliance with its critical limit.Pf

B. Considering the nature of the potential hazard involved and the complexity of the corrective action needed, the department may agree to or specify a longer time frame, not to exceed 10 calendar days after the inspection, for the operator or person in charge to correct critical violations or HACCP plan deviations.:

1. 72 hours after the inspection, for the operator to correct violations of a priority item; or

2. 10 calendar days after the inspection, for the operator to correct violations of a priority foundation item or HACCP plan deviations.

2VAC5-585-3940

2VAC5-585-3940. Verification and documentation of correction.

A. After observing at the time of inspection a correction of a critical violation or of a priority item or priority foundation item or a HACCP plan deviation, the authorized representative of the commissioner shall enter the violation and information about the corrective action on the inspection report.

B. As specified under 2VAC5-585-3930 B, after receiving notification that the operator has corrected a violation of a priority item or priority foundation item or HACCP plan deviation, or at the end of the specified period of time, the authorized representative shall verify correction of the critical violation or deviation during the next scheduled inspection of the establishment and shall document the information on an inspection report, and enter the report in the department's records.

2VAC5-585-3950

2VAC5-585-3950. Noncritical violation Core items, time frame for timely correction.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, the operator or person in charge shall correct noncritical violations core items by a date and time agreed to or specified by the department but no later than 90 calendar days after the inspection.

B. The department may approve a compliance schedule that extends beyond the time limits specified under subsection A of this section if a written schedule of compliance is submitted by the operator and no health hazard exists or will result from allowing an extended schedule for compliance.

2VAC5-585-4040

Article 5
Prevention of Foodborne Disease Transmission by Employees

2VAC5-585-4040. Investigation and control, obtaining information: personal history of illness, medical examination, and specimen analysis.

The department shall act when it has reasonable cause to believe that a food employee or conditional employee has possibly transmitted disease; may be infected with a disease in a communicable form that is transmissible through food; may be a carrier of infectious agents that cause a disease that is transmissible through food; or is affected with a boil, an infected wound, or acute respiratory infection, by:

1. Securing a confidential medical history of the food employee or conditional employee suspected of transmitting disease or making other investigations as deemed appropriate; and

2. Requiring appropriate medical examinations, including collection of specimens for laboratory analysis, of a suspected food employee and other employees or conditional employee.

2VAC5-585-4050

2VAC5-585-4050. Restriction or exclusion of food employee.

Based on the findings of an investigation related to a food employee or conditional employee who is suspected of being infected or diseased, the department may request that issue an order to the suspected food employee, or conditional employee, or operator institute instituting one or more of the following control measures:

1. Restricting the food employee or conditional employee; or

2. Excluding the food employee or conditional employee; or

3. Closing the food establishment in accordance with law.

2VAC5-585-4060

2VAC5-585-4060. Restriction or exclusion request: information required.

Based on the findings of the investigation as specified in 2VAC5-585-4040 and to control disease transmission, the department may make a request issue an order of restriction or exclusion to the suspected food employee or the operator regarding restriction or exclusion if the request without prior warning, notice of hearing, or a hearing if the order:

1. States the reasons for the restriction or exclusion that is requested ordered;

2. States the evidence that the food employee or operator shall provide in order to demonstrate that the reasons for the restriction or exclusion are eliminated;

3. States that the suspected food employee or the operator may request an appeal hearing by submitting a timely request as provided in law; and

4. Provides the name and address of the authorized representative of the commissioner to whom a request for appeal hearing be made.

2VAC5-585-9998

FORMS (2VAC5-585)

Food Safety and Security Program, Inspection Report

Food Safety and Security Program, Record of Complaint

Food Safety and Security Program, Record of Complaint, FBI

Food Safety and Security Program, Sample Collection Report

Food Safety and Security Program, Retail Inspection Report, ODF-FSSP-10001 (rev. 9/14)

Food Safety and Security Program, Complaint Report, ODF-FSSP-10004 (rev. 12/13)

Food Safety and Security Program, Foodborne Illness Complaint Report, ODF-FSSP-10003 (rev. 12/13)

Food Safety and Security Program, Sample Collection Report, ODF-FSSP-10002 (rev. 12/13)

2VAC5-585-9999

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE (2VAC5-585)

Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (updated daily), 25th Edition, available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Office of Generic Drugs at http://www.fda.gov/cder/ob/default.htm.

Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 2003 Revision, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Milk Safety Branch (HFS-626), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

Grade "A" Condensed and Dry Milk Ordinance, 1995 Revision, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Milk Safety Branch (HFS-626), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835

Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, 34th Edition, 2014, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Office of Generic Drugs at http://www.fda.gov/cder/ob/default.htm

Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance, 2013 Revision, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Milk Safety Branch (HFS-626), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835

Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List (updated monthly), published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood (HFS-417), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

National Shellfish Sanitation Program Guide for the Control of Molluscan Shellfish (2007), published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood (HFS-417), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835.

NSF/ANSI 18-2006 Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment, American National Standard, published by NSF International, 789 North Dixboro Road, P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48113-0140.

National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) Guide for the Control of Molluscan Shellfish, [ 2011 2013 ] Revision, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood (HFS-417), 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740-3835

NSF/ANSI 18-2012 Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment, 2012, NSF International, 789 North Dixboro Road, P.O. Box 130140, Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0140, www.nsf.org

Standards for Accreditation of Food Protection Manager Certification Programs, April 2012, Conference for Food Protection, 30 Elliott Court, Martinsville, IN 46151-1331

United States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs, AMS-56, effective July 20, 2000, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Poultry Programs, STOP 0259, Room 3944-South, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-0259